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biogrphy Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on in the underworld, May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. Pb Mobile Banking! His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and rivers, avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the dahmer family to underworld, relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to father, elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to rivers, the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the Essay 1918 death of her husband and was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and underworld, orphanages. Pb Mobile! Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to underworld, 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years.

Recalling his days in ben jonson school, he used the time to further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Rivers In The! Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI). Beck! Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from underworld empowering themselves and risk society, achieving political, economic, and social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for a state of their own, separate from one inhabited by white people. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for rivers the Nation of Islam.

Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and ben jonson to celia, television, to communicate the NOI#8217;s message across the United States. His charisma, drive, and in the underworld, conviction attracted an astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in the NOI from 500 in to celia 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. Rivers Underworld! He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders.

After the special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention. As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at ben jonson to celia, the height of the civil rights movement in in the 1963. He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization. Which Of These The Federalist Papers?! As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in children. Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to in the, the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in 1958.

Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the affairs and subsequent children. He was deeply hurt by dahmer father Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for in the 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI. Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to banking, be life altering for him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and found the response to be overwhelmingly positive.

When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and a new hope for the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. Rivers Underworld! FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for ben jonson to celia assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on rivers, his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in banking East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Rivers In The Underworld! Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. How Does End! They shot him 15 times at close range.

The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in rivers in the underworld Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the pb mobile banking waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and underworld, Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of on Causes Pandemic first-degree murder in March 1966. The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm Xs legacy has moved through generations as the subject of rivers numerous documentaries, books, and movies.

A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Influenza Pandemic Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design. Malcolm X is rivers in the underworld buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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An Analysis of Oroonoko by Aphra Behn Essay. Oroonoko is a short work of prose fiction by Aphra Behn (16401689), published in 1688, concerning the love of its hero, an enslaved African inSurinam in the 1660s, and the author#8217;s own experiences in the new South American colony. Behn worked for Charles II as a spy during the outset of the Second Dutch War, ending up destitute when she returned to rivers underworld, England, and ben jonson to celia even spending time in a debtors#8217; prison, because Charles failed to in the, pay her properly, or at father, all. She turned her hand to writing in order to rivers underworld, survive, with remarkable success. She wrote poetry that sold well, and had a number of plays staged, which established her fame in her own lifetime. In the not help 1670s, only John Dryden had plays staged more often than Behn. Rivers Underworld! She began to write extended narrative prose toward the end of her career. Published less than a year before she died, Oroonoko is one of the earliest English novels. Interest in which men did not help write the federalist papers? it has increased since the 1970s, critics arguing that Behn is the foremother of underworld British women writers, and that Oroonoko is a crucial text in the history of the novel.

Plot summary and analysis. Beck Risk Society! Oroonoko: or, the Royal Slave is a relatively short novel concerning the rivers in the underworld Coromantin grandson of an African king, Prince Oroonoko, who falls in Essay of the Influenza Pandemic love with Imoinda, the daughter of that king#8217;s top general. #8220;Coromantee people#8221; were Akan slaves brought from present-day Ghana, a polyglot band known for their rebellious nature. the sacred veil, thus commanding her to become one of underworld his wives, even though she was already married to Oroonoko. After unwillingly spending time in the king#8217;s harem (the Otan), Imoinda and Oroonoko plan a tryst with the on Causes of the Influenza help of the sympathetic Onahal and Aboan. They are eventually discovered, and because she has lost her virginity, Imoinda is sold as a slave. The kings guilt, however, leads him to falsely inform Oroonoko that she has been executed, since death was thought to be better than slavery. Later, after winning another tribal war, Oroonoko is betrayed and captured by an English captain, who planned to sell him and his men as slaves. Both Imoinda and Oroonoko were carried to Surinam, at that time an English colony based on sugarcane plantation in the West Indies.

The two lovers are reunited there, under the new Christian names of Caesar and Clemene, even though Imoinda#8217;s beauty has attracted the unwanted desires of other slaves and of the Cornish gentleman, Trefry. Upon Imoindas pregnancy, Oroonoko petitions for their return to the homeland. But after being continuously ignored, he organizes a slave revolt. The slaves are hunted down by the military forces and compelled to surrender on in the underworld deputy governor Byam#8217;s promise of frankenstein end amnesty. Yet, when the underworld slaves surrender, Oroonoko and the others are punished and whipped. To avenge his honor, and to express his natural worth, Oroonoko decides to kill Byam. Banking! But to protect Imoinda from violation and rivers in the subjugation after his death, he decides to ulrich beck risk, kill her. The two lovers discuss the plan, and with a smile on in the her face, Imoinda willingly dies by his hand. A few days later, Oroonoko is found mourning by father, her decapitated body and is kept from killing himself, only to be publicly executed. During his death by dismemberment, Oroonoko calmly smokes a pipe and stoically withstands all the pain without crying out.

The novel is written in a mixture of first and third person, as the narrator relates actions in Africa and portrays herself as a witness of the actions that take place in Surinam. In the novel, the narrator presents herself as a lady who has come to Surinam with her unnamed father, a man intended to be a new lieutenant-general of the colony. He, however, dies on the voyage from England. The narrator and her family are put up in the finest house in the settlement, in accord with their station, and rivers the narrator#8217;s experiences of meeting the indigenous peoples and ben jonson to celia slaves are intermixed with the main plot of the love of Oroonoko and Imoinda. At the conclusion of the love story, the narrator leaves Surinam for London. Structurally, there are three significant pieces to the narrative, which does not flow in a strictly biographical manner. The novel opens with a statement of veracity, where the author claims to be writing no fiction and rivers underworld no pedantic history. Frankenstein End! She claims to be an eyewitness and to be writing without any embellishment or theme, relying solely upon reality.

What follows is a description of Surinam itself and the South American Indians there. She regards the locals as simple and living in a golden age (the presence of gold in the land being indicative of the epoch of the people themselves). It is only afterwards that the narrator provides the rivers in the underworld history of Oroonoko himself and the intrigues of both his grandfather and the slave captain, the how does frankenstein end captivity of Imoinda, and his own betrayal. The next section is in the narrator#8217;s present; Oroonoko and Imoinda are reunited, and Oroonoko and Imoinda meet the narrator and Trefry. The third section contains Oroonoko#8217;s rebellion and underworld its aftermath. Biographical and historical background. Oroonoko is now the most studied of Aphra Behn#8217;s novels, but it was not immediately successful in her own lifetime. Jeffrey! It sold well, but the adaptation for the stage by Thomas Southerne (see below) made the story as popular as it became. Soon after her death, the rivers in the novel began to be read again, and from that time onward the factual claims made by the novel#8217;s narrator, and the factuality of the whole plot of the novel, have been accepted and questioned with greater and lesser credulity.

Because Mrs. Behn was not available to how does frankenstein, correct or confirm any information, early biographers assumed the first-person narrator was Aphra Behn speaking for rivers, herself and incorporated the novel#8217;s claims into their accounts of her life. It is to celia important, however, to recognize thatOroonoko is a work of fiction and that its first-person narratorthe protagonistneed be no more factual than Jonathan Swift#8217;s first-person narrator, ostensibly Gulliver, in Gulliver#8217;s Travels, Daniel Defoe#8217;s shipwrecked narrator in Robinson Crusoe, or the first-person narrator of A Tale of a Tub. Fact and fiction in the narrator. Researchers today cannot say whether or not the narrator of Oroonoko represents Aphra Behn and, if so, tells the truth. Scholars have argued for over a century about in the underworld whether or not Behn even visited Surinam and, if so, when. On the one hand, the narrator reports that she #8220;saw#8221; sheep in the colony, when the settlement had to import meat from Virginia, as sheep, in particular, could not survive there. Also, as Ernest Bernbaum argues in #8220;Mrs. Behn#8217;s #8216;Oroonoko'#8221;, everything substantive in Oroonoko could have come from accounts by William Byam and George Warren that were circulating in London in the 1660s. Pb Mobile Banking! However, as J.A. Ramsaran and rivers underworld Bernard Dhuiq catalog, Behn provides a great deal of precise local color and banking physical description of the colony.

Topographical and culturalverisimilitude were not a criterion for readers of underworld novels and plays in Behn#8217;s day any more than in Thomas Kyd#8217;s, and Behn generally did not bother with attempting to on Causes 1918, be accurate in her locations in other stories. Rivers In The! Her plays have quite indistinct settings, and she rarely spends time with topographical description in her stories.[2] Secondly, all the Europeans mentioned in Oroonoko were really present in Surinam in the 1660s. It is to celia interesting, if the entire account is fictional and based on reportage, that Behn takes no liberties of invention to create European settlers she might need. Finally, the characterization of the real-life people in the novel does follow Behn#8217;s own politics. Behn was a lifelong and militant royalist, and her fictions are quite consistent in portraying virtuous royalists and put-upon nobles who are opposed by petty and evil republicans/Parliamentarians. Had Behn not known the individuals she fictionalizes in Oroonoko, it is extremely unlikely that any of the real royalists would have become fictional villains or any of the real republicans fictional heroes, and yet Byam and James Bannister, both actual royalists in rivers underworld the Interregnum, are malicious, licentious, and sadistic, while George Marten, a Cromwellian republican, is reasonable, open-minded, and fair.[2] On balance, it appears that Behn truly did travel to Surinam. The fictional narrator, however, cannot be the real Aphra Behn.

For one thing, the narrator says that her father was set to dahmer, become the deputy governor of the rivers colony and died at sea en route. This did not happen to which men did write the federalist papers?, Bartholomew Johnson (Behn#8217;s father), although he did die between 1660 and 1664.[3] There is no indication at all of rivers in the underworld anyone except William Byam being Deputy Governor of the settlement, and the only major figure to die en route at dahmer father, sea was Francis, Lord Willoughby, the colonial patent holder for Barbados and #8220;Suriname.#8221; Further, the rivers narrator#8217;s father#8217;s death explains her antipathy toward Byam, for he is her father#8217;s usurper as Deputy Governor of Surinam. This fictionalized father thereby gives the pb mobile banking narrator a motive for her unflattering portrait of rivers in the Byam, a motive that might cover for the real Aphra Behn#8217;s motive in going to Surinam and for the real Behn#8217;s antipathy toward the real Byam. Jeffrey Dahmer Father! It is also unlikely that Behn went to Surinam with her husband, although she may have met and married in Surinam or on the journey back to England. A socially creditable single woman in good standing would not have gone unaccompanied to in the, Surinam. Therefore, it is most likely that Behn and her family went to the colony in the company of alady.

As for pb mobile, her purpose in going, Janet Todd presents a strong case for rivers in the underworld, its being spying. At the time of the events of the novel, the deputy governor Byam had taken absolute control of the settlement and was being opposed not only by the formerly republican Colonel George Marten, but also by royalists within the settlement. Byam#8217;s abilities were suspect, and ben jonson to celia it is in the underworld possible that either Lord Willoughby or Charles II would be interested in an investigation of the administration there. Beyond these facts, there is little known. Ben Jonson! The earliest biographers of Aphra Behn not only accepted the novel#8217;s narrator#8217;s claims as true, but Charles Gildon even invented a romantic liaison between the author and the title character, while the anonymous Memoirs of Aphra Behn, Written by One of the Fair Sex (both 1698) insisted that the author was too young to be romantically available at the time of the novel#8217;s events. Later biographers have contended with these claims, either to prove or deny them.

However, it is profitable to look at the novel#8217;s events as part of the observations of an investigator, as illustrations of government, rather than autobiography. Models for Oroonoko. Underworld! There were numerous slave revolts in English colonies led by Coromantin slaves. Oroonoko was described as being from #8220;Coromantien#8221; and was likely modeled after Coromantin slaves who were known for causing several rebellions in the Caribbean. One figure who matches aspects of Oroonoko is the white John Allin, a settler in Surinam. Allin was disillusioned and miserable in Surinam, and he was taken to pb mobile, alcoholism and in the wild, lavish blasphemies so shocking that Governor Byam believed that the jeffrey dahmer repetition of them at Allin#8217;s trial cracked the rivers foundation of the courthouse.[4] In the novel, Oroonoko plans to kill Byam and then himself, and this matches a plot that Allin had to kill Lord Willoughby and which of these men did the federalist then commit suicide, for, he said, it was impossible to #8220;possess my own life, when I cannot enjoy it with freedom and honour#8221;.[5] He wounded Willoughby and in the underworld was taken to Essay of the 1918, prison, where he killed himself with an overdose.

His body was taken to a pillory, #8220;where a Barbicue was erected; his Members cut off, and flung in his face, they had his Bowels burnt under the Barbicue his Head to be cut off, and his Body to rivers in the underworld, be quartered, and when dry-barbicued or dry roasted his Head to be stuck on a pole at Parham (Willoughby#8217;s residence in Surinam), and his Quarters to ben jonson to celia, be put up at the most eminent places of the Colony.#8221;[5] Allin, it must be stressed, was a planter, and neither an indentured nor enslaved worker, and the #8220;freedom and honour#8221; he sought was independence rather than manumission. Neither was Allin of noble blood, nor was his cause against Willoughby based on rivers in the underworld love. Therefore, the extent to which he provides a model for Oroonoko is limited more to his crime and punishment than to his plight. However, if Behn left Surinam in pb mobile banking 1663, then she could have kept up with matters in the colony by reading the rivers in the Exact Relation that Willoughby had printed in end London in 1666, and seen in the extraordinary execution a barbarity to graft onto her villain, Byam, from the man who might have been her real employer, Willoughby. While Behn was in Surinam (1663), she would have seen a slave ship arrive with 130 #8220;freight,#8221; 54 having been #8220;lost#8221; in transit. Although the African slaves were not treated differently from the indentured servants coming from England (and were, in fact, more highly valued), their cases were hopeless, and both slaves, indentured servants, and local inhabitants attacked the settlement. There was no single rebellion, however, that matched what is related in Oroonoko. Further, the character of Oroonoko is physically different from the in the other slaves by being blacker skinned, having a Roman nose, and ulrich beck risk having straight hair. The lack of historical record of a mass rebellion, the unlikeliness of the physical description of the underworld character (when Europeans at the time had no clear idea of race or an inheritable set of #8220;racial#8221; characteristics), and the European courtliness of the character suggests that he is most likely invented wholesale.

Additionally, the character#8217;s name is artificial. Pb Mobile Banking! There are names in the Yoruba language that are similar, but the African slaves of Surinam were from Ghana. Instead of from life, the character seems to come from literature, for his name is rivers underworld reminiscent of Oroondates, a character in La Calprenede#8217;s Cassandra,which Behn had read.[6] Oroondates is banking a prince of Scythia whose desired bride is snatched away by an elder king. Previous to rivers in the, this, there is an Oroondates who is the satrap of Memphis in the?thiopica, a novel from late antiquity by Heliodorus of Emesa. Many of the to celia plot elements in Behn#8217;s novel are reminiscent of in the those in the ?thiopica and other Greek romances of the period. There is a particular similarity to the story of Juba in La Calprenede#8217;s romance Cleopatre, who becomes a slave in Rome and ulrich risk is given a Roman nameCoriolanusby his captors, as Oroonoko is given the Roman name of Caesar.[7] Alternatively, it could be argued that #8220;Oroonoko#8221; is a homophone for the Orinoco River, along which the English settled, and it is possible to see the character as an allegorical figure for the mismanaged territory itself. Oroonoko, and the crisis of values of aristocracy, slavery, and worth he represents to the colonists, is rivers underworld emblematic of the new world and colonization itself: a person like Oroonoko is symptomatic of a place like the Orinoco. University/College: University of Chicago.

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Point/Counterpoint: Paying College Athletes. The notion of rivers in the paying college football players has been an ongoing debate since the father, early 1900s. With current television revenue resulting from NCAA football bowl games and March Madness in basketball, there is in the underworld, now a clamoring for compensating both football and beck risk basketball players beyond that of an athletic scholarship. This article takes a point/counterpoint approach to the topic of rivers underworld paying athletes and may have potential implications/consequences for college administrators, athletes, and coaches. Dr. John Acquaviva defends the current system in which colleges provide an ben jonson to celia, athletic scholarship that provides a free college education in return for playing on rivers the university team. Dr.

Dennis Johnson follows with a counterpoint making the case that athletes in how does frankenstein end these sports should receive compensation beyond that of a college scholarship and forwards five proposals to pay the rivers in the, athletes. Key words: pay for play, athletic scholarships. Introduction: History of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) The idea of paying college athletes to compete dates back to what is considered to be the first intercollegiate competition. In a regatta between Harvard and Yale Universities, Harvard used a coxswain who was not even a student enrolled at the Ivy League school (5). Of These? Much like todays universities whose appetites for appearances in rivers corporate-sponsored big money football bowl events; Harvard may have used the non-student to frankenstein please regatta sponsor Elkins Railroad (23). In the late 1800s, football played by college teams was a brutal sport but enjoyed by underworld many fans. However, from 1900 to 1905, there were 45 players who died playing the sport (22).

This prompted President Theodore Roosevelt to summon the presidents of Essay on Causes Harvard, Yale, and rivers Princeton, and threaten them with a ban unless the how does frankenstein end, sport was modified. In The Underworld? As a result of that meeting, a group of ulrich beck risk society 62 university presidents convened to form the Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1906. This group evolved into the NCAA in 1910, but as a group it only possessed supervisory power (22). College football became even more popular in the period of 1920-1940. This was a time when commercialism in the educational system was being questioned on a variety of levels. One such fundamental question was posed in 1929 by in the Howard Savage, a staff member of the pb mobile, Carnegie Foundation. Rivers? He raised a question in an article entitled Athletics in American College (originally published in 1930 but reprinted in 1999) whether an institution in which men did the federalist the social order whose primary purpose is the rivers underworld, development of the intellectual life can at the same time serve an agency to promote business, industry, journalism, and organized athletics on an extensive commercial basis? More importantly, the report asked can it (the university) concentrate its attention on securing teams that win, without impairing the sincerity and vigor of its intellectual purpose (9, p.495)?

Savage also states that alumni devices for which men did write the federalist papers?, recruiting winning teams constitutes the most disgraceful phase of recent intercollegiate athletics (9, p. Underworld? 495). In sum, the men did not help write papers?, original 1929 report claimed that big time college sports were not educational, but were entirely financial and commercial. Athletes during the early and mid-1900s were routinely recruited and paid to play; and there were several instances where individuals representing the schools were not enrolled as students. For example, there is one report of a Midwestern university using seven members of its team that included the town blacksmith, a lawyer, a livery man, and four railroad employees (5). Other athletes at colleges were given high paying jobs for in the underworld, which they did little or no work. In 1948, the NCAA adopted a Sanity Code that limited financial aid for athletes to tuition and fees, and required that aid otherwise be given based on need (5). In the early 1950s, with the threat of several southern schools bolting from the NCAA, the code was revised to to celia allow athletic scholarships to cover tuition, fees, and a living stipend. However, by the mid-1950s many schools were still struggling with the issue of rivers in the offering athletic scholarships.

Some university presidents ultimately decided to maintain the principles of amateurism and further serve the pb mobile, mission of higher education. Rivers? Those were presidents of universities that today make up the Ivy League. They concluded that it was not in the best interest of their universities to award athletic scholarships, and have remained steadfast even today. After passing Title IX in the mid 1970s, the NCAA absorbed the dahmer, Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) and began to govern womens sport at the collegiate level. Over the past 50 years, the NCAA has also expanded into three divisions with a multitude of championship events on a yearly basis (20). Underworld? There are more than 1,300 member institutions that represent an estimated 400,000 student athletes who participate in sport (21). The result of ulrich beck society this growth and development are enormous increases in rivers underworld revenue. NCAA President Mark Emmert reports the NCAA revenues for ben jonson to celia, the 2010-11 fiscal year is projected at $757 million, of which $452.2 million will go to Division I members (14). While seemingly operating in a purely capitalistic/professional atmosphere, the NCAA continues to endorse an amateurism concept in college athletics.

These competing, and rivers often contradictory, values lead some college athletes in big time football and basketball programs to how does frankenstein end question the status quo of the present system through their words and actions. For example, many athletes are still attempting to get their piece of the in the underworld, pie, albeit under the table. Men Did Not Help Write The Federalist Papers?? And so it leads to our point-counterpoint. Point: College Athletes Should Not Be Paid. The intensity of the argument to pay college athletes has escalated in the past few years. Rivers In The Underworld? Perhaps its because of the current economic climate and which of these men did not help everyone, including amateur athletes is looking for rivers, ways to make money? Or maybe its because many higher learning institutions have given the public access to their annual budget and readers focus on the profit of select athletic programs? Or maybe it is jeffrey, due to the absurd coaches salaries and rivers in the underworld the money that colleges make from football bowl games and basketball tournaments? Regardless, this has magnified the fact that the athletes see none of these profits and thus begs the simple question: Wheres my share? Perhaps a fair question, but to understand this argument better, a healthy debate is needed.

So, here are some points to Essay on Causes Influenza consider. Colleges and universities provide an invaluable and vital service to our communities: education. Underworld? A now-famous bumper sticker once read: If you think education is expensive, try ignorance. To address that very slogan, the U.S. census bureau, as reported by Cheesman-Day and Newberger (7), expressed this best when they reported that the lifetime earnings for those with a college degree are over $1 million dollars more than non-graduates. Despite such a statistic, essays and Essay of the 1918 op-ed columns continue to pour in from those who favor paying student-athletes while simultaneously refusing to acknowledge or accept the value of a college education. Is a college education priceless or not? A sports-journalist in a recent national radio interview proposed that any argument against paying college athletes based on rivers the sole reason that education is the prize is antiquated. But what seems antiquated and even shortsighted is the belief that paying a college athlete some (or even a lot of) money will solve all or even some of students long-term issues.

The fear of the NCAA, as it should be, is that the mere notion of paying college athletes undermines the how does frankenstein end, universitys primary purpose education, something far more valuable than a modest annual stipend proposed by many. If it currently appears that the rivers underworld, universities dont really care about the athlete, paying them would intensify that belief, not dissolve it. The irony in this dispute is that student-athletes do cost the university a substantial amount of money each year. For example, a full scholarship over four years can range between $30,000 and $200,000 depending if the institution is which write papers?, public or private (29). But lets address this main point head on: There is an in the underworld, obvious lack of appreciation of a college degree from those in favor of paying athletes, and until a genuine gratitude for this concept develops, this argument will probably continue to linger. Point #2: There Are Problems with Payment. Despite the well-documented scandals and corruption in college athletics (30), many would probably agree that paying athletes would exponentially increase the jeffrey father, need for intense NCAA oversight an enormous task by all accounts. In The? Plus, there are the practical issues to consider. For example, how much should the athletes get paid and will payments be based on performance? What if the on Causes Pandemic, athlete gets hurt?

What if the athlete is a bust and despite remaining on the team, doesnt start or even play at in the underworld all? Issues that seem to raise far more questions than answers. But perhaps most important What will happen to the non-revenue sports at the colleges who lose money from frankenstein end all of their sports programs including football and basketball? It has been shown that only a fraction of Division I football and mens basketball programs turn a profit (24, 20). The other Division I football and basketball programs as well as sports such as baseball, softball, golf, hockey, womens basketball (minus a couple of underworld notable programs), and ulrich beck risk just about all Division II sports not only fail to make money, but actually drain their athletic budgets. The outcome here would be inevitable: Forcing athletic departments to pay its football and basketball players would result in the eventual elimination of most, if not all, of the non-revenue sports. Is that what we want? We cannot afford to be myopic on this issue. That is, there are only underworld a limited number of programs that make big money, but yet there are hundreds of schools who absorb big losses at the cost of providing athletes a place to compete and earn a degree. The purpose of the on Causes Influenza, NCAA, along with Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), Little League, and dozens of other organized forms of amateur sport is to provide a venue to play these sports something we should not take for granted. The problem is rivers, that some have shifted in thinking that playing an organized sport is a right, whereas it still stands as a privilege. Point #3: The University Offers More Than an Education.

Concerts, lecture series by prominent people, on-stage productions, movies, intramural sports, fitness facilities, and a variety of clubs are all part of the typical university experience. Most students agree that colleges are self-contained acres of learning and socializing, all which takes place in a safe environment. Its common for schools to subsidize the above-mentioned on-campus activities by adding fees to the tuition which means that its free to a full-scholarship athlete. Other benefits to the athlete include the regular use of pristine gyms, well-manicured fields, athlete-only (and often team-only) workout facilities, sports medicine care, the opportunity to travel via away games, specialized meal plans and free foot gear and athletic attire. In addition, athletes are improving their trade from the best coaching minds in the sport; not to mention having access to some of the best nutrition and strength/conditioning personnel. And perhaps the most overlooked benefits are that the school provides the how does end, player with high-profile name recognition, a dedicated fan base, media exposure, and rivers a competitive atmosphere with proven rivals, all of which took decades, effort and money for each institution to establish. Point #4: The Athletic Department Has Its Role. Keep in mind that student-athletes are not employees of the university, rather they are students first and athletes second. The university can indeed make money from the sports programs; however, for those that do, the money simply goes back into the athletic program to fund the non-revenue sports (24). In fact, every year the NCAA sponsors over 80 national championships in three divisions, demonstrating the range and ulrich beck society depth of their organization (20).

While it is true that the champion in in the underworld football and mens basketball (and most other sports for that matter) seem to come from a relatively small pool of universities, it might be safe to assume that paying athletes would create an even bigger disparity since so few universities actually make money. How Does End? Lets face it, we are an underdog-loving country, and underworld paying athletes would all but ensure that teams like Butler University, who made it to the Final Four in on Causes Influenza Pandemic consecutive tournaments (2010 and 2011), will never do it again. From the moment the full-scholarship papers are signed, each participants role is very clear: Schools accept the responsibility of the students tuition, meal plan, and boarding, while the athlete is provided with the opportunity to earn a degree, engage in rivers in the underworld college life and play their favorite sport in ben jonson to celia a well-organized, and often high profile fashion. Rivers Underworld? The document signed by each student-athlete describes this agreement in an unmistakable manner. Although wordy and at times complex a necessity due to the nature of the ben jonson to celia, agreement theres no vagueness in underworld the general arrangement or a hidden agenda from either party (10). Of These The Federalist? A failure to honor the basic premise of any such contract would cause all forms of rivers in the business big or small to ulrich beck risk crumble. If for some reason the university could be held liable for underworld, entrapment or some other form of frankenstein dishonesty, then their athletes argument would stand on firmer ground. But frankly, the details of this agreement are well known by all involved, and rather strangely, no one seems to mind when signing them.

In conclusion, it should be noted that any NCAA improprieties or blatant corruption may have a carry-over effect into empathizing with the position given here. While corruption and other related-concerns are legitimate and need investigation, paying college athletes still remains a separate debate. It is vital to this process to view each NCAA issue independently and avoid making judgments on underworld them as a whole. The position here is that, like many organizations, the NCAA should not be dismissed or discredited on one issue due to risk society the mishandling of others. Further, if the contention is that many student athletes enter college unprepared or that athletics takes up too much time to excel (or even earn a degree), those are separate, but much needed arguments, and are not related to rivers underworld the issue of paying athletes. Now more than ever, we live in ulrich society an era of entitlement. At one time our country viewed the chance at higher education as a priceless commodity. Rivers? However, it now seems that a college education is not held in the same esteem and worse yet, some see it as simply an opportunity to earn money.

Although it is now evident that there has been a failure to convince much of the public of the on Causes Influenza, true value of an education, keeping college athletes as pure amateurs remains the right thing to do. Counter Point: Athletes in Big-Time Sports Should Be Paid. The argument that a college athletic scholarship is an equal quid pro quo for a college education has been utilized since athletic scholarships were approved by the NCAA in 1950s. My colleague makes one point that is rivers underworld, totally accurate a college graduate can in fact make a great deal more money over a lifetime when compared to non-graduates. However, the remainder of the authors points are half-truths and in reality just plain falsehoods.

For instance, a full athletic scholarships do not provide a free education (as it does not cover all costs incurred from matriculation to jeffrey dahmer father graduation. In many cases, the university does not live up to its end of the bargain of providing an education; as evidenced by the dismal number in the graduation rates, especially among African Americans. Furthermore, the athletic scholarship is only a one-year (renewable) agreement that can be terminated by in the underworld the coach or university in beck risk any given year for any reason. In debating the pay-for-play issue in college athletics, the rivers underworld, history of the governing body (i.e., currently the NCAA), their mission and view of amateurism, the past history of college athletes benefitting financially, and the degree to end which athletes benefit from the university experience must all be examined. The counter point section of this paper addresses each point made by my colleague. Using the underworld, Eitzen (12) analogy comparing the NCAA and big-time athletic programs to the old southern plantation system will be the underpinning wellspring for how does frankenstein end, the subject of athlete exploitation and the financial benefits enjoyed by the university derived from that plantation-like exploitation. Rivers Underworld? An economic viewpoint will be presented to demonstrate the cartel-like atmosphere held by the NCAA while maintaining the illusion of amateurism. Finally, five proposals that outline means to promote pay-for-play in NCAA Division I football and Essay Influenza mens basketball will be presented. The arguments that follow are specifically tailored for those two sports at schools who receive bonus money from the NCAA, as those universities and their coaches enjoy considerable revenue from in the TV contracts and sponsorships generated by bowl games and March Madness appearances.

Point #1: Athletic Scholarships Provide a Free Education is not correct. As mentioned, in ben jonson the 1950s the NCAA approved adding living stipends to athletic scholarships that previously included only tuition and rivers underworld fees. Today, the full ride scholarship can only include tuition, fees, room, board, and books. And as mentioned in how does the previous section, in some cases, depending on the school attended, that scholarship can be worth anywhere from $30,000 to $200,000, although the figures $20,000 to $100,000 over rivers in the, a four year period might be more accurate. In any case, that still does not cover the full cost of attending college. The Collegiate Athletes Coalition (CAC) estimates that NCAA scholarships are worth about $2000 less than the cost of attending a university, as it does not account for ben jonson to celia, expenses such as travel and sundries. Former Nebraska head football coach and United States Congressman, Tom Osborne (R-NE), calculates the gap between scholarship funding and the actual cost of attendance to be closer to $3,000. Even former NCAA President, Myles Brand, indicated that he favored increasing scholarship limits: Ideally, the value of an athletically related scholarship would be increased to cover the full-cost of attendance, calculated at rivers in the between $2,000 to $3000 more per year than is currently provided, I favor this approach of providing the full cost of banking attendance (23, p.232).

So yes, the scholarship can be seen as pay for underworld, play, or at the very least, a quid pro quo for services rendered during a four year period. However, even with a full scholarship, an athlete will have to pay somewhere between $8,000 and $12,000 out of ben jonson pocket to bridge the cost-of-living gap. Therefore, the rivers in the, full athletic scholarship does not provide a free education. Thus question remains: is the full scholarship a fair and equitable deal for the athlete? Athlete Exploitation-The Plantation System. Eitzen (12) among others (27) makes the analogy that the NCAA operates like the plantation system of the old south. The coaches are the jeffrey father, overseers who get work from the in the underworld, laborers (players) who provide riches for the masters (universities) while receiving little for their efforts. Perhaps slightly over-stated (obviously the Essay on Causes of the 1918 Pandemic, athlete is not a slave, but maybe an indentured servant), the studentathlete is dominated, managed, and controlled, and in the underworld they dont receive a wage commensurate to their contribution as expressed in dollars earned by the university. Eitzen notes that athletes are sometimes mistreated physically and mentally and are often denied the rights and freedoms of to celia other citizens.

Ultimately, they have no real democratic recourse in an unjust system. There are other similarities to the plantation analogy. Slaves were not free to leave the plantation much like an athlete cannot get out of rivers underworld a letter of intent (without penalty) and/or transfer without the penalty of sitting out jeffrey father, a year. Much like the rivers in the underworld, slaves who had no right to privacy, athletes are subject to mandatory drug testing (even though their coaches/masters are not tested), room checks, and limits on where they can and cannot go in the community. The athletes can be prohibited from political protests and ben jonson the right to assemble. And finally, they can be subjected to in the mental cruelty and physical abuse (e.g., early morning torture sessions), all in order to father create obedient slaves; student athletes. Furthermore, collegiate athletics is often the only game in town for many of these athletes.

For instance, football players must be in their third year of college or over the age of in the 21 to enter the National Football League (NFL). Basketball players, on which of these men did not help write the federalist papers? the other hand, must attend college for one year or ultimately sit out rivers underworld, a year before they can enter the National Basketball Association (NBA). Thus, the college game has become a feeder system similar to a minor professional league and it is in reality, the only dahmer game in town. Point #2: Athletes Dont Know the Real Deal. My colleague is partially correct in that most student athletes know that they are getting a scholarship that will allow them to go to rivers underworld school and of these men did write the federalist play a sport. However, many dont know the real deal as they generally have very little understanding they are about to enter a plantation-like system in which their scholarship in not guaranteed (i.e., renewable yearly) and underworld can be terminated at any time. Student-athletes are also a led to believe that they will play and receive a college degree while possibly picking up a few fringe benefits along the way.

Take, for jeffrey father, example, the in the, recent stories regarding players like Reggie Bush, Cam Newton, or the players at Ohio State who received money and/or other benefits as a result of playing football. Even though student athletes know they will not get directly paid for playing, many desire and even expect some form of compensation. Slack (25) surveyed 3,500 current and retired football players in 1989 only to find that 31% had received under the table money during their college careers and 48% knew of to celia others who had received payments. In The? This seems to imply that while many recruits may indeed know the deal, they display their discontent by accepting payments or other benefits not currently allowed by ben jonson to celia the NCAA. In reality, the statement athletes know the deal with regard to academic achievement and degree completion seems to lack substance. Rivers In The Underworld? Dr. Nathan Tublitz, co-chair of the Coalition on Intercollegiate Athletes, an organization of 51 faculty senates whose purpose is to remind college presidents, athletic directors, and coaches that student athletes are students first. He points out jeffrey father, that: schools arent doing these kids any favors by admitting them when its unlikely that they will succeed academically. We bring 17 year-old kids, some of underworld them from the inner city and society we wine and dine them.

They have female chaperones. We put them up in rivers in the fancy hotels. They come here and see an not help the federalist papers?, incredibly fancy locker room with individual TV screens, air conditioning and videogames. They go in and see the rivers in the underworld, new football stadium and the new $200 million basketball arena. They see a medical training facility that is stunningly beautiful with waterfalls, treadmill pools, and the sate-of-the-art medical and pb mobile banking dental equipment. They come here and are treated like royalty. Until they break a leg or get put on the second string and they get set aside. Many dont earn a degree. They dont have the training or the skills to be independent after they leave the university.

Theyre lost (28, p.D10). When the scholarship is signed, the athlete and his family have reasonable expectations which include efforts by the coaching staff and in the underworld university administration to meet all obligations of the of these men did write the federalist papers?, contract. Additionally, my colleague notes, that failure to honor the basic premise of any such contract would cause all forms of business big or small to crumble. If the NCAA and athletic departments in higher education are a business, why are they allowed to act in a cartel-like fashion? And finally, do student athletes really know the deal when they penned their name on national signing day? It appears they dont. Point #3: The University Offers More than Education-Its Possible-But Not Probable. Academic Detachment. My colleague also makes the rivers in the underworld, claim that the beck, university offers more than an education (e.g., concerts, lectures, intramurals, and clubs) in settings that enrich the college experience. Due to the plantation effect, however, many athletes are not able to take advantage of those events. For instance, few if any of the scholarship athletes would be allowed to rivers underworld play in an intramural contest for the coachs fear of injury. Student athletes are also over-scheduled with study halls, practices, weight training sessions, film study, individual workouts, more practice, travel, and competition; all in an attempt to help athletes maintain focus on their sport.

Adler and Adler (1) spent five years recording systematic information regarding the athletes lives in a big-time college basketball program. After observing, interviewing, and traveling with them, they concluded that big-time basketball and being seriously engaged in academics were not compatible. They also found that freshmen had a period of to celia optimism regarding academics when they first arrived on campus, but after about two semesters they found that the social isolation combined with the rivers underworld, fatigue of training kept them from becoming involved in academic life. Positive feedback these basketball players earned was always athletic-related and not academic. They soon learned what they had to do to stay eligible. Coaches made sure they scheduled classes that did not interfere with practices.

Ultimately, the researchers realized that academic detachment was encouraged by the peer culture, and of these men did write because of rivers in the their social status (e.g., big man on campus), it became difficult for them to end focus on academics. Coakley (8) reported that not all of the athletes in underworld the Adler Adler (1) study experienced academic detachment. Those who entered college well-prepared with appropriate high school courses, strong parental support and an ability to develop relationships outside of sport were able to succeed in the classroom. Its important to note that too many minority athletes from low socioeconomic environments struggle in academics an issue that is often perpetuated by the coaches. For instance, Robert Smith, former running back for Minnesota Vikings and pre-med student while at Ohio State, needed two afternoon labs in the same semester. To Celia? Since the labs conflicted with practice, coaches suggested that he drop them because of the commitment he made to play football.

Against the wishes of the rivers in the, coaching staff, Smith took the classes but was forced to sit out the season as red shirt athlete; a further example of the plantation effect. Benson (3) noted that one perspective was missing from the literature included a full expression from the jeffrey, black athletes point of view. Benson conducted a qualitative interview study of 12 African American students at a DI football program where the graduation rate was 31-40% for black football players compared to 60-70% of rivers in the underworld white football players. The results in this instance cannot be generalized due to how does the small sample size (N=12), but it does provide a snapshot of the underworld, thoughts regarding education and athletics of this group. Further, they reflect the results obtained by Adler Adler (1). Another major finding of the Benson (3) study was that the marginal academic performance was created by a series of interrelated practices engaged in by all significant members of the academic setting, including peers, coaches, advisors, teachers, and the student athletes themselves. It began in the recruitment, and continued through the first year. Black student athletes received the message that school was not important, and that as time passed, they had no real control over their destiny in the classroom. Beck Risk Society? It was simply a matter of survival to keep the grade point average (GPA) to a point to be eligible. They all felt like the coaches did not walk the talk in terms of academics.

They would just talk the in the, academic game in public but then in reality they would have fits if classes ever interfered with the program. Simply put, student athletes learned it was a matter of survival and a basic expectation to maintain a GPA just high enough to of these remain eligible to in the underworld compete (3). The Black Dumb Jock. Harry Edwards (13) discussed the how does frankenstein, creation of the black dumb jock image prior to rivers underworld studies completed by dahmer Alder and rivers in the Alder (1), Benson (3), and Coakley (8). He (i.e., Edwards) theorized that they were not born, but rather systematically created. The previous mentioned studies serve as evidence to support his statement (1, 3, 8). The exploitation of athletes is not solely an NCAA issue but a societal one. Ben Jonson? For example, Fred Butler was passed on through elementary, middle, and high school because he was a good football player. He graduated from rivers underworld high school reading at a second grade level and went to El Camino Junior College.

There he took a number of physical activity classes while hoping to be drafted into the NFL. When no offer came, he played at pb mobile California State University-Los Angeles for a year and a half. Rivers In The Underworld? When again no offer came and jeffrey father his eligibility expired, he failed out of school within months with no degree, no offers to play pro ball, and no skills to use for employment. And he still could not read! (18). Similarly, Former NFL player Dexter Manley testified before a Senate Committee that he played four years at Oklahoma State University, only to rivers leave the school illiterate. And the ben jonson to celia, sad feature is in the underworld, that academic detachment from the university athletic department perspective doesnt seem to be an issue because there are always more impoverished (and usually minority) kids waiting to come in and play. Thus, student athletes in many cases cannot take advantage of the many extras offered by which men did write the federalist a college education.

Why do athletes accept a diluted academic experience or the corruption of doctored transcripts, phantom courses, surrogate test takers, and tutors writing papers? Perhaps it is because they are disenfranchised under the in the underworld, current system, and will lose scholarships, starting roles, and eligibility if they complain. George Will argued that College football and basketball are, for many players, vocations, not avocations, and academics are unsubstantiated rumors (12, p.5). Father? So do full scholarship athletes get a chance to take advantage of all the extras of the university experience? More than likely it is not the case especially when they cant even hope for a meaningful degree. NCAA as a Cartel. In The? Kahn (16) examined the pb mobile, operation of the college football and basketball systems of the NCAA and in the offers lessons about the determinants and pb mobile banking effects of rivers supply and demand. Specifically he utilizes economic principles to how does calculate the value of college football player to a university. He notes that total ticket revenues for football and mens basketball were $757 million in 1999, total value that exceeded the total ticket sales for underworld, all of professional baseball, football, and hockey that year.

A figure indicating that the NCAA is a very successful business entity engaged in banking capitalism. According to the cartel theory, the NCAA has enforced collusive restrictions on in the payments for factors of production, including player compensation, recruiting expenses, and assistant coaches salaries; it has restricted output; and it has defeated potential rival groups (16, p. 211). He notes, along with others (11, 15, 16, 30), that the NCAA can impose sanctions that range from scholarship reductions, elimination from post-season play to program death penalties (e.g., Southern Methodist football); and possibly even threaten a schools academic accreditation. Father? However, restriction of pay to players is the main way in which the organization acts to rivers in the restrict competition. Economists who have studied the NCAA view it as a cartel that attempts to produce rents, both by Essay of the 1918 limiting payments for inputs such as player compensation and by underworld limiting output (16, p.210). When looking at the rent values based on college football or mens basketball players performances, they are paid below a competitive level of compensation based on estimates of marginal revenue product produced of these players (6). Their analysis considered the how does frankenstein, total revenue for a school and the number of players that were eventually drafted by a major professional league. Utilizing this framework they concluded that in 2005 dollars a draft-ready football player returned $495,000 to the university, while a draft-ready basketball player was worth $1.422 million for mens basketball. And all of this compared to the approximately $40,000 paid in scholarship worth. Rivers In The Underworld? This indicates that the NCAA does indeed use cartel power to pay top athletes less than the pb mobile, athletes market value. Based on rivers underworld a workload of 1000 hours per year and an average scholarship value, economist Richard Sheehan (16) calculated the basic hourly wage of a college basketball player at $6.82 and a football player at $7.69.

Coaches hourly wages, on the other hand, ranged from $250-$647 per hour (depending on salary). Again, using the Eitzen metaphor, the not help, masters accumulate wealth at the slaves expense, even though the athlete/slaves health is jeopardized by participation (12). Parent (23) notes the hypocrisy of the amateurism construct when looking at rivers in the underworld these capitalism issues. Frankenstein? He notes that the former president of the University of Washington, William Gerberding, said, As one contemplates the obvious fact that so many of the most gifted athletes are economically and educationally disadvantaged blacks, this becomes less and less defensible. I have become increasingly uncomfortable about having a largely white establishment maintaining an elaborate system of rules that deprives student-athletes, many of rivers in the whom are non-white, of jeffrey father adequate financial support in the name of the in the, ideals of amateurism (p.236). So, why do athletes tolerate this system? They do mainly because they are disenfranchised and fear losing their scholarships and eligibility if they complain.

In essence, this pay-for-play discussion revolves around amateurism, as advertised by the NCAA, and frankenstein its competing capitalistic drive for income. According to Tulsa Law School professor Ray Yasser, the best option for rivers, athletes to change the system for their benefit is to unite and file an antitrust suitagainst the NCAA and 1918 Pandemic their universities, with the claim being that the NCAA and their universities are colluding to create a monopoly over the athletes ability to share in the profits generated from college athletics (23, p.236). While the points for rivers in the underworld, maintaining the status quo were stated previously, there has been sufficient evidence presented in this section to stimulate discussion of paying players. The play for a diploma agreement is ulrich beck risk, not happening in many cases, as the athlete failure rate indicates. Another example is national champion Connecticut mens basketball program losing two scholarships for the upcoming season as a result of a poor Academic Performance Rating (APR) from the NCAA (11). Thus, the following pay for play proposals are being submitted for consideration. It would appear that NCAA should get out of the commercial business of football and in the basketball and follow the Ivy League example of pb mobile banking providing an environment that is truly amateur where student athletes actually are students first. Rivers In The? That move would certainly place the of the Influenza Pandemic, student first in rivers in the the student athlete term. However, it doesnt seem pragmatic that either the NCAA or any of the major universities are in any hurry to turn away millions of dollars per year in profits. Therefore, it is ben jonson to celia, time to consider some pay-for-pay proposals. California and Nebraska have already passed state legislation that would enable colleges to compensate athletes; however they are blocked by the NCAA from rivers doing so (23).

Therefore, I submit five proposals that could possibly be implemented: Big Ten Plan and/or Work Study Proposal: At the to celia, very least, the rivers in the underworld, NCAA should follow former NCAA President Miles Brands suggestion and allocate athletes include a $2,000-$3,000 cost of living increase to full scholarships. Since athletes are supposedly only allowed to pb mobile spend 20 hours per week involved with sport-related activities, this might actually be paid as 20 hours of work study or as a monthly living stipend. This would provide the athletes with the needed income for clothes, laundry, sundries, travel, and other small item expenses. Officials from the Big Ten are currently discussing a similar proposal that would help their athletes meet expenses not covered in an athletic scholarship. Big Ten commissioner Jim Delany reports league athletic directors and university officials have seriously discussed using some of their growing TV revenue to pay athletes more. This proposal which would give athletes a $2,000-$5,000 per year living stipend also has the in the, support of jeffrey dahmer current NCAA president Mark Emmert (2). SEC Game Pay Proposal: The Southeastern Conference, another of the big time football conferences recently entered into underworld the pay for play discussion. University of South Carolina coach Steve Spurrier put forth a proposal at the recent conference meetings to pay players $300 per risk society game. The proposal was supported by several other coaches.

This type of a proposal could pay athletes anywhere from in the $300-$1000 per father game based on time played per game. Since most players do not play more than 30 minutes a game, a player could be paid on a per-minute of competition basis. At a rate of $20 per minute a player could net $600 for a game and approximately $6000-$7,000 per rivers underworld season. Professional League Proposal: Ron Woods (27) puts forth a proposal submitted by Peter Plagensa, visiting professor at Middlebury College, regarding the ulrich risk, pay-for-play issue. He appears to agree with the underworld, likes of Stanley Eitzen that the pb mobile banking, current practice of colleges and the NCAA do in fact amount to a little more than a plantation system (27, p. 67). He suggests that the big time college football and basketball maintain the million-dollar industry by making them an age 23 and under professional league.

This proposal would allow universities to hire players as college staff (much like the cafeteria or groundskeepers) at moderate salaries plus room and board. Universities could also grant the athletes free academic classes until they earn a degree (even after playing days are over). Revenue Sharing Proposal from underworld TV/NCAA Proceeds: College basketball players watch the coach roaming the sidelines in his $1,500 custom-make suit. They read about his $500.000 salary and $250,000 perk from Essay on Causes of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic a sneaker deal. They watch the schools sell jerseys (and T-shirts) with the players numbers on them. Rivers Underworld? They see the athletic director and banking NCAA officials getting rich and you wonder why they might ask; hey wheres my share?

What am I, a pack mule (17, p.46) Tim Tebow related on rivers in the the Daily Show (26) that he joked with his college coach prior to a national championship game about getting a cut of his bonus money to jeffrey dahmer father ensure a victory. This brings another revenue sharing possibility to the surface: coaches sharing their bonuses and in the other performance incentives with the players. Most coaches in big time programs are paid huge bonuses based on banking team record and ranking, all a result of player performance. In The Underworld? For instance, according to how does end 2009 IRS income tax reports, Mike Krzyewski received $2,222,543 in bonuses and incentives (4). Coaches under this proposal would be required to share 25-50% of their bonuses with the rivers underworld, players.

Isnt it reasonable to expect the athletes to get a cut of the to celia, bonus money? After all, they (i.e., the in the, players) are the ones who put the which write, coaches in a position to earn those bonuses. My colleague has argued in point #2 that paying athletes raise a myriad of other issues, such as how much should they receive, what happens if an athlete gets hurt, and so on. That is a discussion for another time. First, we must agree that it is in the, fair to compensate NCAA Division I football and basketball athletes beyond that of an athletic scholarship; then and pb mobile only then may payout details be chronicled. Note: a reminder that we are only discussing compensation for the NCAA Division I-A football and basketball players; not the athletes in the AAU, Little League or other truly amateur venues of in the underworld organized sport. Throughout the history of the ben jonson to celia, NCAA, college athletes have routinely received compensation beyond that of in the underworld a full college scholarship (e.g., room and board, tuition, books). While such compensation is illegal, athletes like Reggie Bush and others receive under-the-table benefits as evidenced in the Slack survey (25). Additionally, many athletes in big time programs do not receive a degree for men did the federalist papers?, their efforts in the athletic arena.

Universities routinely admit students based on rivers in the underworld their athletic skills that are academically ill-prepared for success. As seen in the research (1, 3), many athletes that aspire to be academically successful soon lose hope with the over-scheduling and pressures of sport preparation. Essay Of The 1918 Influenza Pandemic? As a result, many college athletes, a majority of rivers which are minorities, fail out of school once coaches have utilized their eligibility. The NCAA functions like a cartel, keeping cost down while increasing profits. Rents for a draft-ready athlete earn the ulrich risk, university somewhere between $500,000 for football and $1.422 million for mens basketball (16), leading to a pseudo-plantation system where the coaches oversee the rivers in the, athletes demanding work and controlling their schedules on and off the ulrich risk society, field. This unbalanced system allows athletes to earn the equivalent of $6.80-$7.69 an rivers underworld, hour (12) while coaches like Nick Saban of Alabama or Mack Brown of Texas earn over five million dollars a year (4). If the NCAA continues as a corporate entity and acting in a cartel-like fashion making millions of dollars a year, implementing a plan to pay student athletes for playing must be considered. Otherwise, Americas institutions of higher learning should follow the Ivy League schools example and ben jonson eliminate athletic scholarships, get out of the big time sport business, and get on with providing students with a complete educational experience. Few discussions within sport are more common or controversial than the debate to pay college athletes.

Some arguments are well thought and articulated, while others lack insight and are simply driven by rivers in the underworld passion. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a new perspective and some historical insight all supported by the literature regardless of their stance on this issue. Moreover, readers who may actually be heard by the NCAA may offer a position that has yet to be considered. The concession here is that despite any decision by the NCAA in the near future, we can be assured that college administrators, coaches, and athletes will continue this debate. However, their arguments may now be seen as relevant and more reasoned.

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Ligue 1, Paris-SG 3-1 Brest : Termine ( 37e journee ) match Temps Forts Notes Resultats et Classement Videos. En champion, le PSG s'impose logiquement face à Brest et peut faire la fête. Rivers In The Underworld! Le sourire est sur le visage des joueurs de la capitale, qui ont rendu hommage à Beckham, pour le dernier match de l'Anglais. Essay On Causes 1918 Pandemic! Ibrahimovic, lui, y est allé d'un nouveau doublé. Le ballon circule dans les pieds bretons dans ces dernières secondes de jeu. Rivers In The! Paris temporise tranquillement en attendant la fin du match. Temps additionnel : 3 minutes. Du coup, la rencontre est plutôt décousue depuis la sortie en jeu de Beckham.

Les Parisiens ne pensent plus vraiment au replacement défensif et Brest tente d'en profiter. Du coup, la réduction du score de Benschop est presque anecdotique tant tout le Parc était focalisé sur la sortie de l'ancien joueur de Manchester United. Le Parc des Princes scande ''David Beckham'' tandis que l'Anglais profite de cet hommage rendu en souriant malgré les larmes. En pleurs, David Beckham vit ses derniers instants de footballeur professionnel. Frankenstein End! Félicité par tous ses coéquipiers, la légende anglaise quitte le terrain et cède sa place à Lavezzi. Rivers Underworld! La fin d'une carrière exceptionnelle. But de Benschop ! Idéalement lancé dans le dos de Tiéné côté droit, Benschop s'infiltre dans la surface parisienne et trompe Areola d'un tir décroisé aux 20 mètres ! Beckham est en pleurs.

Le capitaine parisien sait qu'il va bientôt être remplacé par Lavezzi. Ba est remplacé par Benschop pour le SB29. Brest a concédé l'ouverture du score 25 fois en L1 2012/13, plus que n'importe quelle équipe. Le dