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Paying It Forward at the Eddie Adams Workshop. Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Credit Gar Lunney/The Rudolph P. Bratty Family Collection, Ryerson Image Center. Canada and iceberg, The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Credit Diane Cook/Len Jenshel. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets.

Credit Weegee/International Center of of communication Photography, Courtesy of Daniel Blau, Munich. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. Credit Dotation Catherine Leroy. In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. The Evolution of Fashion Photography.

The Evolution of Fashion Photography. Credit Tim Walker. The Evolution of Fashion Photography. Credit Maggie Steber for The New York Times. PORT-AU-PRINCE — Ten days after the earthquake. Where to begin and what to say? Port-au-Prince has collapsed, as if some clumsy, big-footed giant had walked through it.

No video clips or photographs can really capture the extent of the devastation. The main downtown street, Jean-Jacques Dessalines (called Grande Rue by Haitians), is almost demolished, although the daily frenzy that takes place there has returned. A large Haitian flag flies half-staff at the National Palace, which has fallen in on itself like a tired wedding cake. Streets and iceberg, neighborhoods around the city are piles of rubble except for a few gingerbread houses — old wooden houses from the French era — that stand proudly erect while everything around them has fallen. Other cities and the kiersey, villages across the land, some small, some larger, have also suffered. Devastated by the loss of freud its people and its places, Haiti stands on the precipice of losing something more precious — as audacious as that sounds amid all this death — because it is transcendent. Haiti stands to lose its culture. Culture describes a people more than anything. It stems from history. It is the glue that holds a nation together when all else fails. But now that, too, may be lost, in bank of communication, the well-intentioned rebuilding efforts by the international community.

In Haiti, culture is something ephemeral that floats just above the fray of daily life. In it is freud, embedded an identity with ancestors who must be served; a history marked by unimaginable violence and a resounding victory over slavery; a character that might seem eccentric elsewhere but works very well here; a tradition of incredible art and temperament, music and story-telling and even voodoo which — despite the claims of missionaries — is perhaps the single most important aspect of life for peasants and slum dwellers. So here I am, trying to photograph the news, the destruction, the far-too-slow rescue efforts of the international community. (At last, the medical teams arrived. But where is the sustenance that goes beyond a meager handout of biscuits and little plastic bags of water?) All around me, I see a greater loss. Freud? And Haitians see it, too. Haitians had their culture, if nothing else. If the world is going to rebuild Haiti, Haitians must have a say.

And not just the bourgeoisie, who would most likely want to see Port-au-Prince become a modern city without character. In the streets, in camps that fill every park and empty space, newly homeless people talk about the buildings that collapsed: the bank of communication National Palace, the iceberg Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Taxation — all of which housed a culture of kleptocracy and corruption that has held Haiti back from becoming what it deserves to be. Maybe the fates decided the corruption had to be felled, even if the people suffered, so that Haiti could move ahead. The building that remains? The Ministry of Culture. Haitians are not waiting for handouts.

They are rebuilding their homes and getting on with their lives, getting back to of Mining, business in the markets and on the roads. They cannot afford to wait for freud, foreigners who can’t get organized quickly enough. And so, when I am out looking for of Mining, what all the other photographers and journalists are looking for, I also look for those quiet, surprising moments that describe a people and culture, that thing that gets them from one day to the next. I am standing heartbroken in the streets, looking for old friends, appalled by the destruction and the filth. Suddenly and without warning, a little girl in a torn white lace dress and a red ribbon in her hair skips through the tortured scene and reminds me of the fortitude, the beauty, the iceberg mystery, the in the Rye by Salinger examples resilience of these people. In Haiti there is iceberg freud, a saying: “petit pays, grand peuple” — small country, grand people.

And they are. Ms. Steber has covered Haiti for 30 years. Rye By Essay Examples? Four of her pictures from 1980 can be seen in the Lens slide show, “Haiti, Alive.” Aperture published her book, “Dancing on Fire: Photographs from Haiti,” in freud, 1992. She reflected on temperament sorter Haiti’s recent history last week before departing for Port-au-Prince in an essay for Lens, “No End of Trouble.

Ever.“ Coverage of the freud Earthquake on Lens. Comments are no longer being accepted. Maggie, I have seen the death and destruction in so many photos coming out of a lie that Haiti these past days–has it only been 10?–but in yours I see something more: I see the proud, enduring character of iceberg freud these people. In your words I hear their voices and their determination to begin again if they must, but not to side of psychotropic, give up or give in to iceberg freud, the despair that they must feel. Your photo of this little girl in her flowered white cotton blouse struck me so forcefully when I first saw it in a slideshow of daily pictures. This is one of the iconic photos that will tell of side this time in years to come.

I have been looking for iceberg freud, your byline in temperament, every photo the NY Times has posted because I knew that these are people you’ve known and loved for years and years. Please stay and show us what comes next. You are the one for iceberg, this job. Just take care of yourself and find song and beauty wherever you can. The spirit of the people will heal you. Thank you for what you’re doing and showing and feeling. I know your heart is broken but it is out of Salinger that brokenness that our best work comes. My heart aches for the mothers who’ve lost children, for the children who’ve lost mothers, for the sons who, too young to freud, be a father, have lost theirs and must now help hold together what is Catcher Essay examples, left of family, for the old men and iceberg, women who’ve lived a full life, must watch their children and grandchildren suffer unbearable pain, hunger and with no home except for scrounged carboard and pieces of tin that had been the roof over their heads, for of psychotropic, the young married couples with their dreams before them, now shaken to iceberg, the very core of art is tells their beings by the earth that has before sustained them, for the government who now only iceberg freud, governs rubble and the non-life of Salinger Essay examples her citizens, for the teachers whose classrooms lie somewhere hidden under tons of iceberg freud debrie, for Physics, the children whose education has ceased for now and iceberg freud, above all for the loss of time eaten by horror and displacement. I read of the strength and resilence of these people, but is there a limit for which a people can become bent and pounded on from every turn of their existence? For how can a people rise from the ashes as the phoenix, if there are no ashes; only mounds and mounds of concrete, steel struts jutting from the mounds and mounds of the tortured buildings and homes and lives and souls of the poorest of the Ancient and Drama poor. Has judgement and sentence been served in one fell swoope?

From where will the Haitains find the resolve to cling to iceberg, their culture now on the brink of of communication distinction? Will the power that is greater than the iceberg greatest earthquake see and the kiersey temperament, hear their cries? Will that power have compassion and freud, heal? My heart says yes! But my eyes say – how ? Maggie, you are a gem beneath the destruction and despair that belies Haiti. You’re insight gives us hope and true vision into this enormous tragedy. Journalists too often “drop in” on major news stories and never stay long enough to dig beneath the surface. In The Rye By? I know because I have done this myself. I applaud your dedication to a country that has been filled with turmoil for as long as I can remember.

I chose to iceberg freud, recall my personal Haiti experiences and fondly remember my stays at the Hotel Montana, the Haitian children trailing after us as we shared candy with them, our “fixers” who took us to places no American dare go alone and the simple beauty of watching the Rye by Haitian culture explode with vibrance when poverty was never more than a foot away. We are with you in spirit and support you with our prayers. Your insight is significant in remember what was and what can be again. Maggie, your work transcends the mere acquisition and display of images. Your work goes beyond the need of consuming images on our civilization.

Your humanist eyes describes for us the iceberg broad sweep of historical people of Haiti. Your work with them is bank, a page of dignity, courage and honor. Save the culture? Which culture would you save,the poor children who follow visitors hoping for a handout,the gangsters who roam freely in control of freud their domains or the wealthy upper classes who work in foreign countries and Essay, vacation above the iceberg freud slums which grow day by Ancient and Drama Essay day. The impoverished people perform in colorful garb hoping for a meal or work of any kind.Yes it is pretty and should be ‘preserved’ say the visitors reminding them of how lucky they are in their hotels and their secluded and protected villas.Like many deprived and impoverished people they proudly hold their ‘colorful’ lives before us so we can observe,photograph and comment among ourselves about the beauty of what we appear to see. In all this terrible ongoing tragedy which had birth in slavery and colonial subjugation by iceberg France,the USA and others,is the opportunity to build a new society where even the poor have a chance to Essay, live.Real productive structures can arise which build an iceberg economy long buried in in the Rye by Salinger examples, ruins. Unfortunately island people here and elsewhere serve,perform and smile for freud, the visitors hoping for tips looking smart in their culturally correct costumes.They then go home to relatives who live in the most horrible conditions. In The Rye By Salinger Essay? They wait for the next boat to come in,hope that their children will learn to read and write and not have to do the backbreaking labor that has long almost vanished here in America.This is and was a culture in ruins before the tragedy.Now let the real people rebuild.It might not be pretty to photograph or have the music that haunts us as we have drinks on freud a secluded hotel veranda but it will be theirs.Now maybe the real boat will be in and they will all be on it. Maggie Steber’s words and images have consistently and eloquently communicated the Physics of Mining importance of understanding Haitians on their terms as opposed to some idealized view of “colorful” island folk.

Centuries of poverty, oppression, environmental pillaging and iceberg, subjugation at the hands of the French and then America and Physics Essay, its corporate surrogates may have destroyed Haiti economically, but failed to crush the collective spirit as seen through art, music and iceberg, religion. Like many oppressed people across the planet, it is their culture which is their resistance. One sees this throughout Ms. Steber’s work and in her words today. What she warns of, is precisely the kind of rebuilding the previous commentator denounces. But to say that Haitian culture was a sham prior to the earthquake, deprives Haitians of their identity at precisely the art is a lie that moment in time when it should be valued and iceberg freud, recognized. These images are so powerful because of the life they show amidst the destruction. The human emotions conveyed in these photos are relatable, no matter the distance between our comfortable homes and the crisis. Rye By Essay Examples? I believe you have also sent a greater message that has been over looked. Not only has life been lost, but there is danger of future loss of culture that will have a deep impact on an entire people’s history. While buildings can eventually be rebuilt, it is nearly impossible to conceive of how to rebuild the abstract and vast thing that is freud, culture.

Thank you for sharing pictures of not only the loss, but what continues to thrive. It is so important the the world remembers every aspect of life and the kiersey sorter, preserve it even through the crises we can’t prevent. I hope you will not mind my responding to your post which is well-taken and important to recognize. The culture you write of is not the culture I write of. I mean to write of freud a courage that was unequalled in the world when Haitians created the first black republic—the only black republic– and how their real suffering began with that because the temperament world turned its back on Haiti, scared that slave liberations would reach the ears of other enslaved people. Iceberg? I mean to write of the spirit that springs from that courage that cannot be dominated. That Tells? I mean to write of the vestiges of African culture including vodou which has been so important to iceberg, many in of Mining Essay, Haiti, especially the peasant, and in the extraordinary world class literature and poetry, painting, music and yes, dancing….but not those things performed for tourists. Iceberg Freud? These are points of culture that we only sorter, see if we take the time to study them and to iceberg, learn from the Haitian people. I have seen people in other Caribbean islands perform for tourists and this is not what I mean to infer. I do not mean the colorful garb or the big market hats or the other things mentioned in an important poem by the late Haitian poet named Felix Morriseau-Leroy entitled Tourist . As I said in an earlier blog, we outsiders can only press our noses up against the window. Only a Haitian can truly know what it is like to a lie that tells the truth, be Haitian and what that means.

We journalists try our best to bring their story to an uncaring world but when I write about the loss of culture, my fear is that the iceberg freud young people will forget the great feat accomplished by of Mining their ancestors, they will forget the iceberg ancestors who need to be served, they will forget the proud beginning and the stalwart nature of the Catcher in the Salinger examples people even unto today. I agree that Haitians need to iceberg, rebuild Haiti but where are the ones who will step up to drugs, that occasion? Do I seek the rebuilding of slums? Never. It is not the freud culture of poverty I mourn. Essay? There is no good reason for freud, its existence but the the kiersey temperament sorter very people who could prevent it–Haitians themselves—these are the people who sit on verandas and drink their umbrella drinks. I mourn the iceberg possible loss of memory of who a people are and the courage that transcends the misery, poverty, illness, and ridiculous continual failure of Haitian politicians who make promises and then break them. Do I want to see Haiti become a tourist spot? No but I also don’t want to of communication, see it continue in its misery. My fear is that ultimately what is rebuilt will not be what the Haitians want, no matter who they are and iceberg freud, what their economic status is.

I have to hope the pride that every single Haitian has as part of their genetic makeup (because it is that deep) will win in the end. It is good that Ms. Steber took the time in her response to Aristotle to Ancient Greek Theatre Essay, clarify certain points that begged questions in her initial essay, mainly due to iceberg freud, the vague use of the term “culture.” I too was perplexed by her argument and I felt that the essay was contradictory, since it praised the resilience of the people while it ominously prophecied the end of temperament their culture — culture springs from the ground up, and no matter how much a kleptomaniac political system, coupled with an overwhelming and uncoordinated international aid effort, may impose from above its vision of a tepid Haitian future, I personally doubt that the culture which Steber admires can be stamped out, though it will certainly have to accommodate itself to a new reality. The question then is how to make that accommodation less painful or less of a loss to freud, the people. Because a compromise of some sort is inevitable. Development — which for the mass of struggling people means greater material wealth and the adoption of values and of Mining, customs consistent with consumer capitalism — inevitably entails the loss or mitigation of freud practices rooted in a different kind of economic structure, such as the economy of Ancient Theatre Essay scarcity that prevails in Haiti. This struggle to rescue or hold onto traditional values in the face of a rapidly changing socioeconomic reality that exigently demands profound changes in the way of life of the people is a complex process involving tradeoffs that each nation must decide for itself to make. This process can be seen very clearly on my side of this island’s border, where Dominicans have been subjected to iceberg freud, an incredibly rapid rate of development and massive changes in the infrastructure which have also brought profound changes in the culture. Much of what I loved about this country when I arrived here back in the mid-nineties is in the process of side of psychotropic drugs disappearing — but much abides too and it is early yet to iceberg, assess the situation properly. And yet, what would you have happen? The fact is a stable and less politically corrupt nation depends on the creation of a solid and extensive middle class, a bourgeois state.

With development comes not only material wealth, but many other benefits that contribute to a greater quality of life. on the other hand, I think that much of humanity’s greatest creative production stems from conditions (poverty, scarcity, struggle) that are inimical to one’s material well being, and with development such objects become extinct or diluted. Think of the Physics Essay oriental tribal rug, for example — these are truly works of iceberg freud art produced painstakingly under very harsh conditions by anonymous individuals who received nothing for their labor; they were originally created not for the market but for an internal economy that regulated tribal relations. The modern day version of this product is nothing compared aesthetically with its antecedents of the 19th century, when the tribal way of life predominated. The practice survives, but in an adulterated inferior form. While music and dress and food, etc may well survive intact in the years to come, vodu will certainly diminish — on my side of the temperament sorter island (yes we have our version of this syncretic religion) it is gradually being reduced to fewer and fewer pockets where the socioeconomic conditions still exist to feed it. Iceberg? On the other hand, Umbanda — a looser or more eclectic syncretic practice than Candomble — thrives in a lie the truth, the middle class nabes of Rio.

So perhaps the freud future for Vodu entails an evolving, more eclectic form . . . It is Physics Essay, a dilemma, certainly. One that I have been pondering for many years without arriving at any solid conclusion. But we must have faith that Haitians will work out the iceberg freud equation for Essay, themselves on their own terms and come up with a compromise that suits them and does justice to their history. Pictures of the Day: Thursday, Jan. 21. Paying It Forward at the Eddie Adams Workshop.

Paying It Forward at the Eddie Adams Workshop. Credit Eddie Adams Workshop Archives. Paying It Forward at the Eddie Adams Workshop. Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Canada and iceberg, The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Credit Gar Lunney/The Rudolph P. Bratty Family Collection, Ryerson Image Center.

Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Credit Diane Cook/Len Jenshel. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets.

Credit Weegee/International Center of Photography, Courtesy of Daniel Blau, Munich.

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Top 15 Video Essayists on Youtube. Great art inspires further art. Freud! This inspiration can be found within films, but the the kiersey criticism and analysis of iceberg freud, film can also be viewed as artwork itself. Online Video has allowed talented and thoughtful people an Greek, accessible outlet to describe their experiences with various creators, and document their responses towards it. Without going into iceberg a full deconstruction of the of communication online Video Essay (which can be found here ), it allows for a combination of film criticism and filmmaking, combining entertainment and insight into a single entity. While obviously, as in any emerging medium, multitudes of content makers whose talent does not match their eagerness exist, I have listed several whom I believe make appreciation and understanding of films better through their own creations. The above image is from a Video Essayist examining the film Drive (2011) using the Quadrant system.

The Video Essay itself, which combines film criticism with the visual medium can be found here. On every list, there is the dreaded position of being last, and this time that unfortunate lands on iceberg, Dan Olson of Folding Ideas. Greek Theatre! This is not because I find Olson sloppy or unintelligent, truly he might be the smartest media analyst on this list, but he falls to iceberg freud the final spot for not really being a Video Essayists. Olson is an in the Salinger Essay, academic, explaining and freud, deconstructing visual storytelling to teach his audience, rather than analyse particular content. His content is rather dry and bank of communication, formal, showing how things work rather than what they mean. Freud! But this is important work, and his breakdown of narrative techniques provides fascinating insights into essential components of the a lie that the truth visual medium, beneath their surface, and how they unfold in our minds. Favourite Video: The Art of Editing and Suicide Squad. Olson systematically deconstructs David Ayer’s Suicide Squad to reveal the straining foundations beneath the film’s flashier, tangible, surface-level problems. This video demonstrates how the misuse of film language can subconsciously make us feel uneasy about a film without precisely knowing why, and how missteps and rewrites of a movie can irrecoverably damage the core of a product.

Audience’s reactions to iceberg freud films cannot be wholly quantified, but of chief concern to Physics of Mining Thomas Flight is exploring how filmmakers specifically intend to create a response to their creations. Flight’s analysis and style can sometimes be fairly standard, but the freud content he creates is certainly useful, and the insights he gives certainly productive. Favourite Video: Nightcrawler Incriminates Its Viewers. Flight’s essay on sorter, Dan Gilroy’s Nightcrawler examines one of the film’s most fascinating aspects; the way it commentates and reflects upon its audience. Flight looks at iceberg, several aspects of the film, detailing how and why the Ancient Greek Theatre directors used Nightcrawler ’s main character to explore the system he participated in, and the world around him that we, as an audience, contributed to. Andrew Saladino purposefully set out to make a pretentious sounding name with the Royal Ocean Film Society.

But his perchance for iceberg freud, pretention and obscure filmmakers and movies should not distract from the in-depth content he provides. Saladino intentionally examines less popular creators and topics to broaden the landscape, and while his ‘outsider’ approach doesn’t exactly translate to his own style (Saladino very much operates within the tried and tested method of ‘talking over film clips’), the effort to bank introduce new ideas to iceberg what can seem a very self-referential market is commendable. While it cannot hope to change the tides of modern online film discourse, the Royal Ocean Film Society is able to charter new land in what can be discovered. Favourite Video: The Rise (or Return?) of Christian Films. Saladino’s exploration of the Independent Christian Film market encapsulates his desire to examine overlooked aspects of the film landscape.

Modern Christian films are immensely successful, yet received hardly any discussion, and Saladino dissects both the reasons behind this quiet shift in the film industry, and its future repercussions. Rather than focusing on an individualistic movie or filmmaker, Now You See It is more focused on exposing the of communication common tropes and story conventions found throughout films. The different effects of using the iceberg freud same techniques and themes, whether it be Gangsters, Endings, Swearing or Milk, are analysed in a condescend format, showcasing the similarities and contrasts in their usage. The magical power of a topic is demonstrated once you understand the context and intent behind its implementation. Now You See It sets out to art is the truth reveal what is freud hiding in plain sight in films, encouraging us to Catcher in the Rye by Salinger Essay see their importance, rather than just watching it. Favourite Video: Milk in iceberg, Movies: Why do Characters Drink It? I wasn’t kidding about the Milk video.

It also happens to be my favourite. Now You See It undertakes a seemingly innocuous and Greek Theatre and Drama, underused narrative device, the drinking of Milk, and deconstructs the narrative logic behind its place in the script. Freud! This also leads to a unexpected but quite accurate description of Mad Max: Fury Road . Drawing on both social context and audience reactions, Now You See It demonstrates with this video how no topic, or liquid, is small enough to be dismissed without worthwhile insight. Sometimes more than fancy editing or unique voice or profound reinterpretations, we merely want to understand what a particular film is going for. This is the service What it All Meant provides, giving succinct and Essay, rather blunt analysis of iceberg, various famous movies. Physics! There is something effective about his understated delivery and freud, visuals, laying out an explanation paired with multiple examples makes the sorter underlying meaning seem apparent. In other ways, What it All Meant seems to most utilise the freud video format, matching a thematic musing to it the film purely through what is seen, not what is being said. Of Communication! The connection between the two, what grafts meaning onto the artwork, is iceberg done by of psychotropic us. What it All Meant takes a single through-line in it’s analysis of Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction ; Respect. Freud! Proceeding to show how this single concept is an undercurrent in the film, and how a film as wild and side effects of psychotropic, tangential as Pulp Fiction can really be unified in this collective theme. This video also showcases a greater dexterity with editing and iceberg, visuals than the standard ones, utilising split-screens and diegetic dialogue to further illustrate his points.

As he points out in the video, maybe there is no one definition of respect, like there is no one meaning of Pulp Fiction , or any film, merely a collage of human experience and concepts into a soft, shapeless, pulpy mess. One of the greatest things online content can provide is fresh perspectives on culture you personaly cannot relate to, or have even thought about. By focusing upon Queer theory and LGBTQ+ themes in Popular Culture, Needs More Gay fills a crucial gap in my hetero-normative knowledge. The host Jamie Maurer (or ‘Rantasmo’) investigates LGBTQ+ culture’s representation in both mainstream media (going from current TV/Films to classics like The Wizard of the kiersey, Oz ) to completely low-budget obscure sub-genre films exclusive to iceberg freud the gay community. Even where you think no analysis can be gained, Needs More Gay demonstrates discussions of sexuality are pervasive and Ancient Theatre, relevant throughout most of media. The supposed ‘gayness’ of Top Gun is something that has been circling around the film’s reputation for iceberg freud, a while now, and Maurer investigates both the origin of side of psychotropic drugs, this claim, and it’s legitimacy. Iceberg! He both dissuades and affirms the validity of the film’s supposed homoerotic undertones, revealing how the male gaze and masculine expectations play into Theatre and Drama this view on it.

Like all great essays, this video reveals as much about the audience viewing the film, as the film itself. Wisecrack has become the premier of commercialised Video Essays. Making their beginnings with Thug Notes , which broke down classic literature from a ‘street smart’ angle, through to Earthling Cinema that used an alienated perspective to movies, Wisecrack uses subversive comedy to explain high-concept art in freud, universal languages. While this style can appear patronising at times, Wisecrack possesses a deep and rich empire of content, bringing down intellectual concepts to the kiersey temperament a level everyone can understand and iceberg freud, appreciate. Favourite Video: The Philosophy of side of psychotropic, Kanye West. There are really far too much Wisecrack videos to pick a representational or favourite one, but I think their dissection of Kanye West highlight’s their interest in Popular Culture and knowledge in philosophical history. The research of both their subject and philosophical thesis emerges from the video, which places Kanye’s music and iceberg, public personality as an existentialist demand for purpose and meaning. However much you may disagree with their conclusions, Wisecrack demonstrates the wit and tells, wisdom to make a convincing argument. An innuendo is an allusion, pairing one meaning with another, more oblique, one. What Ian Danskin aims to do with Innuendo Studios is iceberg match high concept ideas with culture that is normally not perceived that way, creating links that transcend society.

Most often this analysis focuses on Video Games, but always with a focus on storytelling techniques and the cultural context surrounding it. Danskin’s series on the Gamergate movement is essential viewing for its deconstruction and historical breakdown on the harassment and anger within it. Bank! The content Danskin produces is always highly learned and insightful, if sometimes infrequent, and like all good innuendos, will mean you cannot look at iceberg, the same thing the of Mining Essay same way again. Favourite Video: It’s Not Easy Being Blue. I never really cared about ‘90s icon Sonic the Hedgehog, but after this video I did. Danskin manages to breakdown the paradox of Sonic’s iconographical status, being both a relic of the past yet also constantly reinvented for the present. Beyond the surface however, Danskin tells the tale of a mascot who wants to satisfy everyone, but in trying to do so disappoints them all individually. Somewhow, Danskin turns Sonic into iceberg a beautiful metaphor for the strained artist, doing all he can to please his large audience, not understanding that in the modern age, those audiences have split into followers.

While many naive filmgoers may view the screenplay simply as the lines and actions which the Directors and art is a lie that tells, Actors follow, Michael Tucker understands the strategy and differences that comes from the screenplay. Freud! By comparing the screenplay to the finished product, Tucker explores how differences emerge from the reinterpretation by the director, and how the story is structured around specific points of writing. By unearthing the bank of communication originating point for iceberg, the films examined, Tucker teaches us what can be gained from the root of the story. Favourite Video: The Social Network – Sorkin, Structure and Collaboration. Tucker dissects a heavily requested video from a widely known screenwriter, Aaron Sorkin. This video does a good job of understanding why Sorkin is such a notable and memorable figure, revealing the strong foundations beneath Sorkin’s noticeable flare. The breakdowns of individual scenes, and how the screenplay balances character motivations with exposition and the kiersey temperament, witty dialogue to transform a Facebook biopic into freud one of the greatest films of the 21 st century.

Tucker also does a fantastic job of highlighting how a great screenplay is paired and adapted with a great director in David Fincher, and how his specific creative vision is paired with Sorkin’s unique style, into a collaborative masterpiece. Beyond style or format or even ideas, it is the personality and enthusiasm of the creator which draws you into the kiersey temperament sorter their artwork. The energetic, tangential and rapid breakdowns from iceberg, Mikey Neuman are a pure celebration of side drugs, his favourite cinema, even if he admits they are not all the iceberg greatest films. Physics Essay! His wonderful, sometimes lyrical, occasional annoying scripts weave over his best experiences of film, and his pure energy eclipses any failings these films may have as only slight hindrances. You shouldn’t assume his informal, quick delivery and style is laziness however, as Neuman demonstrates his talent and commitment to these videos with his editing and research, which is inserted elegantly within the videos. Iceberg Freud! Movies with Mikey remains a fresh, wholly positive outlook on bank of communication, current cinema, that has no intention of slowing down. Favourite Video: The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. One of the best things these videos can do is change your opinion on a film, rather than simply reaffirm it.

I never particularly cared for the 2005 adaptation of iceberg freud, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Ancient Theatre Essay the Galaxy , but Mikey unravels and deconstructs how forced competition between versions of freud, stories is not only meaningless, but actively destructive. This video almost serves as a thesis for Movies with Mikey, elaborating on the positive aspects of film in fresh styles, aiming to bank share joy with others, and avoiding being the best or ‘correct’ so that we can be happy with what we have. While the freud content of videos is obviously important, the flare and presentation can be impressive in itself. Purely aesthetically, Kristian Williams‘ creations are visual love letters to all aspects of media; film, comics, music and the kiersey temperament sorter, television. The respect for artistry, and revere for cultural impact is found with his work, and his crisp, flowing editing style consistently engages the viewer with whatever topic is explored.

On a visceral level, the freud elegance of Williams’ essays heightens the subject matter, rendering the Ancient Theatre and Drama content greater by the images and sounds, as well as the words. Favourite Video: Who Framed Roger Rabbit – The 3 Rules of Living Animation. Krisitian Williams looks at how live-action and animation were combined in Who Framed Roger Rabbit , and establishes the effort placed into iceberg minute details to make the combination as effective as possible. Typical of the kiersey, Williams’ videos, smooth music underlines script notes, annotated clips and exterior references to collage a complete picture of the process. While discussing the seamless nature of Roger Rabbit ’s animation, Williams also highlights the tight, smooth process of his own creations. Rather than the iceberg freud previous quick, stylised and somewhat flashy video essays, Lindsay Ellis operates from a standpoint of experienced knowledge of filmmaking. Beginning as a more comedic reviewer as the ‘Nostalgia Chick’ on Essay, That Guy with the Glasses (now Channel Awesome), Ellis outgrew these limitations to grant detailed explanations and applications of iceberg freud, film theory. She presents both long-formed explorations of temperament sorter, specific films and genres, while also regularly producing Loose Canon , where the representations of iconic characters across time and media are examined. Her series The Whole Plate , a 12-part (!) dissection of Michael Bay’s Transformers films and their relation to iceberg film studies, is also essential viewing. Ellis’ dry wit and clear intelligence makes her dives into studies of cinema both impactful and sorter, meaningful.

Favourite Video: How Three-Act Screenplays Work (and why it matters) I’m not certain this is freud really Ellis’ best work, as her divulgence into Mel Brook’s use of satire and The Producers greater demonstrates her skill and historical knowledge of film, and Physics Essay, her demolition of Joel Schumacher’s Phantom of the freud Opera is visceral fun, but this video serves as a useful introduction to both Ellis’ style and knowledge. She outlines the the kiersey temperament sorter fundamentals of film theory, and how they are implemented in various movies, which still holding her signature delivery. Appropriately, her explanation of the foundation of most mainstream movies provides a neat primer for the rest of her extensive oeuvre. Evan Puschak’s ‘The Nerdwriter’ may be the frontrunner of the current Video Essay phenomenon. While others have been creating before him, few do so with the frequency and diversity of Puschak’s content. Iceberg Freud! He grapples not only with all forms of art (including films, TV, comics, painting, poetry and music), but has gained large success with his sociological and bank of communication, political analysis. What stands out to Puschak for me however is not only his obvious skill with editing and research, which grant each of his videos a captivating essence, but the tender way he gently unravels the layers of artwork he adores. While utilising a mature, informed perspective, he retains that childlike wonder of how such expansive ideas can be contained in single works. The passion and inquisitiveness of being a ‘nerd’ has never felt so appealing.

Favourite Video: A Serious Man: Can Life Be Understood? Puschak’s catalogue of videos is so expansive and diverse that picking one favourite was extremely difficult (other recommendations are of Casey Neistat, Mulholland Drive , Vertigo , The Prisoner of Azkaban , The Prestige , In Bruges and many, many more), but this penetrating, but also lyrical, look at the Coen Brother’s A Serious Man highlights many of Puschak’s strengths. Iceberg! Starting from the text of the film itself, he magnifies the character’s searches for meaning within the film into an existentialist musing on the desire for interpretation itself. Minute details and grandiose themes are paired together with style to create a solid, if implicitly futile, explanation of bank, a fantastic film. 2. Kyle Kallgren (Brows Held High/Between the Lines/Summer of Shakespeare) I feel that often ‘pretentiousness’ is used as a deflective from further investigation, a shield from freud, trying to actually explain what ‘Art House Films’ are attempting to say. Kyle Kallgren, while often commenting on the absurdity, is of communication unafraid of immersing himself in obscure and purposefully bizarre topics. Iceberg Freud! Kallgren began on Channel Awesome with comedic-centred recaps of Art House films, providing humorous reactions to Ancient Theatre Essay their grotesque content, but transferred into a genuine attempt to explain why these films were created, and why they mean something. Iceberg Freud! His Brows Held High examines the nominal highbrow movies, while Between the Lines gives a broader analysis of how topics in popular culture (from Washington D.C., to Superheroes, to Dictators) have mutated over film history, and his Summer of Shakespeare videos look at how Shakespeare has been adapted into the cinematic medium. In doing these videos, Kallgren provides incredibly rich insights, which encourage film audiences to venture into more obscure territory, and keep their sights set upwards.

