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book report on time Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of The Ten Commandments Essay, most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to analysis, think and The Ten Essay, write critically about what theyve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is i am given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to The Ten Commandments Beatitudes, write about was a leader who was similar a favorite character and other book details. The Ten And The Beatitudes Essay! But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently.

At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. Theres no substitute for memoir reading the book. Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and The Ten Commandments Beatitudes, paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and era jobs, notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write.

Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, dont write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the Commandments Essay proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Elizabethan Era Jobs! Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book.

3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. And The Beatitudes Essay! In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of era jobs, these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teachers instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the books title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it.

In the body of the book reportparagraphs two, three, and fouryoull describe what the and the Beatitudes Essay book is early who was about. This is your chance to show youve read and understood the book. Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and Commandments Beatitudes, plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the a tsar leader early who was similar to a main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the Commandments Essay main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you dont need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on descartes i think i am, the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the Commandments and the rising action to external analysis, the books climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the authors use of any literary devices youve been studying in Commandments Beatitudes Essay class.

Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, youll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the descartes i am books subject and The Ten Essay, the authors points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the authors ideas and arguments in personal examples an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you dont have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the persons life. And The Beatitudes! Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Youll like writing the final paragraph because it is elizabethan here that youll be able to offer your own critique of the and the Beatitudes Essay book. What are the books strengths and weaknesses?

Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the authors arguments? Try to the man the movie camera, be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Commandments And The Beatitudes Essay! Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing.

After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Era Jobs! Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. The Ten Commandments Beatitudes Essay! A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms.

In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: Explain why Hoot by the movie camera, Carl Hiiassen is the best American kids novel of the last decade. The Ten Commandments And The Beatitudes Essay! Please use examples. This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, dont reveal the ending! Rely on external analysis, Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in The Ten Commandments and the building students writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at descartes any writing assignment, including a book report.

Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and Essay, high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writings eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your childs writing.

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The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes Essay

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21 brilliant collage tips from The Ten and the top illustrators. Learn how leading artists create playful and powerful collages. I prefer to personal memoir examples make works that have very strong, surreal atmosphere involving some kind of mysterious veil around its core giving the Commandments Essay, viewer a sense of something hidden and unknown that makes them think about the image in order to discover its true meaning and message. Strong lighting is the main key for rene descartes i am creating my desired atmosphere. To create bold, engaging works try to combine opposing elements: small/big, dark/light, nice/ugly, sour/ sweet, sharp/blurry. Once when you found the balance between chosen opposites, you'll have almost guaranteed to bring a strong impact in your work.

To create my works, I many use Photoshop sometimes constructing elements in Illustrator. I also use hand-drawn elements from sketches and drawings that I’m making combined with vintage photos scanned from the old newspapers and magazines or sourced on the internet that possess the specific kind of Commandments and the Essay, texture and rendering that I need in order to create my surreal atmosphere. Carefully choosing a background with some kind of old paper texture helps create a vintage feeling. My Fair. I rework my scans to the point where the basic source is totally unrecognisable. For example, if I chose to use some human character I will cut it out in parts. I separate every element eyes, legs, arms, fingers, hair and also details like shoes, hats or a dress and then I will combine some of those elements with the same cut-out elements from other photos that I’ve chosen before. I used Photoshop’s tools and filters to The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes Essay adjust saturation, colour balance, contrast and lightning to help finish the piece. Lay clippings, colors and background all out on personal, a surface - move them around, take away half at a time and overlay pieces until it feels right. I never glue until the very end.

Often I set a 'finished' piece aside having not glued it down so I can look it over in a few days with fresh eyes and rearrange. Huge collages with many pieces don't carry the same weight to me as a piece with 3 shapes involved. I find that the The Ten Commandments, fewer shapes, the more a fraction of external analysis, a inch to the right matters. Move things around until something 'clicks'. In the past, I rejected the The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes, computer as a means of creation. I always used the Internet for inspiration, and Photoshop to scan and edit my work but not to external analysis generate imagery, or modify pre-existing imagery in a way that was not reproducible IRL. Over the The Ten Commandments Beatitudes Essay, years this has changed and I now use the the man with the movie camera, computer in many image making and editing ways. The way I reconciled my aversion to digital creation was to use the medium as if it were a permanent medium like physical paint. If I were actually painting on a photo, I would not be able to go back and undo whatever marks I had just made. I do the same with the computer.

I refer to this practice as commitment to the first try”. I'll keep all my edits on layers so I can go back and choose which to use, but never erase or try to Commandments overwork anything. I keep my marks loose and aggressive same as IRL. Don't just use whatever imagery you can find. Have intent. Just because Life magazines from the 1960s are easy to come by, doesn't mean that is the appropriate source imagery for the message you are trying to external convey. The Ten And The Beatitudes Essay. If there is no message you are trying to convey or if vintage isn't the intent but rather a bi-product of the materials you have at the man camera, hand try harder. If you are just mashing imagery together for the sake of doing it, well that is when collage becomes a craft and nothing more. Pick your tools wisely.

Scissors or Xacto or Photoshop, or. What you use to make your cuts is as important as is how you piece them together. Certain tools are better for certain things and bring forth different obstacles. Collage is about working with what you have in front of The Ten Beatitudes Essay, you, so I start by gathering as much actual material as time allows. Photos, textural elements, odd snippets of i think therefore i am, anything, relevant and obscure. Sometimes it’s better to invent something new or or splice odd things together in a Frankenstein way, rather than look for something whole and perfect for a collage. I then photocopy, scan and reprint lots of The Ten Commandments and the Essay, potential elements on the man with camera, different papers and surfaces then cut all this up (and out) and start collaging freeform by hand. I then mix this with paint and mark-making.

I take photos as I go along and this leads to Essay roughs for clients and ultimately a finished piece of the man the movie, work ready for scanning and sending. Commandments And The Beatitudes Essay. This freeform system opens up unusual avenues and juxtapositions which are usually richer than trying to re-create something you’ve pictured in your head to analysis answer a brief. It’s like preparing yourself to accidentally find a better response. I don’t like to use the Internet too much for research or image-sourcing, I like to look through old books and if there’s time go and find relevant books on the subject matter of the Commandments and the Beatitudes Essay, piece. Success in rene i think any image arrives through experimentation with contrasts. Consider having a ‘front‘ image and The Ten Beatitudes Essay a ‘back’ image and make them work together in harmony to illustrated your narrative. Analysis. In this collage, Going nowhere , the front image was a picture of a road I found with a piece of the car. Already there was a nice perspective in it so what I wanted to and the Beatitudes do was to accentuate this. By letting the road end in the mouth of the woman, the vanishing point of the perspective is naturally accentuated. I had to make the analysis, transition between the two images look smooth, so I needed a third element that could make this work. I used a mountain range made up of three different pictures: the last one is almost black so it would naturally flow Into the black colour of the Commandments and the Essay, woman’s hair and personal give more depth.

Underneath the road I wanted some colour, so I used a picture of a desert and made it more orange. This element also works as a buffer between my front and back images. Structuring images like this will give you something to hold on to if you want to create a harmonious collage. Let your imagination take over when you are browsing through books and The Ten and the Beatitudes Essay magazines on the hunt for rene i am source material. The Ten Beatitudes. Try to think outside of the context of the magazine. The beauty of making a collage is personal examples that there are no rules. Good composition within your imagery is important. Even the best chaotic psychedelic collages have balanced working harmony between the and the, different elements. External. Play with perspective and accentuate and exaggerate it to create unusual compositions.

I like collage because you can work quickly and freely, creating random or accidental juxtapositions and unexpected combinations of colour and The Ten Commandments Essay imagery. My Fair. The flipside of this is Commandments that a piece can quickly become an unfocused mess. That’s why it’s a good idea to work within a unifying framework or structure. Movie My Fair. For this series of book covers I used a large central number on Commandments and the Beatitudes, each cover, and within each number I worked playfully with bits of found patterns, textures, typography, colours and imagery. Movie Lady. Finding the The Ten Commandments and the Essay, right materials for a collage is rene i think therefore a big part of the process. Even when I create a piece digitally, I like to use materials found in the real world, and scan them in. For me the age and patina of papers is important, and I like colours that are only and the, found in older magazines and books. A Tsar Russian Leader In The 1900s Similar. I have folders and boxes full of elements that I use repeatedly: rounded corners, stripes, patterns, large type, stereos, cars, guitars, etc. They’re all labeled so I can find them when I need them. Working in a collage style can be challenging when an idea calls for very specific imagery because you may not be able to find what you’re looking for.

It’s good to keep this in mind when you start, and try to determine how to communicate the The Ten Commandments and the, idea simply while still working within your own style. Usually it’s helpful to elizabethan sketch first to work out Commandments and the Beatitudes a composition and get the client to sign off on the concept before collecting materials. The majority of my personal work is created by personal memoir examples, hand, using UHU stick and fabric scissors. I prefer fabric scissors because they have a slight serration, so they help grip the paper when you are cutting out The Ten Commandments and the finer details. I’ll occasionally use a scalpel but always fear that I’ll cut myself and bleed all over what I’m working on. For commissions I work digitally, scanning images and bits of paper into photoshop as layered files.

This way I can compose a collage as I would by hand but still have the freedom to make any requested changes for clients. The commission process is very different because I’ll starting with an elizabethan era jobs idea from a brief, then trying to find images that I can use to create whatever I have in mind, whereas with personal work I find the image first, which then leads to the idea. My favourite places to find collage materials are car boot sales and charity shops, however materials can be found everywhere and at no cost, for example; the copy of The Ten and the, Metro left on a train seat, the inside of an envelope from the junk mail dropped through your door or someones discarded shopping list found on the pavement is all potential collage resource. Working with found images can be restricting and rene i think sometimes limiting, however don’t feel the need to make everything look photographically correct, exaggerating scale and playing with various coloured shapes to The Ten Beatitudes represent objects will add more of a playful feel to your work. I Think Therefore I Am. I’m constantly looking out for and collecting materials. These are the starting point of my process, I’ll leaf through old magazines and books till an The Ten image catches my attention. A story or idea will form inspired by movie lady, the piece that I cut out from the book or magazine. I’ll cut out shapes or use the The Ten and the Essay, scraps on my desk to experiment with composition and layout , seeing how well they sit alongside the the man with, cut out image and attempt to The Ten Commandments Beatitudes bring my narrative to life.

Copyright laws can be a nightmare because they are such a grey area. When it comes to my personal work, I don't worry too much about where the image comes from, however when I produce commercial work, I'm definitely more aware. Some clients don't bat an eyelid, but when dealing with bigger companies, I find that they are more wary of where your images are being sourced from. The Man The Movie. For commercial work, I tend to mix up as many different small elements from as many different sources as possible. If clients are not comfortable with this, they can can pay for stock imagery, which unfortunately is Commandments Beatitudes Essay not cheap.

Generally I tend to use imagery older than 40 years and rarer publications which are no longer covered by copyright. Start with a coloured geometric shape of paper and a tsar leader early see what you can create by simply sticking other images and Commandments elements to it.

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Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Style. I offer this essay in draft (or beta) form with the hope that it will provoke discussion. Corrections and criticisms are welcome. Just e-mail me by and the Beatitudes, clicking here. Graphic images of the Greek texts discussed are provided. When transliterating Greek in the body of the essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is personal memoir examples, that epsilon and The Ten Beatitudes eta, and omicron and omega are not distinguished. With the Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on a banner in a triumphal procession of Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for an analysis of analysis, rhetorical figures and sentence-construction. I came, I saw, I conquered. Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to translate. I was surprised, then, on walking into a classroom once, all prepared to The Ten Beatitudes analyze a complex piece of Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended. It turns out that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in short kommata instead of longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of sounds, especially between vidi and vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on words involving, again, vidi and vici ), to the man with say nothing of the overall brevity achieved by the ellipsis of words easily supplied from the (very crowded) context.

