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man scp resume duplicity [full|incremental] [options] source_directory target_url. duplicity verify [options] [--compare-data] [--file-to-restore relpath] [--time time] source_url. duplicity collection-status [options] [--file-changed relpath] duplicity list-current-files [options] [--time time] target_url. duplicity [restore] [options] [--file-to-restore relpath] [--time time] source_url. duplicity remove-older-than time [options] [--force] target_url.
duplicity remove-all-but-n-full count [options] [--force] target_url. duplicity remove-all-inc-of-but-n-full count [options] [--force] target_url. duplicity cleanup [options] [--force] [--extra-clean] target_url. If you are backing up the root directory /, remember to --exclude /proc, or else duplicity will probably crash on the weird stuff in there. duplicity /home/me sftp://firstname.lastname@example.org/some_dir. If the above is for the Penalty Essay run repeatedly, the of happyness movie review first will be a full backup, and for the subsequent ones will be incremental.
To force a full backup, use the full action: duplicity full /home/me sftp://email@example.com/some_dir. or enforcing a full every other time via --full-if-older-than time , e.g. a full every month: duplicity --full-if-older-than 1M /home/me sftp://firstname.lastname@example.org/some_dir. Now suppose we accidentally delete /home/me and want to of happyness movie restore it the way it was at for the Penalty the time of last backup: duplicity sftp://email@example.com/some_dir /home/me. Duplicity enters restore mode because the photo URL comes before the local directory. Death? If we wanted to restore just the file Mail/article in /home/me as it was three days ago into /home/me/restored_file: duplicity -t 3D --file-to-restore Mail/article sftp://firstname.lastname@example.org/some_dir /home/me/restored_file. The following command compares the latest backup with the current files: duplicity verify sftp://email@example.com/some_dir /home/me. Finally, duplicity recognizes several include/exclude options.
For instance, the following will backup the root directory, but exclude /mnt, /tmp, and /proc: duplicity --exclude /mnt --exclude /tmp --exclude /proc / file:///usr/local/backup. Note that in this case the photo template destination is the local directory /usr/local/backup. The following will backup only the /home and /etc directories under root: duplicity --include /home --include /etc --exclude ’**’ / file:///usr/local/backup. Duplicity can also access a repository via ftp. If a user name is given, the environment variable FTP_PASSWORD is read to determine the password: FTP_PASSWORD=mypassword duplicity /local/dir ftp://firstname.lastname@example.org/some_dir. The actions for backup (full,incr) and restoration (restore) can as well be left out as duplicity detects in what mode it should switch to for the Penalty Essay by the order of target URL and social institution local folder. If the target URL comes before the local folder a restore is in order, is the local folder before target URL then this folder is about to be backed up to the target URL.
If a backup is in order and old signatures can be found duplicity automatically performs an A Stand for the Death Penalty incremental backup. Note: The following explanations explain some but not all options that can be used in connection with that action command. Consult the pursuit of happyness review OPTIONS section for more detailed informations. full folder url Perform a full backup. A new backup chain is started even if signatures are available for an incremental backup. incr folder url If this is requested an incremental backup will be performed. Duplicity will abort if no old signatures can be found. verify [--compare-data] [--time time] [--file-to-restore rel_path] url local_path Restore backup contents temporarily file by file and A Stand Essay compare against the local path’s contents. duplicity will exit with a non-zero error level if any files are different. On verbosity level info (4) or higher, a message for each file that has changed will be logged. The --file-to-restore option restricts verify to that file or folder.
The --time option allows to select a backup to verify against. The --compare-data option enables data comparison (see below). collection-status [--file-changed relpath] url Summarize the status of the backup repository by printing the chains and sets found, and the number of volumes in each. list-current-files [--time time] url Lists the files contained in the most current backup or backup at time. The information will be extracted from the signature files, not the archive data itself. Owen Jarus? Thus the Penalty whole archive does not have to of the be downloaded, but on the other hand if the archive has been deleted or corrupted, this command will not detect it. restore [--file-to-restore relpath] [--time time] url target_folder You can restore the for the Penalty full monty or selected folders/files from a specific time. Use the pursuit of happyness review relative path as it is printed by list-current-files . Usually not needed as duplicity enters restore mode when it detects that the URL comes before the for the Death Penalty local folder. remove-older-than time [--force] url Delete all backup sets older than the owen jarus given time. A Stand Death? Old backup sets will not be deleted if backup sets newer than time depend on them. Photo Essay Template? See the for the Penalty TIME FORMATS section for more information.
Note, this action cannot be combined with backup or other actions, such as cleanup. Note also that --force will be needed to delete the files instead of just listing them. remove-all-but-n-full count [--force] url Delete all backups sets that are older than the count:th last full backup (in other words, keep the last count full backups and Poetry Styles Period Essay associated incremental sets). count must be larger than zero. A value of 1 means that only the Death Penalty Essay single most recent backup chain will be kept. Note that --force will be needed to delete the files instead of just listing them. remove-all-inc-of-but-n-full count [--force] url Delete incremental sets of all backups sets that are older than the Poetry Styles Victorian Essay count:th last full backup (in other words, keep only for the, old full backups and not their increments). 1973 Tony Morrison? count must be larger than zero. A Stand Death Essay? A value of 1 means that only the photo template single most recent backup chain will be kept intact. Note that --force will be needed to delete the A Stand files instead of social institution, just listing them. cleanup [--force] [--extra-clean] url Delete the extraneous duplicity files on the given backend.
Non-duplicity files, or files in complete data sets will not be deleted. This should only be necessary after a duplicity session fails or is A Stand for the aborted prematurely. Note that --force will be needed to delete the files instead of owen jarus, just listing them. --allow-source-mismatch Do not abort on attempts to use the same archive dir or remote backend to back up different directories. duplicity will tell you if you need this switch. --archive-dir path The archive directory. For The Death? NOTE: This option changed in 0.6.0. The archive directory is owen jarus now necessary in A Stand Death order to social manage persistence for current and Penalty future enhancements. As such, this option is now used only to owen jarus change the location of the archive directory. The archive directory should not be deleted, or duplicity will have to recreate it from the remote repository (which may require decrypting the backup contents).
When backing up or restoring, this option specifies that the local archive directory is to be created in path . If the archive directory is not specified, the default will be to create the archive directory in. The archive directory can be shared between backups to multiple targets, because a subdirectory of the archive dir is A Stand for the used for individual backups (see --name ). The combination of archive directory and backup name must be unique in Poetry order to Penalty Essay separate the data of different backups. The interaction between the Poetry Styles of the --archive-dir and the --name options allows for four possible combinations for the location of the archive dir: 1. neither specified (default) hash-of-url 2. --archive-dir=/arch, no --name /arch/ hash-of-url 3. no --archive-dir, --name=foo. 4. --archive-dir=/arch, --name=foo /arch/foo.
--asynchronous-upload (EXPERIMENTAL) Perform file uploads asynchronously in the background, with respect to volume creation. This means that duplicity can upload a volume while, at the same time, preparing the next volume for upload. The intended end-result is for the a faster backup, because the Styles Victorian Essay local CPU and Death Penalty Essay your bandwidth can be more consistently utilized. Pursuit Of Happyness Review? Use of this option implies additional need for disk space in the temporary storage location; rather than needing to store only for the Death, one volume at a time, enough storage space is required to store two volumes. --backend-retry-delay number Specifies the number of seconds that duplicity waits after an error has occured before attempting to 1973 tony morrison novel repeat the operation. --cf-backend backend Allows the explicit selection of a cloudfiles backend. Defaults to pyrax . Alternatively you might choose cloudfiles . --compare-data Enable data comparison of regular files on action verify. This is disabled by default for performance reasons. --copy-links Resolve symlinks during backup. Enabling this will resolve back up the symlink’s file/folder data instead of the symlink itself, potentially increasing the Death size of the backup. --dry-run Calculate what would be done, but do not.
perform any backend actions. --encrypt-key key-id When backing up, encrypt to the given public key, instead of using symmetric (traditional) encryption. Can be specified multiple times. Institution? The key-id can be given in any of the formats supported by GnuPG; see gpg (1) , section HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID for details. --encrypt-secret-keyring filename This option can only be used with --encrypt-key , and changes the path to the secret keyring for the encrypt key to filename This keyring is not used when creating a backup. If not specified, the default secret keyring is used which is usually located.
--encrypt-sign-key key-id Convenience parameter. Same as --encrypt-key key-id --sign-key key-id . --exclude shell_pattern Exclude the file or files matched by shell_pattern . A Stand For The Penalty Essay? If a directory is social institution matched, then files under that directory will also be matched. See the FILE SELECTION section for A Stand for the Essay, more information. --exclude-device-files Exclude all device files. This can be useful for pursuit movie, security/permissions reasons or if rdiff-backup is A Stand for the Penalty Essay not handling device files correctly. --exclude-filelist filename Excludes the files listed in filename, with each line of the filelist interpreted according to Poetry of the Victorian Essay the same rules as --include and --exclude. See the FILE SELECTION section for more information. --exclude-if-present filename Exclude directories if filename is present. Allows the user to specify folders that they do not wish to backup by adding a specified file (e.g. Death Penalty? .nobackup) instead of morrison, maintaining a comprehensive exclude/include list. This option needs to A Stand for the Penalty come before any other include or exclude options.
--exclude-older-than time Exclude any files whose modification date is earlier than the specified time . This can be used to produce a partial backup that contains only recently changed files. See the TIME FORMATS section for more information. --exclude-other-filesystems Exclude files on file systems (identified by device number) other than the file system the root of the source directory is on. --exclude-regexp regexp Exclude files matching the given regexp. Unlike the --exclude option, this option does not match files in a directory it matches. See the FILE SELECTION section for photo essay template, more information.
--extra-clean When cleaning up, be more aggressive about for the Death, saving space. For example, this may delete signature files for old backup chains. Caution: Without signature files those old backup chains are unrestorable. Do not use --extra-clean unless you know what you’re doing. See the cleanup argument for more information. --file-changed path This option may be given in collection-status mode, causing only institution, path status to A Stand Death be collect instead of the entire contents of the backup archive. path should be given relative to 1973 novel the root of the directory backed up. --file-prefix, --file-prefix-manifest, --file-prefix-archive, --file-prefix-signature Adds a prefix to all files, manifest files, archive files, and/or signature files. The same set of prefixes must be passed in on backup and restore. If both global and type-specific prefixes are set, global prefix will go before type-specific prefixes.
also A NOTE ON FILENAME PREFIXES. --file-to-restore path This option may be given in restore mode, causing only A Stand Death, path to The Relationship be restored instead of the A Stand for the Death Essay entire contents of the backup archive. path should be given relative to the root of the directory backed up. --full-if-older-than time Perform a full backup if an incremental backup is requested, but the 1973 tony latest full backup in the collection is older than the given time . See the A Stand TIME FORMATS section for more information. --force Proceed even if data loss might result. Template? Duplicity will let the user know when this option is required. --ftp-passive Use passive (PASV) data connections. The default is to use passive, but to A Stand for the Penalty Essay fallback to regular if the passive connection fails or times out. --ftp-regular Use regular (PORT) data connections. --gio Use the 1973 GIO backend and interpret any URLs as GIO would. --hidden-encrypt-key key-id Same as --encrypt-key , but it hides user’s key id from encrypted file. It uses the gpg’s --hidden-recipient command to obfuscate the owner of the A Stand Penalty Essay backup.
On restore, gpg will automatically try all available secret keys in order to decrypt the backup. See gpg(1) for more details. --ignore-errors Try to of happyness ignore certain errors if they happen. This option is only intended to allow the restoration of a backup in Penalty the face of certain problems that would otherwise cause the backup to fail. It is Student and GPA not ever recommended to use this option unless you have a situation where you are trying to restore from backup and it is failing because of an issue which you want duplicity to ignore. For The Death Essay? Even then, depending on the issue, this option may not have an effect. Please note that while ignored errors will be logged, there will be no summary at the end of the social institution operation to tell you what was ignored, if anything. If this is used for emergency restoration of data, it is recommended that you run the backup in A Stand Essay such a way that you can revisit the institution backup log (look for lines containing the string IGNORED_ERROR). If you ever have to for the Penalty Essay use this option for reasons that are not understood or understood but not your own responsibility, please contact duplicity maintainers. The need to use this option under production circumstances would normally be considered a bug.
--imap-full-address email_address The full email address of the user name when logging into an imap server. Owen Jarus? If not supplied just the user name part of the Death email address is used. --imap-mailbox option Allows you to specify a different mailbox. The default is INBOX. Other languages may require a different mailbox than the default. --gpg-binary file_path Allows you to force duplicity to use file_path as gpg command line binary. Can be an absolute or relative file path or a file name.
Default value is ’gpg’. 1973 Tony Novel? The binary will be localized via the PATH environment variable. --gpg-options options Allows you to pass options to gpg encryption. The options list should be of the form --opt1 --opt2=parm where the Penalty string is quoted and the only spaces allowed are between options. --include shell_pattern Similar to --exclude but include matched files instead. Photo Template? Unlike --exclude , this option will also match parent directories of matched files (although not necessarily their contents). See the FILE SELECTION section for more information. --include-filelist filename Like --exclude-filelist , but include the for the Death listed files instead. See the Poetry Victorian FILE SELECTION section for more information. --include-regexp regexp Include files matching the regular expression regexp . Only files explicitly matched by regexp will be included by this option.
See the FILE SELECTION section for more information. --log-fd number Write specially-formatted versions of output messages to the specified file descriptor. The format used is designed to A Stand for the Death Penalty be easily consumable by other programs. --log-file filename Write specially-formatted versions of output messages to Poetry Styles Victorian Essay the specified file. The format used is designed to A Stand for the Death Essay be easily consumable by other programs. --max-blocksize number determines the number of the blocks examined for changes during the diff process.
For files 1MB the blocksize is a constant of 1973 morrison, 512. For The Death Penalty Essay? For files over 1MB the size is given by: file_blocksize = int((file_len / (2000 * 512)) * 512) return min(file_blocksize, globals.max_blocksize) where globals.max_blocksize defaults to 2048. If you specify a larger max_blocksize, your difftar files will be larger, but your sigtar files will be smaller. If you specify a smaller max_blocksize, the reverse occurs. The --max-blocksize option should be in multiples of 512. --name symbolicname Set the of the Victorian Essay symbolic name of the backup being operated on.
The intent is to use a separate name for each logically distinct backup. For example, someone may use home_daily_s3 for the daily backup of for the Death Penalty Essay, a home directory to Amazon S3. The structure of the name is up to the user, it is owen jarus only important that the names be distinct. For The Penalty? The symbolic name is currently only used to affect the expansion of Styles Victorian Period Essay, --archive-dir , but may be used for additional features in the future. Users running more than one distinct backup are encouraged to A Stand use this option. If not specified, the default value is a hash of the backend URL. --no-compression Do not use GZip to compress files on remote system. --no-encryption Do not use GnuPG to encrypt files on remote system. --no-print-statistics By default duplicity will print statistics about the current session after a successful backup. This switch disables that behavior. --null-separator Use nulls (0) instead of Between, newlines (n) as line separators, which may help when dealing with filenames containing newlines.
This affects the expected format of the files specified by the -- -filelist switches as well as the format of the directory statistics file. --numeric-owner On restore always use the numeric uid/gid from the archive and not the archived user/group names, which is the default behaviour. Recommended for restoring from live cds which might have the users with identical names but different uids/gids. --num-retries number Number of retries to make on A Stand, errors before giving up. --old-filenames Use the old filename format (incompatible with Windows/Samba) rather than the Styles of the Victorian new filename format.
--par2-options options Verbatim options to pass to par2. --par2-redundancy percent Adjust the level of A Stand for the Penalty Essay, redundancy in percent for Par2 recovery files (default 10%). --progress When selected, duplicity will output the current upload progress and owen jarus estimated upload time. To annotate changes, it will perform a first dry-run before a full or incremental, and then runs the real operation estimating the real upload progress. --progress-rate number Sets the Essay update rate at which duplicity will output the upload progress messages (requires --progress option). Default is to prompt the status each 3 seconds. --rename original path new path Treats the path orig in the backup as if it were the path new. Can be passed multiple times. An example: restore --rename Documents/metal Music/metal sftp://email@example.com/some_dir. --rsync-options options Allows you to pass options to the rsync backend.
The options list should be of the form opt1=parm1 opt2=parm2 where the photo essay template option string is quoted and the only spaces allowed are between options. Penalty? The option string will be passed verbatim to rsync, after any internally generated option designating the remote port to use. Tony Morrison Novel? Here is a possibly useful example: duplicity --rsync-options=--partial-dir=.rsync-partial /home/me. --s3-european-buckets When using the Amazon S3 backend, create buckets in A Stand for the Death Europe instead of the default (requires --s3-use-new-style ). Motivation And GPA? Also see the EUROPEAN S3 BUCKETS section. --s3-unencrypted-connection Don’t use SSL for A Stand Death Penalty Essay, connections to S3. This may be much faster, at some cost to confidentiality. With this option, anyone who can observe traffic between your computer and S3 will be able to owen jarus tell: that you are using Duplicity, the name of the bucket, your AWS Access Key ID, the Death increment dates and the amount of data in 1973 novel each increment. This option affects only the connection, not the GPG encryption of the A Stand for the Death Essay backup increment files. Unless that is disabled, an owen jarus observer will not be able to A Stand for the Essay see the file names or contents.
--s3-use-new-style When operating on Amazon S3 buckets, use new-style subdomain bucket addressing. This is now the preferred method to access Amazon S3, but is not backwards compatible if your bucket name contains upper-case characters or other characters that are not valid in a hostname. --s3-use-rrs Store volumes using Reduced Redundancy Storage when uploading to Amazon S3. This will lower the cost of storage but also lower the durability of review, stored volumes to 99.99% instead the for the Essay 99.999999999% durability offered by Standard Storage on S3. --s3-use-ia Store volumes using Standard - Infrequent Access when uploading to Amazon S3. This storage class has a lower storage cost but a higher per-request cost, and the storage cost is of the Victorian Period calculated against a 30-day storage minimum.
According to for the Essay Amazon, this storage is ideal for long-term file storage, backups, and disaster recovery. --s3-use-multiprocessing Allow multipart volumne uploads to S3 through multiprocessing. This option requires Python 2.6 and can be used to pursuit of happyness review make uploads to Death Penalty S3 more efficient. The Relationship Between Student Motivation And GPA? If enabled, files duplicity uploads to S3 will be split into chunks and A Stand for the uploaded in parallel. Useful if you want to saturate your bandwidth or if large files are failing during upload.
--s3-use-server-side-encryption Allow use of server side encryption in S3. --s3-multipart-chunk-size Chunk size (in MB) used for S3 multipart uploads. Morrison Novel? Make this smaller than --volsize to maximize the use of your bandwidth. For example, a chunk size of 10MB with a volsize of 30MB will result in 3 chunks per volume upload. --s3-multipart-max-procs Specify the maximum number of processes to spawn when performing a multipart upload to S3. By default, this will choose the number of processors detected on your system (e.g. 4 for for the Death Penalty Essay, a 4-core system). You can adjust this number as required to ensure you don’t overload your system while maximizing the use of your bandwidth. --s3-multipart-max-timeout You can control the maximum time (in seconds) a multipart upload can spend on uploading a single chunk to S3.
This may be useful if you find your system hanging on multipart uploads or if you’d like to control the time variance when uploading to S3 to ensure you kill connections to slow S3 endpoints. --scp-command command (only ssh pexpect backend with --use-scp enabled) The command will be used instead of scp to send or receive files. To list and photo essay delete existing files, the sftp command is used. See also A NOTE ON SSH BACKENDS section SSH pexpect backend . --sftp-command command (only ssh pexpect backend) The command will be used instead of sftp. See also A NOTE ON SSH BACKENDS section SSH pexpect backend . --short-filenames If this option is specified, the names of the files duplicity writes will be shorter (about 30 chars) but less understandable. This may be useful when backing up to MacOS or another OS or FS that doesn’t support long filenames. --sign-key key-id This option can be used when backing up, restoring or verifying.
When backing up, all backup files will be signed with keyid key . When restoring, duplicity will signal an error if any remote file is for the Death not signed with the given key-id. The key-id can be given in any of the formats supported by GnuPG; see gpg (1) , section HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID for details. Should be specified only once because currently only tony morrison novel, one signing key is supported. Last entry overrides all other entries. See also A NOTE ON SYMMETRIC ENCRYPTION AND SIGNING. --ssh-askpass Tells the ssh backend to A Stand for the Death Essay prompt the user for social, the remote system password, if it was not defined in for the Essay target url and no FTP_PASSWORD env var is set. This password is also used for passphrase-protected ssh keys. --ssh-options options Allows you to pass options to pursuit of happyness the ssh backend. Can be specified multiple times or as a space separated options list.
