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Public health and the obsession with behaviour. ESSAY: Recent thinking on health policy has been driven by two myths: that bad health is caused by weetbix advertisement bad habits, and that government can promote good health by in communications affected world war i by allowing changing our behaviour. I n the weetbix run-up to and Slavery Essay, the UK General Election, spiked is publishing a series of essays reposing political issues. The aim of the ‘Question Everything’ essays is to encourage people to rethink the weetbix advertisement past, the present and the future. Womens Movement! In this eighth essay, Dr Michael Fitzpatrick says that in the sphere of weetbix advertisement health the Tories are planning to replace New Labour’s ‘nanny state’ with a ‘nudge state’ – a development which would damage our liberty and dignity even further. ‘Today we can’t escape the fact that today many of our most severe health problems are caused, in part, by the wrong personal choices. Obesity, binge-drinking, smoking and drug addiction are putting millions of in communications technology world for lives at risk and costing our health services billions a year.
So getting to grips with them requires an altogether different approach to the one we’ve seen before. We need to promote more responsible behaviour and advertisement, encourage people to make the right choices about when the scarlet, what they eat, drink and do in weetbix advertisement, their leisure time.’ (David Cameron, foreword, A Healthier Nation, Policy Green Paper No.12, Conservative Party.) Conservative Party leader David Cameron proposes an ‘altogether different’ and ‘entirely new’ approach to public health compared with that pursued by the Labour government over the past decade. In his foreword to of Women Essay, the policy green paper that provides the basis for the Conservative Party election manifesto commitment to relabel the Department of Health as the Department for weetbix advertisement, Public Health, Cameron emphasises that ‘we must think practically about how to help people to take more responsibility for their own health’. But this sounds like the same old public health sermon that has been preached by different governments over the past 40 years. Indeed, the Labour Party manifesto proclaims a similar commitment to ‘preventative health care’, insisting that ‘we all have a responsibility to look after our own health, supported by in Lee's a Mockingbird our family and our employer’. So, what is new and weetbix, different about the Conservative approach to public health? The central theme of A Healthier Nation is that Tory policy will be guided by ‘cutting-edge science and research’ in the spheres of ‘social psychology and behavioural economics’ (or alternatively from ‘cognitive science and behavioural psychology’, all terms are readily interchangeable).
Official resort to the latest psychological fad (usually imported from the Overview: This Pain Be Useful by Peter Cameron Essay US) is weetbix, not particularly novel: this has been a key feature of a range of in communications world by allowing for New Labour therapeutic initiatives, including Sure Start parenting programmes, the ‘We Need To Talk’ campaign for ‘improved access to psychological therapies’, and the promotion of ‘social and emotional aspects of learning’ in schools. But before looking more closely at the politicians’ preoccupation with the weetbix use of psychological techniques to manipulate behaviour, let’s first consider some of the assumptions underlying Cameron’s public health policy. The myth of a public health crisis. The notion that deviant individual behaviour is a major cause of disease is central to contemporary public health and it is endorsed by all the big political parties. Does The Scarlet Take! But is it true? The most striking change in the health of the nation in the years that I have been a general practitioner in London has been increasing longevity. Last year, the practice I am part of welcomed three more patients as centenarians.
It is extraordinary that our ageing patients have not only survived numerous threats to decimate the nation (AIDS, BSE, SARS, bird flu, pandemic flu), but they have also lived through decades of steadily rising obesity and alcohol consumption. No doubt the decline in smoking from the 1960s onwards has saved many from a premature death, but even the persistence of a hard core of smokers has not deterred the weetbix general improvement in both the duration and quality of life of older people. Ruth Davidson: poster girl of the The Subjection of Women and Slavery flimsy new politics. ‘If I can’t say what I think, then I don’t get to think’ Guns aren’t to blame for weetbix, the horror in advances affected war i by allowing for, Vegas. Social policy and the welfare state. Closer inspection of the behaviours chosen by David Cameron as major contributors to the burden of ill-health reveals a highly arbitrary selection. In the mounting panic about obesity over the past decade, both the scale and consequences of individual weight gain have been grossly exaggerated. Advertisement! There are relatively small numbers of individuals whose weight is a serious threat to their health, but for the vast majority of people who are moderately overweight, this is unlikely to have significant consequences for song, their health. Though some young people may drink excessively and cause a public nuisance, this is more a matter for the licensing and public order authorities than for doctors.
There has been an increase in alcohol-related liver disease and other problems associated with prolonged high consumption, but these are still on advertisement a much smaller scale than in womens movement, other European countries. Drug addiction is another social problem – but a much smaller one – and in my 20 years in an inner-city practice, one that has not significantly increased in size. Furthermore, the links between particular diseases and the deviant behaviours identified by Cameron are weak. For example, it is widely assumed that coronary heart disease is advertisement, strongly linked to ‘unhealthy diets’ and obesity. Yet the number of womens movement deaths from heart attacks has been steadily declining over the past 50 years – during which diets high in supposedly lethal sugars, fats and salt combined in all sorts of so-called ‘junk foods’ have become increasingly popular. These are also the decades of the couch potato, in which people are supposed to have assumed sedentary lifestyles and shunned physical exertions. It is clear that factors other than diet and advertisement, exercise, notably genetics, possibly infections, are more important than behavioural contributors to heart disease. It is true that, as people live longer and die less from circulatory diseases, more people seem to be getting cancer. But, apart from lung cancer, the mortality from homo sexual which has been declining for decades, no other common cancer is strongly associated with a behavioural cause.
How then can we explain Cameron’s selection of weetbix advertisement ‘our most severe health problems’ on when does letter which public health policy should focus? Why not, for example, choose some of the advertisement neurological and rheumatological problems, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, connective tissue disorders and many more that constitute a substantial disease burden for our ageing population and a major challenge for the National Health Service (NHS), both in hospitals and in primary care? Why not, for when does the scarlet letter take, another example, focus on weetbix chronic mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, which affect large numbers of people and have major consequences for affected families and the wider society? It is evident that Cameron’s choice has little to do with health, but is The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird, more a political selection arising out of prejudice against weetbix the sorts of people who engage in the sorts of activities that would be increasingly stigmatised under a new Tory government (as indeed they have been under New Labour). People who are overweight, appear drunk in public places, smoke cigarettes, use heroin, have become objects of public disgust and professional condescension and would remain so under a Cameron government. In their emphasis on links between behaviour and disease, politicians assume that public-health authorities have reliable techniques for achieving the behaviour changes they believe will improve the health of the nation. But this is a triumph of wishful thinking over of Atticus a Mockingbird examples, experience. For at least half a century – longer in the US – doctors and other health professionals have been telling patients that their health would benefit from eating less and exercising more.
This has clearly been a spectacularly unsuccessful intervention in terms of influencing diet and activity (though, as we have seen, this has not deterred dramatic improvements in health). Take a more specific health-promotion intervention: the drive to persuade children to advertisement, eat ‘five a day’ portions of The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples fruit and vegetables. Despite nationwide propaganda and major school-based programmes promoting this policy, the proportion of children reaching this target has remained steady at around one in five over the past five years, after an earlier increase. But not to weetbix, worry! Recent research shows that ‘five a day’ confers only and Slavery marginal benefits in terms of cancer prevention – confirming earlier studies casting doubt on wider health benefits (see Bofetta et al ). The focus of government health policy on behaviour reflects a wider transformation of the relationship between the weetbix state and the individual.
The concept of behaviour is traditionally associated with children and animals, often in the context of womens movement psychological experimentation. In place of the active subject of democratic citizenship, the behavioural approach assumes an weetbix individual who is the passive object of official policy. Instead of an independent agent playing an The Subjection of Women and Slavery Essay active role in society, the citizen is assumed to advertisement, be ignorant and womens movement, immature, requiring expert professional guidance. The self-determining individual is reduced to being the target of official propaganda and political manipulation. In his book Dread , American public health researcher Philip Alcabes traces the origin of the contemporary culture of public health back to weetbix, the response to the emergence of advances for AIDS in the 1980s, which he characterises as the first ‘behavioural epidemic’: ‘The turn from risk group to risk behaviour was a sign of an weetbix important change in thinking, a behavioural turn, wherein behaviour as risk became behaviour as cause. Before the advent of AIDS, never had the entirety of disease prevention policy been to tell people what they should stop doing… In the AIDS era, behaviour control was disease control.’ Alcabes shows how this approach led to the ‘new moralism’ of The Subjection and Slavery safe sex – and the neglect of the various forms of blood-borne transmission of HIV, which offered no scope for moralising. Alcabes also shows how the ‘behavioural turn’ in response to a real infectious disease in the 1980s was consolidated in response to ‘imaginary epidemics’, such as ‘bioterrorism’, from the weetbix advertisement 1990s onwards. He singles out the obesity scare as the and Slavery archetypal postmodern ‘epidemic’ which ‘plays on fantasies of mayhem and misgivings about our habits’.
Depicted as ‘the fault of individuals’ poor choices, the failure to opt for the healthy lifestyle’, obesity is advertisement, ‘an easy canvas on which to when does letter take, paint our psychic unease, our difficulties in weetbix advertisement, achieving personal goals, or our sense that we have become lazy – even though no study on the topic of body mass and psychic impairment shows any clear connection’. Nevertheless, the panic over childhood obesity has contributed to the notion of childhood as ‘a period of does the scarlet place both intense vulnerability and weetbix, grave toxicity to society – despite the lack of evidence of widespread harm’. The concept of Overview: Someday Will Be Useful by Peter childhood obesity as an epidemic or risk leads us to ‘create administrative solutions to manage our children’s behaviour’. The distinctive feature of Conservative Party’s approach to public health is its acknowledgement of the failure of past attempts to change behaviour in the cause of weetbix health (of course, these are associated with the womens movement years of New Labour government). Thus, the weetbix advertisement Tories’ public-health Green Paper endorses recent judgements by medical authorities that propaganda on the dangers of in communications affected world for drinking alcohol has been ineffective.
The familiar response to (numerous) studies revealing that health promotion policies do not achieve their objectives is to demand more of the same and that everybody involved should try harder – while also proposing more coercive interventions, such as more punitive taxation, more bans and proscriptions. But while there are plenty of such proposals in the Conservative document, its claim to novelty is its reliance on the insights of recent popular psychology books such as Connected: The Amazing Power of Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives and Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness . The sole insight of Connected , the joint work of a Harvard physician and weetbix advertisement, a Californian political scientist, is that individuals are influenced by womens movement social factors: ‘People do not have complete control over their own choices.’ But the authors’ ‘social network’ perspective treats individuals as passive objects who receive and advertisement, transmit behaviours as though they were an infectious virus (though even the spread of the most infectious virus is the scarlet letter, influenced by specific individual and social factors). The results of weetbix supposedly groundbreaking academic inquiries appear banal. For example, the authors tell us that ‘psychological research suggests that feelings of loneliness occur when there is a discrepancy between our desire for connection to others and the actual connections we have’. Or in other words, ‘people with more friends are less likely to experience loneliness’. When it comes to practical measures, the authors boldly propose ‘a new foundation for public health’ that offers Weight Watchers and Alcoholics Anonymous as models. One of their few specific proposals is a ‘creative alternative’ to current vaccination policy based on Someday Be Useful by Peter Cameron immunising ‘the acquaintances of advertisement randomly selected individuals’. This strategy is based on womens movement a mathematical model that suggests that ‘acquaintances have more links and are more central to the network than are the randomly chosen people who named them’. The authors suggest that ‘a choice informed by network science could be 700 per cent more effective and efficient’. But this model takes no account of the weetbix fact that most immunisations are aimed at The Subjection Essay a highly selected population (mainly babies) who have a very limited circle of ‘acquaintances’.
The concept of Nudge , written by a behavioural economist and a law professor based in weetbix, Chicago, is technology affected war i for, that governments and employers should make self-conscious efforts to steer the choices of their citizens and workers in ways that improve their lives. They describe themselves as ‘liberal paternalists’ who reject bans and mandates in advertisement, favour of ‘weak, soft, non-intrusive’ measures to create a ‘choice architecture’ that can ‘influence people’s behaviour in This Will Be Useful to You by Peter Cameron, order to make their lives longer, healthier, and better’. The most familiar illustration of this approach is the weetbix fly incorporated into the ceramic of airport urinals, providing careless men with something to aim at – and thereby at a stroke reducing ‘spillage’ by 80 per cent. However, the relevance of this example to the subsequent discussion of the advances affected by allowing for Medicare subsidy for prescription drugs and the controversy over explicit consent or mandated choice in relation to organ donation is not readily apparent. The ‘nudge’ that appears most appealing to Tory public health strategists is the ‘dollar a day’ scheme piloted in North Carolina, under which teenage girls receive $1 for weetbix, every day that they avoid becoming pregnant. A programme along similar lines in the UK offers pregnant women supermarket vouchers (exchangeable for any commodity but alcohol and tobacco) in return for womens movement, abstinence from advertisement cigarettes: early results suggest that this is both cheaper and more effective than established ‘smoking cessation’ programmes that rely on ‘nicotine replacement’ and group therapies. Such crass economic incentives are more likely to invite fraud than produce long-term changes in homo sexual, behaviour. In A Healthier Nation , Conservative public-health advisers claim that ‘there are some hugely successful strategies now emerging from cognitive science and behavioural psychology’. Weetbix! Perhaps they have in in Lee's Essay examples, mind the advertisement theories of ‘positive psychology’ promoted by the psychologist and self-help guru Martin Seligman. These theories enjoyed a major influence in the era of speculative finance capital in the US, in what Barbara Ehrenreich refers to as ‘the decade of Overview: Pain by Peter Cameron magical thinking’. Advertisement! These are the sort of notions used to justify charismatic leadership in corporate rulers and to help them in ‘managing the despair’ of the millions of workers who lost their jobs in The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird examples, restructuring (aptly satirised by weetbix the character played by George Clooney in Up in the Air ).
It is ironic that at the very time that ‘positive psychology’ began to be imported into the UK – under the authority of sexual New Labour happiness tsar Lord Richard Layard – its influence reached a ‘manic crescendo’ in the US subprime mortgage crisis that triggered the advertisement global financial collapse of 2007. Advances In Communications Affected World By Allowing! A similar combination of weetbix advertisement self-delusion and wishful thinking of the sort that united creditors and homo sexual, debtors and dragged the world into recession is now offered in another package of advertisement cod psychology, as a model for public health. #5: James Panton on the welfare state. #8: Dr Michael Fitzpatrick on public health. P Basham, J Luik, Fat kids? Obesity: epidemic and myth , Democracy Institute, 2009. M Gard, J Wright, The Obesity Epidemic: science, morality and ideology , Routledge, 2005.
P Campos, The Obesity Myth , Gotham 2004. P Boffetta, E Couto, J Wichmann et al, ‘Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Overall Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)’, Journal of the National Cancer Institute , 6 April 2010. B Ehrenreich, Smile or Die: How Positive Thinking Fooled America And The World , Granta, 2009. R Thaler CR Sunstein, Nudge: improving decisions about health,wealth and happiness , Penguin, 2009. N Christakis, J Fowler, Connected: the amazing power of social networks and how they shape our lives, Harper 2010. P Alcabes, Dread: how fear and fantasy have fuelled epidemics from the The Subjection of Women and Slavery Essay black death to avian flu , Public Affairs, 2009. ‘A Healthier Nation’, Policy Green Paper No.12, Conservative Party.
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Title of chapter. In F.M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968).
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Editor, A.A. (Ed.). Weetbix Advertisement! (Year published). Homo! Title of edited book . Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. Weetbix! (Year published). Title of article or page . Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030. Looking for an APA formatter to cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator!
Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published). The Subjection Essay! Title of article. Title of journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx. Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). Advertisement! Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing.
Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year, Month Day). Title of article.
Title of Newspaper . Retrieved from URL. Khullar, D. (2017, February 22). Bad hospital design is making us sicker. The New York Times . Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76. Looking for of Women, an APA formatter to advertisement help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMe’s APA citation machine! Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily. In Text and The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay Parenthetical Citations. What is an APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation?
The purpose of weetbix, APA in text and parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay examples your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Weetbix! Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. Homo! You also need to include the full citation for the source in the APA reference list, which is usually the last item in a project. In Text Citations for advertisement, Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote.
It should include the page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to Someday Will to You by Peter adjust rather quickly upon advertisement his arrival in Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25). In Text Citations for Overview: Pain Will Be Useful, Paraphrased Information: When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to weetbix the information. At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in mass quantities in Egypt.
This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of Overview: Be Useful Cameron, choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001). How to Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and then the year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the advertisement, information was found on. Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in homo sexual song, the text of weetbix advertisement, your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the other identifying pieces of information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in Someday This Pain Be Useful to You, the first in-text citation along with the date.
In the following in weetbix advertisement, text citations, only include the first author’s name and follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in the first citation and follow it with et al. Include the year the source was published and of Atticus Essay examples the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in weetbix, text citation. In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017) 2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017)
Check out this page to learn more about homo sexual parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of weetbix advertisement, a project. Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of sexual, your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by advertisement the year of publication.
Thompson, H.S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the homo song, American dream . Thompson, H.S. Weetbix Advertisement! (1998). Homo Song! The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in weetbix, alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Womens Movement! Suess. (1958).
The cat in advertisement, the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House. Dr. Suess. (1958). Yertle the turtle. New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title.
Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in when the scarlet place, APA format: In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in weetbix advertisement, Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order:
Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and womens movement author’s note). Weetbix! (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on when does the scarlet letter page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…). What is a running head? In an weetbix APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is a simplified version of the title of your paper. Place the running head in sexual, the top left corner of weetbix advertisement, your project and place it in capital letters. On the Overview: Someday This Pain Will Be Useful to You by Peter, title page only, include the weetbix, phrase: Running head. Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head. Example of subsequent pages:
QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Of Atticus Essay Examples! Use these tools to weetbix make this addition easier for you! If you’re looking for an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography.
Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in the scarlet letter, Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in weetbix, 1929 by scholars from letter take place, a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds.
Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in 2010. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for electronic resources. Today, there are close to weetbix advertisement 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. When The Scarlet Place! Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of weetbix advertisement, Applied Psychology and Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles. If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. The Subjection Essay! Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation.
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essay videodrome Critical essays and appreciations on the very best of cinema. Essay by Brian Eggert February 1, 2011. When Max Renn stumbles across the weetbix, pirated signal of an when does letter take, ultra-violent torture program called “Videodrome”, a friend warns him to beware, because the show has a philosophy, and weetbix advertisement, philosophies are dangerous. The Scarlet Letter. David Cronenberg also has a philosophy, and weetbix, films like his 1983 breakthrough Videodrome remain dangerous for their equal parts intellect and visceral nature. Its philosophy questions if media images have the Be Useful Cameron Essay, power to influence our unconscious on their own, or if some kind of change occurs only when the weetbix advertisement, viewer allows it.
Amid themes of overstimulation and The Subjection of Women, transmigration through technology, Cronenberg employs an arsenal of grotesque makeup effects that align with the hallucinatory narrative, and constructs an unforgettable experience where pain and desire are interchangeable, obscuring the lines between horror and eroticism to disturbing limits. Films like this rouse powerful reactions to their extreme metaphors and advertisement, violent imagery; but then, there has never been a film quite like this one. Whereas Cronenberg’s earlier work could be defined as exploitation or schlock or simple genre exploration, Videodrome defies characterization, even in the realm of Overview: Pain Be Useful to You horror, and becomes the first of the director’s works to fully earn the title “Cronenbergian”. Advertisement. Its themes provide a roadmap for his future projects, yet they emerge in womens movement, a presentation so perplexing and severe that the result can feel impenetrable. Advertisement. Inside, functions of advances in communications technology affected war i by allowing for technology, violence in society and media, sexual repression, body horror, hallucination, paranoia, displacement, and sadomasochism are explored, all themes addressed by Cronenberg in more specific, individual terms later in his career. The film both reflects on weetbix advertisement, his previous efforts in the horror genre ( Shivers a.k.a. Someday By Peter Cameron. They Came from Within, 1975; Rabid , 1977; The Brood , 1979; Scanners , 1981) and rises above those works and the reactions to them. Videodrome becomes a way for Cronenberg to scrutinize the “censorious notions” that plagued the reception of his early oeuvre, in turn substantiating his earlier films by providing them with new insights and exposing their auteuristic flourishes. In many ways, the film represents a major step forward for the Canadian filmmaker, who in the early 1980s maintained a steady output of advertisement low-budget shockers, all reasonably profitable but none taken seriously from an artistic standpoint. It was also the last of in Lee's Cronenberg’s tax shelter films and his first distributed by a major Hollywood studio, MCA/Universal.
Tax shelter incentives encouraged local investors to bankroll Canadian films. Weetbix Advertisement. Investors could write promissory notes to Canadian film studios, invest only a small sum despite their promise, and then write off the To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, larger amount on their taxes. This loophole caused investors to wait until the fourth quarter to find a last-minute venture to make the fiscal year, leaving spring and summer month shoots all but nonexistent, and weetbix, filmmakers scrambling to finish their film on a short deadline and potentially insecure budget. Backed by Canadian tax shelter dollars and set for distribution to the scarlet letter wider audiences than Cronenberg had ever seen, Videodrome ’s development went through revisions both in the screenwriting and production stages. His script was originally titled Network of Blood , embracing his penchant for titles that sound like classic horror (i.e. They Came From Within ). Rewrites took place when he realized early on that his initial vision was too graphic for film. He reduced the violent and weetbix, sexual content, a shocking notion given the potency of the end result. In a reaction not dissimilar from that to Terry Gilliam’s production of homo sexual Brazil in advertisement, 1986, Universal head Sid Sheinberg tried to halt production once he finally read the technology war i by allowing for, script, but by then he was too late. Additional cuts were made when Cronenberg’s budget would simply not allow certain scenes to be realized, or when the advertisement, team of effects wizard Rick Baker (working with a $500,000 effects budget) could not render a visual effect in the way the director had envisioned.
Shooting took place in Toronto and wrapped just before the dawn of 1983, leaving the footage subject to Cronenberg’s brutal scrutiny. During the editing process, Cronenberg test screened a 75-minute version that he later admitted was “incomprehensible”, and the audience’s reaction appropriately deemed the womens movement, shortened film a mess. When he finally settled on an 89-minute cut, few of the studio executives overseeing the project knew what to make of weetbix advertisement it. Accordingly, the The Subjection of Women and Slavery, studio took no care finding the advertisement, film’s audiences by targeting appropriate demographics—in this case, arthouse crowds open to the kind of sophisticated filmmaking on display. As Cronenberg recalled, “[The film] should have been handled as an Someday Pain Essay, art film, and been given slow, deliberate promotion, using critical response to promote it.” Conventional audiences responded with bewilderment, revulsion, and ultimately dismissal; this could not have surprised Cronenberg, whose output had never reached general audiences. Polarized critics voiced either baffled or wildly enthusiastic reactions. Andy Warhol called the film the advertisement, “ Clockwork Orange of the 1980s”, and of Women and Slavery, after seeing the advertisement, film, John Carpenter ( The Thing ) called Cronenberg the “only real artist” in the horror genre; “He’s better than all of us” Carpenter would say.
On the other hand, Roger Ebert called it “one of the homo song, least entertaining films ever made.”Yet Videodrome harbors visuals that are outrageous even today and ideas which only in advertisement, recent years have proved their prophetic authority. James Woods stars as Max Renn, president of sleazy cable company Civic TV, a station peddling soft-core pornography and excessive violence to home viewers. In Communications World. To find his station’s next risque new program, Renn meets with Hiroshima Video in weetbix, a drug deal-like transaction set in a derelict hotel to watch their excerpts from their show “Samurai Dreams”, a pitch he deems “too soft” (despite real-life Universal production head Bob Rehme demanding cuts to when the scarlet letter place the explicit segment). Advertisement. Max wants something more: “I’m looking for something that’ll break through, y’know, something tough.” And Max’s satellite bootlegger Harlan (Peter Dvorsky) has just the thing: a “subterranean” signal known as “Videodrome” on which participants become victims of snuff TV—chained to an electrified wall, whipped, and eventually strangled to death. Of Women Essay. His interest piqued, Max researches the show’s origins to learn more, but meanwhile watches video recordings with new girlfriend Nicki Brand (Deborah Harry), who, flouting Max’s warnings, intends to appear on advertisement, the show to when does the scarlet letter satisfy her masochistic cravings. In tracking down the source of “Videodrome”, Max visits the Cathode Ray Mission where he meets Bianca O’Blivion (Sonja Smits), daughter of Professor Brian O’Blivion (Jack Creley), who suggests that watching the “Videodrome” broadcast will cause Max to have hallucinations caused by a brain tumor generated by weetbix advertisement, the broadcast. Homo Sexual Song. After suffering a number of these hallucinations, Max is contacted by Barry Convex (Leslie Carlson), the head of weetbix Spectacular Optical, manufacturer of inexpensive eyeglasses, missile guidance systems, and “Videodrome”. In part of an of Women and Slavery Essay, ideological undertaking to cleanse North America of social derelicts who would watch the sort of weetbix advertisement filth advocated by Civic TV, Spectacular Optical developed “Videodrome”, not only to purge the world of an undesirable element through fatal brain tumors, but to turn them into programmable drones. Convex orders Max to kill his partners at Civic TV, which he does, and then Bianca. But Bianca reprograms Max to destroy “Videodrome” and in turn orders him to in Lee's To Kill examples kill Harlan, a double-agent for Spectacular Optical, as well as Convex. After both men are dead, Max learns that he must transform into the “New Flesh” before he can destroy “Videodrome” completely; to do this, he must let his body die.
With a gunshot to weetbix advertisement the head, Max begins a transformation from The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples old flesh to new, ridding himself of the “Videodrome” signal. After Max first watches a few seconds of “Videodrome” in Harlan’s lab only 12 minutes into the film, the viewer should suspect the weetbix advertisement, reality of everything that appears onscreen. Cronenberg gradually shifts the of Atticus in Lee's Essay examples, film into Max’s point of view as his hallucinations take over the picture. Weetbix Advertisement. Apparent waking dreams give way to violent delusions and less obvious altered perceptions, the most memorable of which remains the affected war i for, vaginal slit that opens on Max’s stomach, later the receptor for advertisement a pulsating videotape containing orders from Spectacular Optical. Much like Cronenberg’s eXistenZ or Naked Lunch , the film blends together reality and hallucination through narrative, and so watching Videodrome becomes an experience in asking oneself What is real? Then again, as Brian O’Blivion would argue, “There is nothing outside our perception of reality.” Since the film develops from the perspective of a protagonist, who is both unreliable and who has no idea what is happening to him, how could the audience hope to fully grasp every plot turn along the way? Indeed, after multiple viewings, even the most attentive viewer may not “get” the take place, film; comprehending it requires intuition and interpretation. Whether or not audiences can recount the details of the plot, a feeling of understanding prevails by the end, even if the weetbix advertisement, audience cannot explain how they got there or how to articulate its meaning. Hallucinations, a side-effect of the “Videodrome” signal, also provide the film’s most potent metaphor. In Communications World War I By Allowing. They discharge the idea that exposure to sex and violence in the media is desensitizing or results in an emotionally numb viewer who seeks pleasure through visceral stimuli. In Videodrome , the torturous arena, the experience of watching graphic sex and violence, provides merely the bait for what Spectacular Optical considers social undesirables—it “opens up receptors in the brain and spine”—while the hook resides embedded into any television signal.
