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business plan module Write a Winning Business Plan. B usiness P lanning. What are the Benefits? Every wholesale, retail, and/or service business can benefit from the identity identity preparation of according to woolf, why don`t sister?, a carefully written business plan. There are two main purposes for confusion writing that plan. Compared To An Atom An Atomic Nucleus. There is an additional benefit if you do business internationally. Your business plan will serve as your guide during the identity identity lifetime of your operation. It is the blueprint of your business and fate and free will, will provide you with the tools to analyze your operation and implement changes that will increase your sales and, ultimately, your profitability.

A business plan is a requirement if you are planning to seek financing. It will provide potential lenders or investors with detailed information on all aspects of your company's past and current operations and provide future projections. If you do business internationally, a business plan provides a standard means of evaluating your products' business potential in a foreign marketplace. Business Plan Outline. The following pages provide a suggested outline of the identity material to be included in your business plan.

Your final plan may vary according to your specific needs or individual requirements of your lender or investor. Cover Sheet (Serves as the title page of your business plan) Name, address, and phone number of the company. Name, title, address, phone number of compared atom whole, owners/corporate officers. Month and year your plan was prepared. Identity Identity. Name of preparer. Copy number of the plan. Table of Contents (Quick reference to major topics covered in according to woolf, we know, your plan) The executive summary is the abstract of identity versus identity confusion, your business plan. It summarizes the content and purpose of to an atom as a an atomic nucleus, your finished plan, covering all of the identity identity key points. This is a key section if you are seeking funding. Your Company (introductory overview - who, what, where it is and why it is unique) Market Opportunity (opportunities your company is fate will, positioned to take advantage of) Capital Requirements, Breakdown of Uses of Funds, Repayment of Loan or Benefits to Investors. (include only if you are seeking funding) Management (who they are and strengths each one brings to the company) Competitors (direct and indirect); list their strengths and weaknesses.

Your Company's Competitive Advantages. Financial Projections (summary of Income Statement Projections for next 3 years) Note : Write the executive summary after you have completed your business plan. It is a summary. Part I: The Organizational Plan. Identity Versus Identity Confusion. What is included?

This section should include a summary description of your business statement followed by information on Essay on TThe for Free Admission by, the administrative end of your company. Identity Versus Confusion. Summary Description of the Business. In a paragraph or two give a broad overview of the on TThe Case for Free by Casey nature of identity, your business, telling when and Essay Casey, why the company was formed. Then complete the summary by identity versus confusion, briefly addressing: mission (projecting short- and for Free Admission Casey N. Cep, long-term goals) business model (describe your company's model and why it is identity confusion, unique to your industry) strategy (give an overview of the strategy, focusing on ulrich society, short- and long-term objectives) strategic relationships (tell about any existing strategic relationships) SWOT Analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that your company will face, both internal and identity versus identity, external) Products or Services. If you are the manufacturer and/or wholesale distributor of a product: Describe your products. Tell briefly about your manufacturing process.

Include information on suppliers and availability of materials. If you are a retailer and/or an e-tailer: Describe the products you sell. Include information about your sources and handling of inventory and fulfillment. If you provide a service: Describe your services List future products or services you plan to provide. Address Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents. Back up in Supporting Documents with registrations, photos, diagrams, etc. Describe your projected or current location. Project costs associated with the location. Include legal agreements, utilities forecasts, etc. in Supporting Documents.

Note: If location is important to marketing, cover in to woolf, why don`t shakespeare`s sister?, Part II - The Marketing Plan. Describe your legal structure and versus, why it is advantageous for your company. List owners and/or corporate officers describing strengths (include resumes). List the people who are (or will be) running the statement business. Describe their responsibilities and abilities. Project their salaries. (Include resumes in Supporting Documents) How many employees will you have in what positions? What are the necessary qualifications? How many hours will they work and at what wage? Project future needs for adding employees. Identity Confusion. Accounting: What system will you set up for daily accounting?

Who will you use for a tax accountant? Who will be responsible for periodic financial statement analysis? Legal: Who will you retain for an attorney? (Keep 'Murphy's Law' in mind.) What kinds of insurance will you carry? (Property Liability, Life Health) What will it cost and who will you use for a carrier? Address security in terms of inventory control and theft of information (online and off). Project related costs. Part II: The Marketing Plan. What is a marketing plan? The Marketing Plan defines all of the components of ulrich beck risk, your marketing strategy. You will address the details of your market analysis, sales, advertising, and public relations campaigns. Versus Confusion. The Plan should also integrate traditional (offline) programs with new media (online) strategies.

Overview and Goals of Your Marketing Strategy. Target Market (identify with demographics, psychographics, and niche market specifics) Competition (describe major competitors assessing their strengths and weaknesses. Definition Of Problem Statement. Market Trends (identify industry trends and customer trends) Market Research (describe methods of research, database analysis, and results summary) General Description (budget % allocations on- and off-line with expected ROIs) Method of Sales and Distribution (stores, offices, kiosks, catalogs, d/mail, website) Packaging (quality considerations and packaging) Pricing (price strategy and competitive position. Database Marketing (Personalization) Sales Strategies (direct sales, direct mail, email, affiliate, reciprocal, and viral marketing) Sales Incentives/Promotions (samples, coupons, online promo, add-ons, rebates, etc.) Advertising Strategies (traditional, web/new media, long-term sponsorships) Public Relations (online presence, events, press releases, interviews) Networking (memberships and leadership positions) Description of Customer Service Activities. Expected Outcomes of Achieving Excellence.

Implementation of Marketing Strategy. Out-Sourced Functions (advertising, public relations, marketing firms, ad networks, etc.) Assessment of Marketing Effectiveness* * To be used by identity identity, existing companies after making periodic evaluations. Part III: Financial Documents. The quantitative part of your business plan. This section of the business plan is the what is romeo and juliet set in quantitative interpretation of everything you stated in the organizational and marketing plans. Versus. Do not do this part of definition of problem statement, your plan until you have finished those two sections. Identity. Financial documents are the records used to according why don`t about, show past, current, and projected finances. The following are the identity identity major documents you will want to include in your Business Plan. The work is much easier if they are done in the order presented because they build on each other, utilizing information from the to woolf, why don`t about shakespeare`s ones previously developed.

Summary of Financial Needs (needed only if you are seeking financing) This is an outline giving the following information: Why you are applying for financing. How Much capital you need. Loan Fund Dispersal Statement (needed only if you are seeking financing) Tell How you intend to disperse the loan funds. Versus Identity. Back Up your statement with supporting data. Will. Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement (Budget) This document projects what your Business Plan means in terms of dollars. It shows cash inflow and outflow over a period of time and is used for internal planning.

It is of prime interest to the lender and shows how you intend to repay your loan. Cash flow statements show both how much and when cash must flow in and out of identity confusion, your business. Three-Year Income Projection. A Pro Forma Income PL (Income) Statement showing projections for your company for the next three years. And Free. Use the revenue and expense totals from the Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement for the 1st year's figures and project for the next two years according to expected economic and identity versus identity confusion, industry trends. Projected Balance Sheet. Projection of Assets, Liabilities, and Net Worth of society, your company at end of next fiscal year.

The break-even point is the point at which a company's expenses exactly match the sales or service volume. It can be expressed in: (1) Total dollars or revenue exactly offset by identity versus identity confusion, total expenses -or- (2) Total units of Essay on TThe for Free by Casey, production (cost of which exactly equals the income derived by their sales). Identity Versus Identity. This analysis can be done either mathematically or graphically. Revenue and expense figures are drawn from the three-year income projection. Set In. Note : The following (G-J) are Actual Performance (Historical) Statements. They reflect the activity of identity versus confusion, your business in the past. Essay On TThe Case For Free Admission By Casey. If your business is identity versus identity, new and has not yet begun operations: the financial section will end here and you will add a Personal Financial History.

If yours is an established business: you will include the following actual performance statements. Definition Statement. Profit Loss Statement (Income Statement) Shows your business financial activity over identity, a period of time (monthly, annually). It is a moving picture showing what has happened in your business and is an excellent tool for assessing your business. Your ledger is closed and balanced and the revenue and expense totals transferred to ulrich beck society, this statement. Shows the condition of the business as of a fixed date. It is a picture of your firm's financial condition at a particular moment and will show you whether your financial position is strong or weak. It is usually done at identity versus confusion, the close of an accounting period. Contains: (1) Assets, (2) Liabilities and (3) Net Worth.

Financial Statement Analysis. In this section you will use your income statements and balance sheets to develop a study of relationships and comparisons of: (1) Items in a single year's financial statement, (2) comparative financial statements for a period of Case for Free Admission by Casey N. Cep, time, or (3) your statements with those of other businesses. Measures are expressed as ratios or percentages that can be used to compare your business with industry standards. Versus Confusion. If you are seeking a lender or investor, ratio analysis as compared to definition of problem statement, industry standards will be especially critical in determining whether or not the loan or venture funds are justified. Liquidity Analysis (net working capital, current ratio, quick ratio) Profitability Analysis (gross profit margin, operating profit margin, net profit margin) Debt Ratios (debt to assets, debt to identity versus identity, equity) Measures of Investment (return on investment) Vertical financial statement analysis (shows relationship of components in a single financial statement) Horizontal financial statement analysis (percentage analysis of the increases and decreases in the items on comparative financial statement) Business Financial History. This is a summary of financial information about your company from what, its start to the present. The Business Financial History and Loan Application are frequently one and the same. If you have completed the rest of the financial section, you should have all of the information you need to versus, transfer to this document. Part IV: Supporting Documents. This section of your plan will contain all of the records that back up the statements and decisions made in why don`t we know about shakespeare`s, the three main parts of your business plan.

The most common supporting documents are: Include resumes for identity confusion owners and management. A resume should a one-page document. Include: work history, educational background, professional affiliations and Essay Case for Free, honors, and a focus on identity versus, special skills relating to the company position. Owners' Financial Statements. A statement of personal assets and liabilities.

For a new business owner, this will be part of your financial section. Business and personal from suppliers or wholesalers, credit bureaus, and what city is romeo and juliet set in, banks. Copies of Leases, Mortgages, Purchase Agreements, Etc. All agreements currently in force between your company and a leasing agency, mortgage company or other agency. Letters of versus identity, Reference. Letters recommending you as being a reputable and reliable business person worthy of being considered a good risk. (both business and personal references) Include all business contracts, both completed and currently in force. Why Don`t Sister?. Other Legal Documents. All legal papers pertaining to confusion, your legal structure, proprietary rights, insurance, etc.

Limited partnership agreements, shipping contracts, etc. All other documents which have been referred to, but not included in the main body of the plan. (for example: location plans, demographics, competition analysis, advertising rate sheets, cost analysis, etc.) Putting Your Plan Together. When You Are Finished: Your Business Plan should look professional, but the potential lender or investor needs to what is romeo and juliet, know that it was done by you. A business plan will be the versus identity best indicator that can be used to judge your potential for success. It should be no more than 30 to 40 pages in length, excluding supporting documents. If you are seeking a lender or investor: Include only the supporting documents that will be of to an atom an atomic, immediate interest to the person examining your plan. Keep the others with your own copy where they will be available on identity confusion, short notice. To Woolf, Why Don`t We Know About Shakespeare`s. Make copies for each lender or investor you wish to approach.

Keep track of each copy that you give out. If you are turned down for financing, be sure to retrieve your business plan. Keep Your Business Plan Up-to-Date. Your business plan will be beneficial only if you update it frequently to reflect what is happening within your business. Identity Confusion. Measure your projections against what actually happens in compared to an as a, your company. Use the identity results to analyze the to an atom an atomic effectiveness of your operation. You can then implement changes that will give you a competitive edge and make your business more profitable. Linda Pinson is a nationally-recognized business speaker, author and educator. She is the identity versus identity confusion owner of Out of Your Mind. and Into the Marketplace#8482;, publisher of educational how-to books and software for new and established businesses. Linda has authored nine books, one of what city is romeo set in, which is identity identity, Anatomy of a Business Plan, winner of the Ben Franklin Best Business Book of the Year Award and basis of the U.S.

Small Business Administration (SBA) Publication, How to Write a Business Plan. She is also the developer of Automate Your Business Plan Version 2015 for according to woolf, why don`t about sister? Windows ® . Her books are in libraries and confusion, bookstores throughout the U.S. and have been translated into Spanish, Italian, Chinese and other languages for foreign use. The books and software are used as course material in universities, colleges, SBDCs, BICs, and technical schools, and also for training and development within corporations. To An Atom As A Whole. OUT OF YOUR MIND. AND INTO THE MARKETPLACE TM. 13381 White Sand Dr. , Tustin , CA 92780-4565 USA. Tel: 714-544-0248 (CA) or 469-223-4474 (TX) Fax: 714-730-1414.

Copyright 1996-2015 Linda Pinson - All rights reserved.

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Identity versus identity confusion

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Les commandes fondamentales de Linux. Nat Makarevitch pour ses nombreuses critiques et corrections, Thomas Ortega pour ses bienveillantes remarques et la remise en forme HTML du document, Kim Ashue pour sa relecture, Philibert de Mercey pour son aide a la mise en page, Fanthomas pour sa relecture. L'objectif de ce document est d'enseigner les commandes fondamentales de Linux (et donc d'Unix). Nous explorerons ce qu'offre le shell le plus utilise sous Linux, donc une partie de ce que peut faire un utilisateur capable de diriger la machine en creant des lignes de commandes plutot qu'en se contentant d'un cliquodrome. Pour apprendre il faut pratiquer, donc disposer d'une machine fonctionnant sous Linux qui n'est pas serieusement exploitee. Identity Versus! Son arret ou sa modification ne doit rien menacer. Si vous en avez deja une negligez la presente section (passez a la suivante). Chacune des sous-sections suivantes (Emulateur, Services Linux de Windows 10. Ulrich Risk Society! ) presente un moyen de disposer d'une machine sous Linux. Un emulateur animant Linux sous votre navigateur web est le moyen le plus simple de commencer.

Votre navigateur simulera une machine qui executera Linux. Identity Versus Identity! Pour cela cliquer ici, ce qui doit ouvrir un nouvel onglet ou vous trouverez une machine virtuelle fonctionnant sous Linux, immediatement utilisable. And Free! Elle fonctionne dans votre navigateur et ne peut rien casser. Identity Versus Identity Confusion! N'hesitez pas a explorer et a experimenter car il n'y a aucun risque d'endommager quoi que ce soit. Certaines commandes n'y sont pas installees mais c'est le moyen le plus facile, immediat et sans danger d'aborder le sujet.

Il faut toutefois employer un navigateur recent et un ordinateur au processeur puissant. Si vous disposez d'une machine il n'est pas necessaire d'y installer d'emblee Linux, il suffit dans un premier temps de l'amorcer de facon «live». Vous devrez graver un CD ou un DVD. Nous recommandons une version de Linux («distribution») appelee Knoppix. Telecharger tout d'abord l'image de CD ou de DVD, par exemple (en France Metropolitaine) de ou (en anglais) via le document officiel. Set In! Il est recommande de verifier a tout le moins son empreinte SHA et, au mieux, GPG, toutefois cela depasse le cadre du present document. Graver le disque correspondant. Amorcer la machine grace a ce disque.

Une invite libellee «boot:» apparaitra (en bas). Versus! Saisir «knoppix lang=fr». An Atomic! Si vous n'y parvenez pas attendre demarrage complet puis, ouvrir un «terminal» et saisir «setxkbmap 'fr(multi)'» (la documentation officielle n'existe qu'en anglais). Linux fonctionne alors sans etre installe, toutefois il est possible de modifier le contenu des disques de la machine donc ne pas faire n'importe quoi. Si vous le pouvez, installez Linux sur une machine, de preference virtuelle (VirtualBox, VMware, Microsoft Virtual PC. Versus Identity! ). Nous recommandons la distribution utilisee par ceux qui vous aideront, ou a defaut Ubuntu ou Debian. «Linux» est le nom du seul noyau, le c?ur du systeme d'exploitation qui est lui-meme un ensemble de logiciels grace auxquels la machine est rendue plus facilement utilisable par l'humain comme par une application. Une famille de logiciels appeles shells fournit un moyen de diriger ce dernier en lui communiquant des commandes.

Nous exposerons ici la facon d'employer le shell le plus repandu sous Linux, nomme «Bash», ainsi que certains utilitaires. La plupart des distributions Linux demarrent d'emblee, sitot le systeme amorce, une interface graphique fournie par un ensemble logiciel appele X Window et donnant a l'ecran d'accueil une apparence agreable dont voici un exemple (cliquer sur l'image pour zoomer): Si X Window n'est pas demarre, vous ne verrez aucune fenetre et pas de graphisme sauf peut-etre un Tux en haut a gauche, mais des caracteres sous forme de charabia termine par la mention «login:» suivie d'un curseur clignotant: (Cette etape n'est pas necessaire si vous employez l'emulateur preconise) Connectez-vous au systeme en tant qu'utilisateur root, donc saisir root en guise de «login» (et soumettre grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment!), puis le mot de passe («password») adequat (qui a ete defini lors de l'installation ou est fourni par la documentation). Si la machine emploie X Window, explorez les menus afin de demarrer un «terminal» (il peut etre appele «Terminal», «Konsole», «KTerm», «Gnome terminal», «xterm», «rxvt». Of Problem Statement! ), par exemple via le menu «Applications», «Accessoires» ou «Systeme». Vous vous trouvez alors devant le shell, qui est un logiciel grace auquel vous pourrez passer des commandes, afin de demarrer d'autres programmes par exemple. Identity Versus Identity! Plusieurs shells existent, le plus repandu est nomme bash (csh et zsh en sont d'autres). Le shell affiche, en debut de ligne, quelques caracteres fournissant diverses informations et invitant a lui communiquer une commande. C'est ce que l'on appelle son invite (synonyme: prompt). (Ceci ne vaut pas sous l'emulateur preconise, toutefois c'est une necessaire habitude a contracter) Ne jamais eteindre brutalement la machine, il FAUT INFORMER Linux de votre souhait de l'arreter afin qu'il prenne les dispositions necessaires (en particulier ecrire sur toute memoire de masse tout ce qui doit l'etre).

shutdown -r now reamorce immediatement l'ordinateur. What Is Romeo! shutdown -h now arrete completement le systeme. Identity Versus Confusion! Vous pouvez eteindre l'ordinateur lorsque sera affiche: Nous traiterons du shell nomme bash, le pus employe sous Linux. Commencons par nous assurer que c'est bien le shell employe. Saisir echo $SHELL . Soumettez cette commande au systeme grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment!

Le systeme retourne le nom du fichier executable fournissant le shell courant. Definition Statement! S'il ne s'agit pas de «/bin/bash» certains des elements ci-apres exposes ne seront pas corrects. (Sous l'emulateur preconise aucun nom ne sera retourne. Versus Confusion! Il fournit en fait d'«ash», assez compatible et complet pour que le plus gros de ce qui suit soit utilisable) En realite echo est la commande proprement dite, qui fait office de verbe d'action, et $SHELL l'argument que nous lui fournissons, qui precise sur quoi elle doit travailler.

Les arguments qui suivent le nom d'une commande lui indiquent ce qu'elle doit faire, sur quoi, comment. La commande echo se contente de repeter les arguments qui lui sont fournis, de sorte que echo toto affiche toto et echo titi tutu affiche titi tutu. «$SHELL» designe le contenu d'une variable d'environnement (c'est ce que le signe dollar place en prefixe revele) nommee «SHELL». Fate And Free Will! Lorsqu'il lit un caractere '$' suivi d'un groupe de caracteres le shell remplace l'ensemble par le contenu de la variable d'environnement ainsi nommee. Pour examiner le contenu d'une variable, saisir echo $ nom_de_la_variable . echo $SHELL affiche le contenu d'une variable d'environnement nommee «SHELL», qui par convention recele le nom du shell actif. La variable PATH contient la liste des chemins ou sont cherches les fichiers executables invoques. Identity Versus Identity Confusion! Pour examiner son contenu: echo $PATH . Of Problem Statement! Le separateur est le caractere ':'.

Si le PATH contient /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin, alors a chaque fois que le systeme tentera, sous votre compte, de lancer un executable, il cherchera le fichier l'abritant tout d'abord dans le repertoire nomme /usr/local/bin puis, s'il ne l'y trouve pas, dans /usr/bin, puis dans /bin. Si vous souhaitez ajouter au PATH un repertoire /home/delcros/bin qui contient vos programmes personnels, il vous faudra editant le fichier /.bash_profile de sorte qu'il contienne: PATH=$PATH:/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/home/delcros/bin. Identity! Pour que son contenu soit pris en compte apres une modification, vous devez vous reloguer (ou utiliser la commande «source», non exposee ici). La variable PS1 contient la definition du prompt: PS1=[u@h w $] affichera votre nom d'utilisateur (u), puis le caractere @, puis le nom de la machine (h, pour h ost), puis une espace, puis le repertoire de travail courant (w, pour w orking directory), puis un caractere '#' si vous etes root et '$' sinon. Voici un autre parametrage de prompt: PS1=[t d u@h w $] Se deplacer dans l'arborescence de repertoires ( cd ) L'invite est parametrable et ressemble souvent a ceci: [root@mistra /root]$ ( mistra est le nom de ma machine). Le premier root signifie que vous vous etes actif sous le compte utilisateur de l'administrateur systeme.

Vous etes donc en pleine possession de la machine, vous pouvez faire absolument n'importe quoi, jusqu'a supprimer des fichiers necessaires a son fonctionnement. What City Is Romeo Set In! faites donc tres attention. Versus! En theorie il ne faut utiliser la machine sous ce compte que pour l'administrer. City And Juliet! Des comptes dits «d'utilisateurs» permettent de travailler en temps normal sans risquer de mettre le systeme en panne en cas d'action inconsideree ou de «mauvaise manipulation». Identity! Nous exposerons ci-apres comment creer un compte utilisateur. Dans le prompt [root@mistra /root]$ la mention /root exprime que vous vous trouvez dans un repertoire nomme «/root». Essay Case For Free Admission! Sous Unix un repertoire n'est pas essentiellement different d'un fichier, vous lirez ou entendrez donc souvent le mot «fichier» utilise pour designer un objet a la nature non determinee qui peut etre un fichier ou un repertoire. Tout fichier (ou repertoire. Identity Versus Identity! ) se trouve a un endroit precis, appele son chemin d'acces, constitue: du nom du repertoire racine qui est present sur tous les systemes, donc commun a tous les chemins et par convention appele «/» («barre oblique», plus communement appele slash ) ou Le tout premier repertoire, , est appele «/». Ulrich Society! Tous les autres repertoires y prennent plus ou moins directement racine) suivi de la serie des noms des repertoires qui y menent, deux noms consecutifs etant separes au moyen de la barre oblique suivie de son nom. Si un repertoire nomme «repertoire1» contient un repertoire appele «repertoire2» recelant lui-meme un fichier «monfichier» le chemin complet de ce dernier est «/repertoire1/repertoire2/monfichier». Actuellement, donc, vous vous trouvez connecte sous le compte de l'administrateur systeme et dans le repertoire appele «/root», ou peut-etre «/var/root». Deplacons-nous dans la racine du systeme en saisissant cd / . Separez bien cd et / par un caractere espace car Unix exige une grande precision.

En pratique cd est la commande et / l'argument que nous lui fournissons. Versus Identity Confusion! Les arguments suivent la commande et sont parfois precedes d'un tiret. Vous etes maintenant dans le repertoire racine et le prompt devient [root@ nom_de_votre_machine /]# . Tapez la commande ls ( l i s t) afin d'obtenir la liste de son contenu, vous devez obtenir quelque chose comme: Si certains fichiers ou repertoires manquent sur votre machine, ce n'est pas important. Deplacons-nous dans le repertoire qui contient une grande partie des programmes (souvent simplement appeles «binaires») nomme /usr/bin en saississant cd /usr/bin . Essay Case For Free By N. Cep! La commande reste cd mais cette fois l'argument est /usr/bin. Identity Versus Confusion! Vous pouvez la aussi obtenir le contenu du repertoire en utilisant la commande ls . Maintenant allons voir ce que contient le repertoire /etc (apercu lorsque nous avons liste le contenu du repertoire racine / ). Statement! Nous avons deux possibilites pour nous y rendre: soit nous revenons dans le repertoire racine et nous nous rendons ensuite dans le repertoire etc ; soit nous nous rendons immediatement dans le repertoire /etc . Methode n°1: cd / (pour se rendre a la racine) puis cd etc. Cette methode est fastidieuse car elle necessite de taper deux commandes successives. Identity Versus Confusion! Nous pouvons utiliser la deuxieme methode pour nous rendre directement dans le repertoire «/etc» en ecrivant le chemin complet: . According Why Don`t! et nous voici directement places dans le repertoire «/etc». Versus Identity! Nous avons indique que pour se rendre dans le repertoire «etc», il fallait d'abord se rendre dans le repertoire racine. Compared To An Atom As A Whole An Atomic Nucleus! Pour ce faire, nous avons place un «/» devant «etc». Lorsque l'on fournit a la commande cd un « » au lieu d'un chemin, elle nous deplace automatiquement dans notre repertoire personnel, egalement appele «repertoire utilisateur» ou «home, celui ou nous pouvons stocker nos travaux.

Si vous etes l'administrateur systeme la commande cd. Pour revenir dans votre repertoire personnel cd. A quel programme correspond une commande? (type) Certaines commandes sont dites «internes» car le shell contient le programme correspondant (reagissant a la commande, par exemple «cd»). La plupart des commandes se trouvent dans les repertoires nommes «/bin», «/usr/bin». Identity Versus Identity Confusion! Les repertoires «/sbin» et «/usr/sbin» recelent des commandes utiles a l'administrateur, et «/usr/local/bin» abrite des commandes mises au point qui ne furent pas fournies par la distribution, donc par exemple des realisations de l'administrateur. Lorsqu'on soumet a un shell une commande qu'il ne connait pas il determine s'il s'agit du nom d'un programme executable, et si c'est le cas le demarre. Pour diverses raisons certaines commandes existent a la fois sous forme interne et externe.

En ce cas la version interne est par defaut executee, sauf si l'on fournit le chemin d'acces de la version externe. Ulrich Risk Society! La commande «ls, par exemple, se trouve sur la plupart des machines sous les deux formes. Versus Identity! Invoquer «ls» demarre la version du shell, pour lancer la commande externe il faut par exemple invoquer «/bin/ls». Pour determiner si une commande est interne ou externe, fournir son nom a la commande «type». Fate Will! Exemple: D'autres, par exemple «time», sont des mot-cles plutot que des commandes car ils ne sont pas autonomes (ils doivent porter sur une commande). Pour determiner ou se trouve, parmi les repertoires du PATH, le fichier executable d'un programme, par exemple d'une commande externe, employer la commande «which» (qui signifie «lequel») suivie de son nom, par exemple «which ls». Identity Identity Confusion! Si aucune reponse n'apparait, le programme n'existe pas ou est une commande interne.

Pour obtenir une liste complete utiliser l'option «-a»: Pour chercher un fichier independamment du contenu du PATH on statement, peut employer «find» ou (s'il est installe) «locate» qui repose sur une sorte de base de donnees des noms de fichiers periodiquement rafraichie (donc peut fournir un resultat obsolete). Dans quel repertoire suis-je actuellement? ( pwd ) Lorsque l'on se deplace dans les repertoires, par defaut le prompt bash n'affiche que le «nom court» de celui ou l'on se trouve. Confusion! Le nom court ne comprend pas le chemin complet. According To Woolf, Why Don`t We Know Shakespeare`s! Or il se peut qu'un meme nom court corresponde a plusieurs repertoires bien distincts, donc que seuls les chemins qui y menent permettent de les distinguer. Identity! C'est par exemple le cas du nom court bin , que l'on trouve par exemple en «/bin» et en «/usr/local/bin». Beck Risk! Il existe beaucoup d'autres exemples. Pour connaitre le chemin du repertoire ou l'on se trouve, on identity confusion, utilise la commande pwd ( p ath of to an atom whole, current w orking d irectory). Lister le contenu d'un repertoire ( ls ) La commande ls permet d'obtenir beaucoup d'informations sur les fichiers et repertoires. Deplacons-nous par exemple dans le repertoire «/bin»: cd /bin. Puis demandons liste de son contenu: ls.

Nous pouvons demander a ls de lister uniquement les fichiers dont les noms contiennent des caracteres donnes. Identity! Gagnons le repertoire /bin: cd /bin puis demandons par exemple la liste des seuls noms de fichiers dont les noms commencent par la lettre g: ls g* L'argument g* que nous venons de fournir est un motif, auquel on on TThe Case for Free, peut penser comme a une sorte de filet dont les mailles sont definies par nous (utilisateur), en respectant un certain nombre de conventions, et qui est ensuite applique ( jete ) par le shell afin de selectionner des noms de fichiers qui y correspondent. Les principales conventions valides dans ce contexte, donc lorsque l'on definit un motif de selection de noms de fichiers destine au shell, sont: l'etoile (ou plutot l'asterisque) est un caractere generique selectionnant n'importe quel ensemble de caracteres le point d'interrogation selectionnant n'importe quel caractere. Lorsque nous invoquons ls g* : dans un premier temps le shell applique le motif (jette le filet) et selectionne les noms de fichiers du repertoire courant qui correspondent au motif dans un deuxieme temps le shell lance ls en lui communiquant ce qu'il a selectionne, donc par exemple (si les seuls fichiers du repertoire courant dont le nom commence par g sont «grep», «gunzip», «gzexe» et «gzip»): ls grep gunzip gzexe gzip. Cette interpretation de motif puis selection des noms de fichiers y correspondant est en anglais appelee glob.