The options list should be of the A Stand for the Death Penalty form -oOpt1=’parm1’ -oOpt2=’parm2’ where the option string is quoted and owen jarus the only spaces allowed are between options. For The Death? The option string will be passed verbatim to both scp and sftp, whose command line syntax differs slightly hence the photo essay template options should therefore be given in the long option format described in ssh_config(5) . example of a list: duplicity --ssh-options=-oProtocol=2 -oIdentityFile=’/my/backup/id’ /home/me scp://user@host/some_dir. example with multiple parameters: duplicity --ssh-options=-oProtocol=2 --ssh-options=-oIdentityFile=’/my/backup/id’ NOTE: The ssh paramiko backend currently supports only the -i or -oIdentityFile setting. If needed provide more host specific options via ssh_config file. --ssl-cacert-file file (only webdav lftp backend) Provide a cacert file for for the Death Penalty, ssl certificate verification. See also A NOTE ON SSL CERTIFICATE VERIFICATION . --ssl-cacert-path path/to/certs/ (only webdav backend and owen jarus python 2.7.9+ OR lftp+webdavs and a recent lftp) Provide a path to a folder containing cacert files for Death Essay, ssl certificate verification.
See also A NOTE ON SSL CERTIFICATE VERIFICATION . --ssl-no-check-certificate (only webdav lftp backend) Disable ssl certificate verification. See also A NOTE ON SSL CERTIFICATE VERIFICATION . --tempdir directory Use this existing directory for duplicity temporary files instead of the system default, which is essay template usually the /tmp directory. This option supersedes any environment variable. See also ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES . -t time , --time time , --restore-time time Specify the time from which to restore or list files. --time-separator char Use char as the time separator in A Stand Penalty Essay filenames instead of colon (:). --timeout seconds Use seconds as the Styles Period Essay socket timeout value if duplicity begins to timeout during network operations. The default is 30 seconds.
--use-agent If this option is specified, then --use-agent is passed to the GnuPG encryption process and it will try to connect to gpg-agent before it asks for a passphrase for --encrypt-key or --sign-key if needed. Note: Contrary to previous versions of duplicity, this option will also be honored by Essay, GnuPG 2 and of the Victorian Period Essay newer versions. If GnuPG 2 is in use, duplicity passes the option --pinentry-mode=loopback to the the gpg process unless --use-agent is Penalty specified on Essay, the duplicity command line. This has the effect that GnuPG 2 uses the A Stand for the Death Penalty Essay agent only if --use-agent is given, just like GnuPG 1. --verbosity level , -v level Specify output verbosity level (log level). Named levels and essay template corresponding values are 0 Error, 2 Warning, 4 Notice (default), 8 Info, 9 Debug (noisiest). level may also be. a character: e, w, n, i, d. a word: error, warning, notice, info, debug. The options -v4, -vn and -vnotice are functionally equivalent, as are the mixed/upper-case versions -vN, -vNotice and -vNOTICE.
--version Print duplicity’s version and quit. --volsize number Change the volume size to number MB. Default is 200MB. TMPDIR, TEMP, TMP In decreasing order of Death, importance, specifies the directory to use for temporary files (inherited from Student Motivation Essay Python’s tempfile module). Eventually the option --tempdir supercedes any of for the Penalty Essay, these. FTP_PASSWORD Supported by most backends which are password capable. Social Institution? More secure than setting it in the backend url (which might be readable in the operating systems process listing to other users on the same machine).
PASSPHRASE This passphrase is passed to GnuPG. If this is not set, the A Stand Penalty user will be prompted for the passphrase. SIGN_PASSPHRASE The passphrase to be used for --sign-key . If ommitted and owen jarus sign key is also one of the keys to A Stand Death encrypt against PASSPHRASE will be reused instead. Poetry Victorian Period Essay? Otherwise, if passphrase is needed but not set the user will be prompted for it. It is not recommended to expose the password on the command line since it could be revealed to A Stand for the Death Penalty Essay anyone with permissions to do process listings, it is permitted however. Consider setting the environment variable FTP_PASSWORD instead, which is used by most, if not all backends, regardless of it’s name. In protocols that support it, the path may be preceded by a single slash, ’/path’, to The Relationship Motivation and GPA Essay represent a relative path to the target home directory, or preceded by a double slash, ’//path’, to represent an A Stand Penalty Essay absolute filesystem path.
Note: Scheme (protocol) access may be provided by Student Motivation Essay, more than one backend. A Stand Death? In case the default backend is buggy or simply not working in a specific case it might be worth trying an alternative implementation. Alternative backends can be selected by owen jarus, prefixing the scheme with the name of the alternative backend e.g. ncftp+ftp:// and are mentioned below the scheme’s syntax summary. Formats of each of the URL schemes follow: See also A NOTE ON AZURE ACCESS. Cloud Files (Rackspace) See also A NOTE ON CLOUD FILES ACCESS. Copy cloud storage.
Make sure to A Stand Death read A NOTE ON DROPBOX ACCESS first! FISH (Files transferred over Shell protocol) over Essay, ssh. NOTE: use lftp+, ncftp+ prefixes to Death Essay enforce a specific backend, default is lftp+ftp://. NOTE: use pydrive+, gdata+ prefixes to enforce a specific backend, default is pydrive+gdocs://. Google Cloud Storage. See also A NOTE ON HUBIC. IMAP email storage. See also A NOTE ON IMAP. Mega cloud storage. Par2 Wrapper Backend.
See also A NOTE ON PAR2 WRAPPER BACKEND. Rsync via daemon. Rsync over ssh (only key auth) S3 storage (Amazon) See also A NOTE ON EUROPEAN S3 BUCKETS. defaults are paramiko+scp:// and paramiko+sftp:// alternatively try pexpect+scp://, pexpect+sftp://, lftp+sftp:// See also --ssh-askpass , --ssh-options and A NOTE ON SSH BACKENDS . See also A NOTE ON SWIFT (OPENSTACK OBJECT STORAGE) ACCESS.
alternatively try lftp+webdav[s]:// pydrive://service account’ email firstname.lastname@example.org/some_dir. See also A NOTE ON PYDRIVE BACKEND below. See also A NOTE ON MULTI BACKEND below. See also A NOTE ON MEDIAFIRE BACKEND below. Secondly, the -t , --time , and photo essay template --restore-time options take a time string, which can be given in any of several formats: 1. the Penalty string now (refers to the current time) 2. a sequences of digits, like 123456890 (indicating the pursuit of happyness review time in seconds after the epoch) 3. A string like 2002-01-25T07:00:00+02:00 in A Stand for the Death Penalty Essay datetime format 4. An interval, which is a number followed by one of the characters s, m, h, D, W, M, or Y (indicating seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or years respectively), or a series of such pairs. In this case the string refers to the time that preceded the current time by essay template, the length of the interval. For instance, 1h78m indicates the time that was one hour and 78 minutes ago. For The Death Essay? The calendar here is of happyness unsophisticated: a month is for the Death Penalty Essay always 30 days, a year is always 365 days, and essay template a day is always 86400 seconds. A Stand Death Penalty? 5. Institution? A date format of the form YYYY/MM/DD, YYYY-MM-DD, MM/DD/YYYY, or MM-DD-YYYY, which indicates midnight on A Stand for the Death Essay, the day in question, relative to the current time zone settings. For instance, 2002/3/5, 03-05-2002, and Between Student 2002-3-05 all mean March 5th, 2002. --include-regexp Each file selection condition either matches or doesn’t match a given file.
A given file is excluded by the file selection system exactly when the A Stand for the Penalty first matching file selection condition specifies that the file be excluded; otherwise the file is included. duplicity --include /usr --exclude /usr /usr scp://user@host/backup. is exactly the The Relationship Between Student and GPA same as. duplicity /usr scp://user@host/backup. because the include and for the Death Penalty exclude directives match exactly the same files, and the --include comes first, giving it precedence.
Similarly, duplicity --include /usr/local/bin --exclude /usr/local /usr scp://user@host/backup. would backup the /usr/local/bin directory (and its contents), but not /usr/local/doc. The include , exclude , include-filelist , and exclude-filelist options accept some extended shell globbing patterns . These patterns can contain * , ** , ? , and [. 1973 Morrison? ] (character ranges). As in a normal shell, * can be expanded to for the Death Penalty any string of photo, characters not containing /, ? expands to any character except /, and for the [. ] expands to a single character of those characters specified (ranges are acceptable). The new special pattern, ** , expands to any string of characters whether or not it contains /. Furthermore, if the morrison pattern starts with ignorecase: (case insensitive), then this prefix will be removed and any character in the string can be replaced with an upper- or lowercase version of itself. Remember that you may need to quote these characters when typing them into a shell, so the shell does not interpret the globbing patterns before duplicity sees them. The --exclude pattern option matches a file if: 1. pattern can be expanded into the file’s filename, or. 2. the file is inside a directory matched by the option. Conversely, the --include pattern matches a file if:
1. Death Penalty? pattern can be expanded into the file’s filename, or. 2. the social file is A Stand inside a directory matched by essay template, the option, or. 3. the file is a directory which contains a file matched by the option. matches e.g. Penalty Essay? /usr/local, /usr/local/lib, and /usr/local/lib/netscape. It is the Poetry Styles same as --exclude /usr/local --exclude ’/usr/local/**’. On the other hand.
specifies that /usr, /usr/local, /usr/local/lib, and /usr/local/lib/netscape (but not /usr/doc) all be backed up. Thus you don’t have to worry about including parent directories to make sure that included subdirectories have somewhere to go. would match a file like /usR/5fOO/hello/there/world.py. If it did match anything, it would also match /usr. If there is no existing file that the given pattern can be expanded into, the for the Death Penalty Essay option will not match /usr alone. The --include-filelist , and --exclude-filelist , options also introduce file selection conditions. They direct duplicity to read in pursuit movie review a file, each line of which is a file specification, and to include or exclude the matching files.
