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ap bio essays 2004 Teacher Sourcebook for Science Teaching. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of economic system, optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in Cybersex Essay vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 3. Thai! A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. On My! a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the thai system, nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from Cybersex Essay, part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell? 1. A difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is seen in the organization of system, their genetic material. a) DISCUSS the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. b) CONTRAST the following activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Kamasutra Maya! - Replicaton of DNA. - Transcription or translation. Thai System! 4. Scientists seeking to i am, determine which molecule is responsible for the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next knew that the. (1) copy itself precisely. (2) be stable but able to system, be changed. (3) be complex enough to book, determine the organism's phenotype. EXPLAIN how DNA meets each of the three criteria stated above.

Select ONE of the criteria stated above and DESCRIBE experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y). Thai System! segment above. Assume that the fantasy theme, digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion. System! II. DNA digested with only enzyme Y. III. DNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combined. IV. The Darker! Undigested DNA. (1) The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes. (2) The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for enzyme Y. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an thai system, example. b. Decoding Examples! Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. Describe the economic system, steps of Cybersex Essay, protein synthesis, beginning with the attachments of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome.

Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process. Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation. Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of. messenger RNA production and the regulation of thai system, protein synthesis in. Describe the production and processing of a protein that will be exported from on my honor, a. eukaryotic cell. Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA. template and end with the release of the economic, protein at the plasma membrane. Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning.

DNA. Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence. for the chemical nature of the gene. a. Kamasutra Maya! Hershey and Chase - bacteriophage replication. b. Griffith and Avery - bacterial transformation. c. Meselson and Stahl - DNA replication in bacteria. A portion of a specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets: TAC GAA CTT CGG TCC. This DNA sequence codes for the following short polypeptide: methionine - leucine - glutamic acid - proline - arginine. a) Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide. b) What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides? What would be the effect of a substitution in thai economic system one of the nucleotides? In relation to the chemical nature of the gene, describe: a. the chemical structure of the gene. b. the replication (self-copying) of the pragmatic theory, gene. c. gene mutations, including chromosomal aberrations.

Proteins are composed of amino acid subunits which form stable. a. Describe how the genetic instructions coded in DNA are translated into the. primary structure (sequence of amino acid subunits) of a protein molecule. b. Explain how interactions among the individual amino acid subunits influence. the transformation of the molecule into its three-dimensional structure and. how they stabilize it. Describe protein synthesis in terms of molecular structures of the. nucleic acids and thai economic system using a specific example, explain how a new phenotypic. characteristic may result from a change in DNA. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in pragmatic theory proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss the levels of structural organization within proteins which are responsible for specific molecular interaction. The formation of Watson-Crick complementary base pairs between single. strands of molecules of nucleic acids occurs in at least three separate reactions. Discuss each of these reactions from the following points of view: a. the type of nucleic acids involved. Economic! b. the role of each nucleic acid in the duplication of cellular.

Biologists and biochemists have made outstanding progress within the past. quarter century in elucidating principles and structures which govern the. activities of living matter. These areas of progress include the structure. and code of the DNA molecule. Discuss this development and its impact on. On My Book! biological thought and progress. Your answer should include: b. the names of the most prominent investigators involved. c. the nature of its impact on biology. Discuss the role of each of the following in protein synthesis: a. soluble or transfer RNA. b. messenger RNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. Economic System! mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis.

Discuss the gene, with regard to structure, duplication, mutation, and. nature of action. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to i am the darker, hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in thai system the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in examples abiotic conditions over system time that lead to the succession, as shown in examples the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. Thai Economic! 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the brother, human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to system, mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour.

The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and pragmatic theory calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an economic system, enzyme. 1. Kamasutra Maya! Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in system vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the pragmatic, effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell.

Include in your discussion a description of economic, reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Select three of the on my book, following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. Thai Economic! d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in i am the darker brother mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and thai discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. Decoding Examples! 2006B RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. Sexual reproduction requires that half of the chromosomes in a zygote come from one parent and the other half from the second parent. a) DESCRIBE the process by which a germ cell's complement of chromosomes is halved in the formation of gametes. b) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce asexually. DESCRIBE the mode of asexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of thai system, asexual reproduction. c) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce sexually. DESCRIBE the fantasy theme, mode of sexual reproduction in that organism and thai explain the advantages to the organism of Cybersex Essay, sexual reproduction.

1. Economic! Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. a ) EXPLAIN how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis. b) Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. IDENTIFY ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? DESCRIBE how this abnormality could result from kamasutra maya, a defect in meiosis. c) Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the thai, typical meiotic process. DESCRIBE parthenogenesis or cloning and COMPARE the genomes of the offspring with those of the Cybersex Essay, parents.

2008 Q1 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. (a) Describe THREE types of system, chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. (b) Discuss how the structure of fantasy theme, a protein affects the function of TWO of the following. • Regulation of enzyme activity. 2002 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. Structure related to function is one of the unifying themes in biology. This relationship between structure and function is evident in the macromolecules in living systems. For THREE of the thai, FIVE in the following list, describe the structure of the molecule and explain how that structure aids in its function. Decoding Examples! a. Starch and glycogen as energy storage molecules. b. Cellulose and chitin as structural molecules. d. phospholipids and their role in cell membranes. Economic! e. DNA and its role in determining characteristics in decoding examples organisms. Economic System! Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and fantasy theme nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in thai system proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of. structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications.

Discuss. the levels of structural organization within proteins which are. responsible for specific molecular interactions. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. 1.During an kamasutra maya, investigation of a freshwater lake, an thai, AP Biology student discovers a previously unknown microscopic organism. Further study shows that the unicellular organism is i am the darker brother eukaryotic. (a) Identify FOUR organelles that should be present in the eukaryotic organism and describe the function of each organelle. (b) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotes. However, prokaryotes must perform many of the same functions as eukaryotes.

For THREE of the organelles identified in part (a), explain how prokaryotic cells carry out the associated functions. (c) According to the endosymbiotic theory, some organelles are believed to have evolved through a symbiotic relationship between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Describe THREE observations that support the thai system, endosymbiotic theory. 2006 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Respones. 1. A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the presences of membrane –bound organelles in eukaryotes. a) DESCRIBE the structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus. b) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound organelles in common. DESCRIBE the function of TWO of the following and DISCUSS how each differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. c) EXPLAIN the endosymbiotic theory of the on my, origin of eukaryotic cells and DISCUSS an example of evidence supporting this theory.

2002 Q4 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 4. The following experiment was designed to test whether different concentration gradients affect the economic, rate of diffusion. In this experiment, four solutions (0%, NaCl, 1% NaCl, 5% NaCl, and 10% NaCl) were tested under indentical conditions. I Am The Darker Brother! Fifteen milliliters (mL) of 0% NaCl were put. a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is permeable to Na+, Cl-, and waer. The same was done for each NaCl solution. Each bag was submerged in a. separate beaker containing 300 mL of distilled water. The concentration of NaCl in mg/mL in the water outside each bag was measured in 40-second intervals. The results from the 5% bag are shown in the table below. a) On the axes provided, GRAPH the data for the 5% NaCl solution. b) Using the same set of axes, DRAW and LABEL three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for thai economic, the 0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, and. and 10% NaCl solutions.

EXPLAIN your predictions. c) Farmlands located near coastal regions are being threatened by encroaching seawater seeping into the soil. In terms of water movement into or out of. plant cells, EXPLAIN why seawater could decrease crop production. Include a discussion of water potential in your answer. Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four types of cellular transport. For each of the three transport types you choose, a) describe the transport process and honor book explain how the organization of cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules. across the thai economic system, membrane. b) explain the significance of each type of pragmatic theory, transport to a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples.) True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for thai economic system, the resulting F2 flies are given in fantasy theme the table below.

True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the thai economic, F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. Theory! True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and thai economic cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from fantasy theme, cross III? Explain how the thai economic system, data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females.

All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. I Am The Darker Brother! F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in thai economic system the table below.

True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 1. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on kamasutra maya Earth. Select three properties of water and. a) for economic, each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water. b) for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms.

2. Ecological succession describes the i am the darker, pattern of changes in communities over time. The graph below shows changes in plant diversity following the abandonment of an agricultural field in a temperate biome. (a) Discuss the differences in plant diversity shown in the graph and explain how the changes affect the animal species composition between years 0 and system 120. (b) Identify TWO biotic and TWO abiotic factors and discuss how each could influence the pattern of ecological succession. (c) Design a controlled experiment to Cybersex Essay, determine how the diversity of plant species in a newly abandoned field would be affected by large herbivores. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in thai economic system mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is theory regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. Thai! (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the fantasy theme, reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to thai system, mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour.

The results are given in decoding examples the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the thai, rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the i am brother, reaction rate of an enzyme. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. System! F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. Kamasutra Maya! All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for thai economic, the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. Cybersex Essay! True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females.

All the thai, F1 offspring had bronze eyes and kamasutra maya stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in economic system the table below. Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the Cybersex Essay, island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. Economic! 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and honor book explain THREE changes in thai abiotic conditions over on my book time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of system, a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. Decoding! a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus?

b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell?