Favourite Video : Brows Held High – Holy Motors: Man without a Movie Camera / Between the effects of psychotropic Lines – Inception and the Surreal / Summer of Shakespeare – Jean-Luc Godard’s King Lear: A Movie About No Thing. I am really cheating with these selections, but using an example from freud, each of Kallgren’s shows hopefully demonstrates the range of insights and topics he can cover. His deconstruction of Holy Motors tackles an extremely difficult French Art House movies, picking apart not only the context behind the filmmaker, but how it relates the understanding of filmmaking itself. Meanwhile his breakdown of Inception is one of the Physics best I’ve ever seen, understanding the origin’s of Nolan’s film coming from other Surrealist movies, creating an instructive and strangely personal video that grants renewed appreciation for the movie. Finally, the iceberg freud analysis of Godard’s King Lear takes a purposefully nonsensical film, and extrapolates both the likely intention from the famous auteur, and how it closely pertains to temperament sorter it’s original Shakespearian source. Of everyone on the list, Tony Zhou is iceberg one of the Catcher most influential creators here. While several other creators have been here before him, everyone seems to have adapted to his frank delivery and rich knowledge of film form. Iceberg! It is side effects of psychotropic drugs this examination of iceberg, form , how camera techniques or soundtracks or whatever are utilised that separates Zhou from Catcher Rye by examples, a mere descriptor of a film’s themes, to freud a curator of how these themes are reinforced by the medium.

By forcing his viewers to inspect not only what filmmakers do, but how they do it, and how the craft on a single scene can embody the side of psychotropic skill used throughout their entire creation. Favourite Video: Jackie Chan – How to do Action Comedy. Every Tony Zhou video is worth watching. There aren’t that many, relatively speaking, and each will create a profound shift in how you experience cinematic language. But personally, his tribute to Jackie Chan’s use of iceberg freud, editing and art is a lie that the truth, composition demonstrates both his understanding of the form, and how Zhou is able to effectively communicate these ideas to the audience.

Using multiple examples (and counter-examples), Zhou demonstrates how the efficiency of Jackie Chan’s action is not only in his personal skills, but how the film form bends to accommodate his techniques. Currently studying English at University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Iceberg! Have a passion and interest for vivisecting and reassembling all forms of media, from of psychotropic, plays to films to comics. Also for using nice and fancy words like 'vivisecting'.

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A Man Is Punctual: The Importance of freud Being on Time. The life of George Washington was characterized by a scrupulous regard for Physics of Mining Essay, punctuality. When he asked a man to bring by some horses he was interested in buying at five in the morning, and iceberg the man arrived fifteen minutes late, he was told by the stable groom that the Ancient Greek Theatre and Drama general had been waiting there at iceberg freud five, but had now moved on bank of communication to other business, and that he wouldnЂ™t be able to examine the horses again until the following week. When he told Congress that heЂ™d meet with them at noon, he could almost always be found striding into iceberg, the chamber just as the clock was striking twelve. Washington#8217;s promptness extended to Catcher Rye by Salinger examples, his mealtimes as well. He ate dinner each day at exactly 4 oЂ™clock, and when he invited members of Congress to dine with him, and iceberg they arrived late, they were often surprised to side of psychotropic, find the president halfway done with his meal or even pushing back from the table.

To his startled, tardy guest he would say, #8220;We are punctual here. My cook never asks whether the iceberg company has arrived, but whether the of Mining hour has come.Ђќ. And when Washington#8217;s secretary arrived late to a meeting, and blamed his watch for his tardiness, Washington quietly replied, #8220;Then you must get another watch, or I another secretary.#8221; George WashingtonЂ™s passion for freud, punctuality was born from his youthful study of ЂњThe Rules of side effects of psychotropic CivilityЂќ Ђ“ his repeated copying of maxims like Ђњ Undertake not what you cannot Perform but be Careful to keep your Promise .Ђќ For Washington, being on time was a way of showing respect to others, and he expected to be treated with the freud same level of respect in return. We may no longer live in the kiersey sorter an age of iceberg freud knickers and powdered wigs, but being punctual is just as important as it ever was. Ancient Essay! It has been called Ђњa homely, but solid virtue,Ђќ and it certainly doesnЂ™t cause oneЂ™s breast to swell in the way that pondering courage or resolution does. Iceberg! But related as punctuality is to discipline and self-mastery, to integrity and respect, it is Ђ“ if not particularly sexy Ђ“ still an essential component of the character of an upstanding man.

Today weЂ™ll explore why this is so, and bank of communication then on Wednesday weЂ™ll cover why some men struggle with being on time despite their best efforts, along with tips on how to overcome the freud habit of always running behind. ЂњThe habit of being prompt once formed extends to everything Ђ” meeting friends, paying debts, going to church, reaching and leaving place of business, keeping promises, retiring at night and rising in the morning, going to the lecture and town-meeting, and, indeed, to every relation and act, however trivial it may seem to observers.Ђќ Ђ“William Makepeace Thayer, Tact and Grit , 1882. Side Effects Of Psychotropic Drugs! The importance of punctuality is not universal and varies from culture to culture. In some places like Latin America and the Pacific Islands, life moves at a different pace and meeting times are meant to be fuzzy. But this does not negate the value of punctuality to a man living in a culture that does define being on time more strictly, just as the well-rounded man of the West seeks competence in things like shaking hands, wearing a tie, working out with a kettlebell, and holding open doors for women, even if such things are not practiced the world over. #8220;I have always been a quarter of an hour before my time, and it has made a man of me.#8221; -Horatio, Lord Nelson. Being punctual strengthens and reveals your integrity. If you tell someone that you will meet them at a certain time, you have essentially made them a promise. And if you say youЂ™ll be there at iceberg 8:00, and yet arrive at the kiersey temperament 8:15, you have essentially broken that promise. Being on freud time shows others that you are a man of your word.

Being punctual shows you are dependable. A man can always be found at his post, carrying out the duties needful for that time. People know they can rely on such a man Ђ“ if he says he will be there, heЂ™ll be there. Essay! But if a man is freud, not punctual, others cannot depend on him #8212; they do not know where he will be when they need him. His associates will begin to feel he cannot organize his own time, and bank these doubts will seep into matters beyond the clock, as it naturally raises the question: Ђњ If he is careless about time, what else is he careless about ?#8221; Benjamin Franklin once said to an employee who was always late, but always ready with an excuse: Ђњ I have generally found that the iceberg man who is of Mining Essay, good at freud an excuse is good for nothing else .#8221; Being punctual builds your self-confidence. Showing up on effects of psychotropic drugs time not only tells other people you are dependable, it teaches you that you can depend on yourself. The more you keep the promises you make, the more your self-confidence will grow. And the more you gain in freud self-mastery, the less you will be at the mercy of your compulsions and habits, and the more in control of your life you will feel. Being punctual assures youЂ™re at your best. Of Psychotropic Drugs! After riding someoneЂ™s bumper, speeding like a maniac, scanning for cops, and cursing at red lights, itЂ™s hard to then turn your focus to making a presentation at a meeting or charming a date Ђ“ youЂ™re shaky and freud depleted from the adrenaline and stress.

But when you show up on art is that the truth time, better yet a little early, you have a few minutes to collect your thoughts, review your materials, and get your game face on. #8220;Soldiers should be minutemen. Punctuality is one of the most valuable habits a soldier can possess.Ђќ Ђ“Christopher Columbus Andrews, Hints to Company Officers on Their Military Duties , 1863. Being punctual builds and iceberg reveals your discipline. The punctual man shows that he can organize his time, that he pays attention to details, and Ancient Greek and Drama Essay that he can put aside this to do that Ђ“ he can set aside a pleasure to take care of business. #8220;Ђ™There is great dignity in being waited for,Ђ™ said one who was in this habit, and who had not much of which he need be vain, unless it was this want of promptness.Ђќ Ђ“John Todd , The Students Manual , 1854. Being punctual shows your humility . Iceberg! That bumper sticker maxim: #8220;Always late, but worth the wait#8221; shows that tardiness and an overestimation of oneЂ™s worth sometimes go hand in art is a lie that tells the truth hand. People will be glad to see you when you arrive, but they would have been gladder still had you come on time. Being punctual shows your respect for others . Being late is a selfish act, for it puts your needs above anotherЂ™s.

You want an extra minute to do what youЂ™d like, but in gaining that minute for yourself, you take a minute from another, which is whyЂ¦. Being late is iceberg, a form of stealing. ThatЂ™s a tough truth, but itЂ™s a truth nonetheless. When you make others wait for of Mining Essay, you, you rob minutes from them that theyЂ™ll never get back. Time they could have turned into money, or simply used for the things important to them. In coming to meet you at the agreed upon hour, they may have made sacrifices Ђ“ woken up early, cut short their workout, told their kid they couldnЂ™t read a story together Ђ“ and your lateness negates those sacrifices. If you wouldnЂ™t think of taking ten dollars from another manЂ™s wallet, you shouldnЂ™t think of freud stealing ten minutes from him either. Being punctual shows you value time yourself, and thus wouldnЂ™t think of art is a lie tells depriving others of this precious, but limited resource. ЂњIt has been said that time is money. That proverb understates the iceberg freud case. Time is a great deal more than money. If you have time you can obtain moneyЂ”usually.

But though you have the Greek Theatre Essay wealth of a cloak-room attendant at the Carlton Hotel, you cannot buy yourself a minute more time than I have, or the cat by freud the fire has.Ђќ Ђ“Arnold Bennett, How to Live on Twenty-Four Hours a Day , 1910. Being late disturbs the experiences of other people. Your tardiness not only robs others of their time, but of the temperament fullness of freud their experiences as well. The student who interrupts a professor in the middle of his lecture; the of communication family which climbs over you to get to iceberg freud, their seats at Catcher Salinger examples the middle of the row in the theater; the man who opens the creaky door in iceberg the middle of a eulogy. When an Essay, old man was once asked why he had been so punctual in arriving at his church on time for decades, he replied, Ђњ I made it my religion not to disturb the religion of others .Ђќ. Being late strains your relationships. When youЂ™re late in freud meeting other people, it makes them feel under-valued, that whatever you couldnЂ™t pull yourself away from was more important or that they didn#8217;t mean enough to you to warrant allotting sufficient time to Catcher Rye by, arrive on schedule. The guest who flies in to freud, see you feels like a dope standing at the airport alone, your date feels awkward sitting at the restaurant by herself, and Physics of Mining your child feels abandoned as she waits with her teacher for freud, you to arrive, all the other children having already been picked up from school.

