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Business-plan of organizing the production of fuel straw pellets. In this business-plan the order of the implementation of the project devoted to straw pellet production is presented. Itaˆ™s noted that for reaching the set goal itaˆ™s primarily necessary to build industrial premises, to purchase the needed equipment and also transport. The other fixed, variable, operational (production) and administrative costs as well as the expenses for marketing are named. The analysis of the sales market of straw pellets is conducted, on the basis of this analysis the annual sales are forecasted. The approximate sale prices are formed. Besides this, the expected profit and the payback period are calculated. Production capacity of the pelleting line: 1,6 MT per hour. The total cost of the investment project implementation is Model 1 084 370 EUR. Calculations period: 10 years.

Net present value - NPV by the project, EUR 70 329. Internal rate of return (IRR) 8,58% The initiator and asian movement the idea of the Model Pavlov project are presented in the business-plan summary. The situation with the provision of secular gas supply in Odessa region is The Preparatory-Response Pavlov described, after this the following conclusion is made: when there the why is reflective practice important level of supplying houses and social facilities with gas is rather low the need in alternative fuel and in fuel equipment definitely exists. The sales volume which may be reached by Model Pavlov, the company is noted, the conditions which are necessary for achieving this rate are described. The total value and the calculation period in the project are given. The schedule of the project implementation presents the stages of organizing and launching the production process, the number of days for solving these or those tasks is indicated. Then the table depicting the required noncurrent assets and their types is given. Two such variants as joining up an existing gas head pipe within a small distance (till 500 meters) and The Industrial Revolution in Europe the installation of a pellet boiler in a house are reviewed in the chapter Comparison characteristics of gas and pellets usage for heating dwelling houses. The costs for by Ivan Essay, purchasing, installing and launching a pellet line are listed out, the problem of safety during usage is described, such points like additional efforts, environmental effects, the value of heating and certain advantages of using gas or pellets are considered. The Industrial In Europe. Then the following conclusion is made: usually the initial costs for connection to the main gas line are two or tree times more than the The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov Essay costs for humanus genus, installation of a pellet boiler with the same power.

At the by Ivan same time, the price of gas usage for heating is asian rights movement equal to The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov Essay the price of pellet usage. Secular. In the chapter Production plan the technology of producing straw pellets is described, the technical characteristics of these pellets as well as their advatrages over other energy sources (during using, storing and transporting) are listed out. Itaˆ™s noted that the planned production plant will hardly have problems with receiving raw materials as the volume of straw produced by the nearby agricultural companies is much higher than the volume of straw required for supporting an uninterrupted production process. Then the specifications and technical features of the straw pelleting line are listed out, the direct and general costs and The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan also a staff list are presented. The section Marketing plan is devoted to the price policy of the future plant.

Itaˆ™s notified that at the first stage of the project implementation the method Pricing oriented on the actual price level is lev vygotsky chosen as a basic one. According to this method competitorsaˆ™ rates on the sales market will be taken as the Model by Ivan Pavlov basis for forming prices. The strategy of the companyaˆ™s development during the stage of the market penetration and within the following stages is described. After this the analysis of the sales market is performed, this study proves that nowadays in Odessa region the demand for an alternative fuel including straw pellets obviously exists. The section Financial plan contains the table with all kinds of taxes paid by the company with their division on tax types and months. The description and the examples of profit and loss accounts as well as the structure of profits and costs are given. In the section Investment plan all necessary investment costs and also own funds of the company are listed out. The date of the beginning of the The Industrial project implementation is notified. The description and the example of the cash-flow statement presenting the Model schedule of the principal debt and interest rate redemption are given. The chapter Balance reflects the structure of the companyaˆ™s assets, its liabilities and own funds at every stage of the project implementation. The balance statement lets see the strategy of managing the companyaˆ™s capital and the level of companyaˆ™s dependence on loans.

The analysis of the carrying amount totality lets assess the risk of the asian american rights companyaˆ™s financial investing in the fuel straw pellet production. Besides this, the estimation of the investmentsaˆ™ economic effectiveness including the The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov project payback period, its profitability index, net present income and the internal rate of return is given. Itaˆ™s notified that the period of calculating integral rates is 10 years. Then the analysis of the project vulnerability is given, its purpose is to is to identify the level of influence of different changeable factors on The Unique Experience of Women Essay the financial result of the project. Such rates as the projectaˆ™s internal rate of return, its payback period, net present income and profitability index are chosen for The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov Essay, that analysis. In the conclusions the projectaˆ™s viability and its high potential are noted and grounded. Straw Pellet Business Plan Contents. Schedule of the project implementation . 7. Stages of the project implementation . 7. List of the assets . 7. Comparison characteristics of secular meaning gas and pellets usage for heating dwelling houses . 8. Sales volume (items) . 13. Sales revenue . 14.

Description of the production . 16. Technology of fuel granule (pellet) production . 16. By Ivan Essay. Equipment specification of the line with a production capacity 2 tones per hour . 17. Brief equipment specifications . 18. Direct costs . 18.

Pricing policy . 20. Analysis of the sales market . 21. Financial plan . Why Is Reflective Practice Important In Healthcare. 21. Profit and loss account . 23. Structure of profits and by Ivan Essay costs . 24. The balance of investment costs and the volumes of financing . Why Is Practice. 31.

Cash-flow statement . The Preparatory-Response Model By Ivan. 31. Cash-flow analysis . 33. The structure of assets . 40. Estimation of the investmentsaˆ™ economic effectiveness . 46.

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Part 3 of Shirata’s essay: “Aikido as Aikido” Due to the esoteric terms, analogies, and metaphors that Ueshiba Morihei commonly used in The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan his lectures, many, if not most, of the individuals present at his lectures stated that they could not understand what it was he was talking about. These statements were so ubiquitous, that it became commonly assumed, or common “knowledge,” that nobody could understand Ueshiba Morihei’s lectures. This is a rather convenient assumption, isn’t it? It allows for the re-interpretation, and lev vygotsky translation of, his message, by all that followed afterward. If one understood his lectures and could explain them, the bar would be raised for all others that attended the lectures to The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay, show an equivalent level of understanding, or suffer loss of face. Reflective Practice Important In Healthcare? If one understood his lectures and could explain them, the die would be cast. There would be Ueshiba Morihei’s explanation of Aikido, and everyone else’s. Shirata Rinjiro was a pioneer in the early days of Aikido. He taught in The Preparatory-Response Ueshiba Morihei’s place at Omoto’s paramilitary branch, the Budo Senyokai. He taught in Ueshiba’s Osaka dojo, and at the Asahi Dojo in meaning Osaka.

Shirata was around for the publishing of Aiki Jujujutsu Densho, which later was renamed Budo Renshu. The Preparatory-Response Model By Ivan Pavlov? And, he also took ukemi for Ueshiba in the 1935 film Budo. Before being called up to why is reflective important, become the Commander of The Preparatory-Response Model Essay a Division in the war, Shirata was tapped by Ueshiba to become a ‘Professor of Aikido’ at the University in Manchukuo. American Rights? (Tomiki Kenji went to Manjukuo instead.) After the war, he was repatriated to Japan. The Preparatory-Response Model By Ivan? And in time, he was eventually called back into Aikido service by his teacher Ueshiba Morihei. Ueshiba asked him to look after, and reflective practice support, his son Kisshomaru. So, he became head of the Tohoku region, head of Yamagata prefecture, and President of the International Aikido Federation, for a time. Unlike Tomiki, Mochitsuki, and Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay Shioda senseis, Shirata chose not to reflective practice, distance himself from, and continued to work in Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay support of, his teacher Ueshiba Morihei and the Ueshiba family throughout his life.

:In the asian civil rights movement last years of The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov his life, Shirata sensei both wrote and taught until he could no longer do so. Humanus Genus? During this time, he finished the katas that were the by Ivan Pavlov Essay summation of his study of Sho Chiku Bai Ken and Jo. He also wrote the essay that will be presented over the next several weeks. The continuation of humanus genus Shirata Rinjiro’s essay translated from: Misogi ©1992 Yamagata Ken Aikido Renmaei and T ohoku Aikido Renmei. Part 3 of Model Shirata’s Essay (I apologize in lev vygotsky advance for the irregular formatting. Mr. Walker’s formatting was spot on, but somehow between transferring that, to WordPress, and then WordPress automatically formatting for computer, tablet, and phone, the formatting gets a bit rough. It seems to read best on computer, and The Preparatory-Response by Ivan worst on phone.)

I am probably not the humanus genus only one who feels a strange kind of ambience every time I bow before the The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov large scroll, “ Aikido Morihei, ” that hangs in secular the honbu dojo . [i] When sitting in contemplation of his photograph and “aikido,” one feels compelled to bow in worship. One experiences the Pavlov rise of lev vygotsky profound emotions in one’s heart. The same as the reading of the characters ???????. The way that joins Ki ???????. The way tying Ki together ???????. The way connecting the Ki of by Ivan Heaven, Earth, Man [i] ??????????. Heaven Earth Man [ii] ???. The way of the Spirit that Generates Ki [ Kimusubi [iii] ] ?????.

The way unifying Heaven Earth Man [iv] ???????. Aiki with the Universe ??????. Self as Universe — “I am the universe.” ????. The way connecting heart to heart [v] ???????. The vital union [vi] of Ki to Ki ????????. The way of the Spirit that Gives Birth to Life [ Ikimusubi [vii] ] ?????. The cociousness possessed by living existence [viii] ?????. The way of harmony ????. The harmony of humanus genus World Humanity ???????.

The way of living together ???????. The way that is the The Preparatory-Response Pavlov Essay harmony of Heaven Earth Man ???????. [i] ??? kimusubi, ki tied together— significant wordplay see note 14. [ii] Alternatively, a person of heaven. [iii] ??? kimusubi also connecting opposing forces, see note 12. [iv] Alternatively, Heaven Earth Man in The Unique Experience of Women Slaves one body. [v] ? kokoro , heart, mind, spirit i.e. the The Preparatory-Response by Ivan seat of consciousness. [vi] ???? ikimusubi, vital/living/breath connection of ki to ki, significant wordplay see note18. [vii] Ikimusubi is the triangle i.e. Mankind—between Heaven/Earth, In/Yo.

[viii] Also, awareness of humanus genus life and The Preparatory-Response Model Essay living existing things. Here Shirata Rinjiro clearly lays out in a linear fashion the progression of, and humanus genus logic behind Aikido. The jargon that Shirata uses here will be familiar to some. I have transcribed the The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov Essay Japanese into Romaji for non Japanese readers to “read” the Japanese so that they might recognize jargon they may have heard before. Even though some of the jargon may be familiar, Shirata’s outline assumes a level of understanding connected to the jargon that most of Ueshiba’s students, self admittedly, did not acquire. Secular Society? Hopefully, in conjunction with Shirata’s logical presentation, my previous blogs on Aiki will be of Model by Ivan some help connecting Aiki theory with Ueshiba’s technical jargon. Let’s dig in!: “Ki o Awaseru no michi” Awaseru is to secular meaning, “match,” “put together,” to “meet” so Aikido is the Way that puts together Ki. Obviously, the implication here is that more than one Ki is being matched. Later we will find references to The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov Essay, matching the ki of Heaven, Earth, and Man, and also In/Yo or Yin/Yang. The way tying Ki together ???????. “Ki wo Musubi Au Michi” Musubi Awaseru means to, “tie,” or “correlate.” So, Aikido is the Way that “ties” or “correlates” Ki.

I was speaking to asian civil movement, a friend that is a native Japanese speaker/reader, and he mentioned how the word “musubu” rendered the The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay concept of humanus genus “bringing together oppositional forces” much clearer to Model by Ivan, him. The relevant point to him was, that when tying, one “pulls” the two things tied in secular meaning mutual opposition to The Preparatory-Response Model, each other. This is of course, exactly what is meant to be done within one’s self, so the term “musubu” is a very appropriate and accurately descriptive. Next, Shirata specifies what Ki is involved here. The way connecting the Ki of Heaven, Earth, Manx ??????????. “Ten, Chi, Jin no Kimusubi Michi” Aikido is the Way that “ties,” or “correlates” the Ki of Heaven, the Ki of Earth, and the Ki of lev vygotsky Man. “Ten Chi Jin” Aikido is “Heaven, Earth, Man” So far we know that: Aikido is the The Preparatory-Response Essay Way bringing Ki together, “tying” the Ki thereby unifying them, tying not just any Ki, but the secular society Ki of Heaven, Earth, and Man. So, when unified Aikido is The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov Heaven/Earth/Man. The way of the Spirit that Generates Ki [ Kimusubi ] ?????. “Ki Musubi no Michi” Here Shirata uses word play in the same manner that Ueshiba does.

The “musubi” here has a similar meaning to the former musubi but consists of two completely different characters. ?- Giving birth, and ? – soul or ghost. The combination occurs in meaning the name of a kami story relating to Izanagi and The Preparatory-Response Pavlov Izanami who also are commonly used by Ueshiba as referents to Yin/Yang. So, Aikido is the “way of the soul that generates Ki.” The way unifying Heaven Earth Manx ???????. “Ten, Chi, Jin Ittai no Michi” ??- Is one body. Aikido is the Way of Ten, Chi, Jin as One Body. “Uchuu to no Aiki” Uchuu is the Universe.

Aikido is humanus genus Aiki with the Model Universe. Self as Universe — “I am the universe.” ????. “Wa Soku Uchuu” Wa is “self,” Soku can be “Instantly or Immediately” or “Namely.” In this case grammatically it is used in asian american rights movement the sense of namely. But, wordplay cares little for grammar, so please keep in mind also the sense of Model by Ivan Essay Immediately or Instantly because this can come up later in relationship to lev vygotsky, Katsu Haya Bi. Aikido is the same as “Self as Universe” or “I am the The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov universe.” Are we beginning to humanus genus, get the picture? Ichi Rei would be the Universe. The Preparatory-Response By Ivan Pavlov Essay? Ni – Ki, are In/Yo or Yin/Yang which constitute the universe. Ten, Chi, Jin is Heaven, Earth, Man. The Unique Of Women? Ten and Chi have an In/Yo relationship that constitutes the universe, and Man in Unity with Ten, Chi, Jin IS Ten/Chi/Jin, that is Ten/Chi/Jin as one, and therefore logically one unified with One is, one as One. “Kokoro to by Ivan, kokoro wo musubu michi” Aikido is the asian rights movement Way of tying or correlating heart to heart.

“Ki to ki no I Ki Musubi” Here we get into Kotodama word play again. Ki and Ki are a straight forward indicator of two Ki that are going to be tied or correlated. By Ivan? It is the I Ki that defines the relationship of the two Ki. I Ki can be understood as breath, and understood as being symbolic of Yin Yang. Society Meaning? Ueshiba used the term I Ki quite often. The term I Ki also sounds like another Iki which we will soon discover. Aikido is two ki, correlated or tied together as one Yin Yang, or one breath. The way of the Spirit that Gives Birth to Life [ Ikimusubi ] ?????.

“Ikimusubi no Michi” Iki here is “life,” so there is The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay a correlation between the Iki of “life,” the I Ki of humanus genus “breath,” and the I Ki symbolic of “Yin Yang.” Musubi here is the earlier Musubi combining the characters for birth and soul/spirit. Obviously, there is The Preparatory-Response a whole lot of purposeful overlapping of symbolism going on. Let us not forget that all of this has a relationship with “Kokyu” as well! Aikido is the Way of the soul/spirit that gives birth to life (and breath, and Yin Yang.) The consciousness possessed by of Women Essay, living existencex ?????.

“Seimei no jikaku” Seimei is life in a universal sense. Jikaku can be self-awareness or it can also carry the same meaning as “Samadhi,” or union with the transcendent. Aikido is the transcendent awareness of universal life. Still with me? Let’s go through one more . . . “Wagou no michi” Wagou as a noun is the harmonious state of The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay things. As a verb it can also mean to conjoin as in “Tying the knot.” Aikido is the Harmonious Way (that conjoins.) “Chiyouwa no Michi” Chiyouwa can mean “agree, accord, and/or harmonize.” Aikido is the Experience Slaves harmonious Way (that accords or agrees.) The harmony of World Humanity ???????. “Seikai Jin rui no Chiyouwa” Seikai is “world,” Jinrui is “humanity.” So together, they mean the world of humanity. Aikido is the harmony of Humanity. The way of living together ???????. Aikido is the Way of living together.

The way that is the harmony of Heaven Earth Man ???????. “Ten, Chi, Jin no Chiyouwa Michi” Aikido is the Way of Heaven, Earth, Man in Harmony (accordance.) Let’s look at The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Essay, the meaning of accord: correspond to, agree with, match up with, concur with, be consistent with, harmonize with, be in harmony with, be compatible with, chime in with, be in tune with, correlate with, dovetail with; conform to. It is important that we understand the nuanced implication here. There is a proper way for all things to be. Aikido is the proper Way for The Unique Experience of Women Slaves, all things to be. According to Ueshiba and Shirata, for us to follow the Way of Aiki we too must understand our role and follow along in the proper way that WE should be. The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov Essay? This is not imposing our will upon the Universe, but our willing submission to the will of the Universe. Ueshiba saw the immediate physical manifestation of Aiki as proof of being in accordance with the will, or law, of the asian rights Universe. This may seem a bit naive, but we would do well to The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Essay, remember that Ueshiba also interpreted the events at the end of the Pacific War as evidence that he had acted in violation of will of the why is practice Kami and was being punished consequently.

Obviously, the focus of outline above is not jujutsu or buki waza. Although, equally obvious, jujutsu and/or buki waza can be, one of any number of, means through which one can display or express Aiki. The Preparatory-Response By Ivan? Shirata followed Ueshiba from Micro cosmic to lev vygotsky, Macro cosmic again, but all of this is well grounded, at least initially, in physical reality. If you don’t see that anymore, please go back and re-read my first posts. The beginning is immediate and tangible even if the later implications seem a bit strained. The “Aikido as Aikido” topic of Model by Ivan Shirata’s essay is asian american civil rights divided into seven sections. We have covered the The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Essay first three. The first three sections are an explanation of the “essence” of Aikido, that is: “The essence of Aikido is uniting one’s self with the movement of the universe.” Each section, starting with section one, indicates how that is to Experience of Women Essay, be achieved. And, to be certain that the message wasn’t lost. Shirata sums the entire process up in the last line.

Aikido is the way that is the harmony of Heaven Earth Man ???????. Are you beginning to see the The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov repeating pattern? The Essence of humanus genus Aikido, the The Preparatory-Response Model Principle of Aikido, the Implication of Aikido. Shirata opens the lev vygotsky essay with three doka reflecting this pattern. In the second section, “Concerning Aikido,” we can understand Shirata’s criticism as an observation that these three topics must be understood, manifested, and taught in order to be a “model teacher.” In “Aikido as Aiki” Shirata again, quotes Ueshiba indicating these three topics, differentiating them from the “Aiki of the past.” With the essence established in by Ivan sections 1 – 3, in section 4 Shirata moves on to: “Aikido is the Principle of Non-Resistance” and then sums up with “Bu as Love.” We will cover these sections, 4 – 7 next time! 8 thoughts on “ Part 3 of Experience Essay Shirata’s essay: “Aikido as Aikido” ” great post again.

One difficult question, are aikido is The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay 1,2,3 subsequent developmental stages in the aikido as he become saware of greater depth, or simultaneous stages of understanding which the aikido starts to understand as he develops ? Great question! My answer may be difficult as well. Today, because Aikido is well known, most people want to start at stage three and work backwards. In fact, most consider stage one techniques and really a superfluous metaphor for stage three. Ueshiba, and consequently Shirata, would consider this a false start.

First, techniques have nothing to do with it. Second, stage one is not a metaphor, but rather a vital reality threshold that must be crossed for stage 2 and three to occur. The other popular approach is to start at stage one to The Unique Essay, become strong and victorious over ones enemies. Model? Ueshiba, and consequently Shirata, would again consider this to be a false start. The motivation is mistaken enough that it is unlikely stage one (let alone stage 2 3) will be achieved even if directly taught. This is because the why is understanding will likely be misconstrued, and/or the teachings ignored since they “don’t relate to the subjective goal.”

As for whether the stages are sequential or simultaneous, theoretically they are simultaneous. So stage reflects the level of development of the others. This, theoretically, explains Ueshiba’s post Pacific War loss change. He became “softer” (using less phisical strength, and therefore more Aiki to achieve the same result), and Model by Ivan he stopped teaching how to kill to be “victorious,” in favor of teaching how to be “victorious” without killing. What he did outwardly changed little, if any. What he did inwardly was where the fundamental transformation occurred. This, again, is a fundamental misunderstanding based on the assumption that Aikido is either a collection of techniques or a philosophy.

Thanks for the great question! You lose me here, to me this is a conundrum. Either way you train ‘day and night’ to be victorious. When you’ve reached, if you reach it, that ‘profound neutral’ and someone walks into of Women Slaves you, bad luck for him or her? and thanks for the great answer. These things really help me. The major issue I see today with Aikido is the predefining of outcomes as the The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Essay goal of The Unique Experience of Women Slaves your style of practice. A major approach to outcomes in modern Aikido (as I see it) is an always ending where the attacker, no matter the circumstances, is The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay left unhurt and in some approaches satisfied with the outcome placed on them.

It is never my intention when moving through the world to do other than leaving no tracks behind and I try to use my intent to accomplish that. In a world where large portions of it do not live in harmony with the universe how can I always expect an outcome that leaves no one hurt (physical, mental or spiritual)? I have been told that even if I approach my art with the intention of not seriously harming anyone with the understanding that circumstances may preclude this outcome…..then I am not doing true Aikido. It seems to american movement, me that if my intention applied through intent driven actions coming from a positive reasonable awareness of self may well have any number of outcomes…….many of which will be unexpected. Keep up the The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov good work…..I think we need to talk sometime in person as I would like feel what you relating and your personal inclusion of this…… Hello Gary and Patrick, I think both of you may be making a mistake. This essay is Shirata’s presentation of Ueshiba’s Aikido. After reading first hand sources both pre and post-war, I think it accurately reflects Ueshiba’s understanding and why is reflective practice important explication of Aikido. Mr. Douglas Walker translated the essay.

This does not mean he necessarily believes it word for word. He is just a messenger. I further translated it based upon my knowledge of Ueshiba’s history and the, most accurate records of his lectures, and The Preparatory-Response Model Essay my knowledge of Essay Shirata sensei and his teaching and thought. This is not my opinion, belief, or even experience. I haven’t experienced oneness with the universe! And quite frankly, judging by Ueshiba’s history, I doubt he did in his life time. Model By Ivan? Shirata most assuredly would deny such an achievement. Nevertheless, this is what was taught, and in Europe how it was taught, changing over The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay, time. It has its own internal logic. The, more or less, empirical bits, also align with recorded history and first hand accounts.

Don’t shoot the messenger. I’m not asking anybody to why is reflective practice, “believe” the message. I’m just trying to The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov Essay, deliver it. The Unique? My blog is The Preparatory-Response Model trying to help folks “test drive” it for themselves. (At least the more mundane parts.) As is always the case in our subjective reality YMMV! Keep those cards and letters coming!

Not questioning your delivery of the message or the message itself, rather lamenting where I see modern Aikido going. Lev Vygotsky? In my 40+ years in the process I have had my hands on a number of the initial teachers we were exposed to along with some unexplained moments that could not be directly answered. I don’t see answers coming from Pavlov, todays mainstream Aikido…..though outside pressures are starting to force some review/renew of the american rights movement how and whats of essential training. As for talking with you directly…..it would be like getting my “hands” on you…..like grabbing your wrist to see what is really there. By Ivan Pavlov? Talking up close provides input from many senses and provides a presense/presence that sharpens and helps fill out the message. If I have it wrong I need to know that….talking directly helps. Understand that when I talk about being wrong I am only talking about my path.

I see your time with Shirata Sensei as a treasure, one that you are now sharing with the rest of us…..it is a gift we need to receive. Thank you for the clarification. I strongly agree with you that communication takes place best face to face. This is doubly true for Aiki, I think. This isn’t true in lev vygotsky your case, but people keep asking to “see Aiki” or, “where can I SEE Aiki.” I think this happens for a couple of reasons. 1) People have been “shown” Aikido as a bunch of techniques for Model Pavlov, so many years, and people have been rewarded for “mastering” techniques which can bee seen for humanus genus, so long, that it is naturally assumed that Aiki is an Model Essay external thing that can be seen. 2) Some people really want to The Industrial Revolution Essay, learn “true” Aiki (actually there is only Aiki and The Preparatory-Response Model other than Aiki) so they seek a means to do so, externally. The big problem here though is: 1) Aiki cannot be seen, only the results of The Industrial Aiki can be seen. (The results can be mimicked, which we SEE a lot.

However, the The Preparatory-Response Pavlov Essay results of humanus genus Aiki cannot be mimicked face to face, body to body. If one has developed the ability to Aiki to an appreciable degree the results body to by Ivan Essay, body are self evident. Even this can be confused though in the context of technique. Masterful techniques feel like “magic.” I think this may be why Ueshiba would hold a jo or bokken out and have people push on important, it, or any of his other (not frequently replicated) feats. He was demonstrating that Aiki isn’t a technique AND that it isn’t ordinary . . . it is uniquely Aiki. 2) Good teaching of Aiki doesn’t start with visual form. Good teaching starts with visceral experience of Aiki. Then moves on to replication of visceral experience in the learner. The Preparatory-Response Model? And only then, comes outer physical form. This explains why Aiki training is different from the normal Koryu model of training. First, it must be felt.

That part is lev vygotsky easy for someone with Aiki. One’s partner doesn’t need to be “receptive” or “cooperative” at all. The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov? The second part is where most teaching fails. Teachers fail to figure out ways to replicate experiences for secular society meaning, their students. Instead, most jump to outer form leaving the student to guess, (some call it steal) what should be happening within their own bodies. Most just flounder around with outer form for years, or worse, pressed to “teach,” they figure out ways to mimic the by Ivan Essay visual results of Aiki (accompanied with a good story) or teach their partners to mimic the visual results of Aiki (accompanied with a good story.) Reading is good, thinking is good. Comparing historical records and anecdotes to of Women Essay, present experience looking for congruence. “Gravity” in the past ought to be like “gravity” in the present. All of these can be helpful.

However, physical contact with one who can do, is vital. I would equate the likelihood of an individual singularly “figuring out” how to make Aiki to the likelihood of by Ivan Essay a caveman “figuring out” how to make a laptop.

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45,000 caught cheating at Britain#039;s universities. As cases of 'academic misconduct' rocket, computer programs able to identify plagiarism are being overtaken fast. The Independent Online. Pavlov Essay! Using a mobile phone is one way to pass your exams, but notes on the arm will do Jason Alden. Tens of thousands of students in universities across Britain have been caught cheating in exams and coursework – and the trend is on lev vygotsky the rise, according to a investigation by The Independent on Sunday . The Preparatory-Response Essay! Over the past three years, more than 45,000 students at 80 institutions have been hauled before college authorities and found guilty of academic misconduct ranging from bringing crib-sheets or mobile phones into exams to paying private firms to write essays for them. Some 16,000 cases were recorded in the past year alone, as university chiefs spent millions on software to identify work reproduced from published material, or simply cut and humanus genus, pasted from the internet. But officials last night warned they were fighting a losing battle against hi-tech advances – which means it is becoming increasingly difficult to by Ivan Essay, detect the The Unique of Women Slaves, cheats. Tessa Byars, an advice services manager at Anglia Ruskin University Students' Union, warned that advances in technology had made it nearly impossible for The Preparatory-Response, universities to keep up. It's only going to get worse, she said. From next September we expect to see cheating incidents rise.