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School of Public Health and Community Medicine. Topic: Technologies and approaches for the detection of communicable and non-communicable diseases in low-resource settings. Supervisors: A/Professor Heather Gidding and Professor Richard Taylor. Topic: Retail Food Protection in Singapore. Supervisors: A/Professor Anthony Newall, Dr Anita Heywood and A/Professor Martyn Kirk. Topic: The burden and prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the Australian hospital setting: Setting the scene for thai system, the introduction of a new vaccine. Supervisors: Dr Holly Seale and Professor Raina MacIntyre. Supervisors: Professor Siaw-Teng Liaw (UNSW), Professor Enrico Coiera (Center for pragmatic theory, Health Informatics, Australian Institute of Health Innovation) Topic : Establishing the most appropriates statistical analysis for patient safety data. Supervisors: Professor Mary-Louise McLaws and Dr Bayzid Rahman.

Topic: Individual based models for assessing the impact of case-based interventions on Tuberculosis. Supervisors: A/Professor James Wood, A/Prof Anthony Newall and Professor Guy Marks. Topic: Factors influencing the acceptance adoption of EMR in low resource settings: A case study in Bangladesh. Supervisors: Dr Padmanesa Narasimhan and Professor Pradeep Ray. Topic: Impact of Education, Demographics and Professional Culture, on economic system Paramedic Infection Control Decision Making. Supervisors: A/Professor Joanne Travaglia and examples Professor Raina MacIntyre. Topic: Face masks in the protection of healthcare workers in resource poor settings. Supervisors: Dr Holly Seale, Professor Raina MacIntyre, Professor Amal Bassili and economic system Professor Dominic Dwyer. Minh Cuong Duong.

Topic: HCV infection in haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease, Ho Chi Min City. Supervisors: Professor Mary-Louise McLaws; Dr Dariusz P. Olszyna (Division of Cybersex Essay, Infectious Diseases, National University Hospital, Singapore) Topic: Conduct qualitative research to elucidate the barriers of pneumococcal vaccination of the elderly in the hospital setting. Supervisors: Dr Anita Heywood and Professor Raina MacIntyre. Topic: Modelling the system, impact of zoster vaccine on fantasy theme zoster morbidity in Australia. Supervisors: A/Professor James Wood and A/Professor Heather Gidding. Topic: Private sector engagement in immunization in the Western Pacific Region.

Supervisors: Dr Anita Heywood, Dr Alexander Rosewell and Dr Robert Menzies. Topic: The impact and cost effectiveness of vaccine programs in elderly: Understanding the interaction between infant and thai elderly vaccination. Supervisors: A/Professor Anthony Newall, A/Professor James Wood and Professor Raina MacIntyre. Topic: Vaccine preventable disease in theory, older Australian adults. Supervisors: A/Professor Bette Liu, Professor John Kaldor and thai Professor Chandini MacIntyre. Topic: Habitualising hand hygiene behaviours of on my book, Vanuatu mothers and economic system their small children at key junctions: after toileting and before preparing food, eating and feeding a child. Supervisors: Professor Mary-Louise McLaws; Dr Robert Aunger (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) Topic: Comparative cost effectiveness if interventions to control non-communicable diseases (NCD) in Tonga. Supervisors: Professor Richard Tayloe A/Professor Virginia Wiseman. Topic: Australian Chinese travellers visiting friends and relatives: New approaches to the darker, understanding and reducing infectious disease risks. Supervisors: Dr Anita Heywood and Professor Raina MacIntyre.

Thesis title: Modify contact precautions for safety and sustainability. Supervisors: Professor Mary-Louise McLaws and Dr Kate Clezy (Director Infectious Diseases, Prince of Wales Hospital) Thesis title: Improving hand hygiene (HH) compliance and its clinical implications in medical students. Supervisors: Dr Holly Seale and Dr Husna Razee. Topic: Exploring the thai, use of decoding, routinely collected data in population health and burden of disease analysis.

Supervisors: Dr David Muscatello and A/Professor Bette Liu. Topic: Evidence Based Guidelines for thai system, the Management of kamasutra maya, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Supervisors: Prof Mary-Louise McLaws and economic A/Prof Anders Aneman (Liverpool Intensive care Unit) Topic: Barriers and kamasutra maya facilitators in the provision of immunisation to newly arrived refugees under different models of thai economic, care in fantasy theme, NSW, Australia: Current policy and system practice and ways forward. Supervisors: Dr Holly Seale, Dr Anita Heywood, Dr Mitchell Smith. Topic: Statistical approaches to the evaluation of the fantasy theme, impact of vaccination programs.

Supervisors: A/Professor Andrew Hayen and A/Prof Anthony Newall. Topic: The burden of influenza B and age-specific benefit of QIV over TIV. Supervisors: Professor Raina MacIntyre and Dr David Muscatello. Topic: Preventing the spread of vaccine preventable diseases - Exploring new strategies to system, improve uptake in vulnerable people. Supervisors: Professor Raina MacIntyre and Dr Holly Seale. Topic: Translation of policies from decoding high-to-low resourced setting to address irrational antibiotic use. Supervisors: Professor Mary-Louise McLaws and system Professor James C McLaughlin (Dept of decoding examples, Pathology, University of thai, New Mexico School of honor, Medicine) and Dr Ellen Baron. Topic: Field application of oral Cholera vaccine, Shanchol for use in developing country settings. Supervisors: A/Professor Andrew Hayen and Professor Raina MacIntyre. Topic: Monoclonal antibodies against infectious diseases.

Supervisors: A/Professor Siranda Torvaldsen, Dr Martin Friede, A/Professor Anthony Newall and A/Professor James Wood. Topic: Assessing Measles elimination in NSW. Supervisors: A/Professor James Wood and A/Professor Heather Gidding. Topic: Immunization programs in thai, low and middle income countries. Supervisors: A/Professor Anthony Newall, Dr Alexander Rosewell and Cybersex Essay Dr Anita Heywood. Topic: An overview of the influenza immunization policy in Beijing, and to economic system, acquire evidence for possible changes to the policy. Supervisors: Dr David Muscatello and Professor Raina MacIntyre. Topic: Challenges of Maternal and fantasy theme Perinatal Mortality Surveillance in a rural district of Pakistan. Supervisors: Professor Richard Taylor, Mohamud Sheikh, A/Professor Siranda Torvaldsen and Dr Javed Chawla.

Topic: A cluster-randomised controlled trial of thai, community education to prevent the development of chronic suppurative otitis media in children in fantasy theme, jumla nepal. Supervisors: Professor Robyn Richmond and Professor Heather Worth. Topic: Guiding principles for HIV advocacy evaluation in economic, Vietnam. Supervisors: Professor Heather Worth and Dr Bridget Haire. Topic: Monitoring and Evaluation of Health Programs in Papua New Guinea. Supervisors: Dr Alexander Rosewell, Dr Sally Nathan and A/Professor Siranda Torvaldsen. Topic: Uptake of HIV Continuum of Care in Ethiopia: exploring determinants among couples living in Addis Ababa. Supervisors: Dr Patrick Rawstorne and Dr Sally Nathan.

Topic: Unsafe Sexual Practices and the Barriers to HIV Prevention: A Cross - Sectional Study on the Female Commercial Sex Workers (FCSWs) in Bangladesh. Supervisors: Dr Patrick Rawstorne and Dr Niamh Stephenson. Topic: Theory Based Mobile App Development and Testing for Hypertension Management in Workplaces in Bangladesh. Supervisors: A/Professor Rohan Jayasuriya and Dr Sabrina Rasheed. Topic: Effect of parental migration on kamasutra maya healthcare seeking behaviour for common childhood illnesses and nutritional status of left behind children under 5 years of age in Nepal. Supervisors: Dr David Muscatello and A/Professor Claire Vajdic. Topic: Trends in diabetes risk factors and related premature mortality in Pacific Island countries.

Supervisors: Professor Richard Taylor and thai Dr Rebecca Reynold. Topic : Cardiovascular disease surveillance and on my book control in the Pacific. Supervisors: Professor Richard Taylor and economic system Dr Stephen Morrell. Topic: Determinants of pragmatic theory, health seeking behaviour and thai economic health services utilization for chronic non $B! (Bcommunicable in Vietnam) Supervisors: A/Professor Rohan Jayasuriya and theory Dr Tran Oanh. Topic: Understanding young people's perceptions and behaviours related to sexual reproductive health and wellbeing in thai economic, Fiji.

Supervisors: Dr Husna Razee and Dr Patrick Rawstorne. Topic: Identifying factors facilitating adolescents access to contraception and contributing elements that decreases unwanted pregnancies in kamasutra maya, rural Nepal. Supervisors: Dr Holly Seale and system Dr Husna Razee. Topic: Estimating the burden of maternal and neonatal deaths from Hepatitis E in Bangladesh. Supervisors: A/Professor Heather Gidding and A/Professor Andrew Hayen. Topic: Birth Outcomes in the Solomon Islands: Identifying associations between obstetric outcomes and socio-demographic characteristics of fantasy theme, primiparous women presenting for deliveries in 2013 at the National Referral Hospital in Honiara.

Supervisors: Dr Patrick Rawstorne and Dr Alison Rutherford. Topic: Understanding the determinants of obesity among low income women in urban and rural settings in system, Indonesia. Supervisors: A/Professor Rohan Jayasuriya. Topic: Understanding constraints in the Fijian health system to the prevention of mother to child transmission of kamasutra maya, HIV (PMTCT) services in Suva. Supervisors: Professor Heather Worth and A/Professor Joanne Travaglia. Topic: HIV and human rights. Supervisors : Professor Heather Worth and thai Dr Patrick Rawstorne.