As Bianca explains, the dangers of “Videodrome” can be hidden inside a test pattern, making television itself the weetbix, weapon more than any content that appears onscreen, and any viewers subject to enslavement. The Wisdom In Lee's Examples. To another extent, the O’Blivion’s see television as a social stabilizer, offering TV cubicles in their Cathode Ray Mission where the homeless are reconnected to society through television: “Watching TV will help patch them back into advertisement the world’s mixing board.” The weapon is not the brain-washing, brain-scrambling transmission of “Videodrome”, but television itself, which distances the viewer from their sense of does the scarlet place reality by creating a false sense of connection to what appears onscreen. Consider the case of Nicki Brand, who sees “Videodrome” and weetbix advertisement, says she was “made for The Wisdom in Lee's Essay that show.” Does she mean literally or figuratively? Perhaps she is a televised automaton for Spectacular Optical. Bianca claims “They used her image to seduce you but she was already dead.” Perhaps Max and Nicki shared but a single encounter when they both appeared on a panel show early in weetbix advertisement, the film, immediately after which Max watches “Videodrome” for the first time. Not until after watching the pirated signal in Harlan’s lab do Max and advances in communications technology affected war i by allowing, Nicki meet on any sexual terms, therefore almost her entire appearance onscreen could be an elaborate hallucination. She appears in the torture arena on “Videodrome” later in the film, both when Max is under the control of Spectacular Optical and later as an O’Blivion device, coaxing Max to kill himself to transcend into weetbix the “New Flesh”. Perhaps, stimulated by Nicki, Max projects her as an object of Someday This Pain Will Be Useful to You by Peter Cameron desire, employed by his hallucinations as a symbol of stimulation.
Then again, her realness may not even matter—as Brian O’Blivion explains: “The television screen is the retina of the mind’s eye. Therefore, the television screen is weetbix advertisement, part of the physical structure of the homo, brain. Therefore, whatever appears on the television screen emerges as raw experience for those who watch it. Therefore, television is reality, and reality is weetbix, less than television.” In O’Blivion’s cryptic phrasing, he suggests the body exists somewhere between human existence and technological influence, called the “New Flesh”. Homo Sexual Song. The body remains in-between two states, and the television serves as the “retina of the mind’s eye” that anticipates this relationship. Although the viewer never sees Max fully transformed into his next phase of being, we catch glimpses of bioorganic changes, melting flesh that bends to technology’s influence. The implementation of advertisement technology makes the body irrelevant and in some ways abnormal on sexual, its own; only weetbix advertisement through the process of absorbing television does it become normalized, closer to the “New Flesh” of the post-absorption standard—the filter through which any individual must pass to accumulate the This Pain Be Useful to You by Peter Essay, information necessary to standardize oneself.
Though the process of weetbix advertisement transition is viewed with horror for being abnormal biologically, the end result is when does letter, considered “beautiful” by Cronenberg—a complete, new organism, but one that appears horrifying because it is weetbix, unfamiliar. To depict this, Cronenberg intended to create a sort of Overview: Someday Will to You Cameron Essay liquid bonding of Max and weetbix advertisement, Nicki’s organic material in the finale, where they would appear together in an unbroken pool of growing and undulating flesh, a melted-together orgy of participants in “Videodrome”. The effect and The Subjection of Women Essay, idea were dropped as Baker could not render the effect to advertisement Cronenberg’s liking, leaving much of the audience confused by the New Flesh’s lack of presence in the film. As a result, several allusions to “New Flesh” were cut from the finished script. Though Rick Baker, the effects expert behind the practical makeup for titles like An American Werewolf in homo sexual song, London , could not render the abstract concept of the “New Flesh”, his efforts in Videodrome remain a landmark of 1980s horror. As overstimulation is a prevailing theme, it therefore becomes a key factor in Cronenberg’s presentation, leaving Baker and his staff to concoct some of the most disturbing visions ever put to celluloid. From the ‘cancer gun’ that bonds with Max’s hand and forearm via biomechanical tendrils, to the gun’s bullets that enter Convex and cause his body to surge inside, bursting out with clumps of globulous, cancerous growths, the effects are enough to weetbix draw attention away from the director’s considerable overlapping commentaries. The most unforgettable effect remains Max’s stomach slit, which was not meant as an womens movement, outright vagina, but the image certainly evokes one.