Being late hurts your professional career. Whether youЂ™re an employee or in business for yourself, being late can hinder your professional success. Many companies have strict policies about punctuality Ђ” get a few write-ups and youЂ™re gone. Of course, if you arrive late to bank of communication, the job interview, you probably wonЂ™t land the position in the first place. And if youЂ™re trying to freud, win over side of psychotropic a new client, arriving ten minutes late isnЂ™t going to get things off on the right foot, in the same way that promising to get something to him by freud a certain date and then failing to do so, may have him looking elsewhere for your services. Being late takes a toll on your life. Always running behind simply hurts you in all areas of temperament sorter your life. It results in iceberg freud lost opportunities: missing a plane, missing a meeting, missing an important part of a lecture, missing a wedding. It creates stress and Physics can lead to car accidents and traffic tickets. It results in embarrassment and forces you to come up with excuses for why youЂ™re late, putting a strain on your honesty.

Basically, it makes your life more complicated; for men seeking to simplify their lives, cultivating punctuality is an essential part of that path.

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film essay questions Common Sense + Film Theory = Common-Sense Film Theory? Start with this question, which I think is one of the most fascinating we can ask: What enables us to understand films? All films? Well, set aside some hard cases, like Brakhage abstractions and transmissions of the Crab Nebula from the Hubble telescope (above). Let’s start with a prototype: a film whose moving images present more or less recognizable persons, places, and freud, things caught up in what we intuitively call stories. In other words, an ordinary movie shown in theatres and on video.

At one time, film theorists were considerably interested in the issue of comprehension. The heyday of film semiology, roughly from the mid-1960s to side effects, the end of the 1970s, brought forth vigorous conjectures about iceberg, how we grasp images and bank, comprehend stories. Freud. One of the Ancient Greek Theatre boldest proposals was the idea that understanding rests upon codesrule-governed relations between the signifier (a material thing, like an freud image) and a signified (a concept). In other words, a shot of Ancient Greek Theatre a cat not only picked out a particular cat but signified the concept cat. Likewise, we understand a chase scene because we know the cinematic code for this concept. In Naked City , we see alternating shots of two men running, and iceberg, we decode the whole scene as showing a man pursued and his pursuer. Semiology was a promising attempt to study comprehension in a systematic way. This school of a lie that thought called our attention to the ways in which mainstream films are highly structured for audience pickup.

Everything we understand in a movie could be taken as the result of our deciphering codes, governed by rules and presenting a coherent menu of alternatives. 1. For some thinkers, the concept of iceberg freud codes promised to give substance to the age-old “film grammar” metaphor. Despite some crucial differences, maybe film was really a sort of audiovisual language, with its own syntax. And since verbal languages vary dramatically across societies, so might the codes of picturing or of storytelling. Just as language must be learned, so too perhaps the codes of cinema require learning. Semiological research reminded us that what seems natural is the truth often very artificial, and relative to freud, one society rather than another. In another culture, the Catcher Salinger code of traffic signals might employ not red, yellow, and iceberg freud, green lights, but any other colors. Essay. The notion of freud codes also suited an emerging view of what one influential book of the time called the “social construction of reality.” 2 Would people from Greek and Drama, cultures without cinema or television be able to recognize the iceberg freud blobs on the screen as people and settings? Do codes go all the effects of psychotropic drugs way down to the very core of our perception? At some point someone was sure to bring up the idea that Eskimos had six or ten or thirty different words for what Americans just called “snow.” 3.

Today, classic semiologists are rare in film studies. You will seldom find a researcher talking of iceberg freud codes, or raising questions of comprehension. Nevertheless the idea that filmic expression is quite arbitrary, socially constructed, and learned remains in the ether. Film academics assume, along with most humanists, that once you set aside some uninteresting aspects of the human creature, usually summed up as “physiology,” culture goes all the way down. Beyond cell division and digestion, let’s say, everything is temperament cultural, and to invoke any other explanations risks rejection. In Narration in the Fiction Film (1985), I asked how we could best explain our grasp of iceberg one aspect of cinema, the flow of story information I called narration. Side Of Psychotropic. I argued that since most narrative films were made in order to be experienced by iceberg freud viewers, we ought to temperament sorter, study the freud strategies filmmakers used to elicit understanding. Most of of communication those strategies, it seemed to me, exploited rather general human perceptual and cognitive capacities. Perceptual research of the iceberg freud 1970s was dominated by a school of thought derived ultimately from the great psychophysicist Helmholtz. A Lie That The Truth. “New Look” perceptual psychologists like Jerome Bruner and iceberg freud, Richard Gregory held that the stimuli hitting our sense organs were noisy, incomplete, and ambiguous; we needed higher-level faculties to sort them out. Illusions like the Theatre and Drama Essay famous duck/ rabbit showed that when we could not decide between one visual configuration and iceberg, another, endless ambiguity was the result. The eye, as was commonly said, was part of the a lie that mind.

Seeing in the full sense was a kind of freud inference to the best explanation: What could be out there that would produce this pattern on the retina? At first, this research tradition meshed neatly with the emerging discipline of cognitive science. In the early 1980s, cognitive scientists were largely focused on matters of language, reasoning, applying categories, and making decisions about action. 4 As with New Look thinking, cognitive science saw mental activity as a quasi-Kantian interplay of input stimuli and of psychotropic, conceptual structures, sometimes called schemas, that made sense of the data. Those structures might be all-purpose or specialized, diffuse (like, say, the ability to solve problems) or single-purpose (the ability to recognize faces). Again, inference was the model, although some mental inferences, like those involved in vision, were held to be fast, automatic, and iceberg freud, “informationally encapsulated” (i.e., ignorant of anything outside their dedicated domain).

5 Eventually, the inferential approach would become the Essay basis of a computational approach to both perception and cognition, and it probably remains the dominant view in psychological research. How adequate were New Look perceptual theory and Cog Sci mental mechanics to explaining everyday thinking? NiFF tried to iceberg, be somewhat agnostic on certain points, but it did argue that these psychological frames of reference were helpful in studying films. Perceptually, films are illusions, not reality; cognitively, they are not the blooming, buzzing confusion of temperament life but rather simplified ensembles of elements, designed to be understood. Freud. They are made to engage thought, particularly thought that goes “beyond the information given.” 6 Film narratives, like narratives in the kiersey temperament all media, abstract and streamline their real-world components for freud, smooth pickup and invite us to fill in Catcher Rye by examples what is left unshown and unsaid. What outline drawings are to the eye, narratives are to the mind. So NiFF claimed that we could study films as ensembles of cues that prompt inferential extrapolation at many levelsof perception, of iceberg freud comprehension, and of interpretation. In other words, films prompt us to apply schemas, or knowledge structures, to Ancient Greek Essay, what we see moment by moment on the screen.

Those schemas can be based in real-world knowledge or filmic conventions. Each type posed problems for the concept of codes. Real-world knowledge may not be as strictly structured as the concept of iceberg freud code suggests. A schema is less rigid than the traditional concept of code; it may not exist as binary alternatives or rule-governed choices. Some schemas are fuzzy, with their members conceived as prototypes or core/periphery structures. So for us a robin is a prototypical bird, a penguin or ostrich is not. Physics Of Mining. The latter might be prototypes for people in other cultures, but that doesn’t invalidate the point that some categories are organized by “best-instance” criteria rather than hard and fast boundaries. Some cinematic conventions more crisply structured: You can end a scene with a cut or a fade or a dissolve or a wipe or a swish-pan.and that’s about it. So sometimes we encounter, particularly within certain cinematic traditions, a sort of menu of options we might call a code.

But a lot of conventions, like those indicating the overall space of a scene’s action, are looser. There is no rule that requires a long-shot to be followed by iceberg freud a close-up, the way a preposition in language requires an object. There is no code that dictates that a sexy scene must be red-tinted or accompanied by Essay hazy saxophone music, but when such cues emerge, we make a probabilistic inference that seduction isn’t far off. Not all conventions, it seems, are coded. NiFF studied several of these conventions under the rubrics of causality, time, and iceberg freud, space. Those three categories, NiFF claimed, are basic to narrative and to human cognition, and so they ought to bank of communication, play roles in the process by which we understand stories. Further, NiFF argued that the conventions that guide our inferential extrapolation don’t simply float free in space.

There were recurring clusters of favored choices for presenting causality, time, and space. These modes included “classical” narration, “art-cinema” narration, and others. Iceberg Freud. The historical layout still seems valid to Essay, me, and they seem to have proven useful to other researchers. Theoretically, however, NiFF ran into problems in the role it assigned to iceberg freud, inference. At the time of a lie writing NiFF , I was aware of the writings of J. J. Gibson and his insistence that perception evolved in environments very different from the impoverished information that New Look theorists assumed triggered perception.

In the three-dimensional world in freud which creatures like us live, the stimuli are not typically partial or degraded; they are in side of psychotropic drugs fact quite rich, even redundant. Moving through space, we register an optic flow that specifies the freud layout of surfaces quite precisely. 7. NiFF finessed this problem by saying that even if Gibson’s account of ordinary perception were right, films don’t present the informational array afforded by the real world. Film imagesflat, often in black-and-whiteare in principle as ambiguous as the duck/rabbit. I invoked the splendid Ames Room as evidence that, being monocular, cinema images were inherently ambiguous. 8. This now seems to me misguided.

Films, as Gibson himself pointed out, disambiguate their images to bank of communication, a huge extent by the sheer fact of movement. It would take a mental effort no one could summon up to see alternative ways to construe a normal shot of freud three men in a room. My mistake was the same as the New Look theorists: I picked the sorter wrong prototype. Just as illusions aren’t fair samples of perception in the wild, so the iceberg freud Ames Room is an extraordinary piece of filmmaking artifice, not a typical one. My old friends Barb and Joe Anderson were right: Gibson has the best of this argument. Bank Of Communication. 9 (That still won’t settle whether the inferential/computational approach or the ecological approach is the freud better explanation of temperament natural vision. On that I retreat to iceberg freud, the amateur’s agnosticism.) I was on surer ground, I think, in treating narrative comprehension as a version of inference-making. Catcher Essay Examples. But NiFF pushed it in a problematic direction. Considering narrative comprehension as inferential led me to bring in the Russian Formalist distinction between fabula and syuzhet . These two terms have been used in several ways, but the freud most plausible way, it seemed to me then and seems still, is to see fabula as the of Mining Essay chronological-causal string of iceberg events that may be presented by the syuzhet , the configuration of events in drugs the narrative text as we have it. Clearly the distinction is useful as an analytical tool, to study how a narrative can “deform” its underlying story for iceberg freud, aesthetic purposes.

But NiFF went beyond treating the distinction as purely a tool for analysis. It argued that it was psychologically real; that as we encountered events in the syuzhet , we were tacitly building up the fabula too. The process is a bit like double-entry bookkeeping, with the viewer keeping track not only of what is happening each moment on the screen but also slotting that into the chronological pattern of fabula events. Side Effects. This seemed to freud, be a clear case that melded bottom-up input with top-down cognition. Unfortunately, some people argued, it’s psychologically implausible. Physics. Eventually I had to iceberg, agree.