Topic: Integrating new cadres for maternal health: study of Community Midwives in Pakistan. Supervisors: A/Professor Rohan Jayasuriya and A/Professor Saima Hamid. Topic: The role of religion and faith-based organisations in addressing HIV in Papua New Guinea (PNG) Supervisors: Professor Heather Worth and A/Professor Joanne Travaglia. Topic: Public and fantasy theme forensic mental health, Aboriginal wellbeing and women's health. Supervisors: A/Professor Melissa Haswell-Elkins and Professor Lisa Jackson-Pulver. Topic: Study of urban Aboriginal housing and its relationship to health. Supervisors: Dr Anna Williamson and Professor Sally Redman. Topic: Aboriginal Health: Ethics Research.

Supervisors: Professor Lisa Jackson-Pulver and system Professor Mark Harris. Topic: Indigenous Public Health education. Supervisors: A/Professor Melissa Haswell-Elkins, Dr Sally Nathan and Dr Lois Meyer. Topic: Empowerment to measure program and the darker brother service needs and outcomes. Supervisors: A/Professor Melissa Haswell-Elkins, Professor Anthony Shakeshaft and Professor Lisa Jackson-Pulver. Topic: Major adult morbidity and mortality in thai system, a cohort from the fantasy theme, Aboriginal Medical Service (Redfern, Sydney) 1972-2010. Supervisors: Professor Richard Taylor and system Dr John Daniels. Topic: Aboriginal adolescent health - the importance of engaging early, cultural appropriateness and innovative approaches to preventative health rather than relying on the status quo. Supervisors: Dr Robert Menzies and A/Professor Rebecca Guy, Dr Kyllie Cripps and Professor John Kaldor.

Topic: Investigating how caring for a loved one with cancer affects dietary behaviours in fantasy theme, the carer. Supervisors: Dr Husna Razee and Dr Rebecca Reynolds. Topic: Social support post-prison release in an urban Aboriginal population. Supervisors: Professor Lisa Jackson-Pulver and Professor Jan Ritchie. Topic: A community case-control study examining environmental and system lifestyle risk factors for younger onset dementia.

Supervisors: Dr Adrienne Withall and Dr Brian Draper. Topic: Graduate health management trainees perceptions of workplace bullying behaviours. The title featured was only a working title during my application to transfer process. Supervisors: A/Professor Joanne Travaglia and Lesley Halliday. Topic: Where Are They Now? The influence of Sport for Development and Youth Leadership programs on the longer-term development of young people from disadvantaged backgrounds. Supervisors: Dr Anne Bunde-Birouste, Dr Patrick Rawstorne and Dr Sally Nathan. Topic : Human rights of people with mental disabilities. Supervisors: Dr Adrienne Withall, A/Professor Joanne Travaglia and Professor Nick Zwar.

Topic: Contraception understandings and experiences of kamasutra maya, Australian women. Supervisors: Professor Juliet Richters and economic Dr Patrick Rawstorne. Topic: Conceptualization, measurement and the role of Cybersex Essay, Trust in economic system, patient and provider relationships in low income African primary health care settings. Supervisors: Dr Niamh Stephenson and Dr Holly Seale. Topic: Beyond 'insiders on the outside': identity constructions and wellbeing of Australian born young people of New Zealand descent living in pragmatic, Sydney. Supervisors : A/Professor Joanne Travaglia, Dr Anne Bunde-Birouste and thai Professor Judith Motion.

Topic: The socio-economic impact of pragmatic theory, a sport-for-development program in Western Sydney's humanitarian migrant community. Supervisors: Dr Anne Bunde-Birouste and Dr Husna Razee. Topic: Applied research in causes and factors associated with excess paediatric deaths. Supervisors: A/Professor Bette Liu and system Professor Glenda Lawrence A/Professor Joanne Travaglia. Topic: Sex work and HIV prevention in Pacific Island states.

Supervisors: Professor Heather Worth and Dr Patrick Rawstorne. Topic: Mental health and attitudes towards psychological help-seeking among Iranian international students: a pilot study examining students at UNSW, Sydney. Supervisors: Dr Ilse Blignault and Dr Husna Razee. Topic : The health, development and community-building filter: Evaluating the social outcomes of development, health promotion and human security-related interventions by Japanese development organisations in Sri Lanka. Supervisors: Dr Husna Razee and Professor Anthony Zwi. Topic : An application of the honor book, safe system approach to cycling safety: A cohort study of NSW Cyclists. Supervisors: A/Prof Roslyn Poulos, Professor Christopher Rissel and thai economic Dr Julie Hatfield. Topic: Concerns and needs of frequently hospitalised children and carers in a Saudi public hospital.

Supervisors: Dr Husna Razee and Dr Joel Rhee. Topic: Impact Study on Football-based Grassroots Peace, Reconciliation and Social Cohesion Intervention in Myanmar. Supervisors: Dr Anne Bunde-Birouste, Dr Husna Razee and A/Professor Patricia Bazeley. Topic: Self-management of type 2 diabetes: focusing on the middle-aged population of rural area of Pakistan. Supervisors: Dr Hassan Hosseinzadah, Professor Nick Zwar and Professor Mark Harris. Topic: Activating Primary care COPD patients with Multi-morbidity (APCOM) pilot pr oject. Supervisors: Dr Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Professor Nick Zwar and Dr Sarah Dennis. Topic: Views and perceptions of participants working in a number of healthcare facilities in South Eastern Sydney Local Health District and senior officers, NSW Health towards a health care work decision aid designed to assist HCW to make informed an informed decision about the flu vaccine, and their views about the acceptability of this tool to being applied in a public health setting. Supervisors: Professor Raina MacIntyre and Dr Holly Seale. Topic: A study on the Prediction of fantasy theme, Cardiovascular Diseases in thai, Bangladeshi Population.

Supervisors: Dr Bayzidur Rahman and Professor Nick Zwar. Topic: Various work undertaken as a NSW Health Public Health Officer Trainee. Supervisors: Professor Raina MacIntyre and A/Professor Andrew Hayen. Topic: Qualitative research examining general practice experiences of kamasutra maya, implementing primary health care initiatives and identifying factors needed for successful implementation and integration of interventions into system, routine work. Supervisors: Professor Nicholas Zwar, Dr Lois Meyer and Dr Joel Rhee. Topic: The prevalence of Cybersex Essay, postpartum distress and accessibility to primary mental health services for women in Makkah - Saudi Arabia. Supervisors: Dr Husna Razee, Professor Stephen Matthey and Dr Mohammed Garout. Topic : Chronic disease prevention particularly focus on obesity.

Supervisors: Professor Roslyn Poulos and Dr Siranda Torvaldsen. Topic: Design and Evaluation of an Educational Instrument to Develop Collaborative Learning Competencies in Junior Medical Students. Supervisors: Dr. Chinthaka Balasooriya, Associate Professor Gary Velan and Associate Professor Tony O’Sullivan. Topic: Identification of diabetes patients at risk of system, other chronic diseases from unstructured data using big data and decoding examples semantic web technologies. Supervisors: Professor Siaw-Teng Liaw and Professor Pradeep Ray.

Topic: An Assessment of thai economic system, Community Readiness for Health in Rural Bangladesh. Supervisors: Professor Siaw-Teng Liaw, Dr Anita Heywood and the darker brother Dr Abbas Bhuiya. Topic: Exploring clinical governance in rural and remote primary health care. Supervisors: Professor Nick Zwar, A/Professor Sarah Larkins and A/Professor Julie Johnson. Topic: Applying big data and business intelligence insights to economic system, improving clinical care for cancer. Supervisors: Professor Siaw-Teng Liaw and Professor Pradeep Ray.

Topic : Smoke-free outdoor areas: can tobacco control advocacy with Local Government be effective? Supervisors : Professor Robyn Richmond and Dr Holly Seale. Topic: Australia’s rural health workforce: Geographic distribution mechanisms and retention. Supervisors: Professor Glenda Lawrence and on my book Dr Rob Menzies. Topic: Health outcomes following cardiac arrest. Supervisors: A/Professor Andrew Hayen, A/Professor Joanne Travaglia and Dr David Muscatello. Topic: Organisational Learning Knowledge Management in Public Health NGOs. Supervisors: Dr Anne Bunde-Birouste and economic system Dr Holly Seale. Hania Rahimi Ardabili.

Topic: Guiding Principles for i am brother, Health Policy Evaluation in the Northern Territory. Supervisors: Dr Rebecca Reynolds and Professor Nick Zwar. Topic: A cluster-randomised controlled trial of community education to prevent the development of chronic suppurative otitis media in children in jumla nepal. Supervisors: Dr Robert Menzies, Professor Richard Taylor and Dr Lois Meyer. Topic: Factors contributing to non-occupational falls from ladders in system, men 50 years and honor book over. Supervisors: A/Professor Roslyn Poulos, Dr Sally Nathan and Dr Brahmaputra Marjadi. Topic: The variability in vulnerable children's communication development over time and the impact of treatment. Supervisors: Professor Lynn Kemp, Patricia Knight and A/Professor Patricia Eadie. Topic : Re-engineering Primary Care for Privately Insured Patients with chronic disease in thai economic system, Australia to reduce utilisation.

Supervisors : A/Professor Andrew Hayen, Professor Nick Zwar and honor Dr Anita Heywood. Topic: Cardiovascular absolute risk assessment in general practice and economic system impact on prescribing. Supervisors: Professor Nick Zwar and theory Professor Mark Harris. Topic: Cancer care optimisation for thai economic, ovarian cancer in NSW. Supervisors: Dr Holly Seale and Dr Reema Harrison. Topic: Early rehabilitation after acute injury or illness. Supervisors: A/Professor Christopher Poulos, Professor Ian Harris and on my Dr Steven Faux. Topic: Collaborative and innovative health workforce models in regional Victoria. Supervisors: Dr Maria Agaliotis, Dr Chinthaka Balasooriya and economic system Dr Patrick Rawstorne.

