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History and Geography of the Great Lakes Essay

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Institute for Writing and Rhetoric. People read differently for different purposes. When you read in order to History of the Great cram for a quiz, you might scan only the first line of every paragraph of a text to remind yourself of the argument's main points. When you read for pleasure, you might permit yourself to linger for a long while over a particular phrase or image that you find appealing. Macbeth Act 3? It shouldn't come as a surprise, then, that when you read in order to History and Geography of the Lakes write a paper, you must read as a writer . You will need to adopt certain strategies if you expect your efforts to Overview of Chile Essay example be fruitful and efficient. When you know that you are going to write a paper about a book or article, prepare yourself to read actively. Don't read a text simply to get its information.

This method of reading is passive: you receive the text as you read, and you hold off making any intellectual response to the text until after you've finished reading it. This way of and Geography Lakes Essay, reading doesn't get you very far. While reading passively might enable you to understand the gist of the argument, you'll likely overlook the many twists and turns the argument took on the way to making its point. After reading can you, without a struggle, comment on the structure of the argument? Its use of language?

Its wealth of were there black cowboys, detail? Probably not. And so you have to read the book again, this time making notes to yourself about the argument and of the Essay, its development. While a second - or third or fourth - reading of a text is always a good idea, it's certainly better to read well the first time through. You can then ensure that your subsequent readings will take you deeper and macbeth act 3, farther than you might otherwise have gone. But how do you become an active reader? To become an of the Great Lakes Essay, active reader, you have to Overview example rid yourself of the idea that the most efficient way to of the Great Essay write a paper is to read first, think later, and write last of all.

In talking with students, we've found that they often neglect to write as they read. Macbeth Act 3? When you read, do you stop to jot down questions? Do you challenge the writer? Do you search your soul for Great Lakes Essay, what you really believe about the topic at hand? Once you've begun writing, do you ever go back to light by stanza the text? Perhaps you go back to find a piece of and Geography of the, evidence that will support your claims, but do you do the kind of re-reading that will force you to of the reconsider the text and your own position on it?

If you answered no to these questions, then perhaps you are reading passively. Your thinking will not go as far as it might, and your papers will suffer accordingly. Once you understand that you ought to History Great Lakes Essay be reading actively, you'll begin to brigade meaning by stanza pay more attention to your reactions to the text. History Of The Lakes Essay? It's not a bad idea to keep track of how a text makes you feel while you are reading it. If you find yourself getting angry or growing bored, ask yourself why. Is the argument coming apart? Are there too many details? Not enough?

Is the nicomachean, writer a misogynist? bigot? liberal? conservative? jerk? Pay attention to your own responses. They might be the seeds for and Geography Lakes Essay, your paper. It's possible, too, that you'll find yourself wowed by a text. Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics? Or that some particular detail, which the author touches on in passing, seems to you to hold the key to a problem that you've been thinking about for a long time.

Again, pay attention to of the Great Lakes yourself as you read. Monitor your reactions. The Charge Light Brigade Stanza By Stanza? Interrogate them. History And Geography Of The Great Lakes Essay? They might lead you to an interesting paper topic. When a writer writes a book she is, in a sense, inviting you into nicomachean, an ongoing conversation. She is taking a position in the great human debate, and she is History and Geography Lakes Essay, asking you to take yours. When you write a paper in college, you are entering this conversation. Understand that scholarship is the written exchange of a particular community - in this case, the academic community. As a student, you have joined this community, attending it like you might attend a cocktail party that has the peculiar quality of being centuries-long. In essence, what is expected of you as a student isn't so very different from what is expected from light meaning, you as a party-goer.

As is true of any party, there are principles of conduct that govern your behavior. Nevertheless, the History and Geography Great Lakes, basic principles of conversation are the same in the academy as they are at the cocktail party: you must listen well, you must think about what you are hearing and your response to example trader it, and and Geography of the Great Lakes Essay, you must contribute to the conversation in a way that is relevant, thoughtful, and the charge light brigade meaning by stanza, interesting. In order to enter the conversation fully as a writer, you must first enter the conversation fully as a reader. Pay attention to the text. Take note of how you feel about what the author is saying. Then consider the argument that the author is History Great Lakes, presenting to you. Are there gaps in the argument?

Do you want to the charge of the light brigade meaning stanza challenge these gaps? Do you want to fill them in? Do you want to acknowledge the and Geography of the Great Lakes, validity of the Overview Essay example, argument and then apply it to History and Geography of the Essay things that the macbeth act 3, author hasn't seemed to consider? All of these questions move you beyond your own reactions to and Geography of the a consideration of the argument. Nicomachean Ethics Book 2? Your conversation with the writer has begun. Maybe the best practical advice we can give you about reading more actively is to of the Lakes Essay make use of the margins. In some important ways, an unmarked book is an unread book. Marking or annotating a text as you read it ensures that you are reading actively. Even the simple act of underlining a passage requires you to ask yourself what is macbeth act 3, most important in a text. The act of weighing importance is History and Geography Lakes Essay, one way of breaking the habit of passive reading. But you can do much more in the margins than simply make note of 2, important passages.

You can ask questions in the margins. You can draw arrows, establishing obscure connections in the text. You can note patterns of imagery or language as you see them. You can locate contradictions. You can get feisty, even, and call the History and Geography of the, author out for a debate. You also might find that you can demystify a text by writing in of the meaning, it. After all, reading Socrates or Freud or Marx or Einstein might leave you feeling unsettled. Intimidated, even. These minds seem so original, so perfect in their way, that it seems impossible that your professor is asking you to make some comment on History of the Great Lakes, them. Even when you read unknown writers you might feel intimidated. After all, they are published.

Their work is deemed good enough to find its way into print. But when you mark your text - when you put your own words on the page right next to the words of Hegel or Hemingway - you discover two things. First is that there is room for you on the page. Neither Hegel nor Hemingway has the last word on any subject. Second, you come to see that your process is not so different from theirs. They read texts and they responded to them by writing. Now you are, too. One important idea to understand when you read is that every text has a context. Macbeth Act 3? Remember that every writer is in conversation: with other writers, with history, with the forces of her culture, with the events of his time.

It is helpful, for example, to read Karl Marx or Sigmund Freud with some knowledge of their moment in history. Virginia Woolf and Simone deBeauvoir were responding to writers and events in their cultures, as were Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin. When you understand the context of a work, you can better see the forces that moved the author to write that work. You will gain clarity about what and and Geography Great Essay, why the writer was writing. You may even gain clarity about what you yourself would like to say. But how do you place a work in context if you know nothing about the historical time in which it was written? You might take a trip to the library or do some on-line research. Perhaps your professor has reserved some books on the subject. Maybe she has discussed the context of a particular book in class. Even if you know nothing about the context of a particular book or writer, you know a lot about the macbeth act 3, context of a particular reader: you.

You are a member of a complex culture that provides you with a particular context for your reading experience. Your gender, race, and History and Geography Essay, socioeconomic class provide context(s) for your understanding of a text. You bring your own context(s) with you when you read texts as diverse as the Declaration of Independence, the academic examples, Koran, the History of the Great Lakes, films of Fellini, and the transcriptions of the macbeth act 3, Watergate tapes. One word of caution: context needs to be examined with care. Don't assume that the context of your own class or gender or culture is of the Great Lakes Essay, informing you correctly. Read context as actively and academic examples, as rigorously as you read text! Reading Differently in and Geography of the Essay, the Disciplines. Each of the cowboys, different academic disciplines - English, History, Sociology, Psychology, Biology, and so on - constructs knowledge differently. Each of the History Great, disciplines therefore asks you to read differently.

Sometimes, in fact, they ask you to read things that you wouldn't normally consider as text. For example, in a Sociology class, you might be asked to Overview of Chile example read the of the Lakes Essay, behaviors of a particular group of people. In a History class, you might be asked to read a sequence of events. In a Geography class, you might be asked to read a certain space. You might, in the course of essay, your college career, be asked to read a painting, a film, an advertisement, an event, a laboratory experiment, or any number of and Geography Lakes, fascinating things.

Before you take on the task of reading any sort of text, you'll want to make sure that you understand the discipline in which the text was created and in which you are working. What are the conventions and practices for reading, writing, and aristotle ethics 2, thinking in this particular discipline? How can you best enact these? Talk with your professors, who are experts in their fields and of the, who can help you to the charge of the better understand the practices they themselves use to construct knowledge. Some students have other, more general problems with reading.

Perhaps they read too slowly, or they have a problem with retention. History Great? If you feel that you are one of were black, these students, or if you simply want to and Geography Great Lakes Essay learn strategies for reading more effectively, contact the Academic Skills Center for information about their workshops and other resources. Some of your professors will introduce you to macbeth act 3 different critical theories. These theories - which might include feminist criticism, Marxist criticism, psycho-analytic criticism, new historicism, deconstruction, and History and Geography Great Essay, reader-response criticism - can lead you to understand texts in new ways. Understanding critical theory requires serious study. It's not our aim here to academic examples review for you all of the important theorists and their contributions to their fields.

What we do aim to do is to provide you with a very brief overview of the important theories and to show you how these theories might provide you with different lenses for History and Geography Great Lakes Essay, reading. Even if you're not thoroughly familiar with these theories, you can make them work for the charge of the light brigade meaning, you. The most basic understanding of new historicism, for example, can yield ideas for papers. Bringing feminist theory to a text will help you to see things in it that you otherwise might not have seen. And so on.

At the risk of being simplistic we've summarized very briefly what these theories are and how they might be used to facilitate your reading and History of the, writing processes. Because these critical lenses are often used in literary studies, we demonstrate here how they might be applied to an assignment on The Awakening , a novel by Kate Chopin. This novel concerns a woman named Edna who, at the turn of the century, finds that her life as a mother and wife requires her to give up her individual self. Trader? In the of the Lakes Essay, end, the struggle between duty and selfhood become unbearable, and Edna walks off into the sea. Let's see how the various theories might help us to brainstorm ideas for writing. As you read, you should consider how these theoretical lenses might be transferable to the texts you are reading in example of a, class.

(Note: For more fully developed examples of these ways of reading, please see the Bedford Books Edition of The Awakening, Nancy A. Walker, Editor.) Feminist criticism invites readers to consider women's roles within a text, event, place, or culture. It also attempts to establish within the academy and the culture a place for women writers who have been neglected. Accordingly, a feminist critic might consider the publishing history of The Awakening, examining reasons for its long absence from the canon. Another common strategy in feminist theory is to examine how texts perpetuate patriarchal attitudes and male-dominated power structures. When applied to The Awakening, this way of reading might lead a writer to consider ways in which the patriarchal culture drives Edna to suicide. Marxist criticism invites the reader to view a text in economic terms, focusing on Great Lakes Essay, the issues of privilege and macbeth act 3, power. Great Essay? It encourages the of Chile example, reader to see a text against the backdrop of History and Geography of the Lakes Essay, a larger drama, in which the 2, working classes are oppressed by the privileged and the wealthy.

When applied to The Awakening, this way of reading might lead us to consider what elements of Edna's economically privileged background contribute to her undoing. Or we might discuss ways in which Edna's dependence on History and Geography of the Great Lakes, her servants interferes with her discovery of a new, independent self. Springing from the works of Sigmund Freud and were there black, Jacques Lacan, psycho-analytic criticism argues essentially that everyone is inherently neurotic. Accordingly, students working in this school of History and Geography Lakes Essay, criticism try to of the light brigade meaning understand a text in History, terms of a writer's or a character's neurosis. Of A? This way of reading The Awakening might lead one to argue that Edna's suicide is in fact the result of her own neurosis, and not the result of her position in a patriarchal or bourgeois culture. New Historicism claims that no text can be understood without examining its historical situation, or context. Historical critics therefore examine the events and values that might have influenced the production of a text. In this way of reading, The Awakening might be placed against historical attitudes or events. The writer might want to and Geography of the Great Lakes Essay investigate how Edna's Creole environment promotes or serves as an obstacle to her self-discovery. Or she might want to investigate property laws and how they treated (or mis-treated) women at the charge light meaning that time.

In this way of and Geography of the Lakes, reading, critics deconstruct - or take apart - the macbeth act 3, internal structure of History of the Great Essay, a text by looking for its contradictions. Deconstructionist critics argue that these contradictions exist in all texts, and that the author did not intend them. Examples? By pointing to the lack of coherence in a text, and by undermining the idea of an author's intention, deconstructionists argue against the possibility of a text having any single meaning. While reading The Awakening, a deconstructionist might look at the language that Edna uses to explain herself, noting that this language both justifies and and Geography Lakes, lies about her experience. Overview Of Chile Essay? A deconstructionist would delight in how Edna's language reveals even as it conceals, illustrating an Edna who is painfully aware and yet perilously unaware of her situation. Reader-response critics are interested in readers and in History and Geography of the Great, the process of reading.

In this school of Overview of Chile Essay, criticism, meaning is not created by the writer alone. Rather, readers are active and History Great Lakes, important participants in the meaning-making process. Macbeth Act 3? They complete meaning. Great Lakes? Reader-response critics argue that a text is full of gaps and that these gaps work on a reader, forcing her to make connections, fill in spaces, and so on. Example Of A? A reader-response critic reading The Awakening might examine the text for History and Geography Great, gaps and then catalogue the of the light meaning stanza, challenges these gaps make to the reader as she struggles to History and Geography Essay make meaning. INFORMAL STRATEGIES FOR INVENTION. In the aristotle book 2, process of reading you will usually come up with some ideas worth writing about. And Geography Of The Great Lakes? But what if you've read a text and you still haven't found anything that you feel is worth exploring? Or what if you have found an idea for writing but you've not yet discovered how you might develop that idea? In either of these situations you might want to take the time to try one of the macbeth act 3, following strategies for invention:

Brainstorming as an invention practice is of the Essay, useful because it is a quick and efficient way of macbeth act 3, laying out and Geography Great Essay what you know about a subject. By brainstorming you might also see what you DON'T know about a topic, which might move you to read and think further. For the sake of argument, let's imagine that you are taking a class about technology and communication, and you've been asked to write a paper on how technology is changing the macbeth act 3, way we communicate. The topic is open because the professor wants you to History and Geography of the Essay work through this vast topic to find a smaller topic that interests you. You've decided that you want to begin by brainstorming about whether technology is affecting communication for the better, or for the worse. Book 2? You sit down and History of the Lakes Essay, spend just a few minutes making a quick list, noting five pros and were there, five cons: Communication is quicker and easier than ever before Technologies like facetime and skype allow us to and Geography of the Great Essay talk face to sole face, virtually, even when we're far away Facebook is a way of maintaining a community of family and friends (you'll never forget a birthday again) Twitter is a great way of sharing news, of seeing what people are thinking, and what topics are trending (kind of like a modern-day version of the water-cooler talk that my dad always refers to) New technologies bring new possibilities, so we can look forward to improved communication infrastructures in the future. People are always plugged in to some device Between constant texting and multiple daily log-ins to facebook and other social media, we've lost the ability to be alone with our thoughts We've also lost the ability to control our privacy Current generations are engaging less frequently in face-to-face conversations My generation might not be learning how to read facial cues and body language - Is this why we use emoticons and lols? So people will know how to read us? As you look at the list, you note that you have several potential ideas for a paper--some might be synthesized into a paper topic, or you might choose one idea and develop it further.

For the sake of History and Geography Great, illustration, we'll imagine that the final point catches your fancy, and trader, that you've decided to try to develop the idea further, by freewriting. Freewriting is similar to brainstorming in that it is and Geography Lakes, a quick and informal way to develop an idea. But while brainstorming most often involves making a list of ideas, freewriting requires that you try to elaborate upon these ideas by writing about them, without paying attention to syntax or grammar. In this way freewriting can not only help you develop an idea but can get you unstuck when coming up with ideas is difficult. Here is an example of how one might use freewriting to develop the were, aforementioned idea: OK, so I'm supposed to of the Essay write a paper about technology and how it impacts our ability to communicate affectively and effectively, which I believe is an issue worth investigating. On a personal level I think about book 2, how much of my social interaction is done via text or chat, and History of the Lakes Essay, I wonder if my reliance on the charge of the light meaning stanza by stanza, texting is of the Lakes Essay, limiting my ability to read people's feelings. How many times have I misread my girlfriend's mood and wished she came with some emoticons to help me out ? (lol) But scholars seem to academic essay examples be taking this issue seriously. In class, we read a lot of articles about History Lakes, how technology in general and social media in particular are affecting the cognitive and social and emotional growth of Essay, children of adolescents. Some scholars think that technology is getting in the way of our emotional developmentthey say that emoticons (for instance) are standing in for more complex emotions, and that slapping an emoticon on History and Geography of the Essay, a message relieves the reader of the responsibility of reading for book, emotional subtexts.

But not all scholars agree. And Geography Of The Lakes Essay? I was really impressed by an article written by a group of linguists studying Japanese chat rooms to see how housewives used emoticons to express their feelings. The Japanese call emoticons kaomoji, and they've raised them to an artthe variety and number of emoticons that they've created constitute a language! It blew my mind. Macbeth Act 3? This article demonstrates how Kaomoji helps women to create voices in the chatrooms, and of the Great, therefore provides them with a sense of agency. I think I'd like to think more about text abbreviations and the charge light brigade by stanza, emoticons as a kind of language, see what scholars have to say about this language. It would be fun to and Geography Great do a paper on that. A discovery draft is a third strategy for coming up with or developing your ideas. A discovery draft is similar to freewriting in that you can write freely, ignoring the Overview of Chile Essay example, structure and and Geography Great Lakes Essay, the development of your ideas for the time being. You can also forget about matters of essay examples, syntax and style. But writing a discovery draft is different from freewriting in that a discovery draft makes a conscious attempt to focus on and to develop an idea or cluster of ideas.

In other words, a discovery draft is like freewriting with an agenda. History Of The Lakes? Because you have an agenda, discovery drafts tend to be more structured than freewritings. They also tend to be written more or less coherently, in complete sentences. Think of writing a discovery draft as writing a letter to an imaginary friend about your history (or economics or government) paper. You might first summarize for your friend's benefit the there black cowboys, texts you've read and the problems they've presented. You might then raise questions about the History and Geography Essay, texts. The Charge Light Brigade Stanza By Stanza? You might challenge the writers on certain points. You might note contradictions. You might point out a certain part of the argument that you found compelling. You might address and then work out any confusion that you have about your topic.

In writing the discovery draft you might have an ah-ha! moment, in which you see something that you hadn't seen before. And you break off in mid-sentence to History Lakes explore it. In a sense, the ah-ha! moment is the example trader, point of the discovery draft. History And Geography Of The Essay? When writing the discovery draft, your thoughts are focused on your topic. Essay? You are giving language to your questions and observations. History Great Lakes? In this process the academic examples, mind almost always stumbles across something new - makes a discovery. And with this discovery, a paper is often launched.

Some students require a more systematic approach to coming up with ideas. Every writer over time will develop her own system of and Geography Lakes Essay, invention. If you haven't found one yet, here are a couple that have withstood the test of the charge, time. Tagmemics is a system that allows you to look at a single object from three different perspectives. Lakes? The hope is that one of these perspectives (or even all three) can help you to academic determine a subject for writing. Tagmemics involves seeing your topic: As a particle (as a thing in itself) As a wave (as a thing changing over time) As part of a field (as a thing in its context) Let's say that you want to write a paper on Malcolm X's role in the civil rights movement.

If you use tagmemics as a system of invention, you will begin by looking at and Geography Malcolm X as a thing in himself. In other words, what are the characteristics of Malcolm X as a man? The characteristics of his philosophy? You next might consider Malcolm X in terms of how his role in the civil rights movement changed over time. Certainly Malcolm X experienced a radical shift in black, his beliefs about civil rights; you might explore this shift and the consequences both for Malcolm X and for the movement as a whole. You might also consider how history has viewed Malcolm X over and Geography time. The Charge Light Brigade Meaning By Stanza? You might have discovered in your reading that there exists today some division of opinion as to whether or not Malcolm X ought to be considered a civil rights leader.

What forces have contributed to this dispute, and how has the nature of the dispute changed over History and Geography of the Great Lakes Essay time? Finally, consider Malcolm X as a thing in context. Relate him to his culture, to his moment in macbeth act 3, time. Look for History and Geography of the Lakes Essay, the causes that produced Malcolm X, as well as the were there, effect he had on his own historical period. Or compare or contrast him with other civil rights figures to see what special contribution he made to the movement and History and Geography of the Great Lakes Essay, its history.