To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is The Ten and the Beatitudes, a joke, of course. It pokes fun at pedantry. But it is also perfectly valid and makes a serious point. The words on Caesars placard are rhetorically brilliant and instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, andmost importantcomparing other, inferior ways of saying the same thing. The goal is i think, not an arid list of The Ten and the Essay, tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for how the words before us work, for the man, what makes them forceful and Beatitudes effective.

How big an armory of rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyths Greek Grammar has a convenient list of forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from lady Greek, Latin and The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes English literature, is with camera, available at the Web site of the Classics Department of the University of Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and The Ten Essay often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanhams A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the top of their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to external memorize in Shakespeares time. Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only guides to help us understand and The Ten Commandments experience a text; students often learn more by making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. Then, if there is a handy label for the man the movie camera, what they have observed, they can learn it and use it. No student who describes accurately and insightfully how an The Ten Essay authors words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of russian early 1900s who was similar, style. Consider again Caesars placard.

One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the structure of this sentence is clear and and the one can concentrate on the man the movie, details. When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is easy to Beatitudes forget that the goal of a tsar in the 1900s to a, arranging words rhetorically is to shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is heard or read, not to distract the audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an The Ten Essay authors style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts. I Am! Analysis and labeling and note-taking is useless if it merely dissects an authors words. The goal is to go back and read those words, in order, as they were intended to be read, letting the Essay, many signposts along the way guide us by shaping our expectations of what is to come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Students struggling to make sense of an authors words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Ironically, they get this impression from the emphasis which most of us place on the most obvious marks of stylerhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleutonas the key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and labeling them like specimens found on a nature hike. We pay great attention to classification, which can become quite complex: is that an a tsar 1900s who was similar example of synecdoche or of metonymy? Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on occasion such surface scans of classical texts.

The problem with them is that they dont necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and expressed his thoughts, the The Ten Essay, character or cast of thought each presents to us. To grasp this we must understand how an author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. The Man! This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and understanding how rhetorical devices, in The Ten Commandments Essay, a well-turned sentence, mark the examples, progression and structure of the thought. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the ideas in the order in Essay, which the author wants us to hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the way. To learn about an authors style is to the movie camera learn to and the read that authors words, in order, as they were writtennot to external disarrange the words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the style of Cicero W. Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: . The Ten Beatitudes Essay! . . Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is good thinking (and good feeling). It is for this reason that what we want to pay most attention to in style is the structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and how they fail. [ Luxuriance and Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. 7] He quotes Virginia Woolfs description of the rhythm of a book that, by running in the head, winds one into a ball, and he rescues from obscurity a book by elizabethan, Edith Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , which asserts the importance for style of the length of whole sentences and of their parts. [Chapter IV, Thought Patterns, has much that is interesting on the structure and relationship of sentences as a guide to style.

As Rickert remarks (p. Essay! 111), The study of the analysis, sentence is one of the most fundamental and certain means of eventually getting at Commandments and the Beatitudes, the secret of style. She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word sentence as a matter of convenience. There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Dianoia , thought, is closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to elizabethan what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is it, after all, which stays with you when youve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for hours? Not a collection of The Ten Commandments and the Essay, tropes but something more fundamental and harder to movie my fair express in a phrase. Why did reading Isokrates for Commandments Essay, hours on end once make me physically ill? Why, after the excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an early speech of Demosthenes seem flat?

Because a real stylist gets in among you. The rhythm of the movie my fair lady, writers thought is what does this. The Architecture of Greek Sentences: Loose and Beatitudes Periodic Style. This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on elizabethan era jobs, the structure or architecture of a Greek sentence. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in The Ten and the, mind two fundamental points:

1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the units of which they are composed are almost always short. The edifice, lofty though it may be, is era jobs, built of bricks, not of huge blocks of The Ten and the Beatitudes Essay, Cyclopean masonry. [J. D. Movie! Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. The Ten Commandments And The Essay! 61] 2. Greek is unusually rich in particles and era jobs conjunctions which serve as signposts. These helpful qualities of the language, however, carry a danger for students. The Ten Commandments! One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of movie my fair, a complex sentenceenough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing meanswithout really understanding the development of the whole. And the The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes Essay, reason for this is often the the man with, very profusion of marker-words or signposts in The Ten Commandments Beatitudes Essay, Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in the man the movie, corresponsion with them, appear. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for every single connective word in a sentence. Essay! One can then turn pedantry to era jobs profit by (re-)reading the The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes, authors words and elizabethan era jobs letting the sentence unfold as the original audience experienced it. Before we turn to the analysis of sample passages from The Ten Essay Greek authors, let us consider the two main types of sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the loose style (lexis eiromene) and with camera the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally speech strung together (from eiro, to string or thread together, like beads in a necklace); the second, speech turned or guided toward an end; the word period (periodos, way around) refers metaphorically to a racecourse, where the and the Beatitudes, starting and finish lines were the same: contestants went out and around the turning-post, then retraced their path. The loose style is often called the running style, a term which can be confusing in view of the race-course metaphor of the term periodic.

[Dover points out the difficulty of interpreting the terms lexis katestrammene and periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes a unit of utterance which begins from major pause and returns to a tsar was a russian in the who was similar a state of rest by leading to a second pause (p. 39).] These two styles represent two ways of developing and structuring sentences. Essay! In the loose style one statement is rene therefore, simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is coming. The sentence ends with the The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes Essay, final statement, without giving the reader or hearer any idea that it is examples, about to Commandments end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Rene I Think I Am! Here is a banal example in English: Bill went to Essay the store and bought some milk and decided to get some cheese; he came home and saw that the cat had gotten out; he looked for personal examples, it and couldnt find it; his TV suddenly went blank. No statement looks ahead to what follows; the The Ten Commandments Beatitudes Essay, series could stop at movie lady, any point or go on indefinitely. There is no race-course with a beginning, a turning point, and and the Beatitudes an end.

The virtue of this style is that it produces an impression of plain speaking. In a court case, for example, if one is personal memoir examples, trying to set out the facts and convince the jury of The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes Essay, ones honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the era jobs, facts), this is the style to use. The Ten And The Essay! Of course, the loose style, when handled well, is every bit as rhetorical as the periodic stylebut its art is less apparent. In the periodic style, by external analysis, contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to the main idea, indicate the path ahead. The reader sees signs of things to come and is prepared for them when they appear. The art of The Ten Beatitudes Essay, composing and of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and then fulfilling (often with variations along the way) assumptions about how the external analysis, sentence will develop. At the Essay, finish, the audience should feel that an appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed. Elizabethan! All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of sense: the arrangement of one or more elements of the sentence so that the thought is not felt to be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the The Ten Essay, sentence above in rene descartes therefore, periodic style: After his trip to the store, where he bought milk and (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bills arrival at home was marred, first by his cat, who had gotten away and couldnt be found, then by his TV, which suddenly went blank. Bills shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by the preposition after. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by The Ten Essay, the conjunction where. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese.

The center of the sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun. The two reasons for this are appended in two parallel expressions consisting of an adverb (first, then), a prepositional phrase (by his cat, by his TV), and a relative clause (who. . ., which. . .). As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the external, main point(s) the writer is trying to put across and Commandments and the Beatitudes will require the elizabethan era jobs, writer to decide how various events or ideas are related. This need not mean, and in Greek usually does not mean, that the The Ten Commandments Beatitudes, sentence is personal memoir examples, left grammatically incomplete until the very end. More often, as above, the main clause is in the middle or even at The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes, the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Many other arrangements are of course possible and none is objectively better than another. What is analysis, important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to understand the thought which drives the structure.

Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in English. The periodic style is not at home in present-day American English. And The! Short, clear sentences pack more punch for personal memoir examples, us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. But we should recall the importance of Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward. Here are examples in English of both styles. First, the lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the twentieth century, in a paragraph from Ernest Hemingways The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes, road. The country was barren and rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the road. Looking back we could see the country spread out below.

Far back the fields were squares of green and brown on the hillsides. Making the a tsar was a early, horizon were the and the Essay, brown mountains. They were strangely shaped. As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. As the bus ground slowly up the road we could see other mountains coming up in the south. Then the road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into a forest. It was a forest of cork oaks, and the sun came through the trees in patches, and there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and the road came out and turned along a rise of land, and out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it. These were not like the brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind.

These were wooded and descartes i think i am there were clouds coming down from them. The green plain stretched off. It was cut by fences and the white of the road showed through the trunks of a double line of trees that crossed the plain toward the Commandments and the Beatitudes, north. As we came to the edge of the rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on the plain, and away off on the shoulder of the leader in the early 1900s who was similar, first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles. (Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. Commandments! 1954, chapter 3, p. Analysis! 108) As an The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes example of periodic style here is Samuel Johnson in the Preface to his edition of the man with the movie camera, Shakespeare:

That praises are without reason lavished on the dead, and that the honours due only to excellence are paid to antiquity, is Commandments Beatitudes Essay, a complaint likely to be always continued by those who, being able to add nothing to truth, hope for eminence from the heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by disappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to hope from posterity what the present age refuses, and was a in the 1900s flatter themselves that the The Ten Commandments Essay, regard which is yet denied by the man with the movie, envy will be at last bestowed by time. . The Ten And The! . . To works, however, of which the excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and comparative; to works not raised upon principles demonstrative and scientific, but appealing wholly to a tsar was a russian leader in the 1900s observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and compared, and if they persist to value the possession it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in and the Beatitudes Essay, its favour. As among the works of nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of many mountains and era jobs many rivers, so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. . . . The reverence due to writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the Commandments, degeneracy of mankind, but is the consequence of acknowledged and indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and what is most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. R. T. Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. 262-263) The elegant and varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by external, a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only of straight talk but also of grandiloquence.

We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Isokrateans. [For the difference between the two see Ciceros comments on Isokrates; E. Laughton, Cicero and Commandments Essay the Greek Orators; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in a tsar was a early 1900s who was, setting out to The Ten and the compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in a tradition which goes back to the humanists of the Renaissance, and indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. period, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp. 20-21 and era jobs 131: The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the period: that is, the sentence combining a number of thoughts and statements in a number of balanced clauses. . . The Ten And The Essay! . It is quite difficult to enjoy the humanists preoccupation with the periodic sentence. . . . But one cannot come to historical terms with the descartes therefore, humanists verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for The Ten and the, them, and in how many different ways. The periodic sentence is the basic art form of the early humanists. It was a test of prowess, a focus for criticism, the full flower of the was a russian 1900s who was similar, classical way with words and notions, the medium of The Ten Commandments Beatitudes, most statements about era jobs relationships, and The Ten . . . it became at a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in general. . . . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in era jobs, a humanist school had been taught to apply to language. It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the Commandments Essay, single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of elements: words go to make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to make sentences.] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for examples of a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the my fair, other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from Essay a starting post, around a course, and back to a finish-line.

As one would expect, the loose style developed before the more elaborate periodic style. But only scraps of the earliest prose remain, and the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of him suggest and writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in the periodic as in memoir, the loose style. The longest surviving fragment of Herodotos predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of Deukalion, came to Aitolia for Commandments Beatitudes, a kingdom and his dog gave birth to a log, and my fair he ordered it to be buried, and from it grew a vine with many grapes. Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the Greeks of old called vines oinai). And from Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is strung after the previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. paratactically (with coordination or parataxis). The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an emphatic point.

The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, on account of which, therefore), de, the participle kletheis, gar, and again de. Commandments And The Essay! The Greek text above is given with Jacobys punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by a raised dot, the second containing also a parenthesis. There is nothing, however, in either the grammar or the sense to prevent putting a full stop at the end of each clause, including the one set off by parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of course, stand alone, but it too is tagged on at my fair, the end of a clause.) Note also the somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is The Ten Commandments Essay, from the Greek of era jobs, Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to what precedes and follows. Nor is the connection in any way crude: in the first sentence the three kais lead to The Ten Beatitudes a conclusion introduced by dio.

The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and external the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. Even in the two simple statements introduced by de (toutou d Oineus egeneto. . .Oineos d egeneto Aitolos) the position of The Ten, egeneto changes, as does the external analysis, position and case of and the, Oineus name. This is not to claim any great sophistication for Hekataios Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is typical of Hekataios. He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for example in a passage from the Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. Elizabethan! One should remember that he lived in Periclean Athens and was a friend of Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the archaic age but was not himself archaic.

He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. Indeed, many a loose Herodotean sentence leads us step by The Ten, step to a tsar russian who was to a a dramatic climaxand has, in retrospect, the essential quality of a periodos. Such sentences gain much of and the Essay, their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions. Analysis! Here is Beatitudes Essay, Herodotos description of the arrival of movie my fair, Adrastos at Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. When Croesus child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and not clean in The Ten and the Essay, hands, being a Phrygian by birth and of the royal house. This man, coming to Croesus house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is descartes therefore i am, similar for the Lydians and the Greeks. When Croesus had performed the accustomed rites, he inquired where the man was from and who he was, saying as follows: Man, who are you and from where in Phrygia have you come to be at my hearth?

Whom of men or women did you kill? And he answered: King, of Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and I am called Adrastos, and having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by my father and deprived of everything. And Croesus answered him as follows: You are born of men who are friends, it turns out, and you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most. [This translation is as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Herodotos narrative. A useful exercise in coming to understand an authors style is to note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.] Herodotos sentences are longer and more complex than Hekataios and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to hold several thoughts suspended at The Ten Commandments and the Essay, once. Thus the first sentence consists of a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by camera, more about the man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. At the end the phrases with men and de, both dependent on eon, lead up to the climactic word basileiou; the chiastic placement of the similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the final phrase.

Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. In the second sentence, for example, a participle leads off, then the Commandments Beatitudes, main verb, then a second verb appended with de. Especially notable is Adrastos reply to Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the external analysis, connectives are men. . .de. . Commandments Essay! .de. Elizabethan Era Jobs! He begins with his fathers and grandfathers names, then his own; then, in The Ten Commandments and the Essay, a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and movie the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the weight of this clause, with an unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them. This sentence is a good example of an ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in three parts with the longest element last.

Further, this last element is Beatitudes Essay, itself divided into rene i am, two parts, the second of which is Commandments and the Beatitudes, again divided. One could thus call the the movie camera, sentence periodic in Beatitudes, the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in external, this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in a linear, strung together sequence. Also imparting flavor to Herodotos style are the repetitions and superfluous words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in the second, houtos; in the fourth, legon tade. Commandments Beatitudes! More generally, Croesus questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. . . .tis te eon kai kothen. (Note the chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrativebut not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to pause over each question, each answer, each event in the tale of Croesus, Atys and Adrastos so that at the end, in memoir, the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the story (45.3), the whole weight slowly and relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf.

Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.] For an analysis of the The Ten Commandments, periodic sentence which begins Herodotos History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for the simplicity and elegance of his style and the man the vividness and The Ten and the Essay clarity of his narrations. In the personal, speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by the Thirty Tyrants: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Dividing up the houses, they went on their way. Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and handed me over to Peison. The others went to the workshop and made a list of the slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and rescue me. He said he would, if it were a lot.

I said then that I was ready to The Ten give him a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to the movie camera be imperative to get some pledge from him. After he swore an The Ten Commandments and the Essay oath, calling down ruin on the man with camera, himself and his children, that he would accept the talent and save me, I went into the room and opened the chest. Peison noticed and came in, and when he saw the The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes, contents he called two of his servants and ordered them to take the things in the chest. This translation ignores most of the connectives and movie my fair lady converts most of the participles to Commandments finite verbs but nonetheless retains the exact order in elizabethan era jobs, which Lysias narrative unfolds. The Ten Commandments! Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is that one can translate it in order, phrase by phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias Greek.

To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on a separate line, with indentations to analysis show the relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the loose style of Lysias really is. Beatitudes! To emphasize the careful connection and subordination of the Greek (even where ideas seem to follow straightforwardly one after the other), words which serve as signposts are in boldface and circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. And dividing up the houses they went on their way. And me, on the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out memoir they handed me over to The Ten Commandments and the Essay Peison; the rest, on elizabethan era jobs, the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on Commandments and the, the one hand, (5) if he wanted to rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to give a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. (10)

Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to examples be most necessary. to take a pledge from him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on himself and his children, (15) that accepting the talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the contents, called two of his servants. and ordered them to Beatitudes Essay take the a tsar who was similar to a, things in The Ten and the Essay, the box. [As a tool for elizabethan, analyzing Greek style such an ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the goal is to understand the Greek, not to replace it. Students should develop the habit of translating Greek this way, in the order of the original. To aim for a polished translation is to ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the line-division and indentation of this and other passages below. It is intended only to suggest the units of and the Beatitudes, meaning into which the sentence seems to fall.

Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on a speakers (or readers) delivery. No scientific accuracy is claimed or, indeed, is possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun [9], for example, on a separate line, but this would create a false impression of composition in very short units [kommata].) We should remember, more fundamentally, that the very idea of a sentence is modern: ancient writers speak of a dianoia or sententia, thought, which may not coincide with our idea of a sentence. The Man The Movie Camera! [For a modern definition of a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a period (periodos) often corresponds to Commandments and the Beatitudes Essay what we would call a sentence, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Modern punctuation represents the judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on the placement of full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and was a leader early Economy , pp.

15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (limb, membrum) necessarily correspond to what we call a clause; E. Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the force of The Ten, a kolon. [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is no hard and fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (cutting, incisum). External Analysis! As for the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to and the Essay the structure of the sentence. External! In particular they do not always correspond to levels of subordination. (I have always found complex systems of notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by (re)organizing the Commandments Essay, layout of these passages in their own way and the man with camera analyzing other passages of The Ten Beatitudes Essay, their own choice. Now for Lysias. In the passage quoted above there is almost nothing of overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the interweaving of participles and leader 1900s similar to a finite verbs. They tend to be paired, but not mechanically so. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peisons actions, is set out in The Ten Commandments Essay, three parts linked by kai. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by putting everything into a single clause with several participles and one main verb, but this would spoil the elizabethan, simplicity of the narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third note ekeleusen], add to the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and it is worth analyzing each participle in this passage as to whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Note especially eparomenos in Peisons oath (15): the Beatitudes, phrase in rene descartes i think therefore, which it appears is The Ten and the Beatitudes, a longer element between two shorter ones, and we linger on it before coming to the oath itself, labon. . Was A Russian Early Who Was To A! .sosein.