Lines are separated by newlines or nulls, depending on whether the --null-separator switch was given. Each line in the filelist will be interpreted as a globbing pattern the way --include and --exclude options are interpreted, except that lines starting with + are interpreted as include directives, even if found in a filelist referenced by --exclude-filelist . Similarly, lines starting with - exclude files even if they are found within an Essay include filelist. For example, if file list.txt contains the lines: then --include-filelist list.txt would include /usr, /usr/local, and /usr/local/bin. It would exclude /usr/local/doc, /usr/local/doc/python, etc. It would also include /usr/local/man, as this is included within /user/local. Poetry Styles Of The Period Essay? Finally, it is undefined what happens with /var. For The Essay? A single file list should not contain conflicting file specifications. Each line in the filelist will also be interpreted as a globbing pattern the way --include and --exclude options are interpreted. For instance, if the file list.txt contains the Styles Period Essay lines:
Then --include-filelist list.txt would be exactly the same as specifying --include dir/foo --include dir/bar --exclude ** on the command line. Finally, the --include-regexp and --exclude-regexp options allow files to be included and excluded if their filenames match a python regular expression. A Stand Death Essay? Regular expression syntax is too complicated to explain here, but is covered in Python’s library reference. Novel? Unlike the --include and --exclude options, the regular expression options don’t match files containing or contained in A Stand Penalty Essay matched files. So for Poetry Styles Victorian Period, instance. matches any files whose full pathnames contain 7 consecutive digits which aren’t followed by ’foo’. However, it wouldn’t match /home even if /home/ben/1234567 existed. It uses two environment variables for A Stand for the Essay, authentification: AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME (required), AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY (required) A container name must be a valid DNS name, conforming to the following naming rules: 1. Container names must start with a letter or number, and can contain only Poetry of the Victorian Period, letters, numbers, and the dash (-) character. Penalty? 2. Every dash (-) character must be immediately preceded and followed by a letter or number; consecutive dashes are not permitted in container names.
3. Social Institution? All letters in a container name must be lowercase. 4. A Stand Death Essay? Container names must be from 3 through 63 characters long. Cloudfiles is Rackspace’s now deprecated implementation of OpenStack Object Storage protocol. Users wishing to use Duplicity with Rackspace Cloud Files should migrate to the new Pyrax plugin to Between Motivation and GPA Essay ensure support. The backend requires python-cloudfiles to be installed on the system. See REQUIREMENTS above. It uses three environment variables for authentification: CLOUDFILES_USERNAME (required), CLOUDFILES_APIKEY (required), CLOUDFILES_AUTHURL (optional) If CLOUDFILES_AUTHURL is unspecified it will default to the value provided by A Stand Death Penalty, python-cloudfiles, which points to rackspace, hence this value must be set in order to use other cloud files providers. Then visit app settings and just use ’Generated access token’ under OAuth2 section. Alternatively you can let duplicity generate access token itself. In such case temporary export DPBX_APP_KEY , DPBX_APP_SECRET using values from app settings page and run duplicity interactively.
It will print the URL that you need to open in the browser to obtain OAuth2 token for the application. Just follow on-screen instructions and 1973 novel then put generated token to DPBX_ACCESS_TOKEN variable. Once done, feel free to unset DPBX_APP_KEY and DPBX_APP_SECRET. 2. some_dir must already exist in the Dropbox folder. Depending on access token kind it may be: Full Dropbox: path is absolute and starts from ’Dropbox’ root folder. App Folder: path is related to application folder. Dropbox client will show it in.
3. When using Dropbox for storage, be aware that all files, including the ones in the Apps folder, will be synced to all connected computers. For The? You may prefer to pursuit review use a separate Dropbox account specially for the backups, and not connect any computers to that account. Alternatively you can configure selective sync on all computers to avoid. syncing of backup files. duplicity will create a new bucket the first time a bucket access is attempted. At this point, the bucket will be created in A Stand Essay Europe if --s3-european-buckets was given. For reasons having to do with how the Amazon S3 service works, this also requires the tony use of the --s3-use-new-style option.
This option turns on A Stand for the Death Penalty Essay, subdomain based bucket addressing in S3. The details are beyond the scope of owen jarus, this man page, but it is important to A Stand Death know that your bucket must not contain upper case letters or any other characters that are not valid parts of a hostname. Owen Jarus? Consequently, for Penalty Essay, reasons of owen jarus, backwards compatibility, use of A Stand Penalty, subdomain based bucket addressing is not enabled by default. Note that you will need to use --s3-use-new-style for all operations on European buckets; not just upon initial creation. You only need to use --s3-european-buckets upon initial creation, but you may may use it at all times for consistency.
Further note that when creating a new European bucket, it can take a while before the bucket is fully accessible. 1973 Tony Morrison Novel? At the time of this writing it is unclear to what extent this is an expected feature of Amazon S3, but in practice you may experience timeouts, socket errors or HTTP errors when trying to upload files to your newly created bucket. A Stand For The? Give it a few minutes and the bucket should function normally. Filename prefixes can be used in conjunction with S3 lifecycle rules to transition archive files to Glacier, while keeping metadata (signature and manifest files) on S3. Duplicity does not require access to pursuit movie archive files except when restoring from A Stand for the Essay backup. /.boto configuration file. /.hubic_credentials, following this pattern: The from_address_prefix may be specified (and probably should be). The text will be used as the From address in the IMAP server. Then on institution, a restore (or list) command the from_address_prefix will distinguish between different backups.
Order does not matter, however unrecognized parameters are considered an error. mode= stripe This mode (the default) performs round-robin access to the list of backends. In this mode, all backends must be reliable as a loss of A Stand Death Essay, one means a loss of one of the archive files. Social? mode= mirror This mode accesses backends as a RAID1-store, storing every file in every backend and reading files from the first-successful backend. Death Penalty? A loss of any backend should result in no failure. Note that backends added later will only get new files and may require a manual sync with one of the other operating ones. onfail= continue This setting (the default) continues all write operations in as best-effort. Social Institution? Any failure results in the next backend tried. Failure is reported only for the Essay, when all backends fail a given operation with the error result from the last failure. Institution? onfail= abort This setting considers any backend write failure as a terminating condition and reports the error. Penalty? Data reading and listing operations are independent of this and will try with the next backend on owen jarus, failure. Before restoring, archives will be verified. Corrupt archives will be repaired on the fly if there are enough recovery blocks available.
Use --par2-redundancy percent to adjust the A Stand for the Essay size (and redundancy) of recovery files in percent. There are two ways to use PyDrive: with a regular account or with a service account. With a service account, a separate account is created, that is only accessible with Google APIs and not a web login. Photo Essay Template? With a regular account, you can store backups in your normal Google Drive. To use a service account, go to the Google developers console at https://console.developers.google.com. For The Death Penalty? Create a project, and make sure Drive API is enabled for the project. Essay? Under APIs and auth, click Create New Client ID, then select Service Account with P12 key. Download the .p12 key file of the account and convert it to the .pem format: openssl pkcs12 -in XXX.p12 -nodes -nocerts pydriveprivatekey.pem.
The content of .pem file should be passed to GOOGLE_DRIVE_ACCOUNT_KEY environment variable for authentification. The email address of the A Stand for the Penalty Essay account will be used as part of URL. See URL FORMAT above. The alternative is to use a regular account. To do this, start as above, but when creating a new Client ID, select Installed application of type Other.
Create a file with the following content, and pass its filename in the GOOGLE_DRIVE_SETTINGS environment variable: In this scenario, the username and institution host parts of the URL play no role; only the path matters. During the first run, you will be prompted to visit an for the Death URL in pursuit of happyness movie review your browser to grant access to your drive. Once granted, you will receive a verification code to paste back into for the Death Essay, Duplicity. The credentials are then cached in the file references above for future use. paramiko pexpect support --use-scp , --ssh-askpass and --ssh-options . Only the pexpect backend allows to define --scp-command and --sftp-command . SSH paramiko backend (default) is a complete reimplementation of ssh protocols natively in python. Advantages are speed and owen jarus maintainability. Minor disadvantage is A Stand Death Essay that extra packages are needed as listed in REQUIREMENTS above. In sftp (default) mode all operations are done via the according sftp commands. In scp mode ( --use-scp ) though scp access is used for template, put/get operations but listing is done via ssh remote shell.
SSH pexpect backend is the legacy ssh backend using the command line ssh binaries via pexpect. Older versions used scp for get and put operations and sftp for list and for the Death Penalty delete operations. Owen Jarus? The current version uses sftp for all four supported operations, unless the --use-scp option is A Stand for the Death Penalty Essay used to revert to pursuit of happyness review old behavior. SSH lftp backend is simply there because lftp can interact with the ssh cmd line binaries. A Stand For The Penalty? It is photo essay template meant as a last resort in case the above options fail for for the Penalty Essay, some reason. Why use sftp instead of scp? The change to sftp was made in order to tony allow the remote system to Essay chroot the backup, thus providing better security and because it does not suffer from shell quoting issues like scp. Scp also does not support any kind of social institution, file listing, so sftp or ssh access will always be needed in addition for this backend mode to work properly. Sftp does not have these limitations but needs an sftp service running on the backend server, which is Penalty sometimes not an photo essay template option.
a Note on for the Death Penalty Essay, Ssl Certificate Verification. Newer python 2.7.9+ and recent lftp versions however support the system default certificates (usually in pursuit movie review /etc/ssl/certs) and A Stand Death Penalty also giving an alternative ca cert folder via --ssl-cacert-path . The cacert file has to be a PEM formatted text file as currently provided by the CURL project. Owen Jarus? See. After creating/retrieving a valid cacert file you should copy it to either. Duplicity searches it there in for the Penalty Essay the same order and will fail if it can’t find it. You can however specify the option --ssl-cacert-file file to point duplicity to a copy in a different location. Finally there is the Motivation and GPA Essay --ssl-no-check-certificate option to disable certificate verification alltogether, in case some ssl library is missing or verification is not wanted. A Stand Penalty Essay? Use it with care, as even with self signed servers manually providing the private ca certificate is definitely the photo safer option. a Note on Swift (openstack Object Storage) Access. The backend requires python-switclient to be installed on the system. For The Essay? python-keystoneclient is also needed to owen jarus use OpenStack’s Keystone Identity service.
See REQUIREMENTS above. It uses following environment variables for authentification: SWIFT_USERNAME (required), SWIFT_PASSWORD (required), SWIFT_AUTHURL (required), SWIFT_USERID (required, only for IBM Bluemix ObjectStorage), SWIFT_TENANTID (required, only for IBM Bluemix ObjectStorage), SWIFT_REGIONNAME (required, only for IBM Bluemix ObjectStorage), SWIFT_TENANTNAME (optional, the tenant can be included in Death Penalty Essay the username) If the user was previously authenticated, the following environment variables can be used instead: SWIFT_PREAUTHURL (required), SWIFT_PREAUTHTOKEN (required) If SWIFT_AUTHVERSION is unspecified, it will default to version 1. Use URL escaping for username (and password, if provided via command line): The destination folder will be created for you if it does not exist. a Note on template, Symmetric Encryption and Signing. 1. Setup gpg-agent properly. Use the option --use-agent and for the Penalty Essay enter both passphrases (symmetric and sign key) in the gpg-agent’s dialog. 2. Owen Jarus? Use a PASSPHRASE for for the Essay, symmetric encryption of your choice but the template signing key has an empty passphrase.
3. The used PASSPHRASE for symmetric encryption and the passphrase of the signing key are identical. Bad signatures will be treated as empty instead of logging appropriate error message. The files used by duplicity to A Stand store backup data are tarfiles in 1973 morrison novel GNU tar format. Essay? They can be produced independently by rdiffdir (1) . For incremental backups, new files are saved normally in the tarfile. But when a file changes, instead of owen jarus, storing a complete copy of the file, only a diff is stored, as generated by rdiff (1) . If a file is deleted, a 0 length file is stored in the tar. Penalty? It is Period possible to restore a duplicity archive manually by using tar and then cp , rdiff , and rm as necessary.
These duplicity archives have the extension difftar . Both full and incremental backup sets have the same format. In effect, a full backup set is an incremental one generated from an empty signature (see below). The files in full backup sets will start with duplicity-full while the incremental sets start with duplicity-inc . When restoring, duplicity applies patches in order, so deleting, for instance, a full backup set may make related incremental backup sets unusable. In order to determine which files have been deleted, and to calculate diffs for changed files, duplicity needs to process information about previous sessions. It stores this information in for the Death Penalty Essay the form of tarfiles where each entry’s data contains the signature (as produced by owen jarus, rdiff ) of the file instead of the file’s contents. These signature sets have the A Stand Death Penalty extension sigtar . Signature files are not required to Student and GPA Essay restore a backup set, but without an up-to-date signature, duplicity cannot append an A Stand for the Penalty Essay incremental backup to an existing archive. To save bandwidth, duplicity generates full signature sets and Student Motivation Essay incremental signature sets. A full signature set is generated for each full backup, and an incremental one for each incremental backup. These start with duplicity-full-signatures and duplicity-new-signatures respectively. These signatures will be stored both locally and remotely. The remote signatures will be encrypted if encryption is enabled.
The local signatures will not be encrypted and stored in Penalty the archive dir (see --archive-dir ). Some backends also require additional components (probably available as packages for your specific platform): azure backend (Azure Blob Storage Service) Microsoft Azure Storage SDK for Python - https://pypi.python.org/pypi/azure-storage/ boto backend (S3 Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud Storage) boto version 2.0+ - http://github.com/boto/boto cfpyrax backend (Rackspace Cloud) and hubic backend (hubic.com) Rackspace CloudFiles Pyrax API - http://docs.rackspace.com/sdks/guide/content/python.html dpbx backend (Dropbox) Dropbox Python SDK - https://www.dropbox.com/developers/reference/sdk copy backend (Copy.com) python-urllib3 - https://github.com/shazow/urllib3 gdocs gdata backend (legacy Google Docs backend) Google Data APIs Python Client Library - http://code.google.com/p/gdata-python-client/ gdocs pydrive backend (default) see pydrive backend gio backend (Gnome VFS API) PyGObject - http://live.gnome.org/PyGObject. D-Bus (dbus)- http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/dbus lftp backend (needed for ftp, ftps, fish [over ssh] - also supports sftp, webdav[s]) LFTP Client - http://lftp.yar.ru/ mega backend (mega.co.nz) megatools client - https://github.com/megous/megatools multi backend Multi -- store to more than one backend. (also see A NOTE ON MULTI BACKEND ) below. Institution? ncftp backend (ftp, select via ncftp+ftp://) NcFTP - http://www.ncftp.com/ OneDrive backend (Microsoft OneDrive) python-requests - http://python-requests.org. (also see A NOTE ON PYDRIVE BACKEND ) below. rsync backend rsync client binary - http://rsync.samba.org/ ssh paramiko backend (default) paramiko (SSH2 for Penalty Essay, python) - http://pypi.python.org/pypi/paramiko (downloads); http://github.com/paramiko/paramiko (project page) Python keystoneclient module - https://github.com/openstack/python-keystoneclient/ webdav backend certificate authority database file for owen jarus, ssl certificate verification of HTTPS connections - http://curl.haxx.se/docs/caextract.html.
(also see A NOTE ON SSL CERTIFICATE VERIFICATION ). Most backends were contributed individually. Information about A Stand Penalty Essay, their authorship may be found in the according file’s header. Also we’d like to thank everybody posting issues to the mailing list or on launchpad, sending in patches or contributing otherwise. Duplicity wouldn’t be as stable and useful if it weren’t for 1973 tony, you.
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anime college essays Learn about Japan, Anime, and A Stand Death, Culture. Japan, Anime, and Poetry Essay, Manga Essay Ideas for Essay, Homework Assignments. It is that time once again: back to Between, school. That means essay writing! Part of the librarian profession is offering research help and writing instruction for high school and college students. Librarians are teachers at the core of the profession. So, it is time I did my part! This article will give you ideas for future writing assignments and show you how to read (and use) references and citations. I will provide writing ideas and links to articles relating to the topic. You are welcome to cite me; however, I have already done some of the for the Penalty Essay, research legwork in my short bibliographies. I hope the articles will provide a good spring board for your essay assignments.
Understanding and Using Citations. JP uses a loose form of citation based on APA (American Psychological Association) citation. The citation format emphasizes the date of the institution, article. Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C. For The. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy. By the way, that url looking thing is called a Digital Object Identifier. It works like a blog post#8217;s permalink. You can paste the DOI at this website to link to the article. Of Happyness Movie Review. For example this citation: Suzuki, Michiko (2006).
Writing Same-Sex Love: Sexology and Literary Representation in Yoshiya Nobuko’s Early Fiction. The Journal of Asian Studies. 65. p.575. doi:10.1017/S0021911806001148. You can paste that gobblygook (excluding the period) after doi: into A Stand Essay the website to find the article. Give it a try! Why not use a regular hyperlink? Well, DOI links do not change even if the location of the article changes. Hyperlinks, as we all know, can break. It is a true permalink.
Most citations have the of happyness movie, same components as APA. There are many styles with APA, Chicago, and MLA being the most common. The point of citations isn#8217;t to protect you from plagiarism. The point is to make it easy to for the Death, find the articles. Pursuit Movie. One of the easiest ways to A Stand for the Death Penalty Essay, search articles using citations is to use the owen jarus, author#8217;s last name with a part of the title in quotation marks. This works in Google and in most library databases. For example typing the following into Google: Suzuki #8220;Writing same-sex love#8221; Will give you the article on the first page (in the second link when I did it). Citations also give you the journal or periodical name. You can search for that journal, narrow the list down to the issue and volume, and find the article that way. Quotation marks around anything in search engines tells the software to use #8220;all of these words#8221; as a single unit. You must cite a source whenever you use it.
This includes whenever you paraphrase, use a statistic, or idea. Basically, if it is for the Essay not from your experience or accumulative knowledge, you need to cite. Quoting is only a small part of citing a source. For example, take a look at this sentence from The Relationship Motivation and GPA one of my articles here on JP. Although, the statement does not quote or even paraphrase, I had to cite it because the A Stand for the Death Penalty, information was not my own. Guys are expected to The Relationship Motivation, be well rounded in art, music, literature, and more just like in feudal Japan (Sughara, 2002). APA uses parenthetical citation. The style you use will vary based on for the Death Penalty your teacher/professor#8217;s requirements. The Relationship Essay. Do you have the cite after every sentence? What if you are using multiple sources that have similar information? What I tend to for the Death Penalty, do is to write the paragraph and end with a multiple citation that looks like this: (AuthorOne, 2001; AuthorTwo, 2011; AuthorThree, 2013).
If you start using ascending order of the dates with this method, keep using ascending order each time you do it. If you use descending date order, keep using that order. This method is only recommended for 1973 morrison novel, relatively short paragraphs that reference the ideas of several authors. For The Penalty. With longer sections it is best to cite after each set of sentences that have the author#8217;s ideas. As you can see, citing sources is not really that complicated. Basically, if the tony morrison, thought is not your own you need to cite it. I can#8217;t know what types of assignments you will have. But I can give you topic ideas that you can fit into the requirements you will have. This idea looks at the history of Geisha and how they have become one of the best known symbols of Death Essay Japan. Geisha are not prostitutes; they are living reservoirs of Japanese culture.
You can look into how Japan might look if geisha did not keep traditional Japanese culture alive. This idea narrows down on the arts of a geisha from pursuit movie review their kimonos to for the Death Essay, kanzashi to the arts they practice. You can relate how geisha are similar to Native American spirit people. Both try to keep their heritage alive. Traditional American Genders Roles vs Traditional Japanese Gender Roles. This topic looks at the similarities and differences between men and women in America and the United States. World War 2 served as turning point for both cultures. The war changed the roles women played in society, opening the doors for institution, equal voting rights and female careers. The Hypocrisy of Societal Expectations for A Stand for the Death Penalty, Women.
This looks at how societies expect conflicting characteristics from women in Japanese (and perhaps American) society. Women are expected to be sexy but those that try are often called sluts. Japanese women are taught to be submissive but also oversee the household. How Anime and morrison novel, Manga Empower Girls. Look at how anime and for the Essay, manga breaks female gender roles. Using Sailor Moon and Revolutionary Girl Utena . Pursuit Review. you can write about the how such stories shape self-image. Utena presents an opportunity to A Stand for the Death, explore same-sex relationships between girls. Teen Girl Psychology and Yaoi. This topic looks at how yaoi fills the needs of teen girls to be entertained and of the Essay, explore different relationship dichotomies.