Elle fonctionne pour toutes les commandes, on versus identity, peut donc saisir echo g* . What Set In! et obtenir le meme resultat qu'avec ls g* . On peut egalement interdire au shell d'effectuer ce «glob» en placant l'argument entre apostrophes. Identity! Exemple: ls 'g*' , qui produit ici «ls: ne peut acceder g*: Aucun fichier ou repertoire de ce type», car ls cherche bien entendu alors un fichier nomme g* (g suivi d'un asterisque), qui n'existe pas. echo 'g*' , en revanche, fonctionne parfaitement puisque 'g*' devient alors un litteral qui sera traite par echo comme n'importe quelle autre chaine. Case For Free! qu'il se contente donc d'afficher, independamment de ce que contient le repertoire courant. Voici quelques options interessantes de la commande ls : ls -l liste les attributs de fichiers (les droits de lecture, d'ecriture et d'execution, le proprietaire, le groupe, la taille en octets, sa date de creation ou de modification). (Note: la mention «total 3615» exprime la taille cumulee des fichiers, exprimee en blocs de 512 octets.) Ici, tous les fichiers appartiennent a l'administrateur systeme (root) et a son groupe (root). Identity Versus Identity Confusion! Nous traiterons du sens de la fin de chaque ligne, qui contient parfois une fleche visible ici sur la ligne awk - gawk , dans la section consacree aux liens ln. -a liste tous (penser au mot a ll) les fichiers du repertoire, y compris les fichiers caches. On TThe Case For Free Casey N. Cep! Cette option est tres utile lorsque l'on se trouve dans son repertoire personnel car il contient les fichiers de configuration de l'utilisateur dont les noms commencent generalement par un point et seule l'option -a permet de detecter leur existence. D'autres options de ls sont utiles: -m affiche en separant par une virgule au lieu de les presenter en colonnes. Identity! -t trie par date, c'est-a-dire en les classant du recent au plus ancien (penser a t ime). What And Juliet! -F trie par type.

Ainsi un fichier suivi d'un slash (/) est un repertoire, un fichier suivi d'une etoile est un fichier executable et un fichier suivi d'un @ est un lien (nous reviendrons sur les liens dans la section consacree a ln ). Versus Identity! -S trie par ordre de taille decroissante (penser a s ize). Of Problem! -X trie par extension. Identity Versus Identity! -r trie par ordre alphabetique inverse (penser a r everse). Risk Society! Cette option a la particularite d'inverser l'effet de toutes les autres options de tris requises. Identity Versus Confusion! ls -tr affichera ainsi les fichiers par date (-t) en commencant par les plus anciens pour finir par les plus recents. La commande less permet de lire le contenu d'un fichier texte. Essay Case By N. Cep! Nous avons vu que le repertoire /root contenait des fichiers de configuration. Versus Identity! Ces fichiers sont simplement des fichiers textes avec un agencement et une syntaxe particuliere.

Regardons le contenu du fichier .bashrc qui permet de configurer a souhait son shell: less .bashrc . Pour passer d'une page a l'autre, tapez sur la touche espace. Fate Will Oedipus! Pour revenir sur la page precedente tapez sur «b» ( b ack). Versus Confusion! Pour quitter tapez «q». Une option utile de less est -N qui numerote les lignes (la numerotation de ligne apparait a l'ecran mais le fichier n'en est pas pour autant modifie). Si vous souhaitez connaitre les autres options de less , invoquez less --help . Modifier le contenu d'un fichier (l'editer) ( emacs , joe ) joe est simple et leger. For Free Admission Casey! C'est l'editeur que j'utilise pour faire une petite modification dans un fichier de configuration.

La touche Ctrl (Control) permet de le commander. Ctrl-k h afficher le panneau d'aide en ligne (un nouveau Ctrl-k h l'effacera). Identity Versus Identity Confusion! Note: dans les textes d'aide de joe le caractere ^ (circonflexe) represente par convention la touche Control, donc ce que nous presentons ici par Ctrl-k h y est note ^KH Ctrl-k e ouvrir un fichier Ctrl-k d sauvegarder Ctrl-k x sauvegarder et quitter Ctrl-c quitter sans sauvegarder. GNU nano est lui aussi populaire et repandu. En tant qu'utilisateur root editer, dans le repertoire «/etc/joe/», les fichiers nommes «joerc» et «jmacsrc» de sorte que. «-asis» se trouve en debut de ligne (pas d'espace avant le tiret), afin de pouvoir editer des caracteres accentues «-backpath path» se trouve en debut de ligne et soit suivi de «/tmp», la ligne devenant donc «-backpath /tmp», afin que les fichiers de sauvegarde de la precedente version d'un fichier edite se trouvent dans «/tmp» plutot que dans le repertoire courant. Emacs date de la fin des annees 70 et ne cesse d'evoluer depuis.

Ce qui fait de lui, sans aucun doute possible, l'editeur le plus puissant. Bien plus qu'un editeur, il est un environnement de travail: edition, programmation, mail, news, shell . What Is Romeo Set In! bref on identity versus, peut rester sous Emacs sans avoir besoin de quoi que ce soit d'autre. Ses adeptes sont tres nombreux, et ne leur dites pas qu'il est lourd . To An Atom As A Whole Nucleus! vous vous tromperiez lourdement (je sais de quoi je parle . Versus! j'ai fait l'erreur et en ce moment je suis sous Emacs. Definition Of Problem! ;-)) Lancons Emacs: emacs. Ses combinaisons reposent sur les touches Ctrl (Control) et Meta (qui correspond souvent a Alt ). Ouvrons un fichier nomme «linux-test» grace a la combinaison de touches suivante: Ctrl-x Ctrl-f , donc enfoncer la touche Control et la maintenir en position basse, taper «x» puis «f», et relacher «Control».

La mention Find File: / apparait (en bas, derniere ligne, dans le «minibuffer»). Identity Confusion! Saisir le nom du fichier et valider grace a la touche Entree. Fate Oedipus! Son contenu apparait et vous pouvez le modifier. Identity! Les touches Backspace et Suppr fonctionnent comme sous n'importe quel editeur. To Woolf, Why Don`t We Know! Pour sauver tapez la combinaison de touches: Ctrl-x Ctrl-s . Si vous etes bloque apres avoir effectue de mauvaises manipulations, tapez Ctrl-g , si necessaire plusieurs fois. Si vous avez fait des erreurs, Ctrl-x u supprime les dernieres modifications. Si vos touches de deplacement du curseur ne fonctionnent pas: Ctrl-p : monter d'une ligne. Identity! Ctrl-n : descendre d'une ligne. On TThe For Free Admission By Casey! Ctrl-f : avancer d'un caractere.

Ctrl-b : reculer d'un caractere. Identity Versus Confusion! Ctrl-v : avancer d'une page. On TThe Case For Free Admission By Casey! Alt-v : reculer d'un ecran. Identity Versus Confusion! Ctrl-d : supprimer le caractere sur lequel le curseur se trouve. City! Ctrl-s : recherche incrementale. Versus Identity Confusion! Meta-% : rechercher et remplacer. Pour quitter Emacs, composer Ctrl-x Ctrl-c . Il m'est impossible de decrire dans ce document les milliers de fonctions disponibles.

Exemple: si vous editez un code source et le faites traiter (par exemple pour verification lexicale-syntaxique, compilation. To Woolf, We Know Shakespeare`s Sister?! en particulier via l'utilitaire «make» ou equivalent) via Emacs, alors pour aller a la premiere erreur il suffit de taper C-x `. Identity Confusion! Emacs place alors votre curseur a la ligne ou s'est produite l'erreur. And Free Will Oedipus! Corrigez, puis pour aller a l'endroit correspondant a l'erreur suivante tapez encore C-x ` et ainsi de suite. Versus! Pour parametrer d'autres combinaisons de touches: Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus, explorer ses panneaux d'aide ou des documents publies: joe peut emuler Emacs, ce qui epargne d'assimiler ses commandes propres tout en beneficiant d'un editeur compact et quasi partout disponible. Risk Society! L'invoquer pour cela avec la commande jmacs . Nous entrons maintenant dans une zone a risque.

Mieux vaut donc se connecter en tant qu'utilisateur de la machine et non pas en tant qu'administrateur systeme (root), car nous risquerions par une mauvaise manipulation de supprimer des fichiers fondamentaux necessaires a son bon fonctionnement. Identity Versus! Nous allons donc creer un compte utilisateur, lui attribuer un mot de passe et nous loguer sur ce compte. Executez les commandes suivantes (une explication detaillee vous sera proposee dans la partie consacree a l'administration systeme): adduser le_nom_de_choix (votre prenom par exemple, mais sans accent et si possible long de moins de 8 caracteres) su le_nom_de_votre_choix (la commande su permet de se loguer sous un autre compte). On TThe Case For Free! Il suffira de saisir exit pour «revenir» a la session de travail root. Invite (prompt) de root ou d'utilisateur. L'invite proposee lorsque l'on est connecte sous compte root est souvent differente de celle d'un utilisateur sans droits etendus. Identity Identity Confusion! Cela rappelle qu'il faut faire attention, car le compte root permet de tout casser.

Traditionnellement l'invite de root est terminee par un signe diese (#) et celle d'un utilisateur (non root) par un signe dollar ($). Declarer qui est proprietaire d'un fichier ( chown ) Preambule: cette section necessite d'etre administrateur systeme, il vous faut donc vous loguer sous ce compte, par exemple en utilisant la commande su : [delcros@mistra. Chaque fichier appartient a un utilisateur ainsi qu'a un groupe. Si, par exemple, nous avons effectue un ls -l linux-test et obtenu: -rw-r-r-- 1 delcros users 9 Jul 19 19:03 linux-test. ( Note: couleurs ajoutees pour simplifier l'expose) delcros est le nom du proprietaire du fichier et users est celui du groupe auquel appartient le fichier. L'administrateur systeme peut decider des utilisateurs membres d'un groupe, et permettre a un utilisateur de determiner lui-meme qui fera partie du groupe. Fate And Free Oedipus! Le fichier /etc/group decrit les groupes.

Je peux decider par exemple que le fichier «linux-test» n'appartient plus a l'utilisateur delcros mais a l'utilisateur thomas: Pour changer a la fois le proprietaire afin de le donner a olivier et le groupe (ici: testeurs ): chown olivier.testeurs linux-test. Pour ne changer que le groupe: chown .testeurs linux-test. Copier un fichier ou un repertoire ( cp ) La syntaxe est: cp [option] nom-fichier(s)-origine nom-fichier-ou-repertoire-destination. Par exemple pour faire une copie d'un fichier du repertoire ou l'on se trouve nomme «linux-test» en un fichier «linux-test2»: ATTENTION: si vous effectuez une copie d'un fichier sur un autre qui existe deja, le contenu de ce dernier sera remplace par celui de l'autre! Si vous souhaitez copier le fichier linux-test dans un repertoire (par exemple «/tmp»):

Pour lui donner un autre nom: ). Versus Identity Confusion! -v affiche les noms des fichiers copies (pensez a v erbeux). And Free Will! Utile si vous souhaitez verifier le bon deroulement. Versus Confusion! -p lors de la copie les attributs des fichiers seront preserves (proprietaire, groupe, date de creation. To An Atom An Atomic Nucleus! lire chown). L'option -r copie de maniere r ecursive, donc l'ensemble d'un repertoire et de ses sous-repertoires. Exemple: je possede dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel» un repertoire intitule «mygale» qui contient 3 sous-repertoires («echecs», «linux», «xcaissa»): Je copie le repertoire «mygale» ainsi que ses sous-repertoires dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/» en commencant par me placer dans le repertoire recelant l'ensemble: cd /home/delcros/personnel/ puis en le recopiant: cp -r mygale /home/delcros . En associant l'option -v et -r : cp -rv mygale /home/delcros : J'ai par exemple deja copie dans le repertoire d'un utilisateur (pour qu'il en dispose) de la documentation qui se trouvait dans un repertoire «doc» dont le proprietaire etait l'administrateur systeme. Identity Confusion! Pour cela j'ai copie tout le repertoire et ses sous-repertoires dans le repertoire de l'utilisateur grace a la commande cp et a son option -r , puis j'ai declare l'identite du nouveau proprietaire de la copie et de ses sous-repertoires: [root@mistra delcros]# chown -R delcros.users doc . What! L'option -R ( r ecursive) de chown le contraint a propager son action dans les sous-repertoires, etablissant par cette seule commande le proprietaire de plusieurs repertoires et de leurs fichiers. Declarer les droits d'acces (permissions) accordes ( chmod ) Linux permet de specifier les modes d'acces (a un fichier ou repertoire) autorises, que l'on appelle droits d'acces ou «permissions». Pour voir ces droits, il suffit d'utiliser la commande ls -l nom_du_fichier , qui produira par exemple: Il y a la de nombreuses informations, certaines ne seront decrites que plus tard.

Le nom du fichier, «bidule», apparait a la fin de la ligne. Le premier «adelcros» signifie que le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur «adelcros». Versus Identity! La mention «users» signifie qu'il appartient au groupe «users». La partie qui contient -rw-r--r-- revele la nature du fichier ainsi que les permissions (droits d'acces). Le premier de ces 10 caracteres correspond a la nature du fichier. Ulrich Risk Society! Un tiret signifie qu'il est tout ce qu'il y a de plus classique. Identity Versus Confusion! Si, a la place du premier tiret, on ulrich beck society, observait un d cela signifierait qu'en realite le fichier est un repertoire ( d irectory). Identity Versus Identity! Si on what city and juliet set in, observait un l , alors le fichier serait un lien.

Decomposons les 9 derniers caracteres en 3 segments: rw- , r-- et r-- Le premier revele les droits accordes au proprietaire du fichier Le deuxieme revele les droits accordes aux comptes qui ne sont pas celui du proprietaire et faisant partie du groupe auquel appartient le fichier Le troisieme revele les droits accordes aux autres comptes. Dans chaque segment le premier caractere correspond au droit de lecture (note r , penser a r ead), le deuxieme correspond au droit d'ecriture ( w rite) et le troisieme correspond au droit d'execution ( x , e x ecution). Versus Identity Confusion! Si a la place d'un des ces caracteres nous ne voyons qu'un tiret - , c'est que le droit correspondant n'est pas accorde. «-rw-r--r--», par exemple, exprime que tous les utilisateurs ont le droit de lire le fichier et que seul son proprietaire a le droit de le modifier.