You might even connect Malcolm X with unlikely events and figures in order to provide a wide context for his work and his life. There are infinite questions to ask here. The point is that tagmemics can ask questions which encourage focused answers - the brigade meaning by stanza, kind of answers that help you to write thoughtful, interesting, and well-conceived essays. As one of the fathers of rhetoric, Aristotle worked to formalize a system for coming up with, organizing, and expressing ideas. We are concerned here with what Aristotle called the and Geography of the Great Essay, topoi - that is, a system of specific strategies for invention. Think of the topoi as a series of questions that you might ask of a text - questions that might lead you to interesting paper topics. The topoi are especially helpful when you are asked to explore a topic that may initially seem very broad to you. Sole? Here we will use as an example the laws governing intellectual property. Please note that while the topoi can help you to come up with a topic, you will still have work to and Geography of the do to develop a suitable scholarly question. There are two ways in academic, which you might use definition to come up with a topic idea.

First, you might look at genus , which Aristotle explains as defining some general idea within specific limits. For example, you might in your paper define intellectual property lawwhat it is, and how it functions within the limits of and Geography Great, a particular industry. The second way to use definition is by thinking in terms of division . In other words, try to think of your subject in terms of its parts, classes, and so on. Here, you might define the components of a law, perhaps with the Overview example, aim of determining their relevance to a particular incident or dispute. Aristotle identifies three ways in which you might make comparisons as a way of generating ideas. First, you might consider similarities ; second, you might observe differences ; finally, you might examine degree . History And Geography Great Lakes? For example, you might compare the of the light by stanza, intellectual property laws of and Geography Essay, two different communities or cultures.

Your paper could focus on the similarities or differences between these laws. Alternatively, you might want to of Chile example consider to what degree various intellectual property laws protect or obstruct innovation. Aristotle determined three ways in which we can explore relationships as a way of coming up with ideas for writing. Of The Great Essay? The first of these ways is to consider the cause of your subject, or its effects. For example, you might explore what cultural, political, or corporate values have informed a set of intellectual property laws. Conversely, you might examine the essay, effects of these laws on certain individuals or industries.

You might also take a look at History of the Lakes a subject's antecedent and consequences . In other words, you might ask the aristotle nicomachean, question of History of the Essay, your subject: If this, then what? For example, if intellectual property laws were changed in the pharmaceutical industry, what benefits might we see? Finally, you might look for were there, contradictions , incompatible statements , or controversy . For example, you may note that some thinkers believe that intellectual property laws oppress innovation, while others think these same laws encourage innovation. Your paper could address this controversy. Aristotle offers two ways that you might examine circumstances in order to come up with an idea for a paper. The first is to consider the possible and the impossible . Sometimes you can construct an History and Geography of the Great, interesting argument by considering what is possible and what is not. Example: Is it possible to create binding international laws regarding intellectual property? Why or why not? Another strategy is to consider the past, or to look to essay the future . For instance, examining current trends, you might consider the probability of of the Great Essay, a country revising its intellectual property laws in the future.

The opinions of others can be a source for your paper. Look to authorities, testimonials, statistics, maxims, laws, and precedents. Examples? For example, does a particular law make legal sense, in the context of its precedents? OK. You've done some preliminary brainstorming. Perhaps you've even completed a discovery draft. The problem sitting before you now is that you have too many ideas and you don't know what to do with them.

Or the ideas you've come up with don't seem to be adequately academic. What do you try next? Nutshelling is the simple process of trying to History Great Lakes Essay explain the main point of your observations in aristotle, a few sentences - in a nutshell. When you put your thoughts in a nutshell, you come to see just how those thoughts fit together. Essay? You see how each thought is relevant to the others, and what the overall point is. Of Chile? In short, nutshelling helps you to take your observations or your information and to transform them into something meaningful, focused, coherent.

Imagine, for example, that in your writing class you are asked to reflect on your writing experience before you came to and Geography Lakes Essay college. You know that you've always struggled to meet the expectations of your teachers, but you've never been able to of the by stanza articulate why. After some brainstorming and freewriting, you recall that your teachers always praised your ideas as original but were less enthusiastic about the way you presented them. Of The Essay? The teachers seemed to want you to write to a formula that never quite fit what you wanted to say. You wonder how it is that original ideas can be fit into formulaic or conventional structures. As you contemplate this dilemma, some questions begin to ethics book 2 take shape. Should teachers expect originality from and Geography of the Lakes, student writers? And if they do expect originality, why do they promote certain modes of writing, such as the timed essay or the five-paragraph theme? Why, furthermore, do teachers so often insist an easily identifiable thesis sentence? Why do they flinch when they see fragments or run-ons?

Why don't they encourage experimentation with structure, syntax, and examples, style? Now that you've raised some intriguing questions, you'll want to try to focus your thinking. What are you trying to say, in and Geography Great Essay, a nutshell? Your answer: The process of writing was difficult for you because you found yourself caught between your teachers' conflicting expectations. Nicomachean Ethics 2? On the one hand, your teachers encouraged you to be original in you thinking; on the other, they insist that you conform to conventions.

Where did these conflicting expectations come from? And what effect did they have on you as a writer? You have nutshelled your way to a promising idea for your reflective essay. What happens when you've put your thoughts in a nutshell and they seem too small? You may have come up with a topic that is too narrow, too particular to support a sustained conversation. Now what? Using pen and paper, begin to sketch your idea.

Put your idea at the center of the page, then list and cluster other observations that you find interesting. If you see connections, draw arrows. When the sketch gets messy, take out a clean piece of paper and and Geography of the Great, make another sketch with a structure that is clearer. After two or three rounds of sketching, you may be surprised to find yourself looking at an interesting web of ideas, where before you had only a single observation. If your thought seems too small, consider the other side(s) of the matter. What do other scholars have to say on macbeth act 3, the topic you're exploring? What do your classmates have to say? How can you use their perspectives to broaden your own? Sometimes novice writers try to silence opposing viewpoints, but considering these views in your paper will enrich your argument, not weaken it. Every text is written in the context of other texts; every idea is a response to other ideas. If your idea or observation seems too small, try to articulate the bigger conversation of which it is part.

By exploring and articulating the context of your idea, you will most certainly broaden the History and Geography of the Lakes, scope of your argument. But what if your topic seems too big to handle? What do you do then? Broad, general statements open themselves up to challenges. If you say that something is were there black cowboys, generally true, someone will step forward to inform you of the many exceptions to your assertion. History And Geography Of The? So, test your claim. Of A? Consider your exceptions before your readers do.

As you work through exceptions or objections, you will qualify your statement, so that your claim is more nuanced. The result will be a more focused topic. Remember: broad is also vague. Focusing on specific examples can focus your topic, and make it more clear. Also remember that you are writing a paper, and not a book. Sometimes a specific example, well chosen, will allow you to make a broader point - but in five pages rather than five hundred. Just as a consideration of context can help you broaden an History and Geography Great, idea, it can also help you narrow it. Contexts are constructed out of particulars.

Pay attention to of a the particulars, and you'll be able to narrow your focus appropriately.

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Should You Include Months on a Resume. Were going to talk about the dates on your resume. Many of the History Lakes Essay, problems I see with resumes stems from people not knowing what to do and how to list them. Near the the charge of the brigade meaning stanza by stanza, end well get to the big questionshould you include months on a resume? I like talking about nothing more than dates. I dont mean the kind we had as teenagers or the kind you eat; I mean the dates on a resume. Why? Because this is where people seem to go hopelessly awry. The sad thing is Great Lakes, that this is the example of a trader, easiest part of the resume to and Geography of the, get right. All you have to do is learn where to put themand, tell the truth.

Dates on Overview a resume are like olive forks; there is no special slot for Great, them in the silverware drawer. There are options: You could put them with the iced-tea spoons. Or with the espresso spoons. You could even squeeze them in with the cocktail/shrimp forks. But regardless of where you put them, it always seems to be the wrong choice. Thats because you have options.

Having options confuses us, especially when it comes to resumes. Questions I Get Asked About Dates. Do I put them in the left margin? Do I put them on the same line as the company, but to the right? Do I right-justify the date? How about after each position if there are more than one in a company? Do I include the months or just the years? Do I spell out the months? Or use numbers? Do I include days? How do I handle gaps in employment?

Fortunately for you, Im here to take away many of your options. If you dont align the academic essay, dates properly, they can be confusing. I prefer the dates of of the Great Lakes Essay each position to be offset from the dates at 2 each company, like this: See how clean this looks, and how easy it is for History Great Lakes Essay, the gatekeeper to glance at were the resume and see the progression? Also note that this resume uses numbers for months, and that the dates following each position are in regular font, not bold. You want the History Great Lakes Essay, dates for the companies to stand out academic essay examples and to be aligned.

The dates for each position should be offset and unobtrusive. I have seen people do resumes with the dates on the left marginand it looks goodbut it devours valuable space. I prefer this option. Lets talk about History Great Lakes gaps in the work history. This person left ABC in 9/2001 and didnt start at XYZ until 12/2001. Many people would cover up the gap by Overview Essay example listing years only. This person did it the right way. History Of The Great Essay! If you have a gapleave it. Show it.

Shout it out. It will earn you a red flag, but just one, and you can explain the gap to the gatekeeper when you get the interview. (Rememberalong with the red flag, you also earn bonus points for being honest. Trust me; that goes a long way toward getting you the Overview of Chile Essay example, interview.) Lying has no place in the resume, and resumes are where the lies usually rear their ugly heads, especially about dates. Lakes Essay! Ive seen people leave out jobs, leave off dates, fudge dates, and outright lie about essay dates. Besides being just not right, when you lie about dates, its too easy to get caught. I received a resume once with everything filled in neatly, all dates accounted for.

I did some checking on Linked-in to see who else I knew that might have worked with this person, and I saw a recommendation from History and Geography Great Essay, a person who said worked with Bob at XYZ Company. I was puzzled. Bobs resume didnt show employment at XYZ Company. I did some digging, and, sure enough, Bob was at XYZ for about six months. He just forgot to mention it on his resume. Needless to say, I didnt represent Bob. The sad thing isand I checked thishis tenure at XYZ wasnt bad. He didnt get fired. He did nothing wrong. It was just one of macbeth act 3 those circumstances that didnt work out. Perfectly explainable to a prospective employer. Instead, Bob chose to hide it, and it cost him a shot at a good job.

Should You Include Months on a Resume. You should always list the History of the Great, months you workednot just years. Many resumes list years only, not months. Macbeth Act 3! I know a lot of History of the Lakes Essay that comes from bad advice, and academic essay examples I hope thats the primary reason. History Great Lakes! But in case youre still thinking about it, read the statement below.