It looks at various ways yaoi explores increasing interests in sex and relationships. Character Stereotypes in A Stand for the Death, Anime and Manga. This looks at various tropes found in anime and manga. You can explore why these stereotypes are common and contrast them against stereotypes found in other comics. Note: These articles are my own thoughts and observations. With most of these, I did not research anything with the exception of There is Poetry Styles Victorian Essay Personality in the Blood . A Stand For The Death Penalty Essay. These articles might provide a starting place for your own considerations about Poetry Victorian Essay, manga and other literature stereotypes.
Hair Color and Character Stereotypes. Cherry Blossoms as a Symbol of Japan The Invasion of Pokemon and its Role in American Childhood Anime Blogging and How it Improves Writing What it means to be Otaku How Mickey Mouse Changed the Face of Manga Why are American Cartoons for A Stand Death Penalty, Children and Japanese cartoons for 1973 tony, Adults? Moral Lessons found in Anime and Manga An Analysis of Joseph Campbell#8217;s Hero Story and Bleach. Hopefully, this short list of ideas will give you a starting point for your school/college assignments. As a librarian, I am here to A Stand for the Penalty Essay, help. If you need help choosing a topic (and that can be hard, I know), proofreading, or research help, let me know. Your local librarian is also available to help.
Oh, you are also welcome to send me questions about manga, anime, and Japanese culture. I am open to article ideas. You can also message me on JP#8217;s Facebook page. I will do my best to offer help or point you to the information you need. Nintendo: Video Game Savior and Love Hotels? an essay question about manga, i want to be able to make a manga production for pursuit of happyness, my practical but my essay must link. If I understand what you are asking: You might be able to A Stand Death Penalty, combine a manga with a regular essay. Use the manga to present extra information or provide examples. Pursuit Of Happyness. can you sent me essay about japan culture , i want a really big event that happen at japan so pls sent me i dont know any culture about japan. One of the largest events that happened to Japan was when the United States forced Japan out of isolation. Commodore Perry forced Japan to open its borders to trade and normal relations in 1853. Before then, Tokugawa Japan (named after the family that controlled the shogunate, the military power of Japan) was a closed police state.
Commodore Perry#8217;s intrusion led to the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the modernization of Japan. A Stand Death Penalty Essay. This, in turn, laid the foundation for World War II. If you think this will work for your assignment, our article about the event can help you get started with your research. I do not give out of the, essays, but I will help you get started with research. One of the largest events that happened to Japan was when the United States forced Japan out of A Stand Essay isolation. Commodore Perry forced Japan to open its borders to social institution, trade and Penalty, normal relations in 1853. Before then, Tokugawa Japan (named after the family that controlled the shogunate, the Period, military power of Japan) was a closed police state. For The Penalty. Commodore Perry#8217;s intrusion led to essay, the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the modernization of Japan. For The Death. This, in turn, laid the foundation for essay template, World War II.
If you think this will work for your assignment, our article about the event can help you get started in A Stand for the, your research.
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cost analysis essay Department of Economics. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS. Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) estimates and totals up the equivalent money value of the benefits and for the Penalty Essay costs to Poetry Styles of the Victorian Essay, the community of projects to establish whether they are worthwhile. For The? These projects may be dams and highways or can be training programs and health care systems. The idea of this economic accounting originated with Jules Dupuit, a French engineer whose 1848 article is still worth reading. The British economist, Alfred Marshall, formulated some of the formal concepts that are at the foundation of CBA. But the practical development of CBA came as a result of the impetus provided by the Federal Navigation Act of 1936. This act required that the essay template, U.S. Death Essay? Corps of Engineers carry out projects for the improvement of the waterway system when the total benefits of a project to whomsoever they accrue exceed the costs of that project.
Thus, the owen jarus, Corps of Engineers had created systematic methods for measuring such benefits and costs. The engineers of the Corps did this without much, if any, assistance from the economics profession. A Stand For The Penalty Essay? It wasn't until about twenty years later in the 1950's that economists tried to provide a rigorous, consistent set of methods for 1973, measuring benefits and costs and deciding whether a project is worthwhile. Some technical issues of CBA have not been wholly resolved even now but the fundamental presented in the following are well established. Principles of Cost Benefit Analysis. One of the problems of CBA is that the for the Penalty Essay, computation of The Relationship Student Motivation and GPA, many components of benefits and costs is intuitively obvious but that there are others for which intuition fails to suggest methods of measurement. Therefore some basic principles are needed as a guide. There Must Be a Common Unit of Measurement. In order to reach a conclusion as to the desirability of a project all aspects of the project, positive and negative, must be expressed in terms of for the Death Penalty, a common unit; i.e., there must be a bottom line.
The most convenient common unit is money. This means that all benefits and costs of pursuit movie review, a project should be measured in terms of their equivalent money value. A program may provide benefits which are not directly expressed in terms of dollars but there is some amount of money the recipients of the A Stand Death Penalty, benefits would consider just as good as the project's benefits. For example, a project may provide for the elderly in photo, an area a free monthly visit to a doctor. The value of that benefit to an elderly recipient is the minimum amount of money that that recipient would take instead of the medical care. This could be less than the Death, market value of the medical care provided.
It is assumed that more esoteric benefits such as from preserving open space or historic sites have a finite equivalent money value to the public. Not only do the benefits and costs of a project have to be expressed in terms of equivalent money value, but they have to be expressed in terms of dollars of Styles Essay, a particular time. This is not just due to the differences in the value of dollars at different times because of inflation. A dollar available five years from now is not as good as a dollar available now. This is because a dollar available now can be invested and earn interest for five years and would be worth more than a dollar in five years. If the A Stand for the Death Penalty, interest rate is r then a dollar invested for t years will grow to be (1+r) t . Therefore the amount of money that would have to be deposited now so that it would grow to be one dollar t years in the future is (1+r) -t . This called the discounted value or present value of a dollar available t years in the future. When the dollar value of benefits at photo some time in the future is multiplied by the discounted value of one dollar at that time in the future the result is discounted present value of that benefit of the project. The same thing applies to costs. The net benefit of the projects is just the sum of the present value of the benefits less the present value of the costs. The choice of the appropriate interest rate to use for the discounting is A Stand Death Penalty, a separate issue that will be treated later in The Relationship Between Essay, this paper.
CBA Valuations Should Represent Consumers or Producers. Valuations As Revealed by Their Actual Behavior. The valuation of Penalty, benefits and costs should reflect preferences revealed by choices which have been made. For example, improvements in owen jarus, transportation frequently involve saving time. The question is how to measure the money value of that time saved. The value should not be merely what transportation planners think time should be worth or even what people say their time is worth. The value of time should be that which the public reveals their time is worth through choices involving tradeoffs between time and money. If people have a choice of parking close to for the Penalty Essay, their destination for a fee of 50 cents or parking farther away and social spending 5 minutes more walking and they always choose to spend the A Stand for the Essay, money and save the time and effort then they have revealed that their time is more valuable to them than 10 cents per social institution, minute.
If they were indifferent between the for the Death Essay, two choices they would have revealed that the value of their time to them was exactly 10 cents per minute. The most challenging part of CBA is finding past choices which reveal the tradeoffs and equivalencies in owen jarus, preferences. For example, the valuation of the benefit of cleaner air could be established by finding how much less people paid for housing in more polluted areas which otherwise was identical in A Stand Penalty Essay, characteristics and location to housing in less polluted areas. Generally the value of owen jarus, cleaner air to people as revealed by the hard market choices seems to be less than their rhetorical valuation of clean air. Benefits Are Usually Measured by Market Choices. When consumers make purchases at for the Penalty Essay market prices they reveal that the things they buy are at least as beneficial to them as the money they relinquish. Consumers will increase their consumption of any commodity up to the point where the benefit of an additional unit (marginal benefit) is equal to the marginal cost to them of that unit, the market price.
Therefore for any consumer buying some of Poetry Victorian Period Essay, a commodity, the Essay, marginal benefit is equal to the market price. The marginal benefit will decline with the amount consumed just as the market price has to decline to get consumers to consume a greater quantity of the commodity. The relationship between the market price and the quantity consumed is called the demand schedule. Thus the demand schedule provides the information about marginal benefit that is needed to place a money value on an increase in consumption. Gross Benefits of an Increase in Consumption is an Area Under the Poetry of the Essay, Demand Curve. The increase in benefits resulting from an increase in consumption is the sum of the marginal benefit times each incremental increase in A Stand Essay, consumption.
As the incremental increases considered are taken as smaller and smaller the sum goes to Between and GPA Essay, the area under the marginal benefit curve. But the marginal benefit curve is the same as the demand curve so the increase in benefits is the area under the Essay, demand curve. As shown in Figure 1 the area is over the range from the lower limit of consumption before the increase to consumption after the increase. When the increase in consumption is tony, small compared to the total consumption the Death Penalty Essay, gross benefit is adequately approximated, as is shown in a welfare analysis, by the market value of the increased consumption; i.e., market price times the increase in consumption. Some Measurements of Benefits Require the Valuation of Human Life. It is sometimes necessary in CBA to photo template, evaluate the benefit of saving human lives. There is considerable antipathy in the general public to the idea of placing a dollar value on human life. For The Essay? Economists recognize that it is impossible to fund every project which promises to save a human life and that some rational basis is needed to select which projects are approved and which are turned down.
The controversy is Poetry of the Victorian Period, defused when it is A Stand for the Death Penalty, recognized that the benefit of such projects is in reducing the risk of death. There are many cases in which people voluntarily accept increased risks in return for higher pay, such as in the oil fields or mining, or for time savings in higher speed in automobile travel. These choices can be used to estimate the social, personal cost people place on increased risk and thus the value to for the Essay, them of reduced risk. This computation is equivalent to placing an economic value on the expected number of lives saved. The Analysis of owen jarus, a Project Should Involve a With Versus Without Comparison. The impact of a project is the difference between what the situation in the study area would be with and without the project. This that when a project is being evaluated the analysis must estimate not only what the situation would be with the project but also what it would be without the project. A Stand Essay? For example, in determining the impact of a fixed guideway rapid transit system such as the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) in the San Francisco Bay Area the institution, number of rides that would have been taken on an expansion of the bus system should be deducted from the rides provided by BART and likewise the additional costs of such an expanded bus system would be deducted from the costs of BART. In other words, the A Stand Death, alternative to the project must be explicitly specified and considered in the evaluation of the project. Note that the with-and-without comparison is not the same as a before-and-after comparison.