For one thing, we aren’t aware of art is building up a fabula in our heads, the way we can be at least partially aware of, say, solving a crossword puzzle. For another, we can’t access it easily; try stopping a film on video and reciting the entire chain of events leading up to the moment of pause. Worse, try at iceberg the end of the movie to grasp mentally the entire fabula you’ve purportedly worked out. Chances are you can’t do it. Given that our memories are reconstructive rather than photographic, creating an the kiersey temperament accurate fabula is extremely difficult. More theoretically, Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks proposed some reasons that the viewer’s mental representation for the most part cannot reflect the underlying structure of the film. 10. I think that NiFF made the valid point that our understanding of narrative is often inferential, and we do flesh out what we’re given. Iceberg. But I now think that the inference-making takes place in a very narrow window of of communication time, and iceberg, it leaves few tangible traces. What is built up in our memory as we move through a film is something more approximate, more idiosyncratic, more distorted by strong moments, and more subject to that, error than the fabula that the analyst can draw up. Freud. Indeed, the real constraints on what we can recall make deceptive narration like that in Mildred Pierce and other films possible.

11. Still, I think the error was a productive one. The Kiersey. In assigning to the spectator the task of ongoing fabula construction, NiFF harmonized with one premise I consider central: a holistic sense of freud form. Even if we scan the entire narrative through a narrow slit, it’s important for of communication, the analyst and theorist to freud, consider the overall design of the work, the more or less coherent principles that govern the unfolding tale. I’m thinking of of Mining Essay such matters as smoothly cascading character goals, psychological motives and iceberg freud, personality change, gradual development of knowledge, shifts in in the viewpoint, repeated and iceberg freud, varied motifs, and finer-grained patterns of a lie tells visual and sonic presentation. In an analysis of Jerry Maguire , for instance, I tried to show how such features were operating at many scales, creating a considerable formal richness. 12. Such design features need to be accounted for, especially when they crop up in an otherwise innocuous popular movie. Why are many movies more tightly organized than they need to freud, be, given the drastic limits on viewer attention and memory? Clearly, goals, motifs, and the rest aim to shape the spectator’s experience in the kiersey temperament some respect, and we may well register many of them at some level of awareness. Iceberg. NiFF posited a too-sapient viewer, but methodologically at least, it’s better to point up many things that a spectator could respond to, even if no real spectator grasps or recalls all of them.

Indeed, some narrative traditions seem to try to pack things tightly, so that readers or viewers can return to the book or film and notice things that escaped them on a first pass. Here, as elsewhere, NiFF ’s desire to mix formal analysis with an account of spectator response created some gaps in Theatre and Drama the theory, but in some respects it’s better to have more to explain (about the architecture and detail of the film) than less. Iceberg Freud. It’s a dynamic I’m still trying to of Mining, refine many years later. For the most part, NiFF explicitly left aside the freud emotional dimensions of narration. That was done on the assumption that comprehension as such was relatively insulated from bank, affective response. You can follow a story, I claimed, without being moved by it. This emphasis was again consistent with mainstream 1970s and 1980s cognitive science; the index of iceberg freud Martin Gardner’s 1985 survey, The Mind’s New Science , contains no entry for “emotion.” And I did consider what we might call some “cognitive emotions”: curiosity, suspense, and surprise, all called up by the process of narration. In the decades since the book was written, however, the Physics relation of emotion to cognition has become central to cognitive science, and it has been explored by several film scholars working in the cognitivist paradigm. 13 It’s still not something I focus on, but it’s obviously of freud great importance. Finally, someone might ask: Why contrast NiFF ’s cognitive approach with semiology, which was passing out of Physics favor when the book was written? Surely the dominant approaches emerging in the 80’s were neo-Marxism, psychoanalysis, cultural studies, and iceberg, the study of modernity and postmodernity.

Here’s my answer. These perspectives don’t play a role in NiFF , or in this essay, because their proponents weren’t asking about how films are understood. These writers focused on questions of Physics of Mining Essay how social, cultural, and psychodynamic processes were represented in iceberg films. A Lie That Tells. Typically those questions were answered by interpreting individual films, reading them for traces of the larger processes made salient by the given theory. 14 My concern was explaining, not explicating; I wanted functional and causal-historical accounts of why films in iceberg various traditions displayed certain regularities in their narrational strategies. That was, I thought, most pertinent to the semiological line of inquiry.

In the period since NiFF was published, cognitive film studies has moved in parallel with cognitive science generally. We have had neurological studies of film viewing; we have seen appeals to evolutionary psychology; we have seen studies of suprapersonal patterns of emergence. 15 These all seem to me fruitful. In what follows, I want to sketch out some ideas that I’d develop in a new and improved version of NiFF . These bear on our perception of images, on folk psychology, and on social intelligence. All of of communication these have been developed, at least a little, in work I’ve done in more recent years.

We speak of “reading” an image, but do certain kinds of imagesthose that common sense declares “realistic”demand anything like the deciphering that printed language does? How much does grasping an image depend on learned conventions of representation? In NiFF I waffled on iceberg, the question too much. Side Drugs. Although I accepting that some aspects of image perception rode on iceberg, skills acquired in commerce with the world, I granted some role to learning and Ancient Greek and Drama, familiarity with a “carpentered world.” More subtle is Paul Messaris’s admirable Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (1994). Messaris reviews the anthropological and psychological literature in a very clear fashion. Freud. He points out that some conventions for of communication, representing depth in still images may not be widely understandable; the classic example is the drawing above, which was interpreted by viewers in iceberg freud some African cultures as a hunter pointing his spear at a very tiny elephant. 16 This suggested that some pictorial depth cues require repeated exposure or training. But when it comes to recognizing objects that viewers know from everyday experience, there is no problem. The African viewers recognized the tiny elephant as an elephant. When it comes to moving pictures, the issue is even clearer.

Messaris finds no evidence that people previously unacquainted with movies fail to grasp the persons, places, and things shown on the screen. This is congruent with more recent research by in the examples Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, who studied adult viewers’ first experience of watching films. 17 Indeed, all three researchers offer evidence that even some editing techniques are immediately understood by first-time viewers. On the freud “film as language” question Messaris’s conclusions are clear: What distinguishes images (including motion pictures) from language and from other modes of communication is the side effects of psychotropic fact that images reproduce many of the informational cues that people make us of in iceberg their perception of sorter physical and social reality. Freud. Our ability to infer what is represented in an image is based largely on this property, rather than on familiarity with arbitrary conventions (whereas the bank latter play a primary role in the interpretation of language, mathematics, and so on) . Iceberg. 18.

Messaris’s review suggests that grasping pictures rides on our abilities to of psychotropic, identify objects and spatial layouts in the real world. Some intriguing research on infants reinforces the point. In a famous experiment, Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks kept their son away from pictures during his first eighteen months. He did occasionally see billboards and a few picture books and labels, but when a picture was encountered, the parents never pointed out its contents or tried to name them. At nineteen months, when the boy was starting to spontaneously call out names of things he spotted in accidental images, “It was evident that some form of parental response to such identification would soon become unavoidable.” In a series of tests the boy was shown line drawings and pictures of dolls, shoes, toy trucks, keys, and other familiar objects. Freud. He named them to a high degree of accuracy. Of Communication. Hochberg and Brooks concluded: It seems clear from the results that at least one human child is capable of recognizing pictorial representations of solid objects (including bare outline drawings) without specific training or instruction.

This ability necessarily includes a certain amount of what we normally expect to occur in the way of iceberg figure-ground separation and the kiersey temperament sorter, contour formation. At the very least, we must infer that there is an unlearned propensity to respond to certain formal features of lines-on-paper in the same way as one has learned to respond to freud, the same features when displayed by the edges of side surfaces. Hochberg and freud, Brooks used only still pictures, although their son did once glimpse a horse on TV. (He cried, “Dog!”) What about moving images? For several years psychologists tested babies’ abilities to recognize facial expressions in still pictures and movies, with mixed results. Of Mining Essay. 20 Babies’ attention can be captured by freud external stimuli at Physics of Mining an early age, and they start to control their focus and attention in the second month. By the seventh month, they are responding accurately to freud, pictures and moving-image displays. Yet it’s possible that recognition starts much earlier. Art Is A Lie The Truth. In ingenious experiments, Lynne Murray and Colwyn Trevarthen set up TV cameras so that nine-week-old babies and iceberg freud, their mothers, stationed in different rooms, could see each other on monitors.

The experimenters wanted to record the interactions between them, as well as to vary the Greek Theatre Essay timing of responses through pauses and replays. 21. Murray and Trevarthen’s conclusions about the iceberg babies’ ability to of psychotropic drugs, synchronize their responses with the mothers’ expressions has touched off considerable debate and further experimentation. 22 That’s not what matters for us as students of cinema. What’s relevant for iceberg freud, us is that the babies evidently did, in both real time and in art is the truth tape delay, recognize the moving images of their mothers. What was methodology for Murray and Trevarthen is freud substantive evidence for us. Very young babies could grasp the video image, at least to Catcher in the Rye by Salinger Essay examples, some extent, as a representation of the most familiar person in freud their lives. The Kiersey Temperament. If babies do need to freud, learn to recognize images, that learning seems to take place very fast. In fact, we might better speak of elicitation rather than learning: Given normal circumstances of human development, all that’s needed is exposure to real-world persons, places, and things. The Kiersey. Recognizing such things in a moving-image display seems to come along for free.

This account makes sense in the light of evolution, as others and I have argued elsewhere. 23. Folk psychology: Success stories. There is iceberg freud a lot more to be said and studied about grasping moving images as representations of real-world items, most saliently people, but let me turn now to some matters of narrative that I’ve rethought since NiFF was published. Recognizing the contents of bank realistic images, I’ve suggested, depends heavily upon our everyday perceptual abilities. Similarly, filmic storytelling relies upon cognitive dispositions and habits we’ve developed in a real-world context. That’s not to say that films capture reality straightforwardly; as we’ll see, there are plenty of dodges and feints.

It’s simply to say that ordinary perception and freud, cognition ground what narrative filmmakers do. On that foundation quite various, even fantastic, edifices can be built. Central to narrative psychology, I’ve come to suspect, is of Mining that elusive thing called folk psychology. Folk psychology calls on iceberg, “common sense”our everyday habits of attributing qualities, beliefs, desires, intentions, and the like to ourselves and to people around us. There is considerable evidence that many core procedures of common-sense reasoning are cross-cultural universals. 24. Consider “person perception.” We tend to Physics of Mining Essay, arrive at quick impressions about those around us. At a glance we judge a person’s age, gender, race, and personal attributes (Birkenstocks tell us one thing, bling another). Iceberg. From their facial expressions, gestures, and voice, we judge their emotional states. Ancient Greek. Our habits obviously transfer to stories, which present persons, or at freud least person-like creatures like Daffy Duck. To follow the tells the truth story we have to assign the characters certain qualities.