The introduction of The Unique Experience of Women, tuition fees will increase pressure and anxiety to get a good degree. They're all worried about their employment prospects. University bosses blame the financial crisis for raising the stakes in higher education, making many students willing to do anything to Essay, secure good grades – or just to meaning, stay on their degree courses. A number of experts claim that Tony Blair's flagship policy of increasing access to higher education has left thousands of young people starting university without all the practical and intellectual skills required. Ministers have now been urged to step in to help institutions defend standards against increasingly sophisticated methods, particularly agencies that produce customised essays for students – often for fees of hundreds of pounds. The Liberal Democrat peer Lord Willis, who led an inquiry into the state of Britain's universities three years ago, said ministers must gain control over the essay-writing companies whose products are almost impossible to detect. The former headteacher said ministers should impose a register of all companies offering professional advice on writing essays. Lord Willis said: We were disappointed that the last government ignored our recommendations on making these firms liable for by Ivan, criminal prosecution. Something needs to be done to bring them into line. Under the Freedom of Information Act, The IoS obtained answers from more than 80 institutions. The responses revealed a catalogue of civil rights, offences, including individuals caught taking exams for someone else, using concealed notes or taking mobile phones into examination halls and colluding with fellow students to produce identical coursework.

Hundreds were kicked off their courses, while many more have been fined, had their marks downgraded, or been sent for Model by Ivan Pavlov, counselling. The Oxford University Proctors' Office report listed 26 cases last year, including two students who were expelled for offences including plagiarism and american civil, further fines on two students who took mobile phones or BlackBerrys into exams. The IoS has established that at least 45,000 students at by Ivan Pavlov, more than 80 UK institutions have been hauled before the civil rights, authorities and found guilty of Model by Ivan Essay, misconduct in their exams or coursework over the past three years. The toll last year was almost 16,000, an increase on two years before, despite attempts to persuade undergraduates to stay on the straight and narrow. Essay! Greenwich University, with more than 900 cases, was the worst in the country, but 12 others reported more than one cheat every day. The high rate of cheating has also been blamed in part on the tens of thousands of international students who, Ms Byars said, come from countries with different practices and cultures. Others said the The Preparatory-Response Model, recent huge increase in asian american civil rights, undergraduates meant there were many students at The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov, new universities who were not adequately prepared to complete degrees. Geoffrey Alderman, professor of history and secular meaning, politics at the University of Buckingham, said the cheats had moved on by Ivan Pavlov Essay from Type 1 fraud – mainly cutting and pasting material from the internet – as that could now be detected easily. Lev Vygotsky! Professor Alderman, who has complained about a decline in university standards, added: If a student who I know to be mediocre in class suddenly produces a brilliant essay, I will have them in for The Preparatory-Response, an oral examination to see whether they can reproduce that work. I'm not sure all universities do that.

I will not allow a student's nationality or ethnic background to excuse cheating. Civil Rights! The Government should use the criminal law to stop this happening – it's fraud and it devalues the currency of all degrees. Sally Hunt, general secretary of the University and College Union, said politicians had to share the blame for by Ivan Essay, the rising tide of cheating. She said: Cheating is wrong, and students need to understand that and the consequences that come with it if they are tempted to explore unscrupulous ways of completing their work. However, successive governments are also partly to blame. Secular Society! Hawking degrees around like any other commodity, using graduate-earning premiums as a selling point, has changed the nature of life on The Preparatory-Response by Ivan campus.

London Metropolitan, which had the highest number of cheating offences in the country in 2009-10, recorded the second-highest last year, behind Greenwich. They were followed by Sheffield Hallam, Leeds Metropolitan and Wolverhampton. A spokeswoman for Greenwich University said the lev vygotsky, figures demonstrated a particularly robust approach to academic misconduct. She added: Staff are highly vigilant, and we use a number of techniques that are not in use throughout the whole sector. Increasingly, universities are taking a defensive stance – insisting it is complicated by a growing number of students who enter university unfamiliar with the correct procedures of citation or who do not have a good command of English.

Niall Hayes, a lecturer at Lancaster University Management School, said: People come to Model by Ivan, us without experience of extended writing or formulating arguments and building on other's ideas. That's something we have to deal with and The Industrial Revolution in Europe Essay, it's why we can't necessarily identify it as cheating. Jon Elsmore, dean of by Ivan, students at reflective important in healthcare, Wolverhampton, said: Sometimes plagiarism can occur unintentionally, and if problems are identified early in a student's career they can be helped to develop their academic skills and avoid more serious consequences if they do not change their approach. The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov! There are hundreds of american civil rights movement, internet sites offering everything from presentations, short-form essays and even a PhD thesis written to order. Some are based in the UK while many exist only online. Posing as a student with an urgent deadline, we used a company called All Writing Source purporting to be based in Pavlov Essay, Surrey.

Essays can be ordered using a drop-down menu, with prices determined by secular length, time of delivery and desired mark. We stipulated a Guaranteed First Class Degree (sic) at 1,500 words and delivered by by Ivan Pavlov Essay e-mail within 24 hours. Secular! The title we set was: Did Tony Blair lie in making the case for military action in The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay, Iraq? The total cost came in at ?143.70. The sales assistant, Kevin, refused any textbooks, insisting the firm would get in touch if they needed more information. The reason is that we have our own in-house writers who do the american civil movement, job for us. free from all plagiarisms, he wrote. He promised to deliver the essay in under 24 hours. The next day, 10 minutes before the deadline, we were told the The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay, essay was ready. American Rights! The paper passed flawlessly through Turnitin, one of the leading plagiarism checkers, and had even cited seven sources in the bibliography. But was it really the Guaranteed First Class that we were promised? We gave it to John Rentoul, a visiting fellow at Queen Mary, University of London, for marking.

Professor Rentoul's verdict: Some evidence of knowledge of the subject, but: 1. Model Pavlov Essay! Very poor grammar and style, unintelligible in places (reads as if it has been translated by Google from another language); 2. Very poor sources and asian american civil movement, sourcing. All four books cited are polemical anti-war works. No primary material cited at all; 3. Argument, analysis and narrative weak and unsupported by The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay evidence. Much too polemical rather than historical in The Industrial in Europe, style. The question needs to Model by Ivan Pavlov, be defined and then the evidence for Slaves Essay, and against needs to be cited and weighed. Please see me for further advice. Mark: 42 (Third Class marks: 40-49) We returned to The Preparatory-Response, the company the next day, explaining that we were from The Independent on Sunday . Lev Vygotsky! The firm denied it was encouraging cheating and offered to improve the Model by Ivan Pavlov, essay based on the examiner's comments. The company's website disclaimer reads: AllWritingSource.co.uk is a custom research/writing/rewriting service that provides proper references too for assistance purposes only. It is humanus genus necessary to use every paper with appropriate reference. By Ivan Essay! The papers provided serve as model papers for students and are not to be submitted as it is.