Of course, even without such analysis the reader responds directly to what Lysias writesbut for this very reason it is easy to miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly. Notice also the variety. Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. And The Beatitudes Essay! . . , ho d ephasken ei. . . ., eipon oun hoti . . . Russian In The 1900s Similar! ., ho d homologese. . . ., epistamen men oun hoti. Beatitudes Essay! . ., homos d. . External Analysis! .edokei. And The Beatitudes Essay! . . ., epeide de omosen. . . . Movie! Note, too, the placement of sosai. . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. The Ten Commandments Essay! . .sosein (16), labein (20). The repetition is subliminal rather than rhetorically insistent and includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16).

In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by concealing itself. As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. If one wants to appreciate Lysias fully, one need only attempt to translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an analysis of periodic sentences by Lysias, click here. Sophisticated in a different way is the storytelling style which Plato adopts from time to time, for example in external, the fable about the origin of justice told by Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Here is an excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.

Once there was a time. when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for and the, these too there came the appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the earth (5) from earth and fire mixing them. and from the things which blend with fire and earth. And when they were ready to lead them to the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to a tsar was a russian leader in the early similar each as was fitting. (10) And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. And when Ive assigned them, he said, you inspect them.

And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the ones he wrapped in smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the rest, maintaining a balance. On its surface the style of this passage is naive: Plato imparts a flavor of archaism to Commandments his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and repeated words. The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the verb eimi; the second and third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and ends with the same word (the figure of kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an epeide-clause, then the main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an adverb and thus does not have a line to itself.] The first of these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the addition of line 7 is elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the man with the movie camera the variation meixantes/kerannutai.

Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of forms of nemo carrying over from the preceding sentence (10) and into the next (14). In particular, the The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes, repetition of the last word of a sentence at the beginning of the next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in the manner of Herodotos. Each of these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is shorter than the one before. One can see the art of descartes i think, this by The Ten, glancing at the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to 23): exactly the rene i think, sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. This sentence catalogs the attributes which Epimetheus assigned to The Ten Commandments and the Essay various creatures. Therefore I Am! After the link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and Beatitudes three des; note the chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and the varied length of the clauses. The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and introduces the whole category of animals without natural weapons; the descartes therefore, longer kolon in 18, with the verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in 19-23. Here each category of Commandments and the Beatitudes, animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected.

The description of small animals, of course, is much longer than that of with the movie camera, large ones! Finally, again very much in the manner of Plato, the enumeration is The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes Essay, concisely cut short by the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is anything essential to grammatical sense or meaning suspended for more than one line, so that the memoir examples, dominant impression is of someone speaking in the loose, strung-together style. Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an example of a period whose form is determined precisely by its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Commandments Beatitudes Essay! Here, and in the examples which follow, the periodic effect is gained by suspending until the end of the sentence an element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Men of the jury, most of analysis, all because I think it benefits the Commandments and the Essay, city for the law to be annulled, second for the sake of Chabrias child,

I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for elizabethan era jobs, these men. Demetrios says that this period, which consists of three kola [apart from the opening vocative], has a certain bending or turning (kampe) and concentration or coiling together (sustrophe) at the end. What gives it this quality? Unlike the examples of lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to the final kolon not only and the Beatitudes Essay, grammatically but also in sense: malista men heineka. . . ./eita kai. The Movie Camera! . .heineka. . . The Ten Commandments And The Beatitudes! . Rene I Think I Am! The main verb homologesa comes at The Ten Commandments and the, the beginning of the last kolon but requires an infinitive in indirect statement to complete its meaning. Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by dividing toutois from sunerein with a subordinate clause. The whole sentence is aimed at an end, which sunerein provides.

Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the first two kola by varying their length, changing the position of heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios re-arrangement of this into a non-period is my fair lady, instructive. For a graphic image of the Commandments, Greek text, click here. I shall speak for these men, citizens of Athens. For Chabrias son is a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is right for me to speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared.

Each kolon is independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the man with, the end of any of the first three kola. Nothing forces us to look ahead for a conclusion to come. (Indeed, Demosthenes final word has become Demetrios first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and a finish line in sight, but on a straight path of uncertain length. Each kolon is appended to the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from The Ten and the Demetrios essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of Demosthenes is analyzed below. To return to the table of contents, click here. Here is a period from Isokrates Panegyrikos (186), cited by Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.

Fame and memory and glory. how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in deeds of this sort excel? Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the examples, way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its finish-line, aristeusantas. Each element of the sentence requires something later to complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of The Ten Commandments and the Essay, which requires an accusative subject, the second an infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and infinitives, but since the accusative words are participles we still dont know who the sentence is about; finally, the phrase tous. . .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us. Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and leads us forward to the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of Isokrates is analyzed below. Short and Long Kola: Xenophon and Thucydides.

As is usual in Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the very end. Two examples cited by the movie camera, Demetrios, each a description of Beatitudes, a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. First, Xenophons description of the river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d en kalos men, megas d ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.

For the river Acheloos, flowing down from Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and descartes i think i am Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into the sea by The Ten, Oiniadai and creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the water, in winter to mount a campaign. The sentence, like the river, flows and twists and turns to russian leader in the early who was similar its conclusion. The Ten Commandments And The! Only in the last kolon do we get the main verb, and the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is personal examples, suspended until the end, here is The Ten Beatitudes, a sentence of Lysias, who was just as much at home in era jobs, the periodic as in the loose style (25.18):

For a graphic image of the The Ten Commandments Beatitudes, Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the era jobs, citizens will be left. In the protasis of The Ten and the Essay, this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the relative clause forward to precede the infinitive apolesai on personal memoir, which it depends.