Topic: Understanding multidisciplinary teams and systems in examples, a cancer service. Supervisors: Professor Richard Taylor and A/Professor David Heslop. Topic: Prevention of burnout for Postgraduate Medical Students of China. Supervisors: A/Professor Joanne Travaglia, Professor Raina MacIntyre and Dr Chinthaka Balasooriya. Topic: Health services research. Supervisors: Professor Bin Jalaudin and A/Professor Shalini Vinod.

Topic: Applied Public Health. Supervisors: A/Professor Andrew Hayen and Professor George Rubin. Topic: Asbestos disease prevention coordination arrangements in Australia. Supervisors: A/Professor Ros Poulos and A/Professor Andrew Hayen. Topic: Development of An Internationally Valid ICF Based Mobility Outcome Measure. Supervisors: A/Professor Friedbert Kohler and Professor Hugh Dickson. Topic: The Geography of Alzheimer's Disease. Supervisors: Dr Anita Heywood, A/Professor Andrew Hayen and A/Professor Andrew Georgiou. Topic: Developing and evaluating an innovative educational strategy for Ethics in Undergraduate Medical Education. Supervisors: Dr Chinthaka Balasooriya and Dr Adrienne Torda.

Research flagship areas within the school include: Postgraduate Research Officer. School of thai economic, Public Health and examples Community Medicine. T +61 (2) 9385 3588. School of Public Health and Community Medicine, UNSW Medicine NSW 2052 Australia | Tel: +61 (2) 9385 2517 Fax: +61 (2) 9313 6185.

© Copyright 2012 UNSW Medicine | CRICOS Provider Code: 00098G | ABN 57 195 873 179 | Authorised by the School of Public Health and economic system Community Medicine. Page Last Updated: 15:28:47 PM, Thursday 05 October 2017.

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Our writers are graduated students from the best Universities of the world. On Apartheid Essay, Research Paper. C. Colored (Mixed Race) D. Public Accomodations. “Apartheid, pronounced ah PAHRT hayt or pronounced ah PAHRT hyt, was, from 1948 until 1991, the South African government’s policy of thai system rigid racial segregation. The word apartheid means separateness in Afrikaans, one of South Africa’s official languages. Built on earlier South African laws and customs, apartheid classified every South African by fantasy theme, race as either (1) black, (2) white, (3) Colored (mixed race), or (4) Asian. Apartheid required segregation in housing, education, employment, public accommodations, and thai economic system, transportation. It segregated not only almost all whites from nonwhites but also major nonwhite groups from each other.

It also limited the rights of nonwhites to own and occupy land, and to enter white neighborhoods.” “The South African government tried to justify apartheid by claiming that peaceful coexistence of the races was possible only if the i am the darker brother races were separated from one another. However, white South Africans used apartheid chiefly as a way to control the vast nonwhite majority. Most South Africans strongly opposed apartheid. Leading opposition groups included the African National Congress (ANC). Thai? Most ANC members were blacks. Between 1948 and 1991, large numbers of people protested apartheid by staging boycotts, demonstrations, and strikes.

Violence often broke out, and thousands of i am the darker people, most of them blacks, were killed.” “But apartheid’s effects continued even after the laws were repealed. Today, many blacks and other nonwhites continue to face unofficial segregation and discrimination in South Africa.” Apartheid is the system policy of racial segregation formerly followed in South Africa. The word apartheid means separateness in the Afrikaans language, and it described the rigid racial division between the governing white minority population and i am the darker, the nonwhite majority population. Apartheid was the political policy for South Africa from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid laws classified people according to three major racial groups: white; Bantu, or black African; and system, Coloured, or people of mixed descent. Later, Asians, or Indians and Pakistanis, were added as a fourth category. The laws determined where members of each racial group could live, prohibited most social contact between races, and kamasutra maya, denied representation of nonwhites in the national government. Before apartheid became the official policy, South Africa had a long history of racial segregation.

In 1910 parliamentary membership was limited to whites, and legislation passed in 1913 restricted black land ownership. In 1912 the African National Congress (ANC) was founded to economic system fight these policies. On My? From the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s the government implemented a series of reforms, but apartheid continued to be criticized internationally. In 1990 South Africa finally ended apartheid. South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission, formed to uncover past events without further polarizing society, released its final report on thai economic system human rights abuses under apartheid in 1998. Cybersex Essay? Its conclusions were attacked by all of the country’s main political parties, none of which escaped criticism in the report. South Africa gains independence from thai system Great Britain after the passage of the Statute of Westminster by the British Parliament in examples December 1931 and its acceptance by South Africa in June 1934. Thai Economic? From the formation of the independent country, the white minority controls the government and moves to limit the powers of i am the darker brother nonwhites and create special designated areas, or homelands, for them to live. The United Nations adopts a resolution condemning the South African government’s treatment of its Indian minority and asks both South Africa and India to report back as to whether conditions had improved to system conform with the U.N. charter.

A highly publicized effort by India to prevent South Africa from discriminating against kamasutra maya, the Indian minority marks the most prominent criticism to date of South Africa’s increasingly divisive racial policies. Thai Economic? [See Facts On File print edition 1946, p.39A] The conservative Afrikaner-dominated National Party wins parliamentary elections and examples, gains control of the South African government. The party, under new Premier Dr. Daniel F. Malan, begins taking steps toward implementing apartheid (apartness), the national policy of racial separation. [See Facts On File print edition 1948, p. 171C2] Group Areas Act is enacted. It segregates communities and relegates the black population to a minor percentage of the nation’s land. [See Facts On File print edition 1950, p. 189M] Population Registrations Act is thai system enacted.

It requires all South Africans to register their race with the government. Enactment of pass laws. The laws require blacks to carry passbooks so that the government can regulate their travel through the country. Separate Amenities Act is the darker brother enacted, establishing separate public facilities for whites and system, nonwhites. The African National Congress and other opposition groups adopt the Freedom Charter, calling for equal political rights for all races. March 21 – April 5, 1960. Police kill 69 unarmed protesters in Sharpeville. The government bans all opposition groups, may of which begin underground armed struggles for black and mixed-race liberation, including the African National Congress. [See Facts On File print edition 1960, pp. 109F3, 103D3]

South Africa becomes a republic. The decision to break from the fantasy theme Commonwealth is thai economic prompted by fantasy theme, Asian and African Commonwealth member sates’ denunciation of South Africa’s apartheid policies, which it refuses to alter. [See Facts On File print edition 1961, p. Economic? 97A1] U.N. General Assembly President Abdelaziz Bouteflika of Algeria suspends South Africa from participating in the remainder of assembly sessions for that year. The following day South Africa recalls it U.N. Examples? ambassador and freezes its $1 million annual contribution to the organization. [See Facts On File print edition 1963, p. Thai Economic System? 935F2] Nelson Mandela, an ANC leader, is convicted of sabotage and trying to overthrow the decoding government.

He is sentenced to economic system life in prison. [See Facts On File print edition 1964, p. 197C1] A student protest in the black township of Soweto against mandatory education in pragmatic Afrikaans spreads. The government, in an effort to thai system suppress the theory civil unrest, kills 575 people over economic eight months. [See Facts On File print edition 1976, p. 425F1] Transkei becomes the first homeland granted nominal independence. The 10 homelands eventually make up about pragmatic, 13% of South African territory. [See Facts On File print edition 1976, p. 813A1] Steven Biko, one of the most influential black student leaders in South Africa, is reported to have died from a hunger strike while in thai police detention. [See Facts On File print edition 1977, p. 707C3] White voters approve a new constitution that creates separate chambers in the legislature for Asians and Coloreds (people of mixed race), although not for blacks. A national state of emergency is imposed following widespread strikes and riots. The decree gives virtually unlimited powers to the darker brother the security forces and imposes restrictions on thai the press. Laws requiring blacks to carry passbooks for identification are scrapped. U.S.

Congress overrides President Ronald Reagan’s veto and i am brother, imposes strict economic sanctions against thai economic, South Africa. Reformist F. W. de Klerk of the National Party is elected president. De Klerk announces plans to scrap the Separate Amenities Act, and it is subsequently repealed. De Klerk lifts restrictions on 33 opposition groups, most of which had been banned for their antiapartheid activities. ANC leader Nelson Mandela is released after 27 years in prison. [See Nelson Mandela Freed in fantasy theme South Africa] The state of emergency is thai lifted in Natal province, the last region of the country where it is pragmatic theory still in effect. Black students enter previously all-white public schools. The Lands Acts of 1913 and 1936 and the Group Areas Act of 1950 are repealed. The Population Registration Act of system 1950 is repealed. President George Bush lifts most U.S. I Am Brother? economic sanctions against South Africa.

De Klerk outlines his government’s proposals for a new constitution that will provide suffrage to the black majority for the first time. Delegations from 19 political groups meet in Johannesburg for economic system talks aimed at ending white-minority rule in South Africa. Cybersex Essay? Seventeen sigh a declaration pledging them to work toward a nonracial democracy. South African whites, voting in record numbers, overwhelmingly endorse de Klerk’s reform policies in a referendum on whether to system negotiate an end to white minority rule through talks wit the black majority. More than 40 blacks are killed in brother the South African township of Boipatong. The incident prompts the ANC to withdraw from constitutional talks for four months, uring the government to take steps to curb township violence that has claimed 1,500 lives since the beginning of 1992. The government and the ANC agree on economic a transitional “government of national unity” in the darker which bot parties will be partners.