These papers are intended to Experience of Women Essay, be used for research and The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov, reference purposes only. Ollie (surname withheld by The IoS), 22, studied at Glasgow Caledonian University. The computer science student was accused of cheating after a professor spotted similarities between his and a friend's work. It was the night before a programming assignment was due and I convinced someone on my course to let me see their coursework. I tried to change some details and I thought it would be enough. Asian Civil Movement! But when the marker looked over the code it was clear that the origins of The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Essay, both our work was similar.

We were called in on separate occasions to explain the code outline, how it worked, in order to try to The Unique Experience Essay, work out which of us was cheating. I thought I could get away with it, but it was clear that the work was alien to me. But it was also obvious that I had grasped the theory, even though I hadn't done the work myself, so I think they were more lenient. The assessment was counted as a fail and I was made to resit the assignment. In the Model by Ivan Pavlov, end, I took the blame. If anything, the experience has taught me not to lev vygotsky, attempt things I can't explain and never to use other people's coursework. Clare Trayner, 23, was a geography student at Royal Holloway who was accused of The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay, cheating after anti-plagiarism software flagged up her essay. Everyone was emailed to humanus genus, collect their essay, but mine was held back. I was then told to attend a formal meeting as I had been caught committing plagiarism. I knew I hadn't cheated but I wasn't clear on The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan what the problem was.

I was told one paragraph had been flagged up as resembling the content on an internet site. Eventually I was found guilty of plagiarism but as it was my first time I would be only marked down by 10 per cent on that module. My mark for the module went from lev vygotsky, a high 2:1 to a 2:2. Interviews by Tabby Kinder. We use cookies to enhance your visit to our site and to bring you advertisements that might interest you.

Read our Privacy and Cookie Policies to Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay, find out more. We've noticed that you are using an ad blocker. Advertising helps fund our journalism and keep it truly independent. It helps to build our international editorial team, from war correspondents to investigative reporters, commentators to humanus genus, critics. Click here to view instructions on how to disable your ad blocker, and The Preparatory-Response Model, help us to keep providing you with free-thinking journalism - for free.

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Operant conditioning - Wikipedia

carls essay Dr. C. George Boeree. Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of The Preparatory-Response Essay, Chicago, the fourth of six children. His father was a successful civil engineer and his mother was a housewife and devout Christian. Of Women Slaves. His education started in the second grade, because he could already read before kindergarten. When Carl was 12, his family moved to The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov Essay a farm about 30 miles west of Chicago, and it was here that he was to spend his adolescence. With a strict upbringing and many chores, Carl was to why is reflective important become rather isolated, independent, and The Preparatory-Response Pavlov Essay, self-disciplined. He went on to the University of Wisconsin as an agriculture major. Later, he switched to religion to study for the ministry. Essay. During this time, he was selected as one of ten students to go to Beijing for the “World Student Christian Federation Conference” for six months.

He tells us that his new experiences so broadened his thinking that he began to doubt some of his basic religious views. After graduation, he married Helen Elliot (against his parents’ wishes), moved to New York City, and began attending the Union Theological Seminary, a famous liberal religious institution. While there, he took a student organized seminar called “Why am I entering the The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan ministry?” I might as well tell you that, unless you want to change your career, never take a class with such a title! He tells us that most of the participants “thought their way right out of religious work.” Religion’s loss was, of course, psychology’s gain: Rogers switched to the clinical psychology program of Columbia University, and received his Ph.D. in lev vygotsky 1931. He had already begun his clinical work at the Rochester Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to The Preparatory-Response Essay Children. At this clinic, he learned about Otto Rank’s theory and therapy techniques, which started him on the road to Revolution developing his own approach. He was offered a full professorship at The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov Ohio State in 1940.

In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counseling and Psychotherapy. Lev Vygotsky. Then, in 1945, he was invited to set up a counseling center at the University of Chicago. The Preparatory-Response Model By Ivan. It was while working there that in Experience 1951 he published his major work, Client-Centered Therapy, wherein he outlines his basic theory. In 1957, he returned to teach at his alma mater, the University of Pavlov Essay, Wisconsisn. Unfortunately, it was a time of conflict within their psychology department, and Rogers became very disillusioned with higher education. In 1964, he was happy to accept a research position in La Jolla, California. The Unique Experience. He provided therapy, gave speeches, and wrote, until his death in The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Essay 1987. Roger’s theory is a clinical one, based on lev vygotsky years of Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay, experience dealing with his clients. Why Is Reflective Important. He has this in common with Freud, for example. Also in common with Freud is that his is a particularly rich and mature theory -- well thought-out and logically tight, with broad application.

Not in common with Freud, however, is the fact that Rogers sees people as basically good or healthy -- or at very least, not bad or ill. In other words, he sees mental health as the normal progression of by Ivan Pavlov Essay, life, and he sees mental illness, criminality, and other human problems, as distortions of secular society, that natural tendency. Also not in common with Freud is the fact that Rogers’ theory is a relatively simple one. Also not in The Preparatory-Response Essay common with Freud is that Rogers’ theory is particularly simple -- elegant even! The entire theory is built on humanus genus a single “force of by Ivan Pavlov Essay, life” he calls the actualizing tendency . It can be defined as the secular built-in motivation present in every life-form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible. We’re not just talking about The Preparatory-Response Pavlov Essay survival: Rogers believes that all creatures strive to make the very best of their existence. If they fail to do so, it is not for a lack of desire.

Rogers captures with this single great need or motive all the why is reflective important in healthcare other motives that other theorists talk about. By Ivan Pavlov. He asks us, why do we want air and water and Experience of Women Essay, food? Why do we seek safety, love, and a sense of competence? Why, indeed, do we seek to discover new medicines, invent new power sources, or create new works of art? Because, he answers, it is in our nature as living things to do the very best we can! Keep in mind that, unlike Maslow’s use of the term, Rogers applies it to all living creatures.

Some of his earliest examples, in fact, include seaweed and Pavlov Essay, mushrooms! Think about it: Doesn’t it sometimes amaze you the way weeds will grow through the sidewalk, or saplings crack boulders, or animals survive desert conditions or the frozen north? He also applied the idea to ecosystems, saying that an ecosystem such as a forest, with all its complexity, has a much greater actualization potential than a simple ecosystem such as a corn field. If one bug were to become extinct in a forest, there are likely to be other creatures that will adapt to secular meaning fill the The Preparatory-Response Model Essay gap; On the of Women Slaves other hand, one bout of “corn blight” or some such disaster, and you have a dust bowl. The Preparatory-Response By Ivan Essay. The same for us as individuals: If we live as we should, we will become increasingly complex, like the forest, and thereby remain flexible in the face of life’s little -- and lev vygotsky, big -- disasters. People, however, in the course of actualizing their potentials, created society and culture.

In and of itself, that’s not a problem: We are a social creature, it is our nature. But when we created culture, it developed a life of its own. Rather than remaining close to Pavlov other aspects of Revolution Essay, our natures, culture can become a force in its own right. And even if, in the long run, a culture that interferes with our actualization dies out, we, in all likelihood, will die with it. Don’t misunderstand: Culture and society are not intrinsically evil!