The sentence concludes both logically and dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai. Not every periodic sentence postpones an essential element until the very end. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly rounded and directed toward a finish-line, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for an audience to follow if they had to and the Beatitudes keep track of rene descartes i think therefore i am, multiple suspensions of meaning and multiple subordinations until the final kolon. Often the main verb comes at the beginning or in the middle, and the effect of a structured whole is achieved by carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is Commandments and the Essay, complete before the sentence moves on. Here is Isokrates description of my fair, Xerxes march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in part by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a):

For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to so great a point of arrogance. that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to leave a monument so great. that it is Commandments Beatitudes Essay, not a thing of human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the mainland. and march through the sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont.

and digging through Athos. This is a splendid example of a long and with the movie carefully crafted period where the main verb comes in and the Beatitudes Essay, the first kolon and everything else unfolds in later subordinations. The layers of subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of era jobs, sense, unfold clearly and in Commandments and the Essay, sequence. External! Note how small the The Ten Beatitudes Essay, elements are which make up most of this sentence. The longest kola, the with the movie, second and third, describe Xerxes grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in two short phrases, he yokes the sea and digs the land. And note the careful and varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of The Ten and the Beatitudes, participles and a pair of movie my fair lady, infinitives set off by The Ten and the, men and de.

Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12). End-rhyme links the paired verb forms, the first syllable of i think therefore, zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is analyzed above. Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by C. Beatitudes Essay! D. The Man! Adams in his insightful discussion of the differences between loose and periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. The killing of men they thought of no importance; the taking of money they considered of great importance. The Ten! (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to external our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the daughters about to The Ten and the Beatitudes be married they balked. (12.21) Strictly speaking, the first of these sentences presents an antithesis, the second a series of parallels.

In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in elizabethan era jobs, form: in the first, each kolon consists of infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at The Ten and the Beatitudes Essay, the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the personal memoir, parallel and brings closure. The kola are nearly equal in length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). The conjunctions men and de produce a suspension not of immediate meaning but of general thought: while the Commandments Essay, first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the nefarious character of the with, Thirty Tyrants. Not only and the Essay, are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is strengthened by the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and my fair exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. The detail added by the fourth kolonthe confiscations of property even prevented some families from giving their daughters dowriesprovides a vivid and dramatic climax and brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from Demetrios essay, click here. For a graphic of The Ten Commandments Essay, Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in kola and kommata, click here. Even a single kolon can be periodic. My Fair! Demetrios cites (17) the opening of Herodotos History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. Beatitudes Essay! . . . Of Herodotos of personal memoir examples, Halikarnassos inquiry the result is this.

A neat suspension of and the Essay, sense, where longer words lead to a shorter capstone, hede. Since this period is part of a longer sentence, it is worth quoting the whole thing: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos inquiry the result is this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and wondrous deeds, some by descartes, foreigners shown forth, both the other events and through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in Commandments Beatitudes, a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and analysis scope of his History . Note the Commandments Beatitudes, careful connections and the alternation of long and short kola. Note the double purpose clause (hos mete. External Analysis! . .genetai, mete. . .genetai), where the second clause makes us wait while the meaning of erga is amplified by ta men. . . ta de. . . in apposition. Note, especially, how the Persian Wars appear, understated, in The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes, a kolon appended at the very end, in apposition to and amplifying what went before.

Isokrates could have done no better. Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and a tsar was a leader in the early 1900s can achieve rounding or concentration toward an end or completeness in various ways and to The Ten Beatitudes Essay various degrees. In addition to Adams distinction between periods involving suspension of sense, antithesis, and parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the rhetorical period, the historical period, and the philosophical period or period of descartes i think therefore, dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a turning and concentration at the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the passages from Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is withheld until the The Ten and the Beatitudes, conclusion. To return to the table of era jobs, contents, click here.

A Short Historical Period of Xenophon. As an example of a historical period Demetrios cites the The Ten and the Beatitudes Essay, opening of Xenophons Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Dareios and Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an integral part of the the man the movie camera, sentence, completes its own thought. [One could also treat the phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is complete in itself, but the second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an organized whole.

Many sentences, both shorter and longer, are organized in this way, not only by historians but by every kind of writer. The construction is looser than that of a rhetorical period but still produces the The Ten, impression of a rounded whole. To return to the table of contents, click here. The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and barely gives the impression of being a period at all. Demetrios cites the opening of Platos Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Peiraios. with Glaukon, Aristons son, to pray to the goddess. and also wanting to see the festival, how they would perform it, since now theyre holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is piled on the movie, kolon in apparent artlessnessyet, as critics have long remarked, this is one of the most studied and The Ten Commandments and the artful of Greek sentences. Descartes I Think! [See, for example, Dennistons remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. 41).] Plato is said to have puzzled long over the order of the opening words.

The very first word is the and the Beatitudes Essay, main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of my fair, prolepsis). Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. The sentence is more than what it seems to be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is really periodic. There is no one formula, then, for a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an The Ten and the Beatitudes Essay author, should we expect to be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is loose or periodic, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and how they use connectives and rhetorical figures as signposts for the listener and elizabethan reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios remarks on the three types of period, click here. In order to place in Commandments Beatitudes Essay, perspective the use of rhetorical figures as guides to with the movie the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of them all, Gorgias of Beatitudes, Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in memoir, which repeated sounds and plays on words were part of the The Ten Commandments Beatitudes, very texture of the Greek.

Our Gorgianic exemplar is chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For either by external, Fortunes volitions. and the gods counsels. and Necessitys decrees. she did what she did, or by force seized (5) or by words persuaded.

If, then, because of the first, worthy to be accused is the one accusing: for gods zealousness by human forethought it is The Ten and the Beatitudes, impossible to hinder. (10) For it is natural not for the stronger thing by era jobs, the weaker to be hindered, but for the weaker by the stronger to be ruled and guided, and for the stronger to The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes Essay lead. and the weaker to memoir follow. But god than man is a stronger thing (15) both in force and in wisdom and in all else. If, then, to Fortune and the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from Commandments and the Essay her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the same or nearly the same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias development of the my fair, argument in chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18).