Chris Hani, the secretary general of the South African Communist Party, is economic assassinated. White rightist are later convicted. A date is confirmed for the country’s first universal suffrage elections. A multiracial council that would help oversee election preparations is formed. U.N. lifts most remaining economic sanctions against South Africa. Twenty-one of decoding South Africa’s black and white political parties approve a majority-rule constitution that provides fundamental rights to blacks. The document calls for thai economic system the election of a coalition government that would remain in office for five years after the elections, and for the dissolution of the on my honor country’s 10 black self-governing homelands.

The U.S. Economic? repeals sanctions against South Africa. Jan. 29-Feb. 2, 1994. Mandela and the darker brother, de Klerk officially launch their respective election campaigns. Mandela presents the ANC’s campaign manifesto detailing the group’s economic-reform proposals. March 13-31, 1994. The leader of the Bophuthatswana homeland, who opposed the election accord, is deposed by South African government forces. A state of emergency is declared in the KwaZulu homeland following upsuges of civil unrest. Economic System? Also, 53 people are killed in brother gun battles in Johannesburg during a protest march by Zulus demanding that KwaZulu be excluded from the economic system elections.

The Zulu-based Inkatha Freedom Party, which has been blamed for inciting violence in its KwaZulu stronghold, agrees to join the elections. April 26-29, 1994. The country’s first universal suffrage elections are held, and pragmatic, blacks are given their first opportunity to economic vote. Mandela declares an ANC victory, and de Klerk offers his cooperation in the postelection government. The new parliament is set to meet the following week, and Mandela is scheduled to be sworn in as president May 10. South Africa is a country blessed with an abundance of natural resources including fertile farmlands and unique mineral resources.

South African mines are world leaders in Cybersex Essay the production of diamonds and gold as well as strategic metals such as platinum. The climate is mild, reportedly resembling the San Francisco bay area weather more than anywhere in the world. South Africa was colonized by the English and Dutch in the seventeenth century. English domination of the Dutch descendents (known as Boers or Afrikaners) resulted in the Dutch establishing the new colonies of Orange Free State and Transvaal. Thai? The discovery of Cybersex Essay diamonds in these lands around 1900 resulted in an English invasion which sparked the Boer War. Following independence from England, an uneasy power-sharing between the two groups held sway until the 1940’s, when the Afrikaner National Party was able to economic gain a strong majority. Strategists in the National Party invented apartheid as a means to cement their control over the economic and social system.

Initially, aim of the apartheid was to maintain white domination while extending racial separation. Starting in the 60’s, a plan of “Grand Apartheid” was executed, emphasizing territorial separation and police repression. With the enactment of apartheid laws in 1948, racial discrimination was institutionalized. Race laws touched every aspect of social life, including a prohibition of marriage between non-whites and whites, and the sanctioning of “white-only” jobs. In 1950, the Population Registration Act required that all South Africans be racially classified into one of pragmatic three categories: white, black (African), or colored (of mixed decent).

The coloured category included major subgroups of Indians and Asians. Classification into these categories was based on appearance, social acceptance, and descent. For example, a white person was defined as “in appearance obviously a white person or generally accepted as a white person.” A person could not be considered white if one of his or her parents were non-white. The determination that a person was “obviously white” would take into account “his habits, education, and speech and deportment and demeanor.” A black person would be of thai or accepted as a member of an African tribe or race, and a colored person is pragmatic one that is not black or white. Thai Economic? The Department of Home Affairs (a government bureau) was responsible for the classification of the decoding examples citizenry. Non-compliance with the race laws were dealt with harshly. All blacks were required to carry “pass books” containing fingerprints, photo and information on access to non-black areas. John Dugard, Nicholas Haysom and Gilbert Marcus. The Last Years of Apartheid: Civil Liberties in South Africa.

Ford Foundation, New York, 1992. Revolution is What is Happening in South Africa. The New York Times, page 26, April 5, 1985. In 1951, the Bantu Authorities Act established a basis for ethnic government in African reserves, known as “homelands.” These homelands were independent states to which each African was assigned by the government according to the record of origin (which was frequently inaccurate). All political rights, including voting, held by an African were restricted to the designated homeland.

The idea was that they would be citizens of the homeland, losing their citizenship in system South Africa and any right of involvement with the South African Parliament which held complete hegemony over the homelands. From 1976 to 1981, four of examples these homelands were created, denationalizing nine million South Africans. The homeland administrations refused the nominal independence, maintaining pressure for political rights within the country as a whole. Nevertheless, Africans living in the homelands needed passports to economic system enter South Africa: aliens in fantasy theme their own country. In 1953, the Public Safety Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act were passed, which empowered the government to declare stringent states of emergency and increased penalties for protesting against or supporting the repeal of a law. Thai? The penalties included fines, imprisonment and whippings.

In 1960, a large group of blacks in Sharpeville refused to carry their passes; the pragmatic government declared a state of emergency. The emergency lasted for 156 days, leaving 69 people dead and 187 people wounded. Wielding the Public Safety Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act, the white regime had no intention of changing the unjust laws of apartheid.

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fig sample thesis Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. Stefanie C. VanGorden. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microscopy is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a small scale (3). NMR microscopy is a relatively new way to image small objects and is very useful in both academic and industrial research. NMR microscopy is used by the food and agricultural industries as a tool for thai economic analyzing the amount and effect of water in their products. Decoding Examples. Using NMR microscopy, the amount of water (hydrogen) in the product can be analyzed and thai, then evaluated for taste, growth, etc (3). This knowledge will allow researchers to vary production conditions and hopefully yield a better product. The broad, long-term objective of this research is to develop NMR microscopy at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) to a point where it is potentially useful to industry, especially analyzing food for water content.

RIT is a leader in imaging technology and to honor date, there are no NMR microscopy facilities at this institution. Currently, a Bruker 300 MHz NMR spectrometer is used to obtain spectra. Utilizing a three axis gradient coil probe allows the spectrometer to economic be used for on my book microscopy. The main goal of this research is to document features such as slice thickness and in-plane resolution on the NMR microscope. This microscope will ideally be capable of producing a 1 mm thick, approximately 50 m m in-plane resolution tomographic image. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging was developed in the early 1970's and was largely used for medical research on thai system the human body (3). In 1986, MRI was done on a much smaller scale using NMR spectrometers essentially creating the field of examples NMR microscopy (3)(10)(13)(8)(12). NMR has widespread applications in gathering information about microscopic properties of biological tissues, pharmaceutical products, and agricultural products (9). Since the economic system, late 1970s, there have been numerous research projects applying the technology of NMR microscopy. The majority of applications have been in on my book, the medical field but many others have been found on different topics.

Chattopadhyay used NMR microscopy to characterize the structure of polycrystalline materials. Economic System. Others did research on pragmatic theory time-independent point-spread functions and high-gradient NMR microscopy (12)(13). McFarland also did research on improving SNR and found spatial resolutions limits to be approximately 6 m m. T 1 and T 2 are parameters that are varied to emphasize specific tissues over other ones. An article on multicellular tumors manipulated T 1 and T 2 and economic, documented an in-plane resolution of 14 m m (2). NMR microscopy was also applied to monitor gel layers in decoding, pharmaceutical tablets because it was known that changes in the gel layer influence the kinesics of the drug release.

This research used an in-plane resolution of 70 m m and a slice thickness of thai 650 m m (1). Fantasy Theme. A 1998 article used NMR microscopy in system, studying relaxation anisotropy in cartilage. A Bruker AMX 300 NMR spectrometer obtained a slice thickness of 1 mm and an in-plane resolution of 14 m m. This equipment also had a 7-T/89-mm vertical-bore superconducting magnet and Cybersex Essay, microimaging accessory (14). NMR microscopy utilizes a property found certain nuclei called spin. The governing equation for both MRI and NMR is.

where B is the economic system, magnetic field strength, and g is the gyromagnetic ratio. The gyromagnetic ratio for hydrogen is 42.58 MHz/T. The frequency n is proportional to pragmatic the gyromagnetic ratio and economic, also the strength of the magnetic field. Honor. Given a particular magnetic field strength (B), a particle having a net spin will absorb a photon of n (8). In NMR microscopy, a magnetic field is applied to a sample containing water (for example) and the property of system spin causes protons (Hydrogen) in pragmatic, the water molecules to absorb a photon of frequency n a . With currently available NMR magnets n a is in the range of 60 to 800 MHz (8).

Absorption causes the proton to be excited to the next energy level and all of the excited protons combined can be thought of thai economic system as the net magnetization. The magnetic field is conventionally placed in the z direction. At equilibrium, the net magnetization is zero M o and when the system is not at equilibrium the net magnetization is kamasutra maya, M z . The equation governing the system, two relationships is. where T 1 is the spin-lattice relaxation time and Cybersex Essay, represents the time needed to change M z by a factor of e. T 2 is the spin-spin relaxation time and it is thai economic, always less that T 1 . The equation governing T 2 is. and this is the pragmatic, time needed to reduce the transverse magnetization by thai economic system a factor of e. In order to determine the on my honor, location of protons in the sample, pulsed magnetic fields of thai system 90 degrees or 180 degrees are used. A 90 degree pulse rotates the magnetization clockwise by 90 degrees in the x direction of the x-y plane. A 180 degree pulse rotates the magnetization by Cybersex Essay 180 degrees about the x axis. A typical sequence will use a 90 degree pulse followed by a 180 degree pulse and is called the spin-echo sequence (See Fig. 1).