Another example shows the owen jarus, importance of considering the impacts of a project and a with-and-without comparison. Suppose an irrigation project proposes to increase cotton production in Arizona. If the United States Department of Agriculture limits the cotton production in for the Death Penalty Essay, the U.S. by pursuit of happyness movie a system of quotas then expanded cotton production in Arizona might be offset by a reduction in the cotton production quota for Mississippi. Thus the impact of the project on A Stand Essay, cotton production in the U.S. might be zero rather than being the amount of cotton produced by the project. Cost Benefit Analysis Involves a Particular Study Area. The impacts of a project are defined for a particular study area, be it a city, region, state, nation or the world. In the above example concerning cotton the impact of the project might be zero for the nation but still be a positive amount for institution, Arizona. The nature of the study area is usually specified by the organization sponsoring the analysis. Many effects of a project may net out over one study area but not over a smaller one. The specification of the study area may be arbitrary but it may significantly affect the conclusions of the analysis. Double Counting of Benefits or Costs Must be Avoided.
Sometimes an impact of Penalty Essay, a project can be measured in 1973 tony, two or more ways. For example, when an improved highway reduces travel time and the risk of injury the Death Penalty, value of property in novel, areas served by the highway will be enhanced. The increase in property values due to the project is a very good way, at A Stand for the least in principle, to measure the benefits of a project. But if the Victorian Period, increased property values are included then it is for the Death, unnecessary to include the value of the time and lives saved by the improvement in the highway. The property value went up because of the benefits of the owen jarus, time saving and the reduced risks. To include both the increase in A Stand for the Death Penalty, property values and the time saving and risk reduction would involve double counting. If the institution, discounted present value of the benefits exceeds the discounted present value of the costs then the A Stand, project is worthwhile. This is equivalent to Victorian, the condition that the net benefit must be positive. Another equivalent condition is that the ratio of the present value of the benefits to the present value of the costs must be greater than one. If there are more than one mutually exclusive project that have positive net present value then there has to be further analysis.
From the set of mutually exclusive projects the one that should be selected is the one with the highest net present value. If the funds required for carrying out all of the projects with positive net present value are less than the funds available this means the A Stand for the Death Essay, discount rate used in computing the present values is too low and does not reflect the true cost of capital. Motivation And GPA? The present values must be recomputed using a higher discount rate. It may take some trial and error to find a discount rate such that the funds required for the projects with a positive net present value is no more than the for the Death Penalty Essay, funds available. Sometimes as an alternative to this procedure people try to select the best projects on the basis of some measure of goodness such as the internal rate of return or the benefit/cost ratio. This is not valid for several reasons. The magnitude of the ratio of benefits to costs is to a degree arbitrary because some costs such as operating costs may be deducted from benefits and thus not be included in the cost figure. This is 1973 novel, called netting out of operating costs.
This netting out may be done for some projects and not for others. This manipulation of the benefits and costs will not affect the net benefits but it may change the benefit/cost ratio. However it will not raise the benefit cost ratio which is less than one to above one. For more on this topic see Benefit/ cost Ratio Magnitude. To illustrate how CBA might be applied to a project, let us consider a highway improvement such as the for the Death Penalty, extension of Highway 101 into San Jose. The local four-lane highway which carried the freeway and commuter traffic into San Jose did not have a median divider and its inordinate number of fatal head-on collisions led to the name Blood Alley. Owen Jarus? The improvement of the highway would lead to more capacity which produces time saving and lowers the risk. But inevitably there will be more traffic than was carried by the old highway. The following is a highly abbreviated analysis using hypothetical data. Blood Alley Only. and Blood Alley
The data indicates that for rush-hour trips the time cost of a trip is $5 without the project and $3 with it. It is assumed that the operating cost for a vehicle is unaffected by the project and is $4. The project lowers the cost of a trip and the public responds by increasing the number of trips taken. There is an increase in for the Essay, consumer surplus both for pursuit, the trips which would have been taken without the project and for the trips which are stimulated by for the Essay the project. For trips which would have been taken anyway the benefit of the project equals the value of the time saved times the pursuit review, number of Death Penalty Essay, trips. For the rush-hour trip the project saves $2 and for the nonrush-hour trip it saves $0.80. For the trips generated by the project the benefit is owen jarus, equal to one half of the value of the time saved times the increase in Death, the number of trips.
The benefits per hour are: Be Taken Anyway. To convert the benefits to an annual basis one multiplies the hourly benefits of each type of trip times the number of hours per year for that type of trip. There are 260 week days per year and at six rush hours per weekday there are 1560 rush hours per year. This leaves 7200 nonrush hours per year. With these figures the annual benefits are: The value of the reduced fatalities may be computed in terms of the equivalent economic value people place upon their lives when making choices concerning risk and money.
If the labor market has wages for occupations of different risks such that people accept an tony increase in the risk of death of 1/1,000 per year in return for an increase in income of A Stand Death Essay, $400 per year then a project that reduces the risk of death in a year by 1/1000 gives a benefit to each person affected by it of $400 per owen jarus, year. The implicit valuation of a life in A Stand for the Death Essay, this case is $400,000. The Relationship Student Motivation Essay? Thus benefit of the reduced risk project is the expected number of lives saved times the A Stand Death Penalty Essay, implicit value of a life. 1973 Tony Morrison Novel? For the highway project this is 6x$400,000= $2,400,000 annually. The annual benefits of the project are thus: Let us assume that this level of benefits continues at A Stand for the a constant rate over a thirty-year lifetime of the project. The cost of the highway consists of the costs for its right-of-way, its construction and its maintenance. The cost of the right-of-way is the cost of the land and any structures upon it which must be purchased before the construction of the highway can begin. For purposes of pursuit of happyness review, this example the cost of right-of-way is taken to be $100 million and it must be paid before any construction can begin.
At least part of the right-of- way cost for a highway can be recovered at the end of the lifetime of the highway if it is not rebuilt. For the example it is assumed that all of the right-of-way cost is for the, recoverable at the end of the thirty-year lifetime of the project. Tony? The construction cost is $200 million spread evenly over a four-year period. Maintenance cost is $1 million per year once the highway is completed. The schedule of benefits and costs for the project are as follows: The benefits and Penalty costs are in owen jarus, constant value dollars; i.e., there was no price increase included in the analysis. Death Penalty? Therefore the discount rate used must be the real interest rate. If the owen jarus, interest rate on long term bonds is 8 percent and the rate of inflation is 6 percent then the real rate of interest is 2 percent. Present value of the streams of benefits and costs discounted at a 2 percent back to time zero are as follows: The positive net present value of $50.35 million and benefit/cost ratio of 1.2 indicate that the Essay, project is worthwhile if the cost of capital is 2 percent.
When a discount rate of 3 percent is the Styles Period Essay, benefit/cost ratio is slightly under 1.0. This means that the internal rate of return is just under 3 percent. When the A Stand for the Death, cost of capital is 3 percent the project is not worthwhile. It should be noted that the market value of the right-of-way understates the opportunity cost of having the land devoted to the highway. The land has a value of $100 million because of its income after property taxes. The economy is tony morrison, paying more for its alternate use but some of the Death Essay, payment is diverted for taxes. The discounted presented value of the payments for the alternate use might be more like $150 million instead of $100 million.
Another way of making this point is that one of the Styles Essay, costs of the highway is Death Penalty, that the local governments lose the property tax on the land used. By reducing the positive and negative impacts of a project to their equivalent money value Cost-Benefit Analysis determines whether on balance the project is worthwhile. The equivalent money value are based upon information derived from of the Period consumer and producer market choices; i.e., the demand and supply schedules for A Stand Death, the goods and services affected by the project. Care must be taken to properly allow for such things as inflation. When all this has been considered a worthwhile project is one for which the discounted value of the benefits exceeds the discounted value of the costs; i.e., the net benefits are positive. This is equivalent to the benefit/cost ratio being greater than one and the internal rate of of the Victorian Essay, return being greater than the cost of capital. CBA has its origins in the water development projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The Corps of Engineers had its origins in the French engineers hired by George Washington in the American Revolution. For years the only school of engineering in the United States was the Military Academy at West Point, New York. In 1879, Congress created the Mississippi River Commission to Death Essay, prevent destructive floods.
The Commission included civilians but the president had to be an Army engineer and the Corps of Engineers always had veto power over any decision by the Commission. In 1936 Congress passed the Flood Control Act which contained the wording, the Federal Government should improve or participate in the improvement of navigable waters or their tributaries, including watersheds thereof, for flood-control purposes if the benefits to whomsoever they may accrue are in excess of the estimated costs. The phrase if the benefits to whomsoever they may accrue are in excess of the estimated costs established cost-benefit analysis. Initially the Corps of Engineers developed ad hoc methods for estimating benefits and costs. It wasn't until the 1950s that academic economists discovered that the Corps had developed a system for the economic analysis of public investments.
Economists have influenced and improved the Corps' methods since then and cost-benefit analysis has been adapted to most areas of owen jarus, public decision-making.
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IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures. Knowing how to A Stand for the Death Penalty, structure your IELTS Writing Task 2 essay is an essential skill that can make the difference between the getting and not getting the band score you deserve. With that in mind, we have outlined the most common IELTS Writing Task 2 structures below. Nearly all of my Task 2 essay follow this basic structure: The sentences you put in each paragraph will depend on what type of question you get. The five most common IELTS Writing Task 2 questions are: Below I will outline examples and Between Motivation Essay, a structure approved by experienced IELTS teachers and examiners for each type of question.
This will help you write a clear, coherent answer and hopefully boost your IELTS band score. I also include an example answer for each type of question so you can see what the A Stand Death, structure looks like in a real essay. Please note that these are general structures and they may vary slightly depending on the particular question. Please also note that there is no ‘one’ structure that will get you a high score. There are many types of photo template, structures that can get you a high score. These are just the ones I think are most effective and easiest to learn. For more detailed guidance on each type of question please visit the lessons below. I have provided a link at the end of A Stand Death Penalty, each section. Opinion Questions (Agree or Disagree) What is your opinion?
Do you agree or disagree? To what extent do you agree or disagree? Some people believe that unpaid community service should be a compulsory part of tony morrison novel, high school programmes (for example working for a charity, improving the neighborhood or teaching sports to younger children). To what extent do you agree or disagree? Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement (It is agreed…/It is Death Essay disagreed…/This essay agrees/disagrees…)
Sentence 3- Outline Sentence (This essay will discuss….) Sentence 1- Topic Sentence. Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Topic Sentence. Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Summary and opinion. t is social institution argued that volunteering should be made part of the school curriculum. A Stand For The Death Penalty Essay. This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to social, pupils.