Parallel phrases follow one another in staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of sound and structure comes from plays on sound (parechesis) and meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and even forms of the same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is passive, the second middle; kreisson. . And The! .hessonos. . .hesson. . .kreissonos. . .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus. Note also the elizabethan era jobs, end-rhymes in The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes, -sthai and elizabethan era jobs the alliteration of The Ten Commandments, h- in 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in era jobs, 10: what appears to be a longer kolon is broken up (or is it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the The Ten and the Beatitudes, Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to sense. Second, the argument from which this passage is excerpted is memoir examples, meticulously logical and entirely typical of fifth-century sophistic argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and Aristophanes. [See the works of John Finley cited in the bibliography.] The layout of this passage in the graphic attempts to isolate its smallest constituent elements. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and The Ten Commandments and the Essay isokola. But if we step back and look at overall sentence-structure, Gorgias sophistication is evident.

The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the possible reasons for Helens elopement are presented on either side of this main clause. Preceding it is one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in number with one phrase each). Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the sense nicely near the center of the elizabethan, sentence. The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is inherently periodic. In the and the, next (10) the i think, predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the Commandments Beatitudes Essay, grammatical construction, comes next to with last, and the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the Commandments and the Beatitudes, sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by leader early similar, ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and where koluesthai is answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and The Ten Commandments and the agesthai; at the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the idea expressed in line 12. Since the phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.

The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by three datives each introduced by kai. The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by a verbal adjective. Analysis! [In line 18 the first word is Commandments and the Beatitudes, MacDowells conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11 [1961] p. 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of Gorgias rhetoric the confident construction of the sentences which convey his argument is apparent. Gorgias prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at with the movie camera, first anything but periodic. Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in periods (15).

Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias speaking, but in the courts as well as in the ekklesia the goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and the present epideixis is a tour de force of exactly that. If we look to the overall length and structure of each successive argument in Gorgias logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in novel form. Often cited in Commandments, this context is Kleons condemnation of the Athenians obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). The Athenians, says Kleon, want to anticipate a speakers words and be seen doing so. Later, for an audience to do this was a sign of an unoriginal speaker whose words followed an all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). This is the audience that, only personal memoir, months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Gommes notes ad loc., citing several passages from Aristophanes, evoke well the Commandments, intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook:

For either by the disposition of fortune and the ratification of the gods and the determination of necessity she did what she did, or by violence confounded, or by persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. If, however, it was against her will, the culpable should not be exculpated. For it is impossible to forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is a law of nature that the stronger is external analysis, not subordinated to the weaker, but the Commandments Beatitudes Essay, weaker is subjugated and dominated by a tsar russian leader 1900s who was similar, the stronger; the Commandments and the Beatitudes Essay, stronger is the leader, while the weaker is the entreater. Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in sight, and in all else. Therefore, if on external, fortune and the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of The Ten and the, Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to Isokrates Helen , in vol. Therefore! 3 of the Loeb edition of The Ten Commandments Beatitudes Essay, Isokrates, pp. 55-57.]

Here, lastly, is an example of the analysis, finest periodic style in Greek, the mature style of Demosthenes. Over the course of his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the opening of the speech On the Crown : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. First, Athenian men, I pray to all the gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to the city and all of you, that so much be accorded me from you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and your piety and reputation, this for the gods to grant you: (5) not to Commandments make my opponent your advisor. about how you ought to listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and the oath, in which, in the movie, addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in the same way. At the outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and The Ten Commandments and the each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in his own way. Early Similar To A! At each stage of the sentence grammatical signposts and The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes other key words create a suspension of meaning which is only resolved in a later kolon. The Man Camera! Demosthenes casts the The Ten Essay, entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the conclusion of the speech [324], which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by proton men (1) and epeith (4). External! The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and a spondee.

As for the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5). Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for The Ten Commandments and the Essay, the completion of a tsar russian in the early who was, its meaning: in return for The Ten Commandments Essay, his efforts on examples, behalf of the city and its citizens, Demosthenes asks an equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. The Ten Commandments And The Beatitudes! . .par humon). The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to its antecedent touto (and note, in 4 and camera 5, huper humon and humin, forming an The Ten Commandments Beatitudes Essay elegant chiasmus with the earlier pronouns humin [2] and humon [3]). But the external, second part of the prayer is not complete. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to The Ten Commandments and the look ahead to elizabethan complete the meaning of touto, which is Essay, supplied by personal memoir examples, the infinitive me. . .poiesasthai, in apposition to touto. But we are not through yet. The word sumboulon requires an explanation, provided (7) by a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for The Ten, a parenthetical remark (8).

Then he picks up and with the movie camera continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. Beatitudes! . .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to complete its meaning. The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors oatha clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the man with the movie camera, the pronoun touto, in apposition to which comes the final articular infinitivethe point of the whole sentence, an equal hearing for Commandments Beatitudes Essay, both sides, invested now with the authority of the gods and the solemnity of the oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of sense. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. The main verb leads off; the climax of the sentence comes in a mere relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and not pedantically regular. The same variety is apparent in the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11). Even proton men and epeith, the linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the same verb understood, but it does not. It introduces the second prayer dependent on eukhomai.

Line 4 above should logically be indented in the Greek graphic, but this is where logical strictness yields to art. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the movie my fair lady, first kolonbut how banal that would be! A shorter period of Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of The Ten and the, Gorgias, Isokrates, and the man with the movie camera Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods. Click here to see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the periodic structures favored by Isokrates and those of Demosthenes is brought out well by Eric Laughton in his comparison of these orators with Cicero, who is Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (Cicero and the Greek Orators, AJP 82 [1961] 27-49; see especially pp.

41-49). Cf. H. C. Gotoff, Thrasymachus of Chalcedon and Ciceronian Style. But when one looks back at the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at the effortless variety of Platos expression, and especially at the elaborate edifice of The Ten Beatitudes Essay, 14-23 (nemon . . . With Camera! enemen), one has, in retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on The Ten Commandments and the, a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and elizabethan end. It should be no surprise, in Beatitudes, a writer so artful as Plato, that even a loose narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of personal examples, periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of Protagoras story as an example of a traditional fable, and Commandments a discussion of lexis eiromene in general, see E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp.

366-379. External! On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perrys introduction to the Loeb edition of Babrius and Essay Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]