Figure 1: Timing diagram for a spin-echo sequence (7) . Fig 1. is just a schematic diagram of a spin-echo sequence for spectroscopy. It is necessary to add two gradients to thai economic system perform tomographic imaging. With the theory, additions of three gradients, this sequence is what allows protons in a sample to be mapped to their x-y locations. A previous RIT student, David Hetzer, performed research that successfully demonstrated imaging two-dimensional signals in the x-y plane (7). My research will build off his research and therefore, the thai system, preliminary step in my research will be to duplicate his experiments. Fantasy Theme. His research used a spin-echo sequence with two gradients and backprojection imaging to collect data (See Fig. Fig 2).

Figure 2: Example of thai economic system backprojection imaging (8) . His research also documented that the relationship between frequency and position was a linear relationship confirming that the gradient coils were working properly. He also set up various phantoms and varied parameters such as the gradient to determine the effect on the resulting image. This experimentation acquired only two-dimensional images therefore the slice thickness was about 1.5 cm. All of the pragmatic theory, information was averaged together in the z direction. For tomographic imaging, the slice thickness (Thk) is specified and economic, the signal is squished the width equal to Thk. Using the governing equation. n=g B o , and substituting for B o we yield. where Thk is the thickness of the slice and i am the darker, G i is the thai system, slice selection gradient applied . Honor Book. By rearranging, we yield the thickness as a function of the thai economic system, change in frequency ( Dn ) and inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient. Using knowledge of Fourier transforms, which convert signal from the time domain to the frequency domain, the following relationship results (See Fig.

5): By further graphic interpretation, we can conclude that Dn = 2/t w and substituting this into Eq. 5 yields. which will allow us to calculate various parameters. We know that the gyromagnetic ratio is 42.58 Hz/T for hydrogen, G i is less than 50 x 10 -4 T/cm, and t w is 10 -6 seconds. Rearranging the equation and solving for the slice selection gradient yields G i = 500 x 10 -4 T/cm which causes a problem because G i is greater than the fantasy theme, maximum gradient of the system by a factor of ten. To compensate for this problem, we will have to utilize the thai economic system, equation. where q is kamasutra maya, equal to 90 degrees, t w is the system, amount of time the field is on, and B 1 is specified in Figure 5 below. We will make B 1 larger which will make t w smaller and plugging into Eq. will yield a smaller G i . This should yield a slice thickness of 1 mm as desired.

Figure 3: (A) Shows the pragmatic, relationship the result of a Fourier Transform. (B) Illustrates the relationship as a result of the FT. In order to evaluate the in-plane resolution mathematically, a formula for thai the optical resolution must be utilized. The field of view (FOV) of the resulting image is essential in this process. The FOV is equal to decoding examples the frequency of sampling f s , divided by the gyromagnetic ratio g multiplied by system the frequency encoding gradient G f by definition. Substituting into the above equation yields the optical resolution. The optical resolution (OR) is equal to the FOV multiplied by the product of Cybersex Essay inverse of pi multiplied by economic system the combined time constant T 2 * and the quantity divided by the gyromagnetic ratio g times the frequency gradient applied in the x direction G n x.

These variables are located in Fig. 4 for further clarification. Figure 4: Illustration of the field of view and T 2 * . The result of optical resolution calculated by Eq. 10 is the limit to how small the theoretical resolution will become. Substituting approximate values into the above equation yielded an optical resolution of roughly 20 m m. Furthermore, the main goal of Cybersex Essay my research project is to produce one millimeter thick, 50 m m in-plane resolution Magnetic Resonance images using the Bruker 300 MHz DRX spectrometer.

The in-plane resolution will approach 50 m m depending on the results acquired by phantoms and the limits placed by the spectrometer. My research will create a three-dimensional NMR microscope with documented features for economic system use at RIT. My experimentation has two major phases: documenting slice thickness of roughly 1 mm, and obtaining an in-plane resolution of the darker approximately 50 m m. There are no human subjects required for thai economic system these experiments. The Bruker DRX 300 NMR spectrometer and a software program called XWINNMR will be utilized for this project. XWINNMR allows the user to Cybersex Essay vary parameters of the spectrometer to achieve different results. The first goal of thai economic this research project is to develop and evaluate slice selection in the NMR microscope. By slice selection, I'm referring to the thickness of the slice to be excited by the magnetic field. All other areas in the sample tube will remain unchanged. Cybersex Essay. The optimum slice thickness will be 1 mm but testing needs to be done to system prove that it is indeed 1 mm. This thickness was chosen because it's close to some of the documented ones used in the background literature. This will be accomplished by creating a phantom with a known repetitive pattern that will serve to mathematically calculate the thickness (Thk) of the pragmatic theory, slice (See Fig.

5). Figure 5: Illustration of economic slice thickness. A nylon screw phantom has the brother, desired characteristics to determine slice selection thickness. System. The diameter of the nylon screw is less than 5mm and on my, it has 32 threads per inch (TPI) which is about 1.2 threads per millimeter. The nylon screw will be submerged in water since the protons in economic, hydrogen react to the NMR signal (See Fig. I Am The Darker Brother. 6). Figure 6: Phantom for slice selection using a nylon screw surrounded by water (blue).

The nylon screw phantom will be used to evaluate whether the theoretical calculations did yield a slice thickness of thai economic system 1 mm. The resulting image should have a NMR signal similar to theory the one below in Figure 7. This image should resemble a ring or portion of a ring with varying intensities. Analyzing this image, will show thickness as a function of angle and economic system, threads per inch, yielding the i am, equation. Thk = f /360 * 1/TPI * 25.4 mm/In [11] from trigonometry and converting TPI to threads per millimeter. Below is a Figure illustrating these concepts.

Figure 7: Resulting image of the slice selection phantom. used to determine the thickness of the slice. Once the thickness of the slice selection has been documented the experimentation will take another route. The second set of thai economic system experiments that I'll be doing will evaluate the in-plane resolution of the Cybersex Essay, NMR microscope. Resolution refers to the measure of the system's ability to distinguish between to closely spaced point sources (6). The fundamental limit to this system is that as size of the volume element gets smaller, its signal contribution is reduced and a reduction occurs in the signal-to-noise ratio (3). This phenomenon can be reduced using signal averaging. This will not be concentrated on in this experimentation though. The theoretical resolution limit of thai economic this system is about 20 m ms. To quantitatively test this limit, a specific phantom will be created.

It should be noted that since the diameter of the sample tube is 5 mm, it is very difficult to construct useful phantoms small enough to fit inside the tube. After much consideration, a phantom with nylon cords of varying diameter will be used. The lower limit of cord diameter used will be approximately 45 m m or about the decoding, thickness of the diameter of glass rods. The upper limit will be approximately 139 m m for fishing line. The sample tube will contain cords ranging from the lower limit to the upper limit. The sample tube will also be filled with water around the cords since the protons in water will generate a NMR signal.

This phantom will utilize slice selection and it is also very important that the cords be perpendicular in the sample tube. Economic System. An illustration of the sample phantom is kamasutra maya, located in economic system, Figure 8 below. Figure 8: Illustration of phantom to kamasutra maya evaluate in-plane resolution. The goal of this phantom is to system use the known diameter of the nylon cords and the resulting NMR image to determine the kamasutra maya, in-plane resolution of the economic, system. The number of pixels that the image of the cord occupies will be recorded for each cord diameter. These results will then be graphed and to show how pixel size ( m m) and diameter ( m m) are related. The slope of theory this curve should equal one for the ideal case where the objects are the same size in the image as they were when measured. If possible, the exact location of the cords will vary some to yield an average curve.

This is attempting eliminate samples taking up more pixels because of falling half on one pixel and half on the next pixel. This graph will then serve as a lookup table for further application to celery stalks or plant stems. These organic structures will be measured using a microscope and then compared to the LUT values to further evaluate the system. This research evolved around the existing Bruker 300 MHz NMR spectrometer and a program called XWINNMR for editing parameters. A portion of the research time was spent learning how to operate the spectrometer, and use the software. There are two probe heads on economic the spectrometer, one for taking spectra (qnp #7) and one for pragmatic imaging (bbi #11). This spectrometer is normally used for system taking spectra so the probe head was changed and replaced for each day of data collection. Files are located in various directories that are in the rigid XWINNMR directory structure that is automatically used. The pulse programs are located in the directory /u/exp/stan/nmr/lists/pp/ and they have .ssse extensions. Honor Book. The gradient matrices are located in the directory /u/exp/stan/nmr/lists/gp and have extensions similar to .ssse.r.

Images are located in /disk2/data/scv996/nmr/. The pulse programs and thai economic, gradient matrices are located in the appendix. XWINNMR was utilized to Cybersex Essay perform this research since it allows the user to economic system vary input parameters for changing features on the microscope. The table below contains many of the commands that were used. Research was done in manual control mode that turns off the pragmatic, sweeping feature of the spectrometer. Table 1: Common XWINNMR commands and their meanings. Read in shim file for a particular probe. Write a shim file for a particular probe.

Change probe seen by the software. Shows the FID (Free induction decay) window. Allows the user to view a simulation or timing diagram. Receiver gain adjustment. Allows user to tune the probe. Ends the wobb command. Runs the thai, program specified in the eda display. Used to change programs or length of pulses. Performs the FT to turn resulting signal into an image for this research. Number of scans taken.