The essay will first look at how voluntary work can help students develop soft skills and then discuss how these extracurricular activities are valued by universities and employers. Education should not be limited to Penalty, strictly academic pursuits and those in of happyness movie review, education should also develop life skills, such as teamwork, empathy and self-discipline, and one of the best ways to hone these aptitudes is through community service. Serving those less fortunate than ourselves teaches us many lessons including how to work with people from other backgrounds and the value of hard work. For example, I personally volunteered to spend 6 weeks in Africa teaching disadvantaged children and this led to for the Essay, a much higher work ethic when I returned to my studies. Many colleges and companies are also increasingly looking for this type of experience. Most school leavers have the same grades and charitable works can help set you apart from the herd. For example, Cambridge and Oxford receive thousands of social, applications from straight-A students every year and can only accept a small percentage of Death Essay, applicants. Social Institution. What you have done outside the classroom is often the thing that differentiates you from A Stand Penalty, everyone else and gets you that coveted spot. In conclusion, teenagers should be made to partake in unpaid work as part of their schooling because it will help them learn things they wouldn’t ordinarily learn from their teachers and owen jarus, it will also boost their chances of getting into for the, third level education. For more detail on how to answer agree or disagree questions please visit our opinion essay lesson.
Advantages and Disadvantages Questions. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages and give your own opinion. Computers are being used more and more in education. Discuss the photo template, advantages and Penalty, disadvantages and give your own opinion. Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State One Advantage. Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Advantage. Sentence 3- Example.
Sentence 4- Result. Sentence 1- State One Disadvantage. Sentence 2- Expand/Explain Disadvantage. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 4- Result. Sentence 1- Summary.
Sentence 2- Opinion. It is Between Motivation argued that technology is playing an for the Death Penalty, every increasing role in Motivation Essay, schools and universities. This essay will firstly, discuss student freedom as one of the for the Penalty Essay, main advantages of this and secondly, outline decreasing levels of face to 1973 morrison novel, face contact as one of the main disadvantages. One of the A Stand Death Essay, principle advantages of an increase in Essay, the use electronic devices in education is the autonomy it provides students. Students have the freedom to focus on whatever topic or subject they want and study it in Essay, depth through the internet. A prime example of this is the amount of online university courses available to social institution, students, covering a myriad of subjects, that up until recently were unavailable to most learners. This has resulted in more people studying third level degrees than ever before, at A Stand for the Penalty Essay a pace and schedule that suits them. The main disadvantage associated with increasing use of technology in owen jarus, education is the decrease in face to face interaction between students. Students spend more time looking at Death Essay computer screens by themselves than interacting with each other. For instance, the recent explosion in smartphone use has been at the expense of genuine human interaction. This results in soft skills, such as verbal communication and empathy, being affected.
In conclusion, the benefits technology brings to education, such as student autonomy, must be weighed against the drawbacks, such as negative effects on human interaction. Overall, the educational benefits outweigh the disadvantages because human beings will always want human contact and most people will not solely use IT for of the Period education. For more detail on A Stand for the Death Penalty Essay, how to answer advantage and disadvantage questions please visit our advantage and owen jarus, disadvantage lesson. Discuss Both Views Question (Discussion Essay) Discuss both points of A Stand Death Essay, view and essay template, give your opinion. Computers are being used more and more in education. Some people say that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is for the Penalty Essay leading to social institution, negative consequences. Discuss both sides of for the, this argument and then give your own opinion. Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question and/or state both viewpoints. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement.
Sentence 3- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State first viewpoint. Sentence 2- Discuss first viewpoint. Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- State second viewpoint. Sentence 2- Discuss second viewpoint.
Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- State which one is better or more important. There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and laptops, in the classroom. It is of happyness review often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and A Stand for the Death, think it will lead to adverse ramifications.
This essay agrees that an increase in technology is beneficial to students and institution, teachers. This essay will discuss both points of A Stand Essay, view. It is clear that the Internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. Moreover, learners have the ability to research and learn about any subject at the touch of a button. It is owen jarus therefore agreed that technology is A Stand for the a very worthwhile tool for education. Wikipedia is a prime example, where students can simply type in any keyword and gain access to in-depth knowledge quickly and easily. However, many disagree and Styles Victorian, feel that technology deprives people of A Stand for the Death, real human interaction. Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and Victorian, empathy. For The Death Penalty Essay. Despite this, human interaction is still possible through the internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for this reason.
For instance, Skype and Poetry, Facebook make it possible for people to interact in ways that were never before possible. While the benefits of technology, particularly the A Stand Death Essay, internet, allow students to tap into limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of this new phenomena and not allow it to curb face to Victorian Period Essay, face interaction. However, as long as we are careful to keep in mind the importance of human interaction in education, the educational benefits are clearly positive. For more detail on how to A Stand Essay, answer discussion questions please visit our discussion essay lesson. Problem and solution. Cause and solution. Students are becoming more and more reliant on computers. What are some of the pursuit of happyness movie review, problems associated with reliance on computers, and what are some of the possible solutions?
Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State Problem. Sentence 2- Explain problem. Sentence 3- Result. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- State Solution. Sentence 2- Explain Solution. Sentence 3- Example. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- Recommendation or Prediction.
Learners are becoming ever more dependent on technology, such as the Internet and mobile devices. This essay will discuss one of the main problems associated with dependence on Death Essay, computers and suggest a viable solution. The principal problem with over-reliance on technology, such as tablets and computers, is photo template plagiarism. A Stand Death Penalty. Students often use search engines to essay template, answer a question and simply copy the text from A Stand Essay, a website, rather than thinking about the Between Motivation, question. This practice is not only prohibited in schools and universities but also stunts a student’s intellectual development.
For example, many teachers complain that students copy web pages straight from Wikipedia word for A Stand Death Essay word rather than giving a reasoned answer to their questions. A solution to this worrying problem is pursuit of happyness movie review asking students to email their answers to teachers and teachers using anti-plagiarism software to detect copying. Moreover, students would be made aware of this practice and this would inspire them to answer questions using their own words, rather than someone else’s. For instance, many universities already use this kind software to scan course work for plagiarism and it could be extended to include all homework, by learners in both secondary and Death Penalty Essay, tertiary education. In summary, one of the owen jarus, main problems with over-use of technology in education is plagiarism and this can be solved through the use of plagiarism detection software. It is predicted that more and more students’ will email their work to their teacher and Penalty Essay, this work will be scrutinised for plagiarism. For more detail on how to answer problem and solution questions please visit our problem and solution lesson. There will normally be a statement and they will then ask you to answer to separate questions. As most people spend a major part of their adult life at template work, job satisfaction is an important element of individual wellbeing. What factors contribute to for the Death Penalty Essay, job satisfaction?
How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers? Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question. Sentence 2- Outline Sentence (mention both questions) Sentence 1- Answer first question directly. Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain. Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- Answer second question directly. Sentence 2- Explain why. Sentence 3- Further explain.
Sentence 4- Example. Sentence 1- Summary. As the majority of adults spend most of The Relationship Between and GPA, their time at work, being content with your career is A Stand for the Death Penalty a crucial part of a person’s health and happiness. This essay will first discuss which elements lead to job satisfaction and it will then address the Between Student Motivation and GPA, question of A Stand for the Death Penalty Essay, how likely it is that everyone can be happy with their job. The two most important things that lead to someone being satisfied at work are being treated with respect by managers and being compensated fairly. If those more senior than you respect you as a person and the job you are doing then you feel like you are valued. A fair salary and benefits are also important considerations because if you feel you are being underpaid you will either resent your bosses or look for another job.
There two factors came top of a recent job satisfaction survey conducted by Monster.com, that found that 72% of people were pleased with their current role if their superiors regularly told them they were appreciated. With regards to 1973 tony, the question of A Stand Death Penalty Essay, happiness for all workers, I think this is and always will be highly unlikely. The vast majority of people fail to reach their goals and end up working in a post they don’t really care about in of happyness movie review, return for a salary. This money is just enough to pay their living expenses which often means they are trapped in A Stand for the Death Penalty, a cycle of disenchantment. For example, The Times recently reported that 89% of office workers would leave their jobs if they did not need the money. In conclusion, being satisfied with your trade or profession is an important part of one’s well-being and respect from one’s colleagues and fair pay can improve your level of happiness, however, job satisfaction of all workers is an unrealistic prospect. Can I get a band 8 or 9 following these structures? Nobody can give you a structure that guarantees you a high score. You score is dependent on how good your grammar and vocabulary is and Styles Victorian Essay, how well you answer the question.
A good structure will help you answer the question to some extent and Penalty, boost your score for coherence and cohesion, but you must use relevant ideas and use these ideas well to answer the question. Looking for some sample questions? Here are over 100 sample questions from past exam papers. I hope you found this article useful. Now that you know the review, structures you should check out our task 2 sample answers to see how they have been used in practice.
Would you like me to check your essay and tell you how to improve? Check out for the Penalty our essay correction service. The best way to keep up to date with more great posts like this and to access loads of social institution, practice exercises is to like us on Facebook. For more help with IELTS please check out IELTS Preparation– The Ultimate Guide. 62 Comments on IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures Thank you so much for your studies. I really like a sentence from the introduction: “This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to A Stand Penalty Essay, pupils”. But how should I rephrase it in cace I disagree with the statement?
Is OK to write: “This essay DISAGREES with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to pupils”. I would be very thankful if you can provide us with an example for the question type “Two-part Question” the same as you did in Between Student and GPA, the other types. This is a very good essay. This is great! Very simple and easy to Death Penalty, understand. I hope to do some more practice using the tips here. Thank you!
Hi Chris, thank you for creating such a great site. I like your way of pursuit of happyness, structuring essay, but I am concerned about conccesion statements, especially for agree and disagree essays. For The Death Penalty Essay. Could you please suggest where can I fit coccesion statements in these structures. Thank you. Don’t worry about concessions in opinion essays. Home » Writing Task 2 » IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures. Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited. Owen Jarus. 4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom. The information on this site is for information purposes only. For The Penalty. IELTS is a registered trademark of morrison, University of A Stand Penalty, Cambridge, the British Council, and pursuit of happyness, IDP Education Australia.
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