Then read it again. If you dont put months on your dates of employment, you are guilty until proven innocent. Every gatekeeper and every headhunter I know gets suspicious when they see only years listed on a resume. If your resume shows 19972001, and then 2001 to present, the first thing I think is, Did they leave in January 2001 and start the other job the of the brigade meaning stanza by stanza, following December? It might be wrong to Great, think like that, but its a fact of Overview example life that gatekeepers do. And Geography Of The Essay! If you dont put the were, months down, youre assumed guilty. Period. End of discussion. Resume trashed. Have your dates aligned, preferably to the far right. Show the dates you spent at Essay each company in the charge meaning by stanza, bold.

Show the dates after each position offset to the left, not bold. History Great Lakes Essay! Do not fudge on dates. Show both month and year on each one. Show any gaps in employment. Be prepared to explain those gaps, but do not try to macbeth act 3, cover them up. If you liked this post, please share. And you might consider checking out my book No Mistakes Resumes . Of The Great Lakes Essay! You can buy it here, or almost anywhere online. If you really need help, consider our resume services. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe now to academic, receive more just like it. Click to History and Geography Essay, subscribe.

Thanks for listing out the importance of dates in the charge of the brigade meaning stanza, a resume .That is one part where people wont give much importance whereas listing it out truthfully can actually get you the job for being honest.Great article! I agree, George. More than once, I gave a person a second shot because of this factor alone. I think the concept is rather silly. Im doing a resume for and Geography Great, my friend so I googled it. She worked at several jobs 10+ years so the were black, months hardly seem significant. Im going to History and Geography of the Great Lakes, add them back in but the example sole trader, concept seems outdated unless you stayed at a job for just a few months or a year or two. Thanks for the comment, Helen. Youre right, but that doesnt change anything.

Most HR people, and most headhunters, will assume that if you dont include the months, that you were not working during the time in question. So you might as well include them and either show that you were working or show that youre not hiding it. Either way is preferable to non-inclusion. Do you suggest date ranges on resumes? I am still in of the Great Lakes, school and have only put the date of there cowboys graduation for the education portion of History of the Great my resume, should i do the same and only include the the charge of the light brigade meaning, end month on my resume for past experience or should i do a range (ex. History And Geography Of The Great! Jan-Aug 2016)? putting only the the charge of the light stanza, end date for education is fine. Such as University of X 2014.

But for work history do the and Geography Essay, range, such as: XYZ Co. August 2012July 2017. Thanks for the great, free, advice or knowledge it is much appreciated. Ive worked on same job for 25 years. I have it 3 times throughout resume, is nicomachean ethics book 2, this wrong what should I put? You didnt represent Bob because he didnt list a job on his resume that he was only at for 6 months? This seems pretty harsh, perhaps his experience at and Geography Great Lakes Essay that position wasnt relevant to the types of jobs he was looking for. Leaving something off the were there, resume is perfectly acceptable, especially if it is not relevant to History of the Essay, the types of jobs the candidate is going after, and nicomachean book it certainly should not be considered lying.

I chose not to represent him not because he left his job, but because he lied about it. And yes, in my book, not mentioning you were employed for six months, relevant or not, is lying. I have to agree with Jason on this one G! To be honest, you seem a bit inflexible on these things and you seem to of the Great Lakes, be confusing lying with marketing. Were! You dont see McDs showing x-rays of the History and Geography of the Lakes, patients clogged arteries that eat their food in there black, their marketing campaigns/commercials, right? Is that lying? Ex. I have one job on my resume, specifically a manager at that job, that was absolutely toxic.

I leave this job on History and Geography of the Lakes Essay my resume, but it is something I have seriously considered removing from example of a, my resume and I wish it were like a marriage that I could have annulled because according to you experts, I cant talk bad about a past employer, but I want to be honest (as you say) about what really happened, but I unfortunately cannot because it makes me look bitter and people wont hire me. Kindof a catch 22 on this honesty thing, huh G? Having said that, when I discuss this job, it makes for an extremely weird/uncomfortable situation. And what about and Geography Essay functional resumes G that spin and present things a little different? Its ok to leave things off in those resumes, right? So, why not normal resumes. Bottom line, is that the employers/hiring managers and yes, even you angel recruiters dont air out all of Essay example their dirty laundry during the interview process and they present/market themselves in and Geography of the Lakes Essay, a favorable light, so we, the candidates, have the exact same right to do the exact same things and present ourselves in the most favorable manner possible!

Im quite sure that you as a recruiter have had inside/damaging information about your company and/or a hiring manager that you didnt openly share with the candidate, right? There is no doubt that has happened with you in the past, right? So, for you to call someone a liar for example, doing the exact same thing, i.e. marketing themselves in the best light possible and and Geography Lakes Essay then you not choosing to represent them seems like a holier than thou, judgmental and of the light stanza by stanza a moral authority type situation to me. Maybe trying putting yourself in the shoes of someone like me who has had a very rough few years at my career. History Of The Essay! Im desperate (for my family) to get a steady job and I have to present myself (not lie) in the best light possible. Maybe if recruiters were more accepting/understanding and less judgmental and less discriminatory against age, etc., then maybe we wouldnt have to the charge of the light brigade meaning stanza by stanza, apply creative marketing to our resumes, right? Whatever the case, I think it is History Great Essay, a bit strong and inappropriate to call someone a liar because they chose to market themselves in a particular manner. The resume is a marketing tool and it is my discretion as the owner to the charge, decide how/what I want to present as long as the information in Lakes, it is accurate and not false.

Just my $0.02! I cant help but feel this highlights the judgment directed towards the unemployed. Like its something to be ashamed of, or that it makes you less valuable. Something to be explained and defended, or else hidden. Why wouldnt the odd break be expected, or irrelevant? If I had sevaral jobs atcthecsame time , how I should write it in were there black cowboys, my resume? For example: Teaching , and diing urban planning atcthe same time. Here is my dilemma I went 19+ years without a gap in History Great, employment, but I have gone through 3 layoffs in my last 3 jobs and each layoff was 8 to 9 months. Can you honestly tell me that if I put down months that I will have even one recruiter contact me? And I think calling this lying is a bit harsh!

Im in a desperate situation here and my family and my life are somewhat dependent on this, so I simply see leaving the dates off as marketing myself in macbeth act 3, the best way possible to get a job, not lying. Employers dont air out all the dirty laundry on their company or the hiring manager in the job description or the interview either, right? I started to add months to my resume, but the History of the, whole 1st page of my resume just shows failure when I do that, so my strong gut reaction is screaming, dont do it!! Enter your email address below to receive updates each time we publish new content. Click to subscribe. Connect with us on the following social media platforms.

How to Write a Resume That Will Get You the macbeth act 3, Interview. How to Write a Resume. Its easy to write a resume, he said with a smirk. What could be easier? Youre simply reducing your five or ten or twenty-plus-year work history down to one or two pages. How to History of the Lakes, write a resume sounds simple enough. But the macbeth act 3, reality is History and Geography Lakes, that editing anything is difficult, much [] Responsibilities Or Accomplishments? Responsibilities Or Accomplishments? I have screened thousands of example trader resumes, hell, tens of thousands.

And yet, not much has changed. I still see about the same percentage of mistakes as when I started. History And Geography Of The Great Lakes! What mistakes, you might ask? The ones demonstrated by that age-old haunting questionshould I list responsibilities or accomplishments? There are plenty to choose []

How to of a trader, Format a Resume There are plenty of ways to format a resume; Ive seen a million (slight exaggeration). And there are almost as many opinions about of the Lakes how to do it right. Aristotle Ethics 2! But there arent many ways to format a resume that arent distracting. History And Geography Of The Essay! And thats what you want to aim for. Of A Trader! You want a [] Everything You Need to Know About Numbers on Resumes. Numbers On Resumes Before we get started, Im going to briefly discuss numbers and numerals. By definition, a numeral is: A word, letter, symbol, or figure, etc., expressing a number.

There are rules regarding when to use the word numeral versus number. Im going to ignore those rules and History and Geography of the Great use number/s for everything. Now back to the looking [] When You Shouldnt Put Your Best Foot Forward. Put Your Best Foot Forward When writing resumes, its important to remember that your best accomplishments might not be the right ones to list on your resume. Brigade By Stanza! In fact, your best accomplishments might be whats keeping you from getting a job. Im going to let you in on a secretresume screeners are opinionated! Imagine that? [] Resume Mistakes Can Kill Your Chance For An Interview Scoring an interview is difficult, but a lot of people make it tougher by History and Geography of the presenting an Overview of Chile Essay, inferior resume.

A good job posting typically draws at least 100 resumes, and quite often as many as 300500. Great Lakes! In mid- to large-sized companies, a significant number of were there cowboys resumes are [] I have never had a placement that did not work out. I have actually had Jim convince me not to hire a candidate that I had already felt very good about. In 35 years of corporate work, I have never heard of History and Geography of the a recruiter doing this.

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Add or change sources, citations, and bibliographies. Before you can add a citation, a works cited list, or a bibliography, you must add a source to your document. Great Essay. A works cited list is Overview example a list of sources, usually placed at the end of Lakes, a document, that you referred to (or cited) in the document. Of Chile Essay Example. A works cited list is different from a bibliography, which is Essay a list of sources that you consulted when you created the essay, document. After you add sources, you can automatically generate a works cited list or a bibliography based on that source information. History Great Lakes Essay. Each time that you create a new source, the source information is saved on your computer. Were Black Cowboys. You can use the Source Manager to find and reuse any source that you have created, even sources in and Geography Great Essay other documents. Essay Examples. Citations are parenthetical references that are placed inline with the text. History And Geography Of The. Citations are different from footnotes and endnotes, which are placed at the bottom of the page or end of the there black, document.

The source information stored in the Citations tool or Source Manager can be used to create citations, a works cited list, or a bibliography. However, you cannot use the information in the Citations tool or the Source Manager to create footnotes or endnotes. For more information about templates for various styles, such as APA style, visit the Office for Mac templates web site. Step 1. Add, edit, or remove a source. To add a citation, a works cited list, or a bibliography to your document, you first add a list of the sources that you used. Add a source by using the Source Manager.

The Source Manager lists every source ever entered on your computer so that you can reuse them in any other document. This is and Geography Great Essay useful, for example, if you write research papers that use many of the same sources. If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for those citations appear under Current list . All the sources that you have cited, either in Overview Essay example previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master list . History And Geography Of The. On the Document Elements tab, under References , click Manage . At the bottom of the Citations tool, click , and then click Citation Source Manager . On the Type of Source pop-up menu, select a source type. Complete as many of the fields as you want. The required fields are marked with an asterisk (*). These fields provide the minimum information that you must have for a citation. Note: You can insert citations even when you do not have all the publishing details.

If publishing details are omitted, citations are inserted as numbered placeholders. Then you can edit the sources later. You must enter all the required information for aristotle nicomachean ethics book 2 a source before you can create a bibliography. When you are finished, click OK . The source information that you entered appears in the Current list and Master list of the and Geography, Source Manager. To add additional sources, repeat steps 3 through 6. The source information that you entered appears in the Citations List in the Citations tool. Edit a source in the Citations tool. You can edit a source directly in academic essay examples the document or in the Citations tool. When you change the source, the changes apply to all instances of History of the Great Lakes Essay, that citation throughout the document. However, if you make a manual change to a particular citation within the document, those changes apply only to that particular citation. Also, that particular citation is not updated or overridden when you update the example, citations and bibliography. On the Document Elements tab, under References , click Manage . In the Citations List , select the citation that you want to and Geography of the Lakes edit.

At the bottom of the Citations tool, click , and then click Edit Source . Academic Examples. Make the History and Geography of the Great Lakes, changes that you want, and aristotle book 2 then click OK . History Of The Great Lakes. If you see a message that asks whether you want to save changes in both the Master list and the Current list, click No to change only the current document, or click Yes to apply changes to macbeth act 3 the source of the citation and use it in other documents. Remove a source from the of the Great, Citations List. There Black Cowboys. Before you can remove a source from the History and Geography Great Essay, Citations List, you must delete all related citations. Overview. In the document, delete all the of the Lakes Essay, citations associated with the source that you want to remove. Tip: You can use the nicomachean, search field to locate citations. In the search field , enter part of the citation. On the Document Elements tab, under References , click Manage . At the bottom of the Citations tool, click , and then click Citation Source Manager . In the Current list , select the and Geography of the Great Lakes, source that you want to remove, and then click Delete . Were There Black. The source now appears only in the Master list. Great Lakes Essay. Note: If the Delete button is unavailable, or if you see a check mark next to the source in the list, there is essay still at Lakes least one related citation in the document. Delete all remaining related citations in the document, and then try deleting the academic essay examples, source again. Great. The source that you removed no longer appears in the Citations List . Step 2. Insert, edit, or delete a citation (optional) Insert a citation. In your document, click where you want to insert the citation.

On the Document Elements tab, under References , click Manage . In the Citations List , double-click the source that you want to cite. The citation appears in the document. Add page numbers or suppress author, year, or title for a specific citation. Use this option to Overview example make custom changes to a citation and keep the ability to update the citation automatically. Note: The changes that you make by History of the Lakes Essay, using this method apply only to this citation. Click anywhere between the parentheses of the citation. A frame appears around the citation.

Click the arrow on the frame, and then click Edit this Citation . Add page numbers, or select the Author , Year , or Title check box to keep that information from showing in the citation. Make manual changes to a specific citation. If you want to change a specific citation manually, you can make the citation text static and edit the citation in any way that you want. After you make the text static, the citation will no longer update automatically. Aristotle 2. If you want to make changes later, you must make the changes manually. Click anywhere between the parentheses of the and Geography of the Great Lakes Essay, citation. A frame appears around the trader, citation. Click the arrow on the frame, and then click Convert Citation to History of the Great Static Text . In the document, make the changes to the citation.

Delete a single citation from the light brigade by stanza, document. In the document, find the citation that you want to delete. Tip: You can use the History Great Lakes, search field to locate citations. In the search field , enter part of the 2, citation. Select the whole citation, including the parentheses, and History and Geography then press DELETE . Step 3. Insert or edit a works cited list or a bibliography. A works cited list is a list of all works you referred to (or cited) in your document, and is typically used when you cite sources using the MLA style. A works cited list differs from a bibliography, which is a list of all works that you consulted when your researched and wrote your document. Insert a works cited list or a bibliography. Of The Brigade. In your document, click where you want the works cited list or bibliography to appear (usually at the very end of the document, following a page break).

On the History of the Great, Document Elements tab, under References , click Bibliography , and Overview Essay example then click Bibliography or Works Cited . Change a works cited list or a bibliography style. You can change the style of all the citations contained in a document's works cited list or bibliography without manually editing the style of the citations themselves. For example, you can change the citations from the APA style to the MLA style. On the View menu, click Draft or Print Layout . On the Document Elements tab, under References , click the Bibliography Style pop-up menu, and then click the style that you want to change the bibliography's references to. History Lakes Essay. All references in your document's bibliography change to the new style.

Update a works cited list or a bibliography. Academic Essay. If you add new sources to the document after you inserted the works cited list or bibliography, you can update the works cited list or bibliography to include the new sources. Click the works cited list or bibliography. A frame appears around it. Click the and Geography of the Great Lakes, arrow on the frame, and then click Update Citations and Bibliography . Convert a works cited list or a bibliography to static text. Overview Of Chile Essay Example. Word inserts a works cited list or a bibliography as a field.

The field frame indicates that the works cited list or bibliography was created automatically from the sources in the document. The frame enables you to convert the field into static text and edit it as you would any other text. Note: If you convert a works cited list or a bibliography to static text, you cannot use Word to automatically update it. Instead, you must delete the and Geography of the Great, works cited list or bibliography and then insert a new one. Click the works cited list or bibliography.

A frame appears around it. Click the arrow on the frame, and then click Convert Bibliography to example sole trader Static Text .

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Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. Implementation-Procedures, Issues, Challenges Failures. An Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is an integrated computer-based application used to manage internal and external resources, including tangible assets, financial resources, materials, and human resources. Its purpose is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the History of the Great Lakes, boundaries of the aristotle nicomachean book 2, organization and History Great Lakes manage the academic essay, connections to outside stakeholders. Built on a centralized database and and Geography Great Lakes normally utilizing a common computing platform, ERP systems consolidate all business operations into macbeth act 3, a uniform and History and Geography Lakes enterprise-wide system environment. An ERP system can either reside on a centralized server or be distributed across modular hardware and software units that provide services and communicate on a local area network. The distributed design allows a business to assemble modules from different vendors without the need for the placement of multiple copies of complex and ethics book 2 expensive computer systems in areas which will not use their full capacity. - Should be integrated and operate in real time with no periodic batch updates. - All applications should access one database to prevent redundant data and multiple data definitions. - All modules should have the same look and feel. - Users should be able to access any information in History of the Great Lakes, the system without needing integration work on the part of the IS department.

Human Resources. Product lifecycle management. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Supply chain management software. Warehouse Management System. Decision Support System. Prior research has shown that conflict with consultants is essay, one of the History Great, main managerial problems during the implementation period of ERP system (Themistocleous et al., 2001).

Consultants can bring to academic essay examples the organisation specialised skills, experience, and History of the Essay know-how that the organisation needs when it is both time-consuming and expensive for it to build internally (Gable, 2003). They can also offer a firm-wide view, encourage unity between members, and they are usually neutral (Davenport, 1998). ERP implementation is by no means a purely technical system implementation, and will include Business Process Reengineering (BPR). Overview Of Chile Essay? Consultants can perform the role of change facilitator and are involved in very important knowledge transfer. Consulting firms use techniques such as guided learning, formal training and and Geography Essay knowledge creation activities to direct clients to the necessary knowledge required for Overview of Chile Essay, a successful implementation. This guidance saves the client considerable time and History and Geography of the Essay effort in knowledge search costs (Gable, 2003). Without a plan organization would be: - Vulnerable to unfolding events. - Buffeted by unforeseen factors. ERP is initially synonymous with budgeting. It implies cross functional planning, breaking through the silos that impede collaboration.

The objective of aristotle ethics, ERP is to History and Geography of the Lakes Essay bring the information on one holistic view under a common platform. A present day ERP system takes care of the nicomachean ethics, following functional modules. - Modular design comprising many distinct business modules such as financial, manufacturing, accounting, distribution, etc. - Use centralized common database management system (DBMS) - The modules are integrated and provide seamless data flow among the of the, modules, increasing operational transparency through standard interfaces. - Flexible and offer best business practices. - Require time-consuming tailoring and configuration setups for aristotle nicomachean book 2, integrating with the and Geography Lakes Essay, companys business functions. - Modules work in macbeth act 3, real tim e with online and History and Geography of the Lakes Essay batch processing capabilities. - Financial and business information is often generated automatically by ERP systems based on data previously entered, without further human instructions.

- ERP provides business intelligence tools like Decision Support Systems, Executive Information System, Reporting, Data Mining and Easy Warning Systems for enabling people to make better decision and thus improve their business processes. Architecture of ERP System. Businesses have a wide scope of applications and processes throughout their functional units, producing ERP software systems that are typically complex and usually impose significant changes on staff work practices. Implementing ERP software is typically too complex for in-house developers, lacking the required skills, so it is desirable and advisable to hire outside consultants who are professionally trained to Overview example implement these systems. This is typically the most cost-effective way. There are three types of services that may be employed - Consulting, Customization, and Support. The length of time to implement an ERP system depends on the size of the business, the number of modules, the extent of customization, the scope of the change, and the willingness of the customer to take ownership for the project. ERP systems are modular, so they don't all need be implemented at once.

Implementation can be divided into various stages, or phase-ins. The typical project is and Geography of the, about 14 months and requires around 150 consultants. A small project (e.g. a company of less than 100 staff) can be planned and delivered within 39 months; however, a large, multi-site or multi-country implementation can take years. The length of the Overview of Chile Essay example, implementations is closely tied to the amount of and Geography Great Lakes Essay, customization desired. To implement ERP systems, companies often seek the help of an ERP vendor or a third-party consulting company. Consulting firms typically provide three areas of professional services: consulting, customization, and support. The client organization can also employ independent program management, business analysis, change management, and UAT specialists to ensure their business requirements remain a priority during implementation. Reasons for implementation of were there cowboys, ERP. - To support business goals. Integrated, on-line, secure, self-service processes for History and Geography Great, business.

Eliminate costly mainframe/fragmented technologies. - Improved Integration of Systems and Processes. - Enable Partners, Customers and Suppliers. Critical Success Factors for ERP Implementation. 1. Top Management Commitment : Management must be a part of ERP implementation and it has been clearly demonstrated that for IT projects to succeed top management support is critical. However top management in aristotle nicomachean ethics book, any organization still views the and Geography Lakes Essay, installation of an ERP system as primarily a technological challenge and assigns its responsibility to aristotle ethics book the IT departments. This is seen as a dangerous act due to ERPs profound business implications. Of The Lakes Essay? Only top management is equipped to academic act as the mediator between the and Geography Lakes, imperatives of the technology and the imperatives of the business. During ERP planning phase, companies also face a question as to whether to implement the ERP software as is and adopt the ERP systems built in procedure or customize the were black, product to History of the the specific needs of the Overview Essay, company.

Research shows that even the of the Lakes, best application package can only meet 70% of the organizational needs and there black cowboys thus organizations need to change their processes to confirm to the ERP package, customize the software to suit their needs not be concerned about meeting the balance 30%.Infact this need to reengineer the organizations business process has been cited as one of ERPs major benefits. History And Geography Of The Great Essay? The following survey reinforces the nicomachean ethics book 2, research findings. 3. IT Infrastructure : Adequate hardware and networking infrastructure are required for and Geography Lakes, ERP application. Academic? An ERP system relies in its operation on sophisticated information technology infrastructure. In addition to this infrastructure the software configuration has critical influence on the implementation process and History and Geography of the Great Lakes Essay outcomes. Five Levers of Change to be addressed. Various Stages, Inquiries and best practices of an ERP implementation cycle are explained below: Stage 1: Solution Inquiry.

Key questions that a business should ask are: - Are we ready for ERP? - How will an ERP help our business? - Have we considered other solution areas beyond ERP? - Who will lead our implementation effort? - Identify what benefits the organization needs to Overview Essay example get out of an ERP, and focus on these benefits throughout the implementation. - Executive management should endorse the ERP project.

- Develop a Mission Statement or Project Charter. - Establish metrics to measure how well the of the, objectives of the ERP effort are being met. - Designate a Project Champion. - Implementation responsibilities to be shared between the IT department and functional areas. - Build a framework for participation from all quarters. Key questions that a business should ask are: - Do we have the in house resources, skills and experience to implement ERP? - Should we build effective strategic partnerships? - Have we considered how the implementation will differentiate our business? - Have we developed a business case for the ERP implementation project? - Determine the number of there, partners, the History of the Great, scope of the partnerships etc. - Set up the internal project team.

Steering Committee (Executive level) Advisory Committee (One level lower,-Key Directors major stakeholders) Cross Functional Project Team. - Create the business case, justification ROI scenarios to determine the most feasible. - Ensure that all gaps between plans performance are closed out. Key questions that a business should ask are: - Do the features and functions meet our needs? - Is the ERP package compatible with our business?

- Should we buy an macbeth act 3, integrated package from a single vendor or best-of-breed solutions from several vendors? - Develop and document a project scope statement. - Conduct a business process review identify signature business processes. - Document as is flows of current information. - Identify functional gaps. - Document sign off to-be flows of current information. - Customize the RFP to and Geography Lakes include features that meet your to-beflows. - Key factors should be kept in mind while selecting the software.

Functional Capabilities. Technical Attributes. Partnerships Capabilities. Stage 4: Implementation Plan. Key questions that a business should ask are: - How do we get started with the implementation. - Process Oriented Implementation. - Procure and install required hardware and package software. - Roll out with preliminary implementation plan that covers.

A Phased Approach. Segregation of Duties Plan. Quality Plan. Security Plan. - Package training for implementation team.

- Project team members normal job responsibilities should be reassigned to other employees/outside consultants for the project duration. Stage 5: Sandbox. Key questions that a business should ask are: - What steps do we take to ensure that the implementation is on track? - Create a separate dedicated work environment specifically for examples, the project team. - Build user acceptance test scripts. - Identify required custom reports.

- Implement a system of History Great Lakes Essay, sign offs hand offs for deliverables and work products. - Ensure complete data migration from the old software system to the new begins early in the implementation process. - Constantly evaluate risks, constraints assumptions. - Develop training plan for all users. - Develop rollout plan. Stage 6: Design Deployment. Key questions that a business should ask are: - How do we ensure that the light brigade meaning stanza by stanza, project team and the end users are in sync? - How do we ensure that our people are accepting change?

- Roll out training plan for all users in a phased manner. - Conduct user group conferences prototype sessions to demonstrate the systems capabilities. - Solicit feedback from end users and ensure that all concerns questions are addressed. - Encourage end users to network with peers at and Geography of the Lakes, other institutions undergoing similar implementation initiatives. - Ensure that implementation information is continuously communicated to the user community. - Pilot rollout / evaluation. - Complete live rollout - rollout support. Stage 7: ERP Integration. Key questions that a business should ask are: - How do we integrate the ERP with our other legacy systems? - Design interfaces (if required) to integrate existing applications (e.g.

CRM, HR) directly with the ERP system. - Ensure adequate documentation exists to there black cowboys support the integration between interfaces. Stage 8: IT Infrastructure. Key questions that a business should ask are: - Is our IT infrastructure ready for ERP? - Set up server infrastructure to build training, development and production instances that run concurrently. - Ensure that the of the Lakes Essay, infrastructure can handle the load of concurrent transactions from the charge of the light brigade meaning by stanza, all instances. - Ensure system security policy is in force. Stage 9: Operations. Key questions that a business should ask are: - How will we recover from a major outage? - Execute a onsite maintenance SLA with partners.

- Implement a Disaster Recovery Plan. - Review Business Impact Associated Risk. - Off-site backups providing disaster recovery training to key Personnel. Stage 10: Extending the Enterprise. Consider expanding ERP to other solution areas like. - Supply Chain Management. - Customer Relationship Management. ERP Implementation performance falling short of and Geography of the, expectations. A survey is carried among IT executive managers for their opinions about what causes projects to succeed, what causes projects to be challenged, and what causes impaired projects.

Below are the aristotle nicomachean, results of this survey (Standish Group,1995). 1. User Involvement 15.90% 2. Executive Management Support 13.90% 3. Clear Statement of Requirements 13.00% 4. Proper Planning 9.60%

5. Realistic Expectations 8.20% 6. Smaller Project Milestones 7.70% 7. Competent Staff 7.20% 8. Ownership 5.30% 9. Clear Vision Objectives 2.90% 10. Hard-Working, Focused Staff 2.40% Human resources were not the History of the Great Lakes, top factors that determined the the charge of the brigade meaning by stanza, project success.

Competent staffs ranked number seven and and Geography Great Lakes Essay hard-working, focused staff ranked 10. Success is classified as the project is completed on time and budget, with all the features and nicomachean 2 functions as initially specified. 1. Lack of and Geography Lakes, User Input 12.80% 2. Incomplete Requirements Specifications 12.30% 3. Changing Requirements Specifications 11.80% 4. Lack of Executive Support 7.50% 5. Technology Incompetence 7.00%

6. Lack of Resources 6.40% 7. Unrealistic Expectations 5.90% 8. Unclear Objectives 5.30% 9. Academic Examples? Unrealistic Time Frames 4.30% 10. New Technology 3.70% 1. Incomplete Requirements 13.10% 2. Lack of User Involvement 12.40%

3. Lack of Resources 10.60% 4. History And Geography Lakes? Unrealistic Expectations 9.90% 5. Lack of Executive Support 9.30% 6. Macbeth Act 3? Changing Requirements Specifications 8.70% 7. Lack of Planning 8.10% 8. Didn't Need It Any Longer 7.50% 9. Lack of IT Management 6.20% 10. Technology Illiteracy 4.30%

There seemed to History and Geography of the Essay be a direct relationship between project failure and the human factor contributions. Of A? The larger the Great Lakes, failure, the more the human factor contributed to that failure. This is more evidence that most software development projects fail because of failures within the team running them. This study concluded that the macbeth act 3, success rate was only 16%, challenged projects accounted for 53%, and Great Lakes impaired for 31%. (Standish, 1998). Overview Essay? Lack of resources seems to be a major contributor in why teams fail. And Geography Great Essay? Without the necessary staff, it is very difficult to manage the of the light brigade, project team effectively. With a large percentage of the projects being challenged or impaired (84%), the human factor should not and History Great Lakes Essay cannot be ignored by the IT industry as a problem that needs to be addressed. Otherwise, the current problems will continue to repeat themselves in of Chile Essay, this fast-growing industry. Projects in general fail for History and Geography Great Lakes, various reasons.

Several factors contribute to the charge of the light meaning by stanza failed IT software development projects include: - lack of senior management commitment. - lack of user involvement. - lack of user requirements specifications. - poor project planning. - project team problems. - improper use of application development tools. - inappropriate allocation of team members. - lack of appropriate application development tools. - lack of or insufficient communication between team members.

- lack of or insufficient communication with users. - lack of use of and Geography Lakes, structured method (i.e. System Development Life Cycle method) - shortage of team members. - uncommitted team members. - unskilled team members. Critical Failure Factors for ERP Implementation. 1. ERP system misfit. 2. High turnover rate of project team members. 3. Over-reliance on heavy customization.

4. Poor consultant effectiveness. 5. Poor IT infrastructure. 6. Poor knowledge transfer. 7. Poor project management effectiveness. 8. Poor quality of Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) 9. Poor quality of testing.

10. Poor top management support. 11. Too tight project schedule. 12. The Charge Brigade Meaning Stanza? Unclear concept of the nature and use of ERP system from the users perspective. 13. Unrealistic expectations from top management concerning the ERP System. 14. Users resistance to change.

Relationships between most important software failures. ERP Implementation at Hewlett Packard Challenges and Failures. HP is started in 1938 by 2 Stanford Engineers BILL HEWLETT and History of the Essay DAVID PACKARD as an Essay, electronic instrument company. Its first product is the resistance-capacity audio oscillator which gained heavy acceptance by the engineers and scientists. Of The Great Lakes Essay? HPs growth was aided by heavy purchases by stanza the US government during the Lakes Essay, WWII. 1950- HP developed strong technological capabilities in the electronic business. 1951- HP invented the high speed frequency counter. 1957- HP came out Overview Essay example, with the 1st public issue. 1961- HP ventured into of the Great Essay, the medical equipment industry by acquiring Sanborn Company.

1966- Established HP Laboratories and also designed its first computer. 1974- Launched 1stminicomputer on 4K DRAM. 1977- John Young was named President, a turn from the founder to a new generation of professional managers. 1980- HP offered full range of computers from macbeth act 3, Desktop to powerful minicomputers. 1980- Developed Inkjet Laser printers. 1981- Introduced the 1st Personal Computer. 1982- Introduced Electronic Mail System. 1982- Introduced HP9000 with a 32-bit super chip. 1989- Purchased Apollo Computers and became the leader in Workstations. 1997- Acquired Electronic Transaction Co.

VERIFONE for $1.2bn. 1997- Growth fell to below 20% HP responded by reorganizing its printer other operations. 1999- Spun off its test--measurement division into an $8bn separate business. 2001- Second largest computer manufacturer. HP's operations are organized into History and Geography of the Great Lakes Essay, seven business segments: - Enterprise Storage and Servers (ESS), - HP Enterprise Services (HPES), - HP Software Solutions, - Personal Systems Group (PSG), - Imaging and Printing Group (IPG), - HP Financial Services (HPFS), and. The three business segments ESS, HPS and HP Software Solutions are structured beneath the broader Enterprise Business (EB) Group in macbeth act 3, order to capitalize on up-selling and of the Great Essay cross-selling opportunities, and were black give a solution sale approach across the HP enterprise offerings. HP was ranked 11th as per the Fortune 500 ranking in 2004. HP had close partnership with SAP since 1989 when SAP began developing SAP R/3 product.

Offering consulting services for implementation of SAPs supply chain ERP software. First SAP R/3 was deployed on History Essay, an HP 9000 Enterprise server in 1992 at Wuerth .More than 50% of SAPs customers used HPs infrastructure to run ERP software taking consultancy from HP for faster and accurate implementation. HP announced that its revenues have gone down by 5% to $3.4bn for the 3rd quarter ended July 2004. The reason proposed was due to the problem faced during the of the by stanza, migration to the centralized ERP system. History And Geography Great Essay? The total financial impact due to the failure was $160mn. Questions were raised on failure of HP implementing ERP, as it was a consultant for example sole, SAP ERP implementation. HPs responsibility as a consultant was to and Geography Great Lakes prevent the execution problems faced by the implementing Co. on which it itself failed. While conducting an macbeth act 3, internal serve, HP revealed that there has been execution problem and History and Geography of the Great Lakes not the fault of SAP. Technical glitches were small but contingencies planning werent addressed appropriately. HP had a highly decentralized org. structure every business operated independently.

HP redesigned its business strategy to venture into high volume low priced electronic market. Therefore HP planned to phase out its numerous legacy systems and replace it with SAP R/3. Objectives of implementing SAP R/3 are: 1) Shorter lead delivery time. 3) Global Distribution System. Implementation of MySAP. By 2000, HP was keen in making the web-based activities simpler to capture the direct to customer market and had over 20 SAP R/3 implementations representing FI, PP, MM, SD, CO, BW, WM APO.

HP used different version of Overview of Chile Essay, SAP had multiple SAP GUIs with around 10,000 users. As HP was using SAP R/3, it considered using My SAP for its Internet Enabled Technology Businesses to be a better fit. Benefits of My SAP: - Reduce huge cost incurred on IT support. - All programs will run on and Geography Great Essay, single browser. - Eliminate need to the charge of the meaning stanza create custom SAP interface. - Greater speed in History of the Great Lakes, implementation. - It had the option of query which would make it easier to use. SAPs APO SCM software were first implemented in the charge of the light brigade meaning stanza, Europe imaging printing division. It helped to History and Geography Great forecast enabled integration of data in of a trader, a single system. It was introduced in just 5 months time.

After its merger with Compaq in May 2002, it started repairing the History and Geography of the Great Essay, SC of all businesses to create 5 standard SC supported by standard technology platform. It introduced the ADAPTIVE SUPPLY CHAIN. It also implemented PLM (Product Life cycle Management) module to integrate the product lines of the 2 merged Companies. ERP Migration Failure. In Dec 2003 Gilles Bouchard, the CIO EVP created a model to merge the examples, Business and IT group at of the Great Lakes Essay, regional country level. This operation along with the ISS was completed by on May 2004 that led to increased interdependencies between groups in the company. This was 35th Migration and was a part of the Business Process Architecture. HP wanted to reduce the 35 ERP systems implemented worldwide to four along with reduction in application from 3500 to of a sole 1500. HP wanted to implement a single Order Management System successfully reduced the History of the Great Lakes, no. to 7 but still wanted further efficiency flexibility with the implementation of SAP FOM platform. With the FOM, HP wanted to unite the SAP of Compaq with itself. It involved migration from separate HP Compaq legacy SAP R/3 to a new Broad-Based SAP ERP system this involved more than 70 supply chain up gradation to SAP R/3 Version-4.6C.

HP took over an empty factory at Omaha to frame the cowboys, contingency plan to include both the and Geography of the Great Essay, technical and business aspects so as to provide buffer stock for customized order. But as soon as the project went live in essay, June 204, Migration problems began surfacing. About 20% of the orders failed to move from the legacy system to the new one due to programming errors. HP was able to fix this within a month but orders began to backlog. Causes Identified for Failure. The following are the causes of the Great Lakes Essay, migration failure: 1. Were? Project Team Constitution. 2. Data Integration Problem.

3. History Of The Great Essay? Demand Forecasting Problems. 4. Poor Planning Improper Testing. 5. Inadequate Implementation Support/Training. HP had traditionally been a very systematic, risk averse slow as compared to Compaqs culture of being very aggressive risk loving. HP once again failed in aristotle book, 2005 while implementing GENESIS while competing DELL. There was an and Geography Lakes Essay, expert group who had the entire know-how to implement ERP but it was dominated by the IT management. Learning from ERP Implementation Failure at HP. - Implementation failure can impact overall business performance. - There is no standard approach to light brigade meaning stanza implement ERP, many times it involves a business change in and Geography Lakes, many departments. Macbeth Act 3? Therefore a detailed mapping is History Great Essay, essential otherwise it might miss out the objectives.

- The success of implementation depends upon the planning, which considers the business process along with the technical aspects. - To implement ERP, the business processes must be improved corrected but HP failed in this. - The potential benefits to the supply chain are much bigger than the IT costs but the potential risk to Overview example the supply chain is and Geography Essay, also much bigger. - The success of sole, ERP implementation depends upon History and Geography of the Great Lakes the ability to align IT along with the business management objectives, Program Management Skills and trader a well defined process. - Impossible for HP to envision the History and Geography Great Essay, entire configuration for Customized orders. - There should be a manual back-up as a contingency plan. - There should be no cross-functional barriers and should create effective processes and nicomachean ethics 2 teams to History and Geography of the Essay integrate the entire business at all levels. 1. Gable, g. Large Package Software: A Neglected Technology?, Journal of Global Information Management, Vol 6,No.3,Summer 1998. 2. Barnes, M. Customization of ERP Apps Requires Development Skills, Information Weel, February, 1999. 3. Oliver, D. and Romm, C. enterprise Resource planning systems: An outline Model of black, Adoption; I proceeding of GITM World Conference, Memphis, TN USA, 11-13 June 2000.

4. Bingi, P.; Sharma, M.K; and Godla, J.K Critical issues affecting an ERP Implementation, Information systems Management, summer 1999. 5. Davenport, T. Putting the Great Lakes, enterprise into the enterprise system, Harvard Business review, Vol.76, no.4, July-August 1998. 6. Gupta, A. Enterprise resource planning: The emerging organizational value systems, Industrial management data systems, vol.100,Issue.3, 2000. 7. . Example? A Guide to History of the Lakes Essay the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Trader? Upper Darby: Project Management Institute. 8. McConnell, Steve (1998). History And Geography Great Lakes? Software Project Survival Guide. Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press.

9. McConnell, Steve (September 1996). Classic Mistakes. [On-Line]. Available: 10. The Standish Group. (1998). Chaos. [On-Line]. Available: 11.

Yourdon, Ed and Becker, Paul (April 1997). Death March: The Complete Software Developers Guide to Surviving Mission Impossible Projects. There Black Cowboys? Prentice Hall Computer Books.

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D-Day or Operation Overlord, June 6, 1944. As dawn broke on History and Geography Great Essay, June 6, 1944, the Allied invasion fleet became visible crossing the nicomachean ethics book 2 choppy waters of the English Channel to France. None of those who took part in and Geography of the Great, D-Day, whether soldier, sailor, or airman, would ever forget the sight. It was by far the largest amphibious invasion force ever known, with more than 5,000 ships carrying 175,000 troops. The view from the air was breathtaking.

Many pilots said later that the sea was packed so full of example of a trader, ships that it almost looked as if you could walk to France. The air support plan included more than 6,000 aircraft, with transports dropping three airborne divisions, heavy and medium bombers attacking beach defences, and other squadrons on deception operations. Typhoon and P-47 Thunderbolt fighter-bombers would roam inland, ready to attack German reinforcements coming to help defend the coast. And Geography Of The Lakes Essay! Layered screens of Allied fighters between the aristotle ethics book 2 Parisian region and the Normandy beaches would ensure that German aircraft never reached the History Great Essay invasion area in daylight. And anti-submarine patrols of Sunderlands and B-24 Liberators had already started to patrol every map-square of the sea between southern Ireland and aristotle ethics book Brittany. To the great embarrassment of Grand Admiral Doenitz, not a single German U-boat got through to the Channel. In fact one Canadian pilot broke all records by sinking two German submarines in the Bay of Biscay within twenty-two minutes. The fact that the History and Geography of the Great Essay invasion fleet had sailed at all on the night of June 5 was almost a miracle in macbeth act 3, itself. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Allied supreme commander, had faced a terrible dilemma.

On June 2 his meteorologists had warned of a bad storm. The invasion was put back by twenty-four hours in a desperate hope that conditions might improve. Eisenhower knew that a major postponement of History and Geography Essay, two weeks until tides were again favorable could well prove disastrous. To disembark all those soldiers from their landing ships and then re-embark them later would have been very bad for morale, and the Germans might well have discovered the aristotle ethics book 2 Allied plan. History And Geography Great Lakes Essay! Told that there might be a break in the charge meaning stanza by stanza, the bad weather on June 6, Eisenhower assumed the huge responsibility of and Geography Great, his position and decided to go. General Miles Dempsey, who commanded the Second British Army in the invading force said later that Eisenhowers decision was the bravest act of the whole war. It is academic examples, easy for us to look back and think that D-Day was bound to and Geography Essay, succeed, but it could have been a disaster. Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy, was an intensely emotional event for all the AlliesAmericans, British, Canadians, and men from ethics, thirty different countries, many of which had, like France, been occupied for the previous four years by the German Wehrmacht after its devastating victories in History of the Great, 1940. For the French, this moment of were there, setting out to help liberate their homeland was especially poignant.

For the British, it marked their return at last to the continent of and Geography Lakes Essay, Europe after the bitterness of their evacuation from Dunkirk. For American soldiers, the invasion represented a moment of selfless duty. Examples! The United States was once more coming to the rescue of war-torn Europe, this time oppressed by the Nazi regime. History Great! All they could console themselves with was the idea that the sooner they helped win the war, the sooner they could go home to their familiesassuming they survived. The pre-battle tension for everyone was considerable. Keith Douglas, one of the nicomachean ethics book 2 great soldier poets of the Great Lakes Second World War, who was killed in Normandy a few days later, wrote the Overview example following lines shortly before D-Day:

Actors waiting in the wings of and Geography Essay, Europe. we already watch the lights on macbeth act 3, the stage. and listen to the colossal overture begin. For us entering at the height of the din. it will be hard to hear our thoughts, hard to gauge.

how much our conduct owes to fear or fury. The overture was indeed colossal, whether from US Navy and Royal Navy battleships firing huge shells that screamed like freight cars over the heads of the and Geography soldiers packed into the charge of the brigade meaning stanza by stanza landing craft, or bombers coming in from the sea to smash the German defensive positions and barbed wire. Other bomber groups inland smashed French towns to block the routes by which German reinforcements would arrive. French civilians in Normandy suffered terribly. Fifteen thousand were killed in the lead-up to D-Day, and another 20,000 were to die during the fighting. Altogether some 75,000 French civilians were killed in the war by British and American bombing and artillery, an even higher figure than the 69,000 British killed by the German air force. It is a terrible irony that the History Lakes armed forces from democracies ended up killing so many civilians because their commanders felt forced by the pressure of public opinion at home to reduce their own casualties as much as possible. Preceded by flotillas of essay, minesweepers, the invasion fleet headed for five long beaches on the Normandy coastline. They were codenamed Sword, Juno, and Gold (where two British and and Geography of the Lakes Essay one Canadian division were landing), and Omaha and macbeth act 3 Utah (where the leading battalions of three American divisions were headed). The task of the US 4th Infantry Division landing at Utah at the base of the Cotentin Peninsula, was to head inland to meet up with the paratroopers of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions who had been dropped during the night.

Heavily weighed down by arms and ammunition, some had drowned in flooded areas. Others landed on German positions and were massacred before they had a chance to fight back. A number were killed while they hung helplessly from parachutes caught on and Geography Great, trees or on rooftops. But although widely scattered in the chaotic drops, most of them survived to join up in improvised groups and cause terror among the German defenders, who thought they were everywhere. They were reinforced by more airborne troops flown over in large gliders towed by transport aircraft. It was a frightening journey for even the bravest men, knowing that many would be badly injured or killed on crash landing. The objective for Essay, the American 1st and 29th Infantry Divisions was Omaha Beach, a long, gently curving stretch of coastline. Approached from the sea, the History and Geography of the Lakes Essay beach ended on the right with massive cliffs. Academic! Four miles farther around to the west was the Essay Pointe du Hoc promontory.

This was where a battalion of US Rangers had to scale a sheer cliff to Overview Essay, silence a German battery. The first landing craft set off from their mother ships at of the Great Essay 0520 hours. Book 2! They had over History and Geography Lakes an hours journey in there black cowboys, heavy seas to land on the beach at H-hour (the time the attack was to begin). The larger ships were anchored at least ten miles offshore, out of range of German coastal guns. During the History and Geography Great Lakes Essay long and tumultuous crossing, a dozen of the landing craft were swamped or capsized. There Black! The bomber formations appeared at History Great Lakes 0605 hours. They flew in from the sea to reduce their vulnerability to flak over the target area, rather than following the line of the coast. As they reached the aristotle ethics 2 beaches, their crews delayed an extra few seconds before releasing their bomb loads to History and Geography Great Lakes Essay, avoid hitting any landing craft approaching the beach. As a result all the macbeth act 3 ground commanders hopes that the History of the Essay air force would destroy barbed-wire entanglements, minefields, and some of the of a sole defensive positions were utterly dashed.

In the thirty minutes preceding H-hour, the B-24 Liberators and B-17 Fortresses dropped 13,000 bombs, but none fell on the beach. And Geography! The Air Corps might just as well have stayed home in bed for all the good that their bombing concentration did, one officer in the 1st Division observed angrily later. To compound the problem, the forty minutes allowed for the naval bombardment proved far too short to deal with the macbeth act 3 beach defences. At a given moment, the landing craft, which had been circling offshore to await H-hour, headed in toward land. The absence of and Geography Lakes Essay, fire from the shore aroused hopes that the warships and air force had done their work as planned. The infantrymen were so tightly wedged that few could see much over the helmets in front of them and the tall landing ramp at the front. The assault craft were still bucking like an unbroken horse, so many just shut their eyes against the queasy sensation of motion sickness. By then the landing craft reeked of vomit. Because of the smoke and dust thrown up by the shelling, the coxswains had trouble recognizing any landmarks. Soon we became conscious of pinking noises near us, wrote a US Navy lieutenant, and when a couple of men toppled to the deck, we became conscious of the fact that we were being fired at macbeth act 3 with real bullets, by a very much alive enemy. When the ramps were dropped, the German machine gunners concentrated their fire on History and Geography Essay, the opening. Men were tumbling just like corn cobs off of essay examples, a conveyor belt, wrote a sergeant from of the Lakes, Wisconsin. In all too many cases, the landing craft had come to a halt on were there, a sandbar short of the beach. History And Geography Great Essay! The water appeared shallow, but ahead there were deep runnels.

The craft were still bucking with the waves, and if you slipped under the metal ramp you would be killed as it crashed down. In some places men leaped off and found the water over were there black their heads. In desperation, they dropped their weapons and wriggled out of their equipment to survive. Some of those behind, seeing their buddies floundering under the weight of their equipment, panicked. There were dead men floating in the water and there were live men acting dead, letting the tide take them in. The prospect of crossing the stretch of beach in and Geography of the Great Essay, front of them seemed impossible. Any idea of trying to run through the brigade meaning stanza by stanza shallows, carrying heavy equipment and in sodden clothes and boots seemed like a bad dream in Essay, which limbs felt leaden and numb. Overburdened soldiers stood little chance. There were cries in all directions: Im hit! Im hit! With many of academic essay, their officers and noncoms among the first casualties, soldiers recovering from the shock of their reception realized that they had to get across the beach, if only to survive. A soldier from Minnesota in the 1st Division wrote home later describing how he had dashed forward in thirty-yard sprints. Ive never in all my life prayed so much. He looked back at the remnants of his squad. It was awful.

People dying all over the placethe wounded unable to move and being drowned by the incoming tide and boats burning madly as succeeding waves tried to get in. Great Essay! . . . Essay! Ive never seen so many brave men who did so muchmany would go way back and try to gather in the wounded and Lakes themselves got killed. Those who had made it were not even able to help with covering fire. At least 80% of our weapons did not work because of sand and sea water. In their desire to be able to fire back as soon as they landed, most soldiers had made the mistake of stripping the waterproof covering from their guns before reaching the shore. Almost all the radios failed to work as a result of seawater, and this contributed greatly to the chaos. An artillery officer described the soldiers he saw. Of A Sole Trader! They were beat up and shocked. And Geography Essay! Many of were there black cowboys, them had forgotten that they had firearms to use. It was hardly surprising that they were dazed. A number were barely out of high school, and this disastrous baptism of fire produced psychological trauma. Battalion and company officers ordered their men to and Geography of the, clean their rifles. Those who had lost their weapons took them off the dead. More senior officers arriving with their headquarter groups were to provide the leadership critically needed at academic essay this time. They forced the men, once they had cleaned their weapons, to start breaking through the wire and minefields onto the bluffs behind to attack the German positions. In this way, Omaha Beach, which so easily could have been the scene of a terrible catastrophe, was transformed into a hard-won American victory.

Once the History of the Great Allies were securely ashore, they were bound to aristotle ethics book 2, prevail with their overwhelming superiority in air power and artillery. German plans for a massive tank counter-attack against the British Second Army on the eastern side came to Great, nothing when the Germans were hammered by macbeth act 3 the heavy guns of the US Navy and the Royal Navy off the coast. But the success of D-Day was not enough. American, British, and History and Geography of the Great Lakes Canadian troops faced another two-and-a-half months of vicious fighting ahead in the Norman countryside before the German forces were ground down. Normandy was martyred in its suffering, but this terrible concentration of fighting at least saved Paris and the rest of the were black cowboys country from destruction. Every year on the anniversary of D-Day, Allied veterans are welcomed back in History and Geography of the Lakes Essay, memory of their comrades sacrifice. Antony Beevor served as a regular officer in the 11th Hussars in Germany.

He is the author of Crete: The Battle and were there cowboys the Resistance , which won a Runciman Prize; Paris after the Liberation, 19441949 (written with his wife, Artemis Cooper); Stalingrad , which won the Samuel Johnson Prize, the History Lakes Essay Wolfson Prize for History, and light brigade meaning the Hawthornden Prize for Literature; Berlin: The Downfall , which received the History Great Lakes first LongmanHistory Today Award; The Battle for the charge light brigade meaning, Spain ; and, most recently, D-Day , which received the RUSI Westminster Medal. His books have appeared in thirty languages and sold just over five million copies. A former chairman of the History Society of Authors, he has received honorary doctorates from the Universities of Kent and were there cowboys Bath and is a visiting professor at and Geography Essay Birkbeck College and the University of Kent. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Please click here to login and access this page. Click here to of the light by stanza, get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for more information on History Great Essay, the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits. Otherwise, click here for information on academic essay, a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Become an Affiliate School to have free access to the Gilder Lehrman site and all its features.

Click here to start your Affiliate School application today! You will have free access while your application is being processed. Individual K-12 educators and of the Lakes students can also get a free subscription to aristotle, the site by making a site account with a school-affiliated email address. Click here to do so now! Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Your subscription grants you access to archives of rare historical documents, lectures by top historians, and a wealth of original historical material, while also helping to support history education in schools nationwide. Click here to see the kinds of historical resources to which you'll have access and here to read more about the Institute's educational programs.

Click here to sign up for an individual subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. We're sorry, but it looks as though you do not have access to the full Gilder Lehrman site. All K-12 educators receive free subscriptions to the Gilder Lehrman site, and our Affiliate School members gain even more benefits! Not a educator or student? Click here for more information on purchasing a subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Teaching Resource: Essential Questions in Teaching American History Essay: Every Citizen a Soldier: World War II Posters on the American Home Front Primary Source: Japan declares war, 1941 Primary Source: Physicists predict a nuclear arms race, 1945 Multimedia: War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars Essay: Advice (Not Taken) for the French Revolution from America Teaching Resource: American Music Goes to War Interactive: Battlelines: Letters from Americas Wars Multimedia: Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II Video Series: Essential Questions in American History.

This Omaha Beach doc works well in the Perspectives overview of war. Use with Jennifer Keene#039;s essay on How War Shaped the 20th C Learned how to save documents to my file, using this document as an Great, example (GL seminar 06/12).