Number of dummy scans. Duration of the i am, 90 degree pulse. Duration of the 10 degree pulse. Amplitude of the thai economic, above pulses. Loop counter parameters (choose 4 and it'll perform 4*256 scans)

The time it takes for image collection varies. The user can specify the decoding, image size and the number of repetitions. Images collected were 256x256. It takes about 1.5 minutes to obtain an image. Raw images were transferred by using file transfer protocol (FTP) for system processing. An Interactive Data Language (IDL) program was used to read in i am, the raw data and change the economic, resulting images into pragmatic, TIFF format. This IDL program is located in the appendix. To begin this research, previous non-tomographic microscopy results needed to be verified (7). This research essentially created a NMR microscope which would take the hydrogen signal from the entire sample tube range of 1.5 cm and average it to system create an image. The length of the the darker, sample tube is economic, represented by examples the z-axis and the magnetic field excited the entire portion of the sample tube.

The resulting image has all the sample values in the z-direction averaged to yield one z value for each x-y location. This causes differences from the bottom to the top of the sample tube to be filtered out. The timing diagram for this pulse sequence is located in Figure 9. Economic. The images collected showed the amount of hydrogen mapped in the xy-plane over the full range of the sample tube (7). Figure 9: Diagram illustrating the two-dimensional sequence . The same phantoms and identical pulse sequences were used to verify his results. However, while verifying his results, a horizontal artifact was present in the resulting images (See Fig. Pragmatic. 10). This image is of capillary tubes filled with water.

The artifact was caused by residual longitudinal magnetization remaining after the 180 degree pulse. Economic System. To minimize this artifact, a crusher pulse was applied before and after the phase encoding gradient to remove the remaining magnetization. The crusher pulse effectively removed the artifact and book, the previous research was verified. Figure 10: Image with a horizontal artifact present. Slice Thickness Documentation. Nylon Screw Phantom. To create a tomographic NMR microscope, a slice selective gradient was applied in addition to the phase encoding gradient, and frequency encoding gradient (See Fig. 11). A spin-echo sequence was used for this research and the code is located in the appendix. This sequence, by manipulating the pulse width and the values for the slice selection gradient, caused a specific portion of the sample tube to be excited and created a tomographic NMR microscope. The slice selection gradient must be applied perpendicular to the imaging plane.

The phase encoding and frequency encoding gradients need to be applied in thai economic system, the same plane as the slice but orthogonal to each other (See Fig. 12). Cybersex Essay. By manipulating the application of the three pulses, slices may be taken in the xy-plane, the xy-plane and the yz-plane (See Table 2). Oblique imaging can also be implemented by applying combinations of the various gradients to yield the desired angles. To change the thickness of the slice, the slice selection gradient was modified.

The thickness of the slice is found using the formula Thk = Dn/(g Gs) where the thickness is thai system, inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient. Gradient values implemented into the time sequence are percentages. Fantasy Theme. The maximum gradient is economic system, 50 G/cm for this spectrometer and by using a slice selection gradient of 100%, the decoding, gradient applied will be 50 G/cm. Using a value of 10% would yield a gradient of system 5 G/cm. Since thickness is inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient, implementing a value of 10% will yield a thicker slice than that of 100%.

Figure 11: Pulse program for a tomographic spin-echo sequence using three gradients. Figure 12: Diagram of the pragmatic, three gradients used for imaging with their plane locations. Table 2: Gradients for imaging in economic, various Planes. To evaluate the performance of the tomographic sequence, a nylon screw phantom was imaged to brother attempt to document slice thickness. This phantom consisted of a nylon screw with 32 threads/inch submerged in water. It was thought that this phantom would work well due to thai economic system it's repetitive shape and by yielding signal such that the fantasy theme, angle of economic system signal was related to the thickness.

Images were taken with various gradients (See Fig. I Am. 13). By increasing the gradient, the most obvious change in the image was the signal-to-noise ratio. This is understandable since a thinner slice will have less hydrogen atoms relative to the thicker slice causing less signal. Figure 13: Images of the screw phantom taken with 20, 30, 40, and 60 % of maximum gradients respectively.

While trying to thai document the results from this phantom, it became apparent that if multiple turns were present in the image, there'd be no way to Cybersex Essay determine how many turns occurred. Also, the input for the 90 and 180 degree pulses is square. Therefore, the Fourier Transform of thai economic system this input is a sinc function. Cybersex Essay. This means that a uniform slice is not excited and that determining the exact thickness of the slice is much more complicated. Due to these factors, the screw phantom was abandoned as a way to thai economic document slice thickness. This phantom did serve to illustrate that by changing the z gradient, the signal-to-noise ratio varied from image to image as seen in pragmatic, Figure 13 above. The difficulty documenting slice thickness due to the repeating threads on the screw phantom led to the implementation of a new phantom. This phantom consisted of a hollow plastic cone submerged in water.

The cone was originally used for . System. The premise behind this phantom was to vary the gradients (thickness) to determine if the resulting images reflected a thicker or thinner circle from the cone. The angle of the cone was found to be degrees and the width of the cone wall was found to be 0.55 mm (See Fig. 14). Since the 90 and 180 degree pulses are square waves, the Fourier Transform yields a sinc function with a width 1/160 m s. The sinc means that a uniform slice is not excited in Cybersex Essay, the sample but can be schematically represented by Figure 15. Figure 14: Schematic diagram of the cone phantom used to document slice thickness. Figure 15: Illustration of the thai economic system, non-uniform slice excited by the sinc function. Utilizing information about the sinc function (See Fig. 15), showed the relationship Dn= 2/tw. By plugging it into theory, Thk = Dn/(g Gs), yielded Thk = (2/tw) /(g Gs) where the thickness of the slice (Thk) is inversely proportional to the width of the 180 degree pulse. The 180 pulse was 160 m s in duration. By calculations, this yielded a slice thickness of 0.01 mm (gradient = 60%) and slice thickness of 0.59 mm (gradient=10%).

The original goal was to produce a slice equivalent to 1 mm. Thai System. Due to this optimal goal, the above equation was rearranged to solve for the darker the width of the pulse that would create a 1 mm slice. A gradient of 30 G/cm (gradient=60%) was used and thai economic, the theoretical width of the pulse (tw) was calculated to be 157 m s. Therefore, by making the width of the 180 degree pulse 157 m s, the pulse sequence would theoretically yield a thickness of 1 mm. The width of the 90 degree pulse is 7.5 #109; s or half that of the 180 degree pulse. Cybersex Essay. A gradient of 60% was used so that the thickness of the slice could increase or decrease without changing the width of the RF pulses. This result may be useful for more intricate studies but for this research, images were taken using a 180 degree pulse width of 160 m s and a 90 degree pulse width of 80 m s. The slice selective gradients varied the thickness from approximately 0.01-0.59 mm. System. These pulse widths were used for all of the collected images and thicknesses seemed satisfactory to see changes in the images. For this piece of equipment, as mentioned previously, the maximum gradient is decoding, 50 G/cm but this number may not be exact although the theoretical calculations assume that it is. It should also be mentioned again that the system, pulses were square so a non-uniform thickness was excited in the sample causing the signal to be generated from an average of the thickness that followed a sinc pattern. This also leads to inaccuracies in the resulting image dependent on the phantom or sample used.

Below are some images taken of the cone phantom for various slice selective gradient parameters. Most of the noticeable differences in the image result from the change in SNR for the different thicknesses. The cone also appears to be slightly skewed in the sample tube as seen by the circle being somewhat lopsided. Figure 16: Images of the cone phantom taken with thinner and thicker slices. In order to quantitatively measure the width of the circle present in the above images, a horizontal profile was taken through the center of each image.

The horizontal profiles are located below in Figure 17. For these profiles, the x-axis represents the width of the image which is 256 pixels and the y-axis is the fantasy theme, NMR signal created by hydrogen present in the water molecules of the excited slice. The width of the areas of economic lower signal represent the thickness of the slice. Theory. This graph was then compared with the theoretical horizontal profiles of the cone knowing the dimensions of the sinc function. Figure 17: Horizontal profiles of the images used to determine if the images followed the right shape functions. The top image in Figure 17 shows the horizontal profile for a thick slice and economic system, the lower image shows an image of thinner slice. The x-axis shows the location along the horizontal line in the image and the y-axis shows the grayscale value. The shape of these profiles matches the expected relationship. The edges are slightly tapered and the data value reaches a minimum that is not zero. Visible in the plots is the difference in the amount of signal-to-noise from varying the slice thickness. These slices vary from about 1 mm (Left) to a thin slice of.

0.3 mm (Right). These are theoretical values. The Darker. Due to the small slice thickness relative to the geometry of the cone, there is not much difference in the width of the thai economic, non-signal areas for the different thicknesses. These results make sense when conceptualizing the cone phantom. The thicker the slice, the wider one would expect the area of non-signal to fantasy theme be. This is thai economic, true but since the slice is Cybersex Essay, really a sinc function, there will always be signal present from outside the theoretical thickness range. In-Plane Resolution Documentation. The next goal of this research project was to thai system document the in-plane resolution of the system.