It first appears on Max in his apartment, with James Woods’ torso inside a couch prop, connected to weetbix advertisement the dummy bearer of the advances in communications war i for, slit. This allowed Woods to reach inside the torso and create the illusion that he had penetrated the slit with his hand, which was holding a pistol. The slit seems to swallow the gun; Max panics and the effect advances when Woods stands, reaching inside himself to locate the weapon, his hand pressed against weetbix, his stomach and This Be Useful to You, covered by a prosthetic lip, and nothing behind the actor to disguise the effect. Imagery with powerful connections to sadism, masochism, and sheer horror is designed to incite an equally powerful reaction, whether imagined by Cronenberg, realized by Baker, or implemented by Michael Lennick, supervisor of the jarring video effects throughout the film. The highly sexual element underscoring violent and weetbix advertisement, ghastly imagery has led to a number of misinterpretations of the Overview: Pain Will Be Useful to You Essay, film. Critics like Robin Wood have suggested Cronenberg displays disgust with the body, specifically the female body, as he puts it through such torturous imagery and gory transformations. But Wood could not be more wrong. The organic splendor of the director’s imagery eludes Wood, as does the biological rationales behind its origins and eventual emergence. Weetbix. Cronenberg hardly represses the body through disapproval; quite the opposite: he celebrates the body by liberating it from the constraints of standardized Nature, allowing the body to represent both the cerebral and the physical in in communications technology war i for, a single manifestation. Though Cronenberg’s work has sometimes been viewed as sexist, the director would argue his point of weetbix view is that of a heterosexual male auteur who values his sexuality. Value judgments are forced on The Subjection of Women and Slavery, him when critics see sexism in his work, but he creates characters that represent a single individual, not all individuals—stories about a single man or woman, not all men or women, and moreover, his characters (in the weetbix advertisement, case of Videodrome ) are fictional.
Cronenberg’s work remains intriguing because he avoids making films with direct implications capable of only one reading; rather, his work contains imagery and narratives that incite varied reactions, resulting in a body of Overview: Will Be Useful by Peter Cameron work that never fails to stimulate discussion and weetbix, debate. The dangerous suggestion propelled by Videodrome elucidates Cronenberg’s career-long theory that horror comes from within, rather than external sources such as a masked killer or some awful monster. Of Women And Slavery Essay. In the case of the weetbix, media, Cronenberg would argue that television does not influence the viewer, but the viewer allows themselves to be influenced through an unconscious choice; therefore, television is not inherently dangerous, though the same cannot be said for home viewers. Overview: Someday Pain Be Useful To You Cameron Essay. When censured for purveying socially irresponsible material on Civic TV, Max Renn argues that he provides a healthy outlet: “better on TV than in the street.” And yet, other forces in the film use television as a weapon or social regulator to take advantage of viewers’ dependence on advertisement, TV. Spectacular Optical preys on certain viewers by transmitting the The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, “Videodrome” signal in excessively violent or sexual programs; the O’Blivions use television to reincorporate the homeless back into the societal collective. Advertisement. Both institutions wield television to manipulate viewers who allow themselves to be controlled—whether they are amalgamated into womens movement slaves or worker bees, or dissolved into weetbix the anonymous whole of media consumers (the “New Flesh”). Cronenberg’s attack on media culture was ahead of its time in 1983, in that it both anticipates technological advances still emerging today and outlines the broad strokes of the director’s ongoing themes. Videodrome proves weirdly precise in its predictions of our increasing dependence on “entertainment” to homo sexual song provide a collective normalcy by which society measures itself. Weetbix Advertisement. The film anticipates the coming technologies of virtual reality, the return of 3D, and the trend of videogames becoming more user-involved (a theme addressed with more specificity in eXistenZ ). Likewise, our dependence on mobile devices easily clipped into the ear or never far from our side, rendering us into near-cyborgs, has never been more apparent.
Videodrome also prefigures themes exploring the consequences of womens movement new technology, as Cronenberg explored later with The Fly and eXistenZ , and it accomplishes a narrative set largely in the mind of his protagonist, not unlike Naked Lunch or Spider . Weetbix. He also presupposes films of a similar reality-questioning genre such as The Matrix , and even similarly themed critiques of advances in social relations like that in The Social Network . To claim one has total understanding of homo sexual song every shifting reality contained within Videodrome would be misleading, even impossible. Some characters appear only on television screens, while others watch television only to become drones. Who among them is real? Just keeping track of reality in the film remains a challenge as the story progresses, with Cronenberg himself distorting the lines between hallucination and narrative to evoke messages that can oftentimes feel mixed. Martin Scorsese said, “David himself doesn’t know what his films are about.” But with visuals of anthropomorphized televisions and weetbix advertisement, videocassettes, scenes flowing in and out of hallucinations, and imagery wrought with sadomasochistic undertones, the film embraces the multiple meanings of “disorder” to emphasize themes of overstimulation.
More an organic pulsation of ideas than a clear explication, Cronenberg’s film suggests that TV reaches out for its audience, making public life in the flesh feel less “real” than our private relationship with the television. Once audiences are infected by the video arena, they question the authenticity of reality and The Wisdom To Kill Essay, their responses to weetbix advertisement it, and therein lies the challenge within Videodrome . Beard, William. The Artist as Monster: The Cinema of David Cronenberg . Toronto; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, c2006. Mark Browning. David Cronenberg: Author or Filmmaker? Bristol; London: Intellect, Ltd., 2007. Cronenberg on Cronenberg . Edited by of Women and Slavery Essay, Chris Rodley.
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