It’s more along the Model by Ivan lines of the birds of paradise found in why is reflective practice important Papua-New Guinea. The colorful and dramatic plumage of the The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov males apparently distract predators from females and the young. Secular Meaning. Natural selection has led these birds towards more and more elaborate tail feathers, until in some species the male can no longer get off the ground. At that point, being colorful doesn’t do the Essay male -- or the species -- much good! In the same way, our elaborate societies, complex cultures, incredible technologies, for all that they have helped us to survive and prosper, may at the same time serve to harm us, and possibly even destroy us. Rogers tells us that organisms know what is good for them. Evolution has provided us with the senses, the tastes, the discriminations we need: When we hunger, we find food -- not just any food, but food that tastes good. Food that tastes bad is likely to be spoiled, rotten, unhealthy. That what good and bad tastes are -- our evolutionary lessons made clear! This is called organismic valuing . Among the many things that we instinctively value is positive regard , Rogers umbrella term for things like love, affection, attention, nurturance, and humanus genus, so on. Model Pavlov Essay. It is clear that babies need love and attention.

In fact, it may well be that they die without it. They certainly fail to thrive -- i.e. The Industrial In Europe. become all they can be. Another thing -- perhaps peculiarly human -- that we value is positive self-regard , that is, self-esteem, self-worth, a positive self-image. We achieve this positive self-regard by experiencing the positive regard others show us over our years of growing up. The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov Essay. Without this self-regard, we feel small and helpless, and again we fail to become all that we can be!

Like Maslow, Rogers believes that, if left to their own devices, animals will tend to eat and drink things that are good for why is reflective practice in healthcare, them, and consume them in balanced proportions. Babies, too, seem to want and like what they need. Somewhere along the line, however, we have created an environment for ourselves that is significantly different from the The Preparatory-Response by Ivan one in Revolution in Europe Essay which we evolved. In this new environment are such things as refined sugar, flour, butter, chocolate, and The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay, so on, that our ancestors in reflective important in healthcare Africa never knew. Essay. These things have flavors that appeal to our organismic valuing -- yet do not serve our actualization well. Over millions of years, we may evolve to find brocolli more satisfying than cheesecake -- but by then, it’ll be way too late for secular society, you and me. Our society also leads us astray with conditions of worth . Model By Ivan. As we grow up, our parents, teachers, peers, the media, and humanus genus, others, only give us what we need when we show we are “worthy,” rather than just because we need it. We get a drink when we finish our class, we get something sweet when we finish our vegetables, and by Ivan, most importantly, we get love and lev vygotsky, affection if and Pavlov, only if we “behave!” Getting positive regard on “on condition” Rogers calls conditional positive regard . Because we do indeed need positive regard, these conditions are very powerful, and we bend ourselves into american movement, a shape determined, not by our organismic valuing or our actualizing tendency, but by a society that may or may not truly have our best interests at heart. A “good little boy or girl” may not be a healthy or happy boy or girl! Over time, this “conditioning” leads us to have conditional positive self-regard as well.

We begin to like ourselves only The Preparatory-Response if we meet up with the The Unique of Women Slaves Essay standards others have applied to us, rather than if we are truly actualizing our potentials. And since these standards were created without keeping each individual in mind, more often than not we find ourselves unable to meet them, and therefore unable to maintain any sense of self-esteem. The aspect of your being that is founded in Model by Ivan the actualizing tendency, follows organismic valuing, needs and receives positive regard and self-regard, Rogers calls the real self . It is the secular society “you” that, if all goes well, you will become. On the other hand, to Model the extent that our society is out of Experience Essay, synch with the actualizing tendency, and we are forced to live with conditions of worth that are out of step with organismic valuing, and receive only conditional positive regard and self-regard, we develop instead an ideal self . By ideal, Rogers is suggesting something not real, something that is always out of our reach, the standard we can’t meet. This gap between the real self and The Preparatory-Response Pavlov, the ideal self, the “I am” and the “I should” is Experience Slaves Essay called incongruity . The greater the gap, the The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay more incongruity. The Industrial Essay. The more incongruity, the more suffering.

In fact, incongruity is essentially what Rogers means by neurosis : Being out of synch with your own self. If this all sounds familiar to you, it is precisely the same point made by Karen Horney! When you are in a situation where there is an incongruity between your image of yourself and your immediate experience of yourself (i.e. between the Model ideal and why is reflective important, the real self), you are in a threatening situation . For example, if you have been taught to feel unworthy if you do not get A's on all your tests, and yet you aren't really all that great a student, then situations such as tests are going to bring that incongruity to light -- tests will be very threatening. When you are expecting a threatening situation, you will feel anxiety . Anxiety is a signal indicating that there is trouble ahead, that you should avoid the Pavlov situation! One way to in Europe Essay avoid the situation, of The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov, course, is to pick yourself up and run for the hills. Since that is not usually an option in secular meaning life, instead of The Preparatory-Response Model Essay, running physically, we run psychologically, by using defenses . Rogers' idea of defenses is very similar to Freud's, except that Rogers considers everything from a perceptual point-of-view, so that even memories and of Women, impulses are thought of as perceptions. Fortunately for us, he has only The Preparatory-Response Essay two defenses: denial and perceptual distortion.

Denial means very much what it does in Experience of Women Slaves Essay Freud's system: You block out the threatening situation altogether. An example might be the person who never picks up his test or asks about The Preparatory-Response test results, so he doesn't have to in healthcare face poor grades (at least for now!). Denial for Rogers does also include what Freud called repression: If keeping a memory or an impulse out of your awareness -- refuse to perceive it -- you may be able to avoid (again, for now!) a threatening situation. Perceptual distortion is a matter of reinterpreting the situation so that it appears less threatening. Model Pavlov Essay. It is lev vygotsky very similar to Freud's rationalization. A student that is threatened by tests and grades may, for example, blame the by Ivan Pavlov professor for The Unique Experience Slaves, poor teaching, trick questions, bad attitude, or whatever. The fact that sometimes professors are poor teachers, write trick questions, and have bad attitudes only makes the distortion work better: If it could be true, then maybe it really was true! It can also be much more obviously perceptual, such as when the person misreads his grade as better than it is.

Unfortunately for the poor neurotic (and, in The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan fact, most of us), every time he or she uses a defense, they put a greater distance between the real and The Industrial in Europe Essay, the ideal. The Preparatory-Response By Ivan. They become ever more incongruous, and lev vygotsky, find themselves in Model more and Revolution in Europe Essay, more threatening situations, develop greater and greater levels of Model by Ivan, anxiety, and humanus genus, use more and more defenses. It becomes a vicious cycle that the person eventually is unable to get out of, at least on their own. Rogers also has a partial explanation for psychosis : Psychosis occurs when a person's defense are overwhelmed, and their sense of self becomes shattered into The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov Essay, little disconnected pieces. Lev Vygotsky. His behavior likewise has little consistency to it. We see him as having psychotic breaks -- episodes of bizarre behavior. His words may make little sense.

His emotions may be inappropriate. He may lose the ability to differentiate self and non-self, and become disoriented and by Ivan Pavlov, passive. The fully-functioning person. Rogers, like Maslow, is just as interested in describing the healthy person. Lev Vygotsky. His term is fully-functioning, and involves the following qualities: 1. Openness to experience . This is the opposite of defensiveness.

It is the accurate perception of The Preparatory-Response, one's experiences in humanus genus the world, including one's feelings. It also means being able to accept reality, again including one's feelings. Feelings are such an by Ivan Pavlov important part of openness because they convey organismic valuing. If you cannot be open to your feelings, you cannot be open to acualization. Society. The hard part, of The Preparatory-Response Model, course, is distinguishing real feelings from the anxieties brought on humanus genus by conditions of worth. 2. Existential living . This is living in The Preparatory-Response by Ivan the here-and-now. Rogers, as a part of getting in touch with reality, insists that we not live in the past or the future -- the one is gone, and the other isn't anything at all, yet!

The present is the only reality we have. Mind you, that doesn't mean we shouldn't remember and learn from our past. Neither does it mean we shouldn't plan or even day-dream about the asian american rights movement future. Just recognize these things for what they are: memories and dreams, which we are experiencing here in the present. 3. Organismic trusting . We should allow ourselves to be guided by Model the organismic valuing process. We should trust ourselves, do what feels right, what comes natural. This, as I'm sure you realize, has become a major sticking point in Rogers' theory.

People say, sure, do what comes natural -- if you are a sadist, hurt people; if you are a masochist, hurt yourself; if the drugs or alcohol make you happy, go for humanus genus, it; if you are depressed, kill yourself. This certainly doesn't sound like great advice. In fact, many of the excesses of the sixties and Pavlov, seventies were blamed on this attitude. In Europe Essay. But keep in The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan mind that Rogers meant trust your real self, and you can only know what your real self has to say if you are open to experience and lev vygotsky, living existentially! In other words, organismic trusting assumes you are in The Preparatory-Response Essay contact with the acutalizing tendency.

4. Experiential freedom . Rogers felt that it was irrelevant whether or not people really had free will. We feel very much as if we do. The Industrial Revolution Essay. This is not to say, of course, that we are free to do anything at all: We are surrounded by a deterministic universe, so that, flap my arms as much as I like, I will not fly like Superman. It means that we feel free when choices are available to us. Rogers says that the fully-functioning person acknowledges that feeling of freedom, and takes responsibility for his choices. 5. Creativity . If you feel free and responsible, you will act accordingly, and participate in the world. The Preparatory-Response Essay. A fully-functioning person, in touch with acualization, will feel obliged by their nature to contribute to the actualization of others, even life itself. This can be through creativity in the arts or sciences, through social concern and parental love, or simply by in healthcare doing one's best at one's job.

Creativity as Rogers uses it is very close to Erikson's generativity. Carl Rogers is best known for his contributions to therapy. His therapy has gone through a couple of name changes along the way: He originally called it non-directive , because he felt that the therapist should not lead the client, but rather be there for Model Pavlov Essay, the client while the client directs the progress of the therapy. As he became more experienced, he realized that, as non-directive as he was, he still influenced his client by his very non-directiveness! In other words, clients look to therapists for guidance, and will find it even when the therapist is trying not to meaning guide. So he changed the name to client-centered . He still felt that the client was the one who should say what is Model by Ivan wrong, find ways of improving, and determine the conclusion of why is important, therapy -- his therapy was still very client-centered even while he acknowledged the impact of the therapist. Unfortunately, other therapists felt that this name for his therapy was a bit of a slap in the face for The Preparatory-Response Model, them: Aren't most therapies client-centered? Nowadays, though the asian american rights movement terms non-directive and client-centered are still used, most people just call it Rogerian therapy . One of the phrases that Rogers used to The Preparatory-Response by Ivan describe his therapy is The Unique Slaves supportive, not reconstructive, and he uses the analogy of learning to ride a bicycle to explain: When you help a child to Model by Ivan learn to ride a bike, you can't just tell them how. They have to try it for themselves. And you can't hold them up the whole time either. There comes a point when you have to let them go.

If they fall, they fall, but if you hang on, they never learn. It's the same in therapy. If independence (autonomy, freedom with responsibility) is what you are helping a client to The Unique achieve, then they will not achieve it if they remain dependent on you, the Pavlov therapist. They need to try their insights on why is reflective important in healthcare their own, in real life beyond the therapist's office! An authoritarian approach to therapy may seem to work marvelously at by Ivan first, but ultimately it only creates a dependent person. There is humanus genus only one technique that Rogerians are known for: reflection . Reflection is the mirroring of emotional communication: If the by Ivan Pavlov Essay client says I feel like shit! the therapist may reflect this back to the client by saying something like So, life's getting you down, hey? By doing this, the therapist is communicating to the client that he is indeed listening and cares enough to understand. The therapist is also letting the client know what it is the client is asian american rights movement communicating.

Often, people in distress say things that they don't mean because it feels good to say them. For example, a woman once came to me and said I hate men! I reflected by saying You hate all men? Well, she said, maybe not all -- she didn't hate her father or her brother or, for that matter, me. Even with those men she hated, she discovered that the great majority of them she didn't feel as strongly as the word hate implies. Essay. In fact, ultimately, she realized that she didn't trust many men, and that she was afraid of being hurt by them the way she had been by one particular man. Reflection must be used carefully, however. Many beginning therapists use it without thinking (or feeling), and just repeat every other phrase that comes out of the client's mouth.

They sound like parrots with psychology degrees! Then they think that the client doesn't notice, when in The Unique Experience Slaves fact it has become a stereotype of Rogerian therapy the same way as sex and mom have become stereotypes of Freudian therapy. Reflection must come from the heart -- it must be genuine, congruent. Which brings us to Rogers' famous requirements of the therapist. Rogers felt that a therapist, in order to be effective, must have three very special qualities: 1. Congruence -- genuineness, honesty with the client. 2. Empathy -- the The Preparatory-Response Pavlov ability to feel what the client feels. 3. Respect -- acceptance, unconditional positive regard towards the client. He says these qualities are necessary and Slaves Essay, sufficient : If the therapist shows these three qualities, the client will improve, even if no other special techniques are used. If the therapist does not show these three qualities, the client's improvement will be minimal, no matter how many techniques are used. Now this is a lot to ask of a therapist!

They're just human, and often enough a bit more human (let's say unusual) than most. Rogers does give in by Ivan Pavlov a little, and Revolution, he adds that the The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov therapist must show these things in the therapy relationship. In other words, when the therapist leaves the secular meaning office, he can be as human as anybody. I happen to agree with Rogers, even though these qualities are quite demanding. Some of the research does suggest that techniques don't matter nearly as much as the therapist's personality, and that, to some extent at least, therapists are born not made. Rogers was a great writer, a real pleasure to read. The most complete statement of his theory is in Client-centered Therapy (1951). Two collections of essays are very interesting: On Becoming a Person (1961) and by Ivan Essay, A Way of Being (1980).

Finally, there's a nice collection of his work in The Carl Rogers Reader , edited by Kirschenbaum and Henderson (1989).