In-plane resolution represents the size of the object necessary to be visible in the image. The fundamental optical limit was calculated to be approximately 20 m m. There were a few difficulties encountered during this area of experimentation. In order for the phantom to be relatively accurate, it needed to be very small in diameter and also have a constant shape so that minimal effects would occur when the signal was averaged over the thickness ( 0.5 mm). Finding objects with a small diameter proved to Cybersex Essay be very difficult so fishing line was used. Thai System. Human hair is around the same diameter but the line is much tougher. The other main dilemma was how to i am the darker suspend these items in the sample tube and also keep them perpendicular. Fishing line also sometimes floats in water to add to the burden. After trial and error, the thai economic system, best method to keep the line perpendicular to the imaging plane (xy-plane) was to place the line inside capillary tubes (See Fig. 18).

A micrometer was used to Cybersex Essay measure varying diameters of fishing line. The fishing line varied in diameter from thai 87-139 m m and the width of the capillary wall was measured to be 4.25 mm. The line and capillary tubes were then submerged in water to complete the fantasy theme, phantom. All of the line was easily visible in the images as seen in Figure 19. Figure 18: Skematic diagram illustrating fishing line phantom design. Figure 19: Images of the fishing line phantom taken at 10, and thai, 40 % gradients respectively.

Since this really was not a limiting resolution for the system, glass rods were stretched to diameters of. 50 m m and suspended in water. The rods were not exactly perpendicular to the imaging plane and appear oval in the resulting image. I Am The Darker. As seen in Figure 20, the three glass rods are visible to the eye and take up about 5 pixels. Figure 20: Image of the economic, glass rod phantom taken with 10 % gradient. No other phantoms were used for in-plane resolution documentation due to the difficulty in finding phantoms with diameters small enough to be useful. Therefore, the smallest diameter object imaged was around 50 m m and the above images used for documenting slice thickness. The eye can detect the presence of the fishing line and glass rods in on my book, the images for system the FOV used. This however, doesn't give us an theory, accurate portrayal of the relative size of these objects. Economic System. The dimensions of the objects are known and by assuming that the inner diameter of the sample tube is the same size in the image as was measured. The inner diameter was measured as 4,250 m m and corresponds to approximately 179 pixels.

Dividing these numbers yielded 23.7 m m/pixel which was used to calculate the size of the capillary tubes, fishing line, and glass rods. This formula is listed below in Eq. 12. Image Size = (23.7 m m/pixel) * (Number of pixels in image) [12] The calculated image size numbers should ideally match the fantasy theme, measured dimensions of the objects and yield a slope of 1 for the graph. Thai System. This was not the case.

As illustrated in the below table and graph, there were numerous discrepancies between the pragmatic theory, two measurements. Table 3: Calculated values for measured diameter [ #109; m] and image diameter [ #109; m]. Inside dia. Cap. Tube.

Outside dia. Cap. Tube. Inside dia. Sample Tube. Figure 21: Graphs of measured diameter [ #109; m] vs. calculated image diameter [ #109; m]. For the smaller objects, the image size is more than double that of the original size but for thai economic the larger measurements, the size in kamasutra maya, the image is smaller than the measured value. The glass rods measured 45 m m in diameter but are 118 m m in the resulting images.

Therefore, the smallest in-plane resolution is 118 m m in the image and corresponds to approximately 5 pixels. Thai Economic System. The cause of this discrepancy in Cybersex Essay, size is unclear. Thai Economic. It might be due to rods not being perpendicular in the sample tube. The phantom consisted of a large area of water which generated the NMR signal. Examples. Depending on the organic substances imaged, there may be less signal generated in the images and it may become more difficult to document features of the images. Errors were present in the images due to the fishing line or glass rods not being exactly perpendicular to the imaging plane. Also, this documentation used a fixed FOV which allowed the entire diameter of the sample tube to thai be present in the images. Modifying the FOV such that only one capillary tube is present in the image would likely increase the in-plane resolution. The increased size of the smaller objects is due to kamasutra maya a fundamental limitation of thai economic MRI. This causes the objects to become smeared in the images and the exact reason is decoding, unknown. Due to thai economic this knowledge, the image results appear feasible for this system.

To demonstrate the Cybersex Essay, potential usefulness of this microscope, flies and celery stalks were imaged. The flies were unsuccessfully imaged but this is probably due to the fly being dehydrated from being imaged at a post-mortem date. Thai System. The celery stalks were submerged in water and the resulting images showed a lot of variation resembling a realistic view of the celery. The signal variation represents areas of high hydrogen content (white) and low hydrogen reaction (black). Images were taken with thicker and thinner slices and also an image was taken two weeks after the initial images. Structure variations are present between all images. The signal-to-noise ratio decreases proportional to the thickness of the slice and is visible in the images. The Darker Brother. Decomposition is thai, present in Cybersex Essay, the right hand image and the structures appear to have broken down also. This application has successfully imaged vegetation with the microscope.

Future work could be done on economic germinating seeds and fantasy theme, NMR images could potentially capture various stages of development. Figure 22: Images of celery taken with gradients 10%, and 20% respectively and an image taken two weeks after the initial image with a gradient of 40%. The purpose of this research was to use a Bruker 300 DRX Spectrometer for thai economic system tomographic NMR microscopy and document features such as in-plane resolution and slice thickness. The in-plane resolution refers to the smallest object that can be resolved in fantasy theme, the resulting image. Slice thickness for this research represents the amount of thai economic system sample to get excited by the magnetic field documented in the z-direction. Ideal goals were a slice thickness of fantasy theme 1 mm and an in-plane resolution of 50 m m. This research set numerous optimistic goals that were slightly out of range for the amount of time available. It was very difficult to find phantoms with the desired characteristics that were also small enough to fit inside the sample tube. It was also difficult to determine a slice thickness due to the pulse being shaped like a sinc in thai, Fourier space and a non-uniform slice being excited from the phantom. Another dilemma was that most of the known parameters on the Bruker Spectrometer were not fully trusted for accuracy.

An example of this is that the maximum gradient is defined as 50 G/cm but this number may not be exact. Theory. This value changes the theoretical calculations if inaccurate. A nylon screw phantom was initially used to document slice thickness because it was thought to have the desired characteristics. The screw was submerged in water to create the nmr signal. Thai Economic. The screw phantom was going to kamasutra maya have signal corresponding to the number of thread turns but this did not work as first expected. There was no way to discriminate between thread turns of economic more than one. Also, due to the sinusoidal nature of the excited hydrogen protons, it was difficult to tell whether the slice was thick or whether sinusoidal shape was adding additional signal from Cybersex Essay outside the desired 1 mm slice. The screw phantom was abandoned due to these difficulties and a new phantom consisting of a cone submerged in water was imaged. Intricate measurements were taken of this phantom and system, the theoretical amount of signal was modeled for use in determining the decoding, slice thickness. This phantom behaved as expected for the system given a non-uniform slice thickness.

The horizontal plots of the images show both signal-to-noise changes between the images and also a relative shape that takes into account the slice thickness. The next goal of this research was to document the in-plane resolution using a constant field of economic system view. The major difficulties with this phantom were that it was difficult to kamasutra maya find objects with the desired characteristics that were small enough to test the in-plane resolution limits. Initially, fishing line was imaged but the smallest diameter was 87 m m and the goal of the system was at least 50 m m. To test the limits further, glass rods were stretched and submerged in water since they were the smallest objects available for use with diameters of approximately 45 m m. Glass rods are visible in the resulting images. It was very difficult to keep the glass rods perpendicular in economic, the sample tube and this is visible in the images by pragmatic their oval shape. Since the glass rods were pieces of stretched glass, the diameter might not be uniform anyway. The calculated image size using the images shows that the in-plane resolution is 118 m m for a 45 m m object diameter. Thai Economic. These results could also be effected to the large amount of signal present in honor book, the sample relative to the tiny glass rods. The smearing of the object size in the image is due to a limitation of MRI so these results aren't unusual. Future work in this research area should include adding user control of the slice location the sample tube.

Some ideas for this are in the following paragraphs. Building off the phantom for slice selection, a new phantom will be developed to test a slice selection locator feature. Assuming that that the thai system, results from the first phantom adequately documented the thickness of the fantasy theme, slice, this feature will allow the user to freely choose the thai, particular location of the 1 mm slice. The user will also be able to choose different slice locations to be taken from the same sample tube. This concept is illustrated below in Figure 10 and will work best for samples that vary in the z direction such as a fly or corn kernel.

Figure 23: Fly with varying signal components in the z direction. and illustration of the slice selection locator. Mathematically, this will be accomplished by utilizing the relationship between frequency and the location in the z direction. The location in the z direction is kamasutra maya, equal to the change in frequency divided by the product of the gyromagnetic ratio and economic, the frequency gradient of the slice. Change in frequency will be equal to the frequency we apply minus a reference frequency at Cybersex Essay, zero. The phantom for this experiment will have similar characteristics to the slice selection phantom. This phantom must have a measurable variance in the z direction as far as water content or signal variance. A simple phantom can be constructed with capillary tubes filled with varying amounts of water in them over thai, the z range of the on my honor book, detector. This should result in a variance of thai economic system signal proportional to the z location and give us enough knowledge to narrow down where the slice is being taken. An illustration of this phantom is in Figure 11 below. After getting an approximate region of where the Cybersex Essay, slice is being taken, the economic, nylon screw may be placed in a measured amount of water and the results should yield enough information to determine the final location of the slice.

Figure 24: Slice taken at location (dotted lines) for kamasutra maya slice selection locator phantom. Given that the thai economic, thickness of the slice and the in-plane resolution are both accurately documented, the phantom mentioned above should allow the specification to the location of the slice. The amount of accuracy may also be tested by varying parameters slightly to detect a subtle change in kamasutra maya, signal.