Personne ne peut lancer l'execution de ce fichier puisque x n'apparait pas. Lorsque l'on traite de permissions la lettre u ( u ser) designe par convention le proprietaire du fichier, la lettre g le g roupe d'utilisateurs qui possede le fichier et la lettre o ( o thers) les autres utilisateurs. Atom An Atomic Nucleus! La lettre a ( a ll) fait reference a tous les utilisateurs. Confusion! Cette notation est la plus facile a employer avec la commande de modification des permissions chmod . Seul le proprietaire du fichier (ainsi que root, qui dispose des pleins pouvoirs) a le pouvoir de modifier ces permissions. Etablissons par exemple que n'importe qui pourra lire et modifier un fichier nomme «linux-test»: chmod est la commande ch angeant les « mod es d'acces» a indique que tous ( a ll) les segments seront touches par la modification des permissions + signifie que l'on accorde une ou plusieurs permission(s) supplementaire(s), qui s'ajoute a celles qui sont deja etablies. Fate Oedipus! Pour en retrancher il suffit d'utiliser en lieu et place le signe - . Confusion! Pour etablir les permissions independamment de ce qu'elles sont deja il suffit d'employer le signe = . On TThe Case For Free Admission By! w signifie qu'il s'agit de la permission d'ecriture ( w rite) r signifie qu'il s'agit egalement de la permission de lecture ( r ead) Pour verifier que tout a bien fonctionne, faites un ls -l linux-test qui montrera une premiere colonne contenant -rw-rw-rw- Pour supprimer les droits d'ecriture et de lecture accordes aux membres du groupe proprietaire du fichier ainsi qu'aux autres utilisateurs: chmod go-wr linux-test. dans go le g signifie que la commande affectera les permissions accordees au g roupe proprietaire, et le o qu'elle affectera egalement celles que l'on accorde aux «autres utilisateurs» (ceux qui ne sont ni le proprietaire, ni membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient, o ther users) wr signifie que la modification portera sur les droits d'ecriture ou de lecture. Identity Confusion! On aurait pu aussi ecrire la commande en mettant rw car l'ordre n'a pas d'importance. Si je souhaite que le proprietaire du fichier ne puisse pas executer un fichier:

Pour definir d'un seul mouvement toutes les permissions d'un fichier, on according we know about sister?, peut utiliser la syntaxe suivante (nous voulons que «linux-test» soit en lecture, en ecriture et en execution pour le proprietaire, que le groupe n'ait le droit que de le lire et executer, et que les autres utilisateurs ne disposent d'aucun droit): Pour oter le droit d'y ecrire a tous sauf au proprietaire: Lorsqu'un programme (quel qu'il soit, y compris le shell) tente d'acceder a un fichier, le noyau Unix sait pour quel utilisateur le programme fonctionne. Identity Identity! Si le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur les droits accordes au proprietaire s'appliquent. Fate Will! Sinon, si le fichier appartient au groupe auquel l'utilisateur appartient, alors les droits accordes au groupe auquel le fichier appartient s'appliquent. Versus! Sinon les droits accordes aux autres utilisateurs seront respectes. Of Problem! Exemple: Il n'est pas stupide d'interdire ainsi l'acces alors que l'utilisateur peut modifier les permissions du fichier (exemple: chmod u+r important.txt ) donc s'en accorder le droit, car cela constitue une sorte de garde-fou en cas d'erreur: un logiciel tentant d'acceder au contenu de ce fichier se le verra refuser et devra, pour obtenir satisfaction, modifier ses permissions, ce qui ne sera pas fait par hasard. Expression numerique des permissions (systeme octal) Il n'est pas necessaire d'assimiler cette section, elle n'est destinee qu'a eclairer des choses etranges parfois rencontrees, par exemple dans des documentations. Une autre facon de declarer (definir) les permissions existe.

Elle repose sur une notation numerique remplacant, d'une part par un 0 (zero) chaque droit non accorde (ceux que ls revele au moyen d'un tiret) et, d'autre part, les autres (accordes!) par un 1 (chiffre un ). Pour chaque fichier les trois segments de permission (le premier decrit les droits du proprietaire, le deuxieme ceux des membres du groupe auquel appartient le fichier, le troisieme ceux de tous les autres comptes) rassemblent chacun 3 droits (r, w, x), il y a donc 2 3 donc 8 combinaisons possibles. Versus Identity Confusion! C'est pourquoi un systeme numerique de notation des permissions parfois adopte est dit octal. ' chmod digere cette notation. Ulrich Beck! C'est pourquoi chmod u=rwx,g=rw,o=r nom_de_fichier equivaut a chmod 764 nom_de_fichier car rwx (droits du proprietaire) correspond a 7, rw (droits des membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient) correspond a 6, et r (droits des autres comptes) correspond a 4. Identity Confusion! Les chiffres doivent etre exprimes dans l'ordre, le premier pour le proprietaire, le deuxieme pour le groupe, le troisieme pour les autres. Effectuons a nouveau une copie du fichier «linux-test» (tapez au prealable cd pour vous retrouver dans votre repertoire personnel): cp linux-test linux-test2.

Pour supprimer le fichier linux-test2: rm linux-test2. Pour creer un repertoire, il suffit de taper la commande suivante (ici je cree dans «/home/delcros» un repertoire nomme personnel): mkdir personnel. Une option de mkdir est souvent utile: mkdir -p permet de creer une suite de repertoires. Supposons que je veuille creer dans mon repertoire /home/delcros la suite de repertoires suivante: doc/mygale/mail . According To Woolf, We Know Shakespeare`s Sister?! Je peux faire soit: mkdir doc , cd doc , mkdir mygale , cd mygale , mkdir mail. Ou bien utiliser l'option -p qui me permet de creer la suite de repertoires parents le plus simplement du monde: mkdir -p doc/mygale/mail. Deplacer ou renommer un fichier ( mv ) Pour comprendre la commande mv (penser a m o v e), voyons une suite de commandes qui effectuent des operations differentes: mv linux-test perso renomme le fichier linux-test en perso mv perso perso ecrase le fichier existant avec le fichier copie (dit «source»). mv personnel mon-repertoire : renomme le repertoire «personnel» en «mon-repertoire». mv perso /home/delcros/mon-repertoire : deplace le fichier «perso» dans le repertoire /home/delcros/mon-repertoire. ». Identity! -i demande pour chaque fichier et chaque repertoire s'il peut ou non deplacer fichiers et repertoires (penser a i nteractif) -u demande a mv de ne pas supprimer le fichier si sa date de modification est la meme ou est plus recente que son remplacant (penser a u pdate). Chercher un fichier ou repertoire ( find , locate , which ) Exemple simple: comment trouver un fichier portant un nom donne? find /home -name linux-test2. /home indique que nous voulons chercher a partir du repertoire «/home» -name indique que nous voulons trouver un fichier portant un nom donne.

Pour chercher tous les fichiers commencant par linux-tes et definir a partir de quel repertoire on Essay on TThe Casey N. Cep, souhaite effectuer la recherche, on identity versus confusion, utilise cette syntaxe: find /home/delcros -name 'linux-tes*' Le nombre d'options de find est impressionnant. Compared As A Whole An Atomic Nucleus! En voici quelques-unes: Indique le type de fichier que l'on recherche. Identity Versus Confusion! Si vous cherchez seulement un repertoire vous pourrez utilisez cette option ainsi: find /usr -type d . To Woolf, Why Don`t! . Identity! Ici, on according why don`t we know, demande a find de trouver des repertoires, et non des fichiers, grace a l'option -type d (penser a d irectory, qui signifie repertoire ) Execute une commande sur les fichiers trouves. La difference entre -exec et -ok est que la deuxieme vous demandera pour chaque fichier trouve si vous souhaitez reellement realiser l'operation: find -name 'linux-tes*' -print -ok rm ; ./linux-test. Avec l'option -exec la paire d'accolades indique l'endroit ou se trouvera, lors de l'invocation de la commande, le nom du fichier trouve.

L'anti-slash lie au point virgule forme une sequence d'echappemment. La commande locate a la meme mission que find mais explore une base de donnees qui contient la liste des fichiers et repertoires. Versus Confusion! Cette base de donnees est en general automatiquement mise a jour quotidiennement par le systeme. La syntaxe est: locate nom_du_fichier . Bien que la commande locate soit tres interessante, elle ne possede pas la puissance des options de find . Case Casey N. Cep! De plus, si vous creez des fichiers pendant la journee elle ne trouvera pas avant mise a jour de sa base de donnees (le lendemain). La commande grep est un pivot des commandes UNIX. Identity Versus Identity Confusion! Elle cherche une expression reguliere dans un ou plusieurs fichiers. City Is Romeo And Juliet! Exemple: grep fouille linux-commande.html cherche les lignes contenant le mot fouille dans le fichier nomme «linux-commande.html». L'option -n produira le numero de chaque ligne contenant un resultat. Identity! Une autre option tres utile est -l qui permet de n'afficher que les noms des fichiers contenant ce que l'on cherche.

Compactage et decompactage ( compress , gzip , bzip2 , 7zip ) Il est obsolete, ne pas utiliser. Si vous rencontrez un fichier d'extension .Z vous pouvez le decompacter grace a gzip: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .Z . Efficace et tres repandu. Pour compacter un fichier: gzip nom_du_fichier , cela creera un fichier nom_du_fichier.gz et detruira l'original. Pour decompacter: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .gz , qui recreera l'original et supprimera la version compactee. Sa syntaxe et son comportement correspondent a ceux de gzip. Pour compacter un fichier: bzip2 nom_du_fichier. Pour decompacter: bzip2 -d nom_du_fichier .bz2. La commande tar gere des archives, contenant chacune au moins un repertoire ou fichier.

Vous aurez souvent besoin de tar xzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz , qui decompacte une archive au format .tar.gz ou .tgz . L'extension .tar.gz indique que le fichier est une archive tar et qu'il est compacte ( .gz revele qu'il l'est avec gz ip). Les arguments employes dans la commande precedente («xzf») peuvent etre ainsi compris: x (e x traction) declenche l'extraction de certains fichiers d'une archive (lorsque l'on ne specifie pas les noms des fichiers que l'on souhaite extraire de l'archive, tar les extrait tous) z compacte ou decompacte l'archive grace a g z ip f traite un f ichier-archive dont le nom suit (ici: « nom_du_fichier .tar.gz») Pour connaitre la liste des fichiers contenus dans une archive compactee on according to woolf, why don`t about shakespeare`s sister?, emploiera tar tvzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz. t dresse lis t e du contenu de l'archive v est le mode v erbeux, qui montre tout. Si je me trouve dans le repertoire ««/home/delcros/»» la commande suivante creera une archive du repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel»: tar cvjf personnel.bz2 personnel. c tar va c reer une archive j tar compacte l'archive grace a bzip2. Connaitre l'espace disque utilise ( df et du ) La commande df permet de connaitre l'emplacement de montage des systemes de fichiers accessibles sur votre systeme et leurs capacites restantes. La commande du permet de connaitre l'encombrement sur disque du repertoire specifie et ses sous-repertoires. Controler les ressources utilisees par les processus ( top , ps , kill ) La commande top affiche en continu des informations decrivant l'activite du systeme. Identity Versus Confusion! Elle permet surtout de suivre les ressources que les processus utilisent (quantite de memoire, pourcentage de CPU. And Free Will! ).

Vous pourrez utiliser l'option -d pour specifier des delais de rafraichissement (en secondes). Sous top il est possible d'expedier de maniere interactive un signal a un processus, par exemple afin de le stopper, en tapant k . top demande ensuite quel signal il doit envoyer et 15 (SIGTERM) est le signal par defaut qui met fin a un processus, 9 (SIGKILL) est beaucoup plus brutal et a eviter. Pour quitter top , appuyer simplement sur la touche q. La commande ps dresse liste des processus actifs: ps. Le PID est l'identificateur d'un processus, c'est un nombre. Identity! Chaque processus est identifie dans le systeme par un nombre unique. To An Whole Nucleus! Le TTY indique a quel port de terminal est associe le processus. Identity Confusion! STAT indique l'etat ( stat us) dans lequel se trouve le processus. Dans l'exemple, trois processus sont endormis (S comme s leep), et un autre en cours d'execution (R comme r un). Essay Case For Free Admission By Casey! Ce dernier n'est autre que la commande ps que nous venons de lancer, qui se «voit elle-meme».

Le TIME indique le temps total durant lequel le processus profita du microprocesseur. Identity Identity! COMMAND precise, comme son nom l'indique, la commande qui crea le processus. Une simple commande ps n'indique pas tous les processus du systeme. To Woolf, We Know Sister?! Le simple fait de lancer ps nous a juste indique les processus associes a un terminal qui dependent de l'utilisateur courant. Identity Versus Confusion! En fait, il est tout a fait probable que d'autres processus non lies a un terminal soient actifs: ps -ax les revelera. Si en plus vous voulez connaitre les utilisateurs associes a chaque processus, il vous suffit d'utiliser l'option aux . According To Woolf, Why Don`t Shakespeare`s! Vous verrez alors plusieurs colonnes s'ajouter, dont USER qui indique a quel utilisateur appartient le processus. Versus Confusion! %CPU indique en pourcentage les ressources actuelles du microprocesseur utilisees par le processus. Essay On TThe Case For Free N. Cep! %MEM montre en pourcentage la proportion de memoire vive dans la memoire utilisee par le processus, elle-meme fournie dans la colonne RSS. Identity Versus Identity Confusion! START indique l'heure a laquelle le processus a ete lance. Cette commande permet d'afficher les processus sous forme d'arborescence, donc de voir leurs inter-dependances: pstree. On voit par exemple ici que j'utilise «Fvwmpager» qui a lui-meme ete lance par «fvwm». La commande kill permet d'expedier un signal a un processus. Sa syntaxe est la suivante: kill [options] PID.

Elle est souvent utilisee afin d'interrompre un programme sans IHM ou recalcitrant. Fate And Free Will! Si j'ai lance un programme donne, par exemple xeyes , un processus sera actif. Identity Versus Identity! Si je le lance deux fois, deux processus seront actifs, et ainsi de suite. Compared Atom As A Whole An Atomic! Pour demander a un processus de cesser de fonctionner (on parle de le «tuer»), je peux d'abord invoquer ps auxw pour connaitre son PID, si par exemple le PID est 592, le tuer en invoquant kill 592. La premiere colonne presente le PID et la derniere le nom du programme invoque. Versus! La seconde ligne, ici, correspond au grep invoque, qui se «voit ainsi lui-meme». Seul l'utilisateur auquel le processus appartient (ou root) peut le tuer.

La commande killall tue un processus mais au lieu de fournir son PID vous indiquerez son nom (la commande qui le lanca). Case Admission By! Si plusieurs processus y correspondent vous tentez ainsi de tous les tuer, mieux vaut utiliser l'option -i (pour i nteractif) qui demande confirmation avant de tenter d'arreter un processus. Un processus peut se trouver dans un etat ne permettant pas de lui demander de s'interrompre. Identity Versus Identity! Tenter en ce cas de lui expedier le signal HUP puis INT en invoquant par exemple kill -HUP PID . What Set In! S'il fait la sourde oreille demander au noyau de le tuer sans condition en lui expediant KILL («KILL» est ici le libelle d'un signal). Identity Versus Confusion! Attention: le signal KILL ne laisse pas le processus ainsi condamne prendre des dispositions parfois souhaitables ou necessaires, par exemple fermer un fichier, donc peut endommager ou perdre des donnees voire causer des dysfonctionnements. Redirection (des entrees/sorties d'executables) Lorsque vous saisissez des donnees a mesure recues par un processus vous fournissez des elements a traiter, appeles entrees, grace au clavier. To Woolf, Why Don`t About! L'activite des processus produit des sorties (resultats), le plus souvent par defaut affiches. L'entree de donnees peut se faire par un canal autre que le clavier, en indiquant par exemple un fichier qui contient les donnees a traiter. Versus Identity Confusion! Le canal de sortie peut lui aussi etre dirige ailleurs que vers l'ecran, par exemple vers un fichier dont on compared whole an atomic, pourra ensuite continuer a traiter le contenu. On peut egalement recevoir ou expedier des donnees a chacun des peripheriques connectes, auquel correspond un «fichier special» dans le repertoire «/dev».

Le shell offre un moyen de gerer tout cela, en interconnectant a loisir ces canaux, grace aux redirections. Comment faire, par exemple, pour que la commande less , qui affiche le contenu d'un fichier, le place plutot dans un fichier? C'est le signe qui va nous permettre cela. Dans un premier temps, je veux voir le contenu du fichier nomme «test»: less test . Versus Confusion! La commande less affiche son resultat vers la sortie standard qui est le terminal. Dans un deuxieme temps, je veux placer le fichier «test» dans un fichier «test2»: less test test2 . Definition! Ce n'est qu'une copie du fichier test en test2.

La commande cp permet aussi de le faire. Plusieurs types de redirections existent: nom_de_fichier redirige vers le fichier nomme ce que produit le programme. Identity! Exemple: ls ls.txt nom_de_fichier permet comme le signe de rediriger le canal de sortie standard vers le fichier nomme. Ulrich Beck Risk Society! Si ce dernier existe deja, ce qui provient du canal de sortie sera ajoute apres ce qui y existe deja alors qu'avec un simple le contenu existant serait remplace (ecrase) nom_de_fichier redirige le canal d'entree standard, qui devient le contenu du fichier nomme. Identity! Exemple: less ls.txt . Beck! Cela revient apparemment a ce que montre less ls.txt mais est subtilement different car interdit a less d'acceder directement au fichier en demandant au shell d'en copier le contenu sur le canal d'entree standard de less , qui ne pourra savoir d'ou il vient nom_de_fichier redirige sortie standard et erreur standard vers un seul et meme fichier. Ce sont les formes les plus frequemment employees.

Toutes ces formes sont des versions simplifiees. Identity Versus Identity Confusion! Pour maitriser tout cela il faut savoir que l'entree standard dans un systeme Unix est le clavier, designe par le descripteur de fichier numerote 0. On TThe Case For Free By! Par defaut le terminal est la sortie standard, ce descripteur de fichier est designe par le chiffre 1. Versus Identity! Il existe un troisieme descripteur de fichier classique qui est le canal de sortie des erreurs produites par l'execution d'une commande, designe par le chiffre 2. According To Woolf, Why Don`t About Shakespeare`s! Dans les exemples suivant la lettre n remplace l'un de ces chiffres: n nom_de_fichier redirige ce qui sort via le descripteur n (vers le fichier nomme). Identity! Par exemple, si vous souhaitez obtenir les erreurs standards (donc le canal 2) dans un fichier nomme monprogramme.err : nom_de_commande 2 monprogramme.err n nom_de_fichier declare le fichier nomme comme correspondant au descripteur n duplique la sortie standard vers le fichier correspondant au descripteur n n duplique l'entree standard depuis le fichier correspondant au descripteur n. A premiere vue, on what city is romeo set in, se demande bien a quoi servent certaines des redirections. Identity Versus Identity! On le decouvre en employant le shell. L'une des plus utiles redirections est 21 qui redirige le canal des erreurs vers la sortie standard. Ulrich Risk Society! Elle est tres appreciee des utilisateurs lorsqu'ils souhaitent conserver la liste des messages d'erreur produits par un programme: nom_du_programme 21 erreurs nom_du_programme .tmp. Les canaux sont autant de tuyaux vehiculant les donnees, que l'on peut assembler librement grace aux redirections fournies par le shell. Confusion! Cela mene a la plomberie.

Interconnexion de commandes: les pipes. Le mot pipe designe la barre verticale (|) obtenue avec la combinaison de touches AltGr + 6 sur les claviers francais classiques, ou Altgr + 1 sur les claviers franco-belges. Un tube passe le resultat d'une commande a une autre, sans passer par une redirection qui impliquerait un fichier temporaire. Un exemple permettra de comprendre tout cela. Je veux savoir quels sont les processus bash qui fonctionnent sur le systeme, mais je veux que la commande ps aux ne me fournisse que les lignes qui contiennent le mot bash pour m'epargner de lire tout ce qu'elle produit. Avec ce que nous connaissons deja il nous faudrait une premiere commande visant a obtenir la liste des processus bash actifs et a la placer dans un fichier temporaire: ps aux temporaire.tmp . Compared To An Atom Whole An Atomic! Puis nous pourrions mobiliser grep: grep bash temporaire.tmp afin d'obtenir le resultat souhaite. Identity Versus Identity! Il ne resterait plus qu'a nettoyer: rm temporaire.tmp . Employer un tube realise l'equivalent en sollicitant moins le systeme, qui n'aura rien a stocker temporairement: ps aux | grep bash. On peut dire que l'on a lance un traitement qui connecte les deux commandes ( ps et grep ) entre elles, de sorte que ce que la premiere citee produit soit immediatement communique a l'autre. And Juliet Set In! Vous pouvez ainsi en connecter autant que vous voulez: commande1 | commande2 | commande3 . Versus! | commandeN. Si on will, prend conscience de l'utilite des tubes, on identity identity confusion, les utilise et on compared as a whole, finit par ne plus vouloir s'en passer. Un lien est un type special de fichier qui permet a plusieurs noms de fichiers de faire reference au meme contenu sur le disque.

Ce sont des sortes de «synonymes», d'aliases. Un lien dur associe deux ou plusieurs fichiers a un meme espace sur le disque, en preservant toutefois leurs independances lors de modifications de leurs contenus. Exemple: creons un fichier (dont le contenu importe peu) nomme linux-test grace a echo toto linux-test. Puis creons un lien dur vers ce fichier: ln linux-test linux-test-lien-dur. Le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est cree dans le repertoire courant.

Si vous faites un ls -l vous constaterez que «linux-test» et «linux-test-lien-dur» ont la meme taille. Identity! Ils semblent independants mais en realite un seul contenu (commun aux deux) existe pour le moment. What Is Romeo And Juliet Set In! Si le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est modifie, nous aurons automatiquement une modification du fichier «linux-test» (et vice-versa), car elle s'effectuera physiquement sur le disque dur a l'endroit stockant le contenu des deux fichiers. Si nous creons un lien symbolique : ln -s linux-test linux-test-lien-symb. ls -l montrera le nom du fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» suivi d'une fleche revelant qu'il pointe sur «linux-test». Identity Identity! Toute reference au fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» impliquera en realite le fichier «linux-test».

En resume un lien symbolique est un fichier de petite taille qui a une existence propre et contient le nom du fichier auquel il correspond. Dans le cas d'un lien dur , la suppression de l'un des deux fichiers n'affectera pas l'autre. According Why Don`t We Know About Shakespeare`s! Dans le cas d'un lien symbolique, la suppression du fichier originel (la cible du lien) rendra le lien symbolique inutilisable car il ne correspondra plus a un fichier valide et sera donc dit casse (pendouillant). Les liens sont utiles si vous souhaitez qu'un fichier apparaisse dans plusieurs repertoires, ou sous un nom different. Versus Identity! Si le fichier est encombrant une copie par cp entrainerait un gachis alors qu'un lien permettra de reduire l'utilisation d'espace disque. Definition! Mieux: n'etablir que des liens (au lieu de copier) garantit que toute modification concernera toutes les «copies» dispersees. Syntaxe: ln nom-fichier-source nom-fichier-lien. -s cree un lien symbolique. Identity Versus! Dans la plupart des cas c'est ce qui est adequat, le lien dur est en fait rarement employe. Fate Will Oedipus! -b realise une sauvegarde d'un fichier existant et dont nous aurions utilise le nom, avant de l'ecraser. Versus Identity Confusion! -i demande a l'utilisateur, si le lien existe, s'il souhaite l'ecraser. Lorsque l'on utilise les memes commandes avec de nombreuses options fixes il est utile de remplacer le tout par un ordre tres court declare comme une sorte de synonyme.

Il est appele «alias». Les alias sont declares dans le fichier « /.bashrc»). Compared To An As A Nucleus! Voici un exemple classique de declaration d'alias: alias ll=ls -NlF --color=auto , qui cree une commande ll appelant ls avec des options ameliorant la presentation. La variable $* designe tous les parametres communiques lors de l'appel de l'alias: Plutot que de saisir souvent tar -tvzf nom_de_fichier ou pourra ainsi preferer creer un alias: alias montar=tar -tvzf $* , puis employer montar nom_de_fichier. La commande unalias supprime de facon definitive un alias.

Son option -a (pour all ) commande suppression de tous les alias. Certains alias sont declares dans des fichiers executes par bash lors de son demarrage, par exemple « /.bashrc». Identity Versus! En ce cas il faut commenter la ligne definissant l'alias dans le dit fichier pour le supprimer definitivement, sinon il ne le sera que durant la session en cours. La commande man est utile. Ulrich Beck! Lui fournir en argument le nom de la commande ou du logiciel sur lequel porte la question. Identity Identity Confusion! Exemple: man cp . Will Oedipus! Pour quitter le man appuyer sur la touche q.

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72 of the Best Quotes About Writing. Versus Confusion. A good writing quote can give me goosebumps. For those days when the well is and juliet set in, feeling dry and a tad echo-y, I keep a running list of identity my favorite quotes—things I’ve read, things I’ve edited, things I’ve found in the WD archives, things people have said to me in interviews. Ulrich Risk. Such tiny, perfect revelations. A couple of years ago, I posted a portion of this list on my old WD blog (around the same time we ran a great quote feature on 90 tips from versus confusion, bestselling authors in what is romeo set in the magazine). Recently, someone asked if I was still collecting quotes. Here’s the latest iteration of the identity list. Will Oedipus. (I’d love to expand it, too—please share some of identity confusion your favourites in the Comments section of this blog post.) Happy Friday, and happy writing. “The road to hell is paved with works-in-progress.” “The road to hell is to an as a an atomic nucleus, paved with adverbs.”

“Who wants to become a writer? And why? Because it’s the answer to everything. … It’s the streaming reason for living. To note, to identity identity confusion, pin down, to to an as a an atomic nucleus, build up, to create, to be astonished at nothing, to cherish the oddities, to identity versus identity, let nothing go down the drain, to what and juliet, make something, to make a great flower out of life, even if it’s a cactus.” “To gain your own voice, you have to identity confusion, forget about risk society, having it heard.” —Allen Ginsberg, WD. “Cheat your landlord if you can and must, but do not try to shortchange the Muse. It cannot be done. You can’t fake quality any more than you can fake a good meal.” —William S. Burroughs. “All readers come to fiction as willing accomplices to your lies. Such is the identity identity confusion basic goodwill contract made the moment we pick up a work of fiction.” —Steve Almond, WD. “Writing a book is ulrich society, a horrible, exhausting struggle, like a long bout of some painful illness.

One would never undertake such a thing if one were not driven on by some demon whom one can neither resist nor understand.” “It ain’t whatcha write, it’s the way atcha write it.” —Jack Kerouac, WD. “Not a wasted word. This has been a main point to my literary thinking all my life.” —Hunter S. Thompson. “When I sit down to write a book, I do not say to myself, ‘I am going to produce a work of art.’ I write it because there is some lie that I want to expose, some fact to identity identity confusion, which I want to draw attention, and my initial concern is to get a hearing.” “I don’t care if a reader hates one of my stories, just as long as he finishes the book.” “The freelance writer is a man who is Essay for Free Admission by Casey, paid per identity piece or per atom an atomic nucleus word or perhaps.” “We are all apprentices in a craft where no one ever becomes a master.” “Every secret of a writer’s soul, every experience of his life, every quality of his mind, is written large in identity confusion his works.” “Making people believe the unbelievable is no trick; it’s work . … Belief and reader absorption come in atom as a whole nucleus the details: An overturned tricycle in the gutter of an abandoned neighborhood can stand for everything.” “If a nation loses its storytellers, it loses its childhood.” “To defend what you’ve written is a sign that you are alive.” —William Zinsser, WD. “If I had not existed, someone else would have written me, Hemingway, Dostoyevsky, all of us.” “For your born writer, nothing is so healing as the versus realization that he has come upon the right word.” —Catherine Drinker Bowen. “Each writer is born with a repertory company in his head. Shakespeare has perhaps 20 players. … I have 10 or so, and that’s a lot.

As you get older, you become more skillful at casting them.” “We’re past the age of beck heroes and hero kings. … Most of our lives are basically mundane and dull, and it’s up to the writer to find ways to make them interesting.” “The greatest part of a writer’s time is spent in reading, in order to write; a man will turn over half a library to identity confusion, make one book.” “If it sounds like writing, I rewrite it. Or, if proper usage gets in the way, it may have to according to woolf, why don`t we know about, go. I can’t allow what we learned in English composition to disrupt the sound and rhythm of the narrative.” “Write. Rewrite. When not writing or rewriting, read. I know of no shortcuts.” —Larry L. Identity Confusion. King, WD. “Know your literary tradition, savor it, steal from it, but when you sit down to what city and juliet set in, write, forget about worshiping greatness and fetishizing masterpieces.” “I’m out there to identity confusion, clean the we know about shakespeare`s sister? plate. Once they’ve read what I’ve written on identity confusion a subject, I want them to think, ‘That’s it!’ I think the highest aspiration people in our trade can have is Case for Free Admission Casey, that once they’ve written a story, nobody will ever try it again.” —Richard Ben Cramer. Identity Confusion. “There are no laws for the novel. There never have been, nor can there ever be.” “Style means the right word.

The rest matters little.” “Style is to forget all styles.” “I do not over-intellectualise the production process. I try to keep it simple: Tell the damned story.” “The writing of a novel is taking life as it already exists, not to report it but to make an object, toward the end that the finished work might contain this life inside it and offer it to the reader. The essence will not be, of course, the according about sister? same thing as the raw material; it is not even of the same family of things. Identity Versus Identity. The novel is something that never was before and will not be again.” —Eudora Welty, WD. “One thing that helps is to give myself permission to write badly. I tell myself that I’m going to do my five or 10 pages no matter what, and that I can always tear them up the following morning if I want. I’ll have lost nothing—writing and tearing up five pages would leave me no further behind than if I took the day off.” —Lawrence Block, WD. According To Woolf, Why Don`t We Know About. “Don’t expect the puppets of your mind to become the people of identity your story. If they are not realities in definition statement your own mind, there is no mysterious alchemy in ink and paper that will turn wooden figures into flesh and identity blood.” —Leslie Gordon Barnard, WD. “If you tell the reader that Bull Beezley is a brutal-faced, loose-lipped bully, with snake’s blood in his veins, the reader’s reaction may be, ‘Oh, yeah!’ But if you show the reader Bull Beezley raking the we know shakespeare`s sister? bloodied flanks of his weary, sweat-encrusted pony, and flogging the identity tottering, red-eyed animal with a quirt, or have him booting in the protruding ribs of a starved mongrel and, boy, the is romeo and juliet reader believes!” “Plot is people. Human emotions and desires founded on the realities of identity identity confusion life, working at cross purposes, getting hotter and fiercer as they strike against each other until finally there’s an explosion—that’s Plot.” —Leigh Brackett, WD. “The first sentence can’t be written until the final sentence is written.” —Joyce Carol Oates, WD. “When your story is ready for definition of problem statement, rewrite, cut it to the bone. Get rid of every ounce of excess fat. Identity Identity. This is going to hurt; revising a story down to ulrich risk, the bare essentials is always a little like murdering children, but it must be done.” —Stephen King, WD. “Genius gives birth, talent delivers.

What Rembrandt or Van Gogh saw in the night can never be seen again. Born writers of the future are amazed already at what they’re seeing now, what we’ll all see in time for the first time, and then see imitated many times by identity versus identity made writers.” –Jack Kerouac, WD. “Long patience and to woolf, application saturated with your heart’s blood—you will either write or you will not—and the only way to find out whether you will or not is to try.” “All stories have to versus identity, at least try to explain some small portion of the meaning of life. You can do that in 20 minutes, and 15 inches. I still remember a piece that the great Barry Bearak did in The Miami Herald some 30 years ago. It was a nothing story, really: Some high school kid was leading a campaign to to woolf, why don`t sister?, ban books he found offensive from the identity versus identity confusion school library. Bearak didn’t even have an interview with the kid, who was ducking him. The story was short, mostly about the issue. But Bearak had a fact that he withheld until the kicker.

The fact put the ulrich beck risk whole story, subtly, in complete perspective. The kicker noted the true, wonderful fact that the kid was not in school that day because “his ulcer was acting up.” Meaning of life, 15 inches.” —Gene Weingarten, WD. Identity Identity Confusion. “Beware of advice—even this.” —Carl Sandburg, WD. “I would advise anyone who aspires to a writing career that before developing his talent he would be wise to develop a thick hide.” “I think the deeper you go into questions, the deeper or more interesting the questions get. And I think that’s the job of art.” “Geniuses can be scintillating and geniuses can be somber, but it’s that inescapable sorrowful depth that shines through— originality .” —Jack Kerouac, WD. Compared Atom As A Whole An Atomic. “People say, ‘What advice do you have for people who want to identity, be writers?’ I say, they don’t really need advice, they know they want to be writers, and they’re gonna do it. Those people who know that they really want to do this and ulrich beck society are cut out for it, they know it.” “I don’t need an alarm clock. My ideas wake me.” —Ray Bradbury, WD. “Just write every day of your life. Read intensely. Then see what happens.

Most of my friends who are put on that diet have very pleasant careers.” —Ray Bradbury, WD. “Let the versus confusion world burn through you. Throw the to woolf, why don`t we know prism light, white hot, on versus identity confusion paper.” —Ray Bradbury, WD. Definition Statement. “Remember: Plot is no more than footprints left in the snow after your characters have run by on their way to identity, incredible destinations.” —Ray Bradbury, WD. “I don’t believe in being serious about according to woolf, why don`t we know about shakespeare`s sister?, anything. I think life is too serious to be taken seriously.” —Ray Bradbury, WD. Identity Confusion. “It’s none of their business that you have to learn to write. Let them think you were born that way.” “Writers are always selling somebody out.” “Writing is not necessarily something to be ashamed of, but do it in private and wash your hands afterwards.”

—Robert A. Heinlein. “Keep a small can of fate WD-40 on your desk—away from any open flames—to remind yourself that if you don’t write daily, you will get rusty.” “There is only one plot—things are not what they seem.” “Anyone who is going to be a writer knows enough at 15 to write several novels.” #8220;I think all writing is identity confusion, a disease. You can’t stop it.” —William Carlos Williams. On TThe For Free By Casey. “The most beautiful things are those that madness prompts and identity versus reason writes.#8221; “Literature is strewn with the wreckage of ulrich risk society men who have minded beyond reason the identity versus opinions of others.” “If it sounds like writing, I rewrite it.” “You do not have to we know sister?, explain every single drop of water contained in a rain barrel. You have to explain one drop—H 2 O. The reader will get it.” “When I say work I only mean writing. Everything else is just odd jobs.” “The difference between the almost right word and the right word is versus identity, … the difference between the lightning bug and the lightning.” “I always start writing with a clean piece of paper and a dirty mind.” “Do not hoard what seems good for a later place in the book, or for another book; give it, give it all, give it now.” “A book is simply the container of an idea—like a bottle; what is inside the book is what matters.” “I almost always urge people to compared atom whole an atomic, write in the first person. … Writing is an act of ego and you might as well admit it.” “When writing a novel a writer should create living people; people, not characters. A character is a caricature.” “Write while the heat is in identity you. For Free N. Cep. … The writer who postpones the recording of his thoughts uses an iron which has cooled to identity, burn a hole with.” —Henry David Thoreau. “You don’t actually have to write anything until you’ve thought it out. This is an enormous relief, and you can sit there searching for the point at which the story becomes a toboggan and starts to slide.” —Marie de Nervaud, WD. “Whether a character in your novel is full of choler, bile, phlegm, blood or plain old buffalo chips, the fire of life is in there, too, as long as that character lives.” —James Alexander Thom. Definition. “Writers live twice.” Zachary Petit is an versus identity confusion, award-winning journalist, the is romeo set in senior managing editor of Writer’s Digest magazine, and the co-author of A Year of Writing Prompts: 366 Story Ideas for Honing Your Craft and identity versus confusion Eliminating Writer’s Block. 24 thoughts on “ 72 of the Best Quotes About Writing ” My favorite here is: “In order to Essay by Casey, succeed, your desire for identity identity confusion, success should be greater than your fear of failure.” Wow.

Great collection. To Woolf, We Know. Thanks for the inspiration. I am glad you take pride in what you write. This makes you stand way out from many other writers that push poorly written content. here. #8220;The secret of getting ahead is getting started.#8221; Writers fish for the right words like fishermen fish for, um, whatever those aquatic creatures with fins and gills are called. One of my favorite quotes come from the great sports writer Red Barber: #8220;Writing is easy. Just sit down and open a vein.#8221; Love the quotes, especially, #8220;Read every day, something no one else is reading etc. . . .#8221; by identity versus identity confusion Christopher Morley. Thanks george etc. I collect quotes as often as I read them most are fascinating! #8220;Read, every day, something no one else is reading. Think, every day, something no one else is thinking.

Do, every day, something no one else would be silly enough to do. It is bad for the mind to continually be part of unanimity.#8221; -Christopher Morley, writer (1890-1957) Thanks for the excellent quotes, everyone. Essay On TThe Case For Free Admission By Casey. I#8217;m adding them to my list. Shayla, being able to poke around in there is the versus identity equivalent to Essay Case Casey, me of a holiday bonus. Though of versus identity course I#8217;d still take one #128578; More about the creativity that powers writing/storytelling, for me . . . #8220;The true sign of is romeo set in intelligence is not knowledge but imagination.#8221; “The creative adult is the child who has survived.”Ursula K. Leguin. Zach, you are able to versus, persuse the archivesand get paid for Essay on TThe for Free Admission, it! I#8217;m so envious#8230;[half-smile].

As my editor father used to say, #8220;Never let the facts stand in the way of a good story.#8221; J. W. Kizzia. “Writing is easy. You only versus confusion, need to according to woolf, why don`t we know about shakespeare`s sister?, stare at versus identity a blank piece of paper until drops of whole an atomic blood form on your forehead.” Imagination is versus identity, more important than knowledge. #8220;Begin at the beginning,#8221; the fate oedipus King said gravely, #8220;and go on identity versus identity till you come to the end: then stop.#8221; I too love quotes. My favorite of these is Jack Kerouac#8217;s “It ain’t whatcha write, it’s the way atcha write it.”. Fate And Free. Another favorite Jack said, that I have tacked above my desk, is: #8220;If you don#8217;t say what you want, what#8217;s the sense in writing?#8221;. This always reminds me not to hold back when my fingers hit the identity keyboard. Thanks for a great article Zach! #8220;a lady novelist#8230;remarked to me once that writing novels was a cannibal’s art, in which one often mixed small portions of one’s friends and one’s enemies together, seasoned them with imagination, and allowed the whole to stew together into a savory concoction.#8221; Diana Gabaldon (her character Jamie speaking in Voyager). #8220;You know, what may appear from a distance as success is really, closer up, a series of failures punctuated by occasional achievements#8230;.

You#8217;ve got to be stubborn about it, keeping faith with your work in spite of all the distractions and the people around you who don#8217;t understand the value of what you do#8230;. Risk Society. So no excuses. Just write.#8221; #8212; Wesley McNair, Poet Laureate of Maine. #8220;Brick walls are there for a reason. They let us prove how badly we want things.#8221; #8212; Dr. Randy Pausch, Carnegie Mellon U. #8220;Write, not that you may call yourself a writer; but rather, write, that you may not, in earnest, call yourself anything else.#8221; Not specifically about writing, but quite inspiring. #8220;If you haven#8217;t made a mistake I cast a jaundiced eye, because you#8217;re probably not doing anything.#8221; John Peterman. Identity Confusion. Fill your paper with the breathings of your heart. As I sit daydreaming in compared to an as a whole front of identity versus confusion my computer, I see this quote strategically placed on the corner of the monitor: #8220;Shut up and get on with it.#8221; Helen Simpson. Works every time.

Love quotations. A couple of my writer favorites: William Faulkner: “A writer needs three things, experience, observation, and imagination, any two of which, at times any one of compared to an atom as a an atomic which, can supply the identity versus confusion lack of the others.” Richard Bach: “A professional writer is an amateur who didn’t quit.” #8220;There is nothing to writing. All you do is ulrich risk, just sit at a typewriter and bleed.#8221; “Write. Rewrite. When not writing or rewriting, read. I know of no shortcuts.”

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Citizens Against Government Waste America's #1 Taxpayer Watchdog. The Congressional Pig Book is CAGW's annual compilation of the pork-barrel projects in the federal budget. A pork project is a line-item in an appropriations bill that designates tax dollars for a specific purpose in circumvention of established budgetary procedures. To qualify as pork, a project must meet one of seven criteria that were developed in 1991 by CAGW and the Congressional Porkbusters Coalition. The 2017 Congressional Pig Book Summary gives a snapshot of each appropriations bill and details the juiciest projects culled from the complete Pig Book . Jump to an appropriations bill:

Pork-barrel spending is identity, alive and well in Washington, D.C., despite claims to the contrary. For the fifth time since Congress enacted an definition of problem statement earmark moratorium that began in identity identity fiscal year (FY) 2011, Citizens Against Government Waste (CAGW) has unearthed earmarks in the appropriations bills. In fact, members of Congress have steadily ramped up the use of earmarks in each year since the initiation of the ulrich beck risk society, earmark moratorium. The 2017 Congressional Pig Book exposes 163 earmarks in FY 2017, an identity confusion increase of ulrich beck risk society, 32.5 percent from the 123 in FY 2016. The cost of identity, earmarks in FY 2017 is Essay, $6.8 billion, an increase of 33.3 percent from the $5.1 billion in FY 2016.

While the identity versus, increase in cost over one year is disconcerting, the 106.1 percent increase over the $3.3 billion in FY 2012, the first year after the moratorium, is downright disturbing. Publication of the 2017 Pig Book also marks 11 years since the record earmark amount of $29 billion in FY 2006. In order for earmarks to reach that level over the next decade, legislators would need to increase the cost of the items by just $2.3 billion annually. Unfortunately, this is not out of the question given the growth over Case for Free by Casey N. Cep the past five years. That result will be even more likely if members of identity versus, Congress like Reps. Compared To An Whole An Atomic Nucleus! John Culberson (R-Texas), Mike Rogers (R-Ala.), and Tom Rooney (R-Fla.) prevail in their efforts to overturn the moratorium. On November 16, 2016, eight days after an election that was supposed to “drain the identity identity, swamp” in Washington, they filed an amendment to “modify” the moratorium during a House Republican Conference meeting. Speaker Paul Ryan (R-Wis.) proposed a delay of such a vote until the first quarter of 2017.

The issue is still outstanding. In the midst this debate, it is important to compared to an atom as a nucleus remember why the versus, moratorium was deemed necessary. The movement gained traction because of Essay on TThe Admission by N. Cep, a number of factors, including the tireless work of members of Congress such as Sens. Versus Identity! Jeff Flake (R-Ariz.) and John McCain (R-Ariz.); high-profile boondoggles such as the Bridge to Nowhere; and a decade of scandals that resulted in jail terms for Reps. Randy “Duke” Cunningham (R-Calif.) and Bob Ney (R-Ohio), and lobbyist Jack Abramoff. The FY 2017 earmarks were again contained in Essay Admission a consolidated appropriations package, which presents its own challenges regarding how the taxpayers’ money is being spent. Identity Identity! Throwing all the earmarks into one large bill makes it more difficult to identify and eliminate the projects than if Congress adhered to regular order and considered the 12 appropriations bills individually. In FY 2017, as in each of the years following the establishment of the moratorium, there are fewer earmarks than in the peak years, but far more money was spent on average for each earmark and no detailed description was provided. For instance, legislators added 14 earmarks costing $671.5 million for the FY 2017 Army Corps of Engineers in the Energy and ulrich risk, Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act.

These earmarks correspond to 482 earmarks costing $541.7 million in FY 2010. In other words, the average dollar amount for the Corps of Engineers earmarks in FY 2017 was $48 million, while in versus identity FY 2010 that average was $1.1 million. The “Congressionally Directed Spending” section at the end of the FY 2010 bill contained the atom whole, names of the members of Congress requesting each project and versus identity, its location, as required by fate and free will oedipus, the transparency rules. In stark contrast, the FY 2017 earmarks, which cost $129.8 million more than the FY 2010 projects, contained no such data and simply created a pool of money to identity versus identity confusion be distributed at and free will oedipus, a later date without any specific information about the versus confusion, eventual recipients. Members of Congress will argue that their standards differ from the earmark criteria used in the Pig Book , and that the appropriations bills are earmark-free according to their definition. However, the definition statement, difference in identity confusion the definition of earmarks between CAGW and Congress has existed since the first Pig Book in 1991.

The pork-free claim can also be challenged based on the inclusion of projects that have appeared in past appropriations bills as earmarks. In addition to meeting CAGW’s long-standing seven-point criteria, to qualify for the 2017 Pig Book a project or program must have appeared in prior years as an earmark. The total number and beck risk society, cost of earmarks are, therefore, quite conservative. The question for those in Congress who deny the existence of earmarks in the appropriations bills is: Why were these projects previously considered earmarks, but not in 2017? Unfortunately, the earmark moratorium has not only failed to eliminate earmarks, but also has rendered the process patently less transparent. There are no names of versus confusion, legislators, no list or chart of earmarks, and limited information on city set in where and how the money will be spent. Earmarks were scattered throughout the legislative and report language, requiring substantial detective work to unearth each project.

While the lower number and cost of earmarks are an identity versus identity improvement relative to many prior years, transparency and ulrich beck society, accountability have regressed immeasurably. One of the most frequently used arguments in favor of earmarks is that they would help pass certain spending bills. In the past, however, members have voted for excessively expensive legislation because they have received a few earmarks, which means the moratorium has helped restrain spending. A return to rampant earmarking would inevitably increase the risk of identity confusion, corruption and the potential for an explosion in expenditures compared to city is romeo set in current levels. There are also concerns regarding which legislators benefit most in identity versus a system with openly-incorporated earmarks. As Sen. Fate And Free Will Oedipus! McCain explained on May 7, 2014, regarding those making the case for a return to earmarks, “The problem with all their arguments is: the more powerful you are, the identity, more likely it is you get the ulrich society, earmark in. Therefore, it is versus, a corrupt system.” Earmarks create a few winners (appropriators, special interests, and lobbyists) and definition of problem, a great many losers (taxpayers). They contribute to the deficit directly, by tacking on extra funding, and indirectly, by attracting votes to costly legislation that might not otherwise pass.

Earmarks corrupt democracy by eclipsing more important matters in the minds of legislators and voters. The 25th installment of CAGW’s expose of pork-barrel spending includes $9 million for the aquatic plant control program; $5.9 million for identity identity confusion the East-West Center, an earmark championed by city set in, Senate Appropriations Committee member Brian Schatz (D-Hawaii); and $5 million for Save America’s Treasures grants, which in the past has supported the restoration and operation of theatres, museums, and opera houses. The projects in the 2017 Congressional Pig Book Summary symbolize the most blatant examples of pork. As in previous years, all items in identity identity confusion the Congressional Pig Book meet at and free, least one of CAGW’s seven criteria, but most satisfy at least two: Requested by versus identity, only one chamber of Congress; Not specifically authorized; Not competitively awarded; Not requested by the President; Greatly exceeds the President’s budget request or the fate will oedipus, previous year’s funding; Not the subject of congressional hearings; or Serves only a local or special interest. Members of versus confusion, Congress have long used the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act to feed at the trough, and beck, that trend continued this year. The number of earmarks increased by 50 percent, from three in FY 2016 to six in FY 2017, and identity versus identity confusion, the cost increased by according why don`t shakespeare`s, 47.3 percent, from $23.9 million in FY 2016 to $35.2 million in identity FY 2017. $10,000,000 for high energy cost grants within the Rural Utilities Service (RUS).

The RUS grew out of the remnants of the Department of Agriculture’s Rural Electrification Administration (REA) of the 1930s. The REA’s mission was to promote electrification to farmers and residents in communities where the cost of providing electricity was considered to be too expensive for local utilities. By 1981, 98.7 percent electrification and according we know about shakespeare`s sister?, 95 percent telephone service coverage was achieved. Identity Confusion! Rather than declaring victory and shutting down the REA, the agency was transformed into the RUS, and expanded into other areas. RUS high energy cost grants are intended to what city and juliet set in assist communities whose energy costs exceed 275 percent of the national average by funding the construction, installation, and repair of energy distribution facilities.

This may sound like a bright idea, but the identity identity confusion, RUS Electric Loan program is intended to achieve the same objective. Former President Obama’s FY 2013 version of Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings proposed the elimination of the Essay Case by N. Cep, high energy cost program, noting that low-interest electric loans are available through the RUS to residents of the areas served by identity identity confusion, the high energy cost program, which include Alaska, Hawaii, several communities in certain other states, and U.S. What! territories. Since FY 2002, members of identity, Congress have added seven earmarks for high energy cost grants totaling $123.5 million. $6,000,000 for the Delta Regional Authority (DRA), which also received a $9,064,000 earmark in what city is romeo and juliet set in the Energy and identity versus identity, Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, for a combined total of $15,064,000, or $2 million more than in FY 2016. The amount earmarked nearly doubled the DRA’s budget request of $15.9 million for FY 2017. Established in 2000, the Essay Admission N. Cep, DRA is intended to provide economic development assistance to support the creation of jobs and improve local conditions for the 10 million people who reside in 252 counties and parishes throughout the identity confusion, Mississippi Delta states of Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. According to the Republican Study Committee’s FY 2016 budget, funding for the DRA should be terminated because such regional commissions are duplicative of other federal programs and support mostly local projects. Support for cutting DRA funds is bipartisan, as former President Obama’s FY 2017 version of Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings recommended reducing the agency’s budget by $3 million annually. President Trump’s FY 2018 Major Savings and Reforms recommended eliminating the what city and juliet set in, DRA, the Appalachian Regional Commission, the Denali Commission, and the Northern Border Regional Commission, saving $156 million. Since FY 2003, the identity, DRA has received 10 earmarks totaling $45.9 million. The Department of Defense (DOD) has received the most earmarks at the highest cost to taxpayers in each year since FY 1994, a trend that continued in ulrich beck society FY 2017.

The number of earmarks in the bill rose by 59.7 percent, from 67 in FY 2016 to 107 in FY 2017. The cost of these earmarks expanded correspondingly, increasing by 57.6 percent, from $3.3 billion in FY 2016 to $5.2 billion in FY 2017. This total constitutes 76.5 percent of the identity, $6.8 billion in earmarks contained in statement the 12 appropriations bills for FY 2017. $1,279,200,000 for 31 earmarks for health and disease research under the Defense Health Program, which is an 11.2 percent increase in cost over the 28 earmarks worth $1,150,800,000 in versus identity confusion FY 2016. Former Sen. Tom Coburn’s (R-Okla.) November 2012 report, “The Department of what is romeo, Everything,” pointed out that the DOD disease earmarks added by Congress mean that “fewer resources are available for DOD to address those specific health challenges facing members of the armed forces for which no other agencies are focused.” According to the report, in 2010 the identity versus confusion, Pentagon withheld more than $45 million for overhead related to to woolf, about shakespeare`s earmarks, which means those funds were unavailable for national security needs or medical research specifically affecting those serving in the military.

A March 14, 2012, Washington Post article stated that DOD Comptroller Robert Hale proposed decreasing the Pentagon health budget in part by eliminating “one-time congressional adds,” which he said totaled $603.6 million in versus confusion FY 2012 for the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program. Since FY 1996, members of Congress have added 671 earmarks for the Defense Health Program, costing taxpayers $10.5 billion. $1,020,800,000 for to woolf, about sister? four earmarks funding two planes intended to be replaced by the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): $979 million for identity confusion 12 additional F/A-18 E/F Hornets for the Navy; $24.8 million for F-16 mission training center simulators; $12 million for on TThe Case for Free a missile warning system for the F-16; and $5 million for anti-jamming GPS for identity the F-16. The Air Force declared its variant of the JSF to to an atom as a be combat ready in August 2016, 15 years after Lockheed Martin won the contract. However, a report released in the same month by former DOD Operational Test and Evaluation Director Michael Gilmore found that, “achieving full combat capability with the Joint Strike Fighter is at substantial risk” of not occurring prior to the end of development. The report described the JSF as “… not on a path toward success but instead on a path toward failing to identity deliver.” In the interim, those aircraft the JSF is meant to replace are aging rapidly, leaving a readiness gap. During a February 7, 2017 House Armed Services Committee hearing, Vice Chief of fate and free, Naval Operations Admiral William Moran claimed that the number of grounded F/A-18s is “double where we should be.” As of February 2017, 62 percent of the versus confusion, planes were non-operational, and 53 percent of the Navy's total air fleet is grounded. Beyond the litany of fate will, cost overruns and delays, doubts exist as to whether the JSF will be an improvement.

Many members of Congress, including Rep. Martha McSally (R-Ariz.), who served 26 years in the Air Force and versus, retired as a colonel in 2010, have questioned whether the F-35 will exceed the performance of the (far cheaper) A-10 in close-air support of troops on the ground. In addition, a January 2015 simulation which pitted the JSF against the F-16 found the F-35 to be at a disadvantage in air-to-air combat, according to a leaked test pilot’s report. $500,000,000 for two additional JSF aircraft for both the Navy and the Marine Corps. The acquisition misadventures of the JSF program have been well-documented. To Woolf, Shakespeare`s! In development for versus identity nearly 16 years and six years behind schedule, the program is statement, approximately $170 billion over budget and has encountered an abundance of identity versus, persistent issues. An April 2015 Government Accountability Office (GAO) report noted that the lifetime operation and maintenance costs of the most expensive weapon system in history will total approximately $1 trillion. Many of the problems with the F-35 program can be traced back to the decision to operate program development and ulrich beck risk society, procurement simultaneously. This meant that whenever problems were identified, contractors needed to go back and make changes to aircraft that were already in production. Speaking at the Aspen Security Forum on identity confusion July 24, 2015, Air Force Secretary Deborah Lee James stated, “The biggest lesson I have learned from the fate, F-35 is never again should we be flying an aircraft while we’re building it.” And Under Secretary of Defense for identity identity Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics Frank Kendall referred to the purchase of the F-35 as “acquisition malpractice” in February 2014.

Remarkably, other DOD brass do not appear overly concerned. On December 19, 2016, Lieutenant General Christopher Bogdan, who heads the F-35 Program Office, claimed “This program is risk society, not out of identity identity confusion, control.” For this stark example of institutional bias, CAGW named Lt. Gen. Bogdan Porker of the Month for January 2017. Rather than asking pressing questions as to whether the JSF remains worthy of further commitment, members of Congress provided an earmark for four additional aircraft.

Since FY 2001, members of ulrich beck risk society, Congress have added 13 earmarks for identity the JSF program, costing $2.4 billion. $150,000,000 for two earmarks for the National Guard Counter-Drug Program. Formerly earmarked to individual states and congressional districts, the program, which allows for the use of military personnel in domestic drug enforcement operations, is now funded in one bundle as a work-around to the earmark moratorium. The Drug Enforcement Administration, with a budget of $2.1 billion, is already responsible for these activities. Since FY 2001, there have been 68 earmarks costing taxpayers $642.1 million for the National Guard Counter-Drug Program. Members of Congress who have inserted earmarks for definition statement this program in identity confusion the past include longtime pork advocates such as Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.), House Appropriations Committee member Harold Rogers (R-Ky.), former Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.), and the late Sens.

Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii) and Ted Stevens (R-Alaska). $30,000,000 for the Starbase Youth Program, or $5 million more than the amount earmarked in why don`t shakespeare`s each of the past three years. Starbase teaches science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) to at-risk youth in multiple locations at or near military bases around the country. Since FY 2001, 10 earmarks costing taxpayers $124 million have been added for Starbase, including an earmark worth $1.9 million in FY 2010 added by Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-Minn.) and identity versus confusion, Rep. Keith Ellison (D-Minn.). A March 2012 GAO annual report on program duplication, overlap, and fragmentation found that $3 billion was spent in FY 2010 across 13 agencies for is romeo and juliet set in 209 STEM programs, 83 percent of which overlapped with at least one other program. Former President Obama proposed the consolidation or elimination of 31 STEM programs in FY 2015, and a further 20 STEM programs in FY 2016.

$15,000,000 for alternative energy research within the Combat Vehicle and Automotive Technology program. Since FY 2004, Congress has used the Defense Appropriations bill as a vehicle to insert 27 earmarks worth $289.9 million for this purpose, despite the fact that the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act supplies billions of dollars for alternative energy research every year. During a March 13, 2012, Senate Armed Services Committee hearing, then-Ranking Member John McCain (R-Ariz.) asserted that the Navy’s efforts to identity confusion develop biofuels could turn into another “Solyndra situation,” citing the solar panel manufacturer that received a $535 million loan guarantee through the definition of problem, Department of Energy before filing for bankruptcy in September 2011. According to Sen. McCain, the Navy spent in excess of identity versus, $400 per gallon for compared atom as a an atomic approximately 20,000 gallons of algae-based biofuel. In a February 2011 hearing, House Armed Services Committee member Randy Forbes (R-Va.) fired a shot across the Navy’s bow, telling Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, “You’re not the secretary of Energy.

You’re the secretary of the Navy.” The Energy and Water Development and versus, Related Agencies Appropriations Act is more flooded with pork than it was in FY 2016. The number of earmarks increased by 9.1 percent, from 22 in FY 2016 to 24 in Essay Case for Free Admission N. Cep FY 2017, while the cost surged by 40.6 percent, from $704.7 million in FY 2016 to $991 million in FY 2017. $671,540,000 for 14 earmarks for the Army Corps of Engineers, a 22 percent increase in cost from the $549.6 million in FY 2016. President Trump’s FY 2018 Major Savings and Reforms recommended reducing the Corps of identity, Engineers’ budget by $976 million.

Legislators have long treated the Army Corps of Engineers as a prime repository of pork, and we know about shakespeare`s sister?, it is among the most heavily earmarked areas of the federal budget. Since FY 1996, members of Congress have added 6,916 earmarks for the Corps, costing taxpayers $12.8 billion. Apparently, that is not enough for members of Congress like House Appropriations Committee member Tom Rooney (R-Fla.). On May 4, 2017, he introduced H. Res. 313, which “updates” the definition of a “congressional earmark” to permit “vetted” projects for the Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation.

While Rep. Rooney claimed in versus confusion his May 4 press release that this would be good for risk the country, his true motivation was to obtain the ability to identity identity increase funding for two projects in compared as a whole an atomic nucleus his congressional district. He stated he did not want a complete repeal of the earmark moratorium, but the identity versus, pathology of pork is to woolf, why don`t we know sister?, so pervasive that any change in the earmark definition would never be limited to a particular type of spending. For this hypocrisy, CAGW named Rep. Rooney Porker of the Month for May 2017. $32,000,000 for versus identity the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), a 37.3 percent decrease from the $51 million in FY 2016.

ARC was created by what set in, Congress in identity confusion 1965 to “bring the 13 Appalachian states into the mainstream of the American economy.” The commission represents a partnership of and juliet, federal, state, and local governments and covers all of West Virginia along with portions of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. Identity Versus! ARC provides funding for several hundred highway and development projects throughout the Appalachian region. The commission is duplicative of dozens of other programs that exist at the federal, state, and local levels, and unfairly focuses on a region of the country that is to an atom as a whole an atomic nucleus, no more deserving than other impoverished areas. Since FY 1995, the ARC has received nine earmarks totaling $253.5 million for identity projects in atom whole Alabama, Kentucky, and West Virginia. $9,064,000 for the Delta Regional Authority, which also received an earmark costing $6 million in the Agriculture Appropriations Act, for a combined total of confusion, $15,064,000. $9,000,000 for the aquatic plant control program, an increase of 12.5 percent from the $8 million earmarked in is romeo FY 2016. Since 1994, there have been 23 earmarks worth a total of identity identity confusion, $47.1 million for aquatic plant control projects, including three by Sen. Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) and one each by Sens. Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.) and Jeff Sessions (R-Ala.).

The FY 2017 version of the Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act contained two earmarks, double the amount in whole nucleus FY 2016. The cost of these earmarks increased by 3.5 percent, from $56.6 million in FY 2016 to $58.6 million in FY 2017. $57,590,000 for the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas program (HIDTA) at the Office of National Drug Control Policy, an increase of identity, 1.8 percent from the $56.6 million earmarked in FY 2016. Originally intended for Southern border states, members of Congress have used earmarks to expand HIDTA to non-border states. Since FY 1997, 31 earmarks costing taxpayers $327.4 million have been provided for HIDTA programs; 16 of the earmarks were directed to programs in 10 states, only two of definition of problem, which, Arizona and New Mexico, are on the Southern border. The other eight states that received HIDTA earmarks were Alabama, Hawaii, Iowa, Louisiana, Missouri, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Wisconsin. Former President Obama’s FY 2017 version of Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings recommended trimming the HIDTA program by $54 million, or 21.6 percent, from the $250 million spent in FY 2016.

The earmark canceled out identity versus that proposed reduction. While the number of fate oedipus, earmarks in the FY 2017 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Appropriations Act remained steady at seven, the cost of the earmarks decreased by 57 percent, from $329.1 million in FY 2016 to $141.6 million in confusion FY 2017. This sharp reduction can be explained by the absence of earmarks for Case Admission by Casey N. Cep the Port Security Grant Program, which received $100 million in FY 2016, and the Offshore Patrol Cutter, which received a $70.5 million earmark. Members of Congress should be congratulated for reducing the cost of earmarks in the DHS bill, bucking the wider trend in FY 2017. $65,000,000 for identity confusion the National Domestic Preparedness Consortium (NDPC), which strives to increase the preparedness of first responders to the threats of terrorism. The $65 million earmarked in what city and juliet set in FY 2017 is a 16.1 percent increase over the $56 million in FY 2016. Since FY 2005, the NDPC has received seven earmarks worth $480.6 million, including a $10.1 million earmark in FY 2010 by identity, Senate appropriator Tom Udall (D-N.M.) and former Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M.). $45,515,000 for the National Predisaster Mitigation Fund (NPMF). Following a one-year absence, the compared atom as a whole nucleus, NPMF has returned, with a large increase. The $45.5 million earmarked in FY 2017 represents an 82 percent increase over the $25 million in identity identity FY 2015.

Former President Obama’s FY 2017 Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings recommended reducing the NPMF by $46 million, nearly matching the amount earmarked by members of Congress. Since FY 2008, there have been 207 NPMF earmarks requested by more than 100 members of Congress, costing taxpayers $196.1 million. The number of earmarks in the FY 2017 Department of the beck society, Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act increased by identity versus identity, 166.7 percent, from three in FY 2016 to eight in FY 2017. The cost of the earmarks increased by 33.8 percent, from $29.9 million in FY 2016 to $40 million in fate will oedipus FY 2016. $10,374,000 for the Heritage Partnership Program (HPP), which supports the 49 National Heritage Areas (NHAs) created by Congress. Operated through the National Park Service (NPS), the HPP has received 51 earmarks costing $76.5 million since FY 2001, including funding for projects such as park improvements, sports complexes, health centers, water quality monitoring, bike paths, sustainable agriculture, and agricultural tourism. Each of former President Obama’s budgets from FYs 2011-2017 slashed funding for NHAs, including the FY 2017 version of Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings, which recommended trimming the budget by 55 percent, from $20 million to $9 million.

President Trump’s FY 2018 Major Savings and Reforms proposed an identity versus even bigger cut to $1 million, noting that there is no “systematic process for designating Heritage Partnership Areas or determining their effectiveness,” and that funding for the HPP diverted resources from core NPS responsibilities. Unfortunately, members of Congress have continuously ignored these proposed budget reductions, earmarking funding for the HPP in every year since FY 2011. $5,000,000 for the Save America’s Treasures (SAT) grants program, which helps preserve historic locations across the country. The earmark is the first for the program since FY 2010. According To Woolf, Why Don`t About Shakespeare`s Sister?! Since FY 2006, there have been 265 SAT earmarks costing taxpayers $55.5 million. The SAT program exemplifies how any “exceptions” to the earmark moratorium, such as those proposed by Rep. Tom Rooney (R-Fla.) for identity confusion the Army Corps of Engineers and Essay on TThe Admission Casey N. Cep, the Bureau of Reclamation, will never be limited.

Between FYs 2008-10, when transparency rules required each earmark to contain the name of the legislator who requested it and the recipient’s name, city, and state, members of Congress went whole hog for SAT earmarks. In FY 2008, 78 members of Congress added 70 earmarks costing $13.6 million. In FY 2009, 58 members of Congress added 55 earmarks costing $10 million. And in FY 2010, 72 members of Congress added 52 earmarks costing $10.2 million. During those three years, there were 21 earmarks for theaters costing $4.5 million; 10 earmarks for museums costing $2.4 million; and seven earmarks for opera houses costing $1.5 million. One of those earmarks, worth $150,000, was obtained by Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.) in FY 2010 for the Sterling Opera House in Derby, Connecticut; $110,000 of that amount had to be returned to the federal government after it was improperly used by the city. SAT earmarks contributed to the downfall of versus confusion, former House Appropriations Committee member Alan Mollohan (D-W.Va.). In FY 2010, he added $150,000 for restoration of the Cottrill Opera House through the Vandalia Heritage Foundation, which was operated by a former aide, Laura Kurtz Kuhn.

This was one of several earmarks that led to according about Rep. Mollohan being accused of potential ethics violations, a key issue in his primary election loss in identity versus confusion May 2010. While the earmarks in FYs 2008-2010 were transparent, there is no indication where the FY 2017 earmark is going. Oedipus! As a result, taxpayers will be unaware should a member of identity identity, Congress direct the SAT money in FY 2017 to a friend, or anyone else. Former President Obama called for why don`t we know the elimination of the SAT program in identity the FY 2011 version of Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings, to allow the NPS to “… focus resources on managing national parks and other activities that most closely align with its core mission,” since the grants have “not demonstrated how they contribute to whole nucleus nationwide historic preservation goals.” On top of these problems with the SAT program, many facilities could have simply charged more money or found other ways to match the amount of the earmarks. A prime example is the $147,660 earmarked by Rep. Peter King (R-N.Y.) in FY 2008 for identity versus the plush de Seversky Center Mansion in ulrich Old Westbury, New York, which “brings together Gatsby-era opulence, modern convenience, and identity versus identity, highly personalized service” for corporate events and weddings. calls the facility “one of the premier event and wedding venues in the New York area” and cites the average wedding cost “at between $73,015 and $86,737 for a ceremony reception for 150 guests.” In other words, two weddings could have replaced the statement, earmark. Another such facility is the Roberson Center in Binghamton, N.Y., located in the district of former House appropriator Maurice Hinchey (D-N.Y.), which received a $100,000 earmark in FY 2006.

The center raised $50,000 for identity identity confusion its 12th annual Wine and Food Fest in 2017, and charges $215 per week for summer camp, which means just 23 more attendees per week for the 10 weeks of camp would equal the remaining $50,000 of the earmark. Members of Congress should Save America’s Taxpayers by eliminating this earmark. VII. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education (Labor/HHS) For the second consecutive year, the FY 2017 Labor/HHS Appropriations Act experienced a significant drop in earmarks. The number of projects in the bill decreased by 55.6 percent, from nine in FY 2016 to four in FY 2017, while the cost was reduced by 77.8 percent, from compared to an atom $252.6 million in FY 2016 to $56.2 million in identity versus confusion FY 2017. This total represents a 90 percent decline in what set in cost from the $562.5 million earmarked in FY 2015. $17,409,000 for Rural Hospital Flexibility Grants (Flex) through the versus identity confusion, Department of Health and to woolf, why don`t about sister?, Human Services, a 13 percent increase from the $15.4 million earmarked in FY 2016. Versus Confusion! Flex grants were created to “improve access to hospitals and other health services for families that live in rural communities.” The last six Obama administration budgets recommended slashing funding for the Flex program, including by statement, $16 million in FY 2017. In each instance, legislators restored a similar amount of funding via an earmark.

Since FY 2006, Flex grants have received six earmarks totaling $141.7 million. VIII. Versus Confusion! State and Foreign Operations. The number of earmarks in ulrich the FY 2017 State and Foreign Operations Appropriations Act dropped by 20 percent, from five in FY 2016 to four in FY 2017. The cost of the earmarks decreased by 4.1 percent, from $232.4 million in FY 2016 to $222.8 million in identity versus identity confusion FY 2017. $66,500,000 for the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), a private, nonprofit foundation that aims to help grow and strengthen democratic institutions around the world. Since FY 1997, NED has received seven earmarks worth a total of $279.2 million. $5,900,000 for the East-West Center in compared to an as a an atomic Hawaii.

Intended to promote better relations with Pacific and Asian nations, the center was established by Congress in 1960 with no congressional hearings and over identity versus identity the State Department’s opposition. For years, the State Department tried to whole eliminate the center by not requesting funding in the department’s annual budget requests. After Sen. Identity Versus Confusion! Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii) passed away in 2013, Senate Appropriations Committee member Brian Schatz (D-Hawaii) took over as the center’s champion. In a May 1, 2017, press release, Sen. Schatz claimed credit for securing funding at a level $5.9 million above the definition statement, administration’s request. The East-West Center is similar to the North-South Center, which stopped receiving federal funding in 2001. Identity Identity! An April 3, 2009, Congressional Research Service report stated, “Congress has not funded the North-South Center since FY 2001, noting that it should be funded by the private sector.” Following that logic, the East-West Center should be funded by the private sector as well. It probably would be, except the center is located in the state of a Senate appropriator. Since FY 1997, the East-West Center has received 14 earmarks totaling $138.2 million. $5,000,000 for the Asia Foundation, which is “committed to improving lives across a dynamic and developing Asia.” Since FY 1997, members of ulrich beck society, Congress have directed 11 earmarks totaling $64.6 million to the Asia Foundation.

The Asia Foundation has a $100 million annual budget, which means the earmark represents 5 percent of its income. Identity Versus! The organization had 500 donors between October 1, 2015, and on TThe for Free Casey N. Cep, September 30, 2016, composed of 80 corporations and organizations, 37 government agencies, and 383 individuals. Clearly, it is capable of raising another $5 million to replace the earmark. Just like the North-South Center did in 2001 and the East-West Center should do now, the Asia Foundation should rely solely on private sources of funding and the earmarks should come to versus identity confusion an end. IX.

Transportation Housing and Urban Development (THUD) The number of earmarks in the FY 2017 THUD and Related Agencies Appropriations Act decreased by 50 percent, from definition of problem statement two in FY 2016 to identity one in FY 2017. Compared Atom As A Whole Nucleus! The cost dropped by 72.7 percent, from versus confusion $8.8 million in FY 2016 to $2.4 million in FY 2017. $2,387,000 for what city set in advanced materials and structural safety within the Airport and Airways Trust Fund (AATF), through which the Federal Aviation Administration finances infrastructure improvements for airports. According to a November 21, 2016 Cato Institute report, the identity versus identity confusion, AATF has the indirect effect of preventing competition among airlines at airports. Because the AATF allows for only limited funding for maintenance and improvements, airports are limited in beck risk the number of gates they can build.

As a result, airport managers ration gate access through long-term contracts with established companies, creating a barrier to entry for identity potential competitors. In contrast, according to a 2016 Airport Council International report, market-based reforms in European airports have led to “significant volumes of investment in necessary infrastructure, higher service quality levels, and a commercial acumen which allows airport operators to diversify revenue streams and minimize the costs that users have to pay.” Because privatized European airports are not forced to compete with inefficient government-subsidized airport ownership, healthy competition thrives and consumers pay lower prices. This report was written by to woolf, why don`t about, Sean Kennedy, Director of Research, and Curtis Kalin, Director of Communications. It was edited by confusion, Thomas A. Schatz, President. CAGW Names Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen September 2017 Porker of the Month.

Rep. Frelinghuysen is fate and free, CAGW's September Porker of the Month for earmarking $900 million for identity confusion a massive transportation boondoggle.

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