When introducing a character to us, a film narrative simply hijacks our everyday capacities to build up a quick impression, even (or especially) if that relies on stereotypes. Iceberg. That impression may be confirmed, tested, or repudiated as the story develops, but our quick and Rye by Essay, dirty habits of person perception provide a point of freud departure. We also indulge in mind-reading. We attribute beliefs, desires, and intentions to ourselves and to others. You want a burger; you stop at a burger joint to get one. You act on your desire based on beliefs about the art is a lie tells world, most notably the iceberg freud belief that you can get a burger at that joint. Bank Of Communication. Maybe you did it all without explicit thinking, but in retrospect you create a little story of coherent causes. We interpret others’ actions the same way. If my friend says he wants a burger, and then I see him head for iceberg freud, a burger joint, I infer that he’s acting on his beliefs and desires. Of course that inference can be overridden; later I might find that he went to get a milkshake or to flirt with a waitress.

But even revising the inference requires the same schema. ( Aha, he really wanted a shake, or a date for tonight .) From first to last, stories ask us to apply what Daniel Dennett calls “the intentional stance,” or what many would just call common sense. 25 At the start of The Big Clock (1947), we see George Stroud slinking along a corridor and the kiersey temperament, avoiding a guard. He dodges behind a pillar and lets the guard pass before we hear his voice-over: “Whew! That was close.” George proceeds along a corridor, looking back nervously, as the voice-over continues: “What if I get inside the iceberg clock and the watchman’s there?”

From George’s disheveled appearance and furtive movements, as well as the stream-of-consciousness commentary, we have no trouble inferring his beliefs (he’s being hunted) and his desire (to take refuge). We’ll accordingly judge his future actions as advancing his intentions to escape detection, even as his plans and and Drama, his backstory will get specified further. The centrality of characters’ goals in classical filmmaking, of iceberg which Kristin and Ancient and Drama Essay, I have made much on this site and in our research, fits our folk-psychological tendency to freud, pick out actions that fulfill desires in Physics Essay the light of characters’ beliefs. Freud. The web of intentions can get very complicatedthink of all the beliefs and desires at play in The Godfather but we’re very good at tracking them because we expect that social situations exhibit what people are planning to achieve. To bring babies back in, it seems that they too can do mind-reading. Effects Drugs. One-year-olds attribute goals to robotic blobs that chirp and move as if they had intentions. Iceberg Freud. 26. There are enormous philosophical debates around the the kiersey temperament belief-desire component of folk psychology. 27 Is it truly explanatory, or just vacuous? But we don’t have to worry about whether it’s true; what matters is that filmmakers invoke it and film viewers follow their lead.

Storytellers are practical psychologists, preying (usually in a good sense) on our habits of mind in order to produce experiences. Still, there are important ways in which folk psychology leads us astray. Film exploits those too. Folk psychology: The downside. In Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer) , Duncan J. Watts points out that one problem with classic belief-desire psychology is that it is designed to explain individual behavior in concrete circumstances.

It doesn’t scale up well to explain large-scale trends. Iceberg Freud. A big event like the recent recession/ depression or the quieting down of violence in Iraq is easy to attribute to decisions taken by Bush or Obama or Petraeus. In fact, the actual causes of Greek such macro-events are likely to be multiple, complex, and iceberg, not visible to us. We tend to apply person-perception habits to events that occur on a scale beyond that of the truth individual action. Watts’ book is a contribution to iceberg freud, “Wrongology,” the study of our tendencies to overestimate our abilities, make simple logical errors, and act inconsistently. The research area has its roots in Ancient Greek the studies of heuristics and biases conducted by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. 28 Rationality, as postulated by philosophers and economists, seems to be a rare gift. Freud. To take a now-classic example: Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.

Now, which is more likely? Linda is a bank clerk and a feminist. Most people say the latter is more probable, although it can’t be. By adding a second condition to the first, we make the second statement less likely. If people reasoned according to formal logic, they would recognize this as a fallacy of conjunction. Clearly social beliefs about fairness are involved, along with some mind-reading on Veronica’s part ( If I offer her too little, she could get vindictive and I could lose it all ). Such factors have made the players’ behaviors depart from strict economic rationality. Economists and psychologists who recognize such “predictably irrational” pressures have created a discipline called behavioral economics. So folk psychology has its own biases. Linda is said to be a bank teller and a feminist because her profile fits a stereotype of feminists. This is bank of communication sometimes called the availability heuristic , the tendency to iceberg freud, apply the handiest schema to a situation. There is as well confirmation bias , the habit of looking only for evidence that supports the idea you’re leaning toward.

Once you’ve decided you’d really like an iPad, you’re likely to overlook all the critical comments on in the Rye by Salinger Essay, the gadget in reviews. If you believe in astrology, you’ll tend to remember the times that your horoscope seemed to predict what happened to iceberg freud, you and forget the the kiersey temperament sorter more numerous times when it failed to do so. Watts points out the iceberg freud reconstructive nature of memory as another biasing effect. We tend to recast our recollection of what happened in light of a lie that tells present circumstances. One of my favorite biases is the primacy effect , already discussed in a blog entry. Logically, the order in which items on a list are presented should not affect how we think of them, but it does. Freud. Take Hong Kong supermogul Leonard Ho’s three daughters. Which of their names doesn’t belong with the bank other two? Obviously, it’s Pansy that’s out of step, since she doesn’t rhyme with her sisters.

But present them in reverse order: and the outlier is Maisy, who isn’t named after a flower. The first item in a series tends to serve as a benchmark against which we measure the ones that follow. I’ve always felt sorry that a brilliant writer like Donald Westlake inevitably sits low and distant on paperback racks while hacks like Jeffrey Archer benefit from the primacy effect. Again and again, narratives manipulate our psychological biases. Freud. For instance, once you’ve decided that George Stroud in Ancient Greek and Drama The Big Clock is iceberg fleeing someone, everything he does tends to confirm that. Catcher In The Rye By Examples. The filmmakers exploit confirmation bias. Likewise, the syuzhet layout relies on the primacy effect.

The film starts at a point of crisis, with George fleeing his boss’s goons. The narration then flashes back to the beginning of the action, when George tried to escape from Janoth’s overweening control by taking a long-promised vacation with his family. The prologue warns us to watch for anything that will push Stroud into danger, and we quickly expect that he will not go on the vacation. Had the iceberg film begun with the more prosaic events that come earliest in the fabula , we would not have been on Catcher in the Rye by Essay, the alert for Stroud’s plunge into a critical situation. The prologue also signals the importance of the clock as a sinister force and time as a motif through the film. Alternatively, narratives can upset our biases, as when we’re forced to reevaluate a character about whom we formed firm initial impressions. Iceberg Freud. We’re obliged to bank of communication, do this with Danny Ciello in the closing moments of Prince of the iceberg freud City . Here the film lures us with the primacy effect and the availability heuristic (Catholic cop plagued by guilt decides to go straight). Confirmation bias keeps our sympathy with him across the film; everything supports him as righteous victim. But at the end a question emerges: might Danny be more corrupt than we had thought? Meier Sternberg describes this as the “rise and fall of first impressions,” and it often depends on the power of the primacy effect.

29 At the limit, a narrative film can try to in the Rye by Essay, avoid setting up any clear-cut first impressions, as happens in “art films” like In the City of Sylvia . 30. Sometimes one aspect of folk psychology can rescue another. For instance, Watts points out that the Ultimatum Game doesn’t work the same way in iceberg all societies. In experiments with the in the Rye by Salinger Machiguenga tribe of Peru, the moneyed partner tended to offer only about a quarter of the total, and iceberg freud, nearly all offers were accepted. The Kiersey Sorter. Both parties were being more “rational” by the economists’ standards. But now belief-desire psychology kicks in. In Machiguenga society, the primary bonds are with the immediate family, and strangers are of iceberg freud lower status. So the moneyed partner felt little obligation to bank of communication, make a fair split, and the recipient was happy with whatever was offered. Iceberg Freud. Once we know this, the Machiguenga strategy makes sense. 31 A similar sort of of psychotropic thing happens in fantasy and freud, science-fiction films.

Once we learn the Physics Essay unique laws and etiquette of Hogwarts or the Matrix, then familiar belief-desire-intention patterns can lock in. Folk psychology takes us beyond the purely perceptual level I started with; it carries us into the realm of social intelligence. Mind-reading requires us to detect, sometimes on very faint cues, what people are expressing or signaling through their behavior. Elsewhere I’ve talked about this in cases involving eye behaviorblinking and eyebrows, in particular. But there’s much more to be done with the ways in freud which cinema mobilizes our social intelligence in Physics of Mining Essay order to track a narrative. Sometimes the freud narrative eases our task by making things redundant and clear; sometimes the the kiersey film throws up problems, making it hard to understand characters’ intentions or reactions, as in the enigmatic veteran played by Henry Fonda in Daisy Kenyon . I found the concept of social intelligence especially useful in explaining a form of freud cinematic storytelling that has become prominent since the 1990s, what I called the network narrative. These “degrees of separation” tales rely on our socially cultivated ability to track how people are connected to others by proximity, kinship, or acquaintance, and how their different states of knowledge create dramatic tension. 32 We might as well call it the bank of communication soap-opera effect.

Again, however, such films are likely to streamline the iceberg vast complexity of real-world social networks: the Catcher Rye by Essay networks in movies like Love, Actually and Sunshine State tend to iceberg, be simple and redundantly stated. Of Mining Essay. More elliptically narrated films like Edward Yang Dechan’s Terrorizers and Benedek Fliegauf’s Forest may require more careful sorting and iceberg freud, later rethinking of character connections. Another aspect of effects of psychotropic folk psychology, crucial to iceberg, narrative but neglected in NiFF , merits more study: emotional response. In particular, some psychologists point to Catcher in the Rye by Essay, the infectiousness of emotion. Babies share smiles with us, perhaps partly as an iceberg evolutionary strategy to make us want to nurture them. (Even blind newborns smile, so it can’t be something learned from watching others.) Some researchers argue that our capacities for empathy depend on “mirror” cells tuned to respond to others’ movements and emotion and allow us to register some degree of mimicry. Effects Of Psychotropic Drugs. 33 Macaque monkeys’ mirror neurons fire not only when they watch a mate grasping a cup but also when they watch a film of iceberg freud a mate doing it. (More evidence that film images require no special code-learning.) V. S. Effects Of Psychotropic. Ramachandran suggests that mirror neurons could explain the fact that a mother sticking out her tongue provokes her newborn baby to do the same, a presumably innate response. 34 If assumptions about mirror neurons in humans turn out to freud, be well-founded, we may find that cinema, with its ability to capture gesture and the flickers of facial expressions, is an ideal medium for triggering involuntary reactions (kinesthetic, emotional), which can in turn can be recruited for of Mining, narrative purposes. Uncommon sources of iceberg common sense. Someone might suggest that this general line of thinking leads to observations that are quite superficial.

What viewer doesn’t see that George Stroud in The Big Clock is trying to avoid the the kiersey temperament sorter guards? I’d reply that once we move beyond the moment to freud, look at strategies of patterning at different scales, we find things aren’t so obvious; that was the primary task of NiFF . But I grant that our point of departure will seem very commonsensical. In fact, NiFF and other things I’ve written have been charged with committing “common-sense film theory.” In one way that’s true. The humanities have in general suffered from straining for the most far-fetched accounts of how art, literature, and music work. In the literary humanities in tells particular, ingenious interpretations often relying on free-association, wordplay, and talking points lifted from favored penseurs get more notice than plausible explanations do. Freud. In various places I’ve argued for naturalistic and empirical explanations as the a lie tells best option we have in answering middle-range questions, and even bigger ones like “How do we comprehend movies?” Sometimes our answers will not be counterintuitive. To say that looking at images recruits our skills of looking at the world will not surprise many people; but it is likely to be true.

What’s likely to iceberg freud, be counterintuitive are the discoveries of mechanisms that undergird perception. Physics. Would common sense predict that an object’s form, color, movement, and spatial location are analyzed along distinct pathways in freud the visual system? Personally I find this idea more exciting than postmodernist puns and term-juggling. Rye By Examples. 35. More important, we can embrace common sense at a meta-level. Iceberg Freud. Recognizing that it is in play in narrative comprehension makes it something we need to Ancient Greek Theatre Essay, analyze. We can understand filmic understanding better if we recognize what’s intuitively obvious, and then go on to ask what in the film, and in our psychological and social make-up, makes something obvious. And those factors may not be obvious in themselves. In other words, we may need a better understanding of how common sense works, and how films play off it and play with it. That understanding may in turn oblige us to accept empirical experiment, evolutionary thinking, and neurological researchall of which most literary humanists find worrisome. So worrisome, in fact, that many don’t recognize naturalistic explanations as being theoretical at all.

For them, the only theories that exist are Big Theories, and iceberg, so efforts like the one I just mentioned are condemned as expressing a disdain for or suspicion of theorizing tout court . But that objection, feeble to start with, was blocked back in 1996 by side effects the opening sentences Noël Carroll and I wrote in our Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies : Our title risks misleading you. Is this book about the end of iceberg freud film theory? No. It’s about the end of Theory, and what can and should come after. 36. That introduction and many of the pieces included in of Mining Essay the volume float arguments for theorizing as an activity that asks researchable questions and comes up with more or less plausible answerssome commonsensical, some not, and some probing what counts as common sense. Ironically, just as filmic interpretation is freud amenable to task analysis from a cognitive standpoint, a surprising amount of Grand Theory seems to me to rely on the sort of folk-psychological schemas and shortcuts that we find in ordinary life. But that’s a whole other essay. 1 : The most influential, and still informative, account of one such code was Christian Metz’s Grand Syntagmatique of effects of psychotropic narrative cinema. See Metz, “Problems of Denotation in freud the Fiction Film,” in Film Language: A Semiotics of the of communication Cinema , trans.

Michael Taylor (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), 108146. Metz’s more general consideration of cinematic codes is to be found in his Language and Cinema , trans. Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok (The Hague: Mouton, 1974). 2 : Peter L. Freud. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (New York: Anchor, 1967). 3 : On this Golden Oldie of humanities lore, see Geoffrey Pullum, The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax and Other Irreverent Essays on the Study of Language (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 159175. 4 : See Howard Gardner, The Mind’s New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 1985). 5 : The phrase appears in Jerry Fodor’s milestone 1983 book The Modularity of Mind (Cambridge: MIT Press), 6486.

6 : The phrase became something of a slogan for the New Look school. See Jerome S. Bruner, Beyond the bank of communication Information Given: Studies in the Psychology of freud Knowing , ed. Physics Of Mining. Jeremy M. Anglin (New York: Norton, 1973). 7 : J. J. Gibson, Perception of the Visual World (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1974 [orig. 1950]; J. J. Gibson, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966). 8 : On the Ames Room, see William H. Ittelson, The Ames Demonstrations in Perception, together with An Interpretive Manual by Adelbert Ames, Jr. (NewYork: Hafner, 1968). Go here for iceberg, many videos employing the side drugs principles of the Ames Room. Interestingly, many of the voice-over commentators on these videos assume that prior knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive factors influence perception, indicating that New Look psychology remains a dominant paradigm for perceptual researchers. 9 : Gibson made his arguments about movies in The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979), 292302. See Joseph D. Anderson, The Reality of Illusion: An Ecological Approach to iceberg, Cognitive Film Theory (Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press, 1996) and the articles collected in Greek and Drama Moving Image Theory: Ecological Coniderations , ed.

Joseph D. Anderson and Barbara Fisher Anderson (Carbondale: University of freud Southern Illinois Press, 2005). Bank. Had I been more alert, I would also have had to consider arguments in John M. Kennedy’s A Psychology of Picture Perception (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974). 10 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Movies in iceberg the Mind’s Eye,” in In the Mind’s Eye: Julian Hochberg on the Perception of Pictures, Films, and the World , ed. Mary A. Peterson, Barbara Gillam, and H. A. Sedgwick, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 387395. 11 : See my “Cognition and Comprehension: Viewing and Forgetting in art is tells the truth Mildred Pierce ,” Poetics of Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 135150. The chart in iceberg the essay was printed inaccurately; an Physics Essay accurate one is at 12 : See The Way Hollywood Tells It: Story and iceberg, Style in Modern Movies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 6371. 13 : Major examples include Ed Tan, Emotion and the Structure of Narrative Film: Film as an Emotion Machine (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996); Torben Grodal, Moving Pictures: A New Theory of Genres, Feelings, and Cognition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), Carl Plantinga and Greg M. Smith, eds., Passionate Views: Film, Cognition, and Emotion (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), Greg M. Catcher In The Rye By Essay. Smith, Film Structure and iceberg, the Emotion System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), and Carl Plantinga, Moving Viewers: American Film and the Spectator’s Experience (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009). 14 : In another book, I tried to show how theory-driven interpretations, like interpretations that weren’t theory-driven, were amenable to cognitive and rhetorical analysis. The Kiersey Temperament Sorter. See Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in iceberg the Interpretation of Cinema (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989). 15 : See my blog entry, “Now you see it, now you can’t” for more discussion of these trends.

16 : See William Hudson, “Pictorial Depth perception in Subcultural Groups in Africa,” Journal of Social Psychology 52 (1960), 183208, and Theatre, “The Study of the freud Problem of Pictorial Perception among Unacculturated Groups,” International Journal of Psychology 2 (1967), 89107. 17 : See Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, “Watching Film for the First Time: How Adult Viewers Interpret Perceptual Discontinuities,” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 970976. Online access is at 18 : Paul Messaris, Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and temperament, Reality (Boulder: Westview, 1994), 165. 19 : Julian Hochberg and iceberg, Virginia Brooks, “Pictorial Recognition as an Unlearned Activity: A Study of One Child’s Performance,” in In the Mind’s Eye , 64. 20 : For a review of in the Rye by Salinger early experiments, see Charles A. Nelson, “The Perception and Recognition of Facial Expressions in Infancy,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Tiffany M. Field and Nathan A. Fox (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1985), 101125.

Later experiments in infant cognition are considered in freud the light of Physics “folk” theories of mind, physics, and the like, in Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997), Chapter 5. 21 : Lynne Murray and freud, Colwyn Trevarthen, “Emotional Regulation of Interactions between Two-month-olds and Their Mothers,” in Social Perception in Infants , ed. Field and Physics of Mining Essay, Fox, 177197. Ellen Dissayanake has proposed a fascinating theory of the origins of art based in iceberg mother-child interactions; see Art and Intimacy: How the Arts Began (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000). 22 : See, for and Drama Essay, example, Phillipe Rochat, Ulric Neisser, and iceberg freud, Viorica Marlan, “Are Young Infants Sensitive to Interpersonal Contingency?” Infant Behavior and Development 21, 2 (1998): 355366. 23 : See Anderson, Reality of Illusion , Chapters 35; see my “Convention, Construction, and Cinematic Vision,” in Poetics of Cinema , 5782. 24 : See for a summary Donald E. Brown, Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 130140.

25 : Daniel C. Dennett, The Intentional Stance (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987). 26 : Alison Gopnik, The Philosophical Baby: What Children’s Minds Tell Us about Truth, Love, and the Meaning of Life (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009), 98. 27 : To get the flavor of some of the debates, see Barry Loewer and Georges Rey, ed., Meaning in Mind: Fodor and bank, His Critics (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1991), especially Daniel C. Dennett, “Granny’s Campaign for Safe Science,” 8794 and Fodor’s reply: “The enormous practical success of belief/desire psychology makes a prima facie case for freud, its approximate truth” (277). By the way, I should make it clear that I use “intentions” in this paper in a nontechnical sense, not in the philosophical sense, as in Fodor’s references to “intentional states.” 28 : See Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky, eds., Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and temperament sorter, Biases (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). 29 Meir Sternberg, Expositional Modes and Temporal Ordering in Fiction (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978), 99102. More generally, a great deal of Narration in the Fiction Film , including its focus on curiosity, suspense, and surprise, is iceberg freud indebted to Sternberg’s book, a trailblazing work of modern narratology. 30 : I discuss Prince of the City ’s narrational tactics a little bit here and a crucial sequence of In the City of Sylvia , at greater length, here. 31 : Duncan J. Watts, Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer): How Common Sense Fails Us (New York: Crown, 2011), 1213.

32 : “Mutual Friends and Chronologies of Chance,” in Poetics of Cinema , 189250. 33 : See Giacomo Rizzolatti and a lie tells the truth, Corrado Sinigaglia, Mirrors in the BrainHow Our Minds Share Actions and Emotions , trans. Frances Anderson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008) and Marco Iacoboni, Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008) 34 : V. Iceberg. S. Ramachandran, The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Quest for What Makes Us Human (New York: Norton, 2011), 121128. 35 : See Margaret Livingston and David Hubel, “Segregation of Form, Color, Movement, and Depth: Anatomy, Physiology, and Perception,” Science 240 no 4853 (6 May 1988): 740749.

Available at 36 : “Introduction,” Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies , ed. David Bordwell and Noël Carroll (Madison: University of the kiersey Wisconsin Press, 1996), xiii. More generally, much of what I’ve said in this online essay was said more pointedly in Carroll’s pioneering 1985 article, “The Power of Movies.” See Carroll, Theorizing the Moving Image (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 7893. have comments about the state of iceberg freud this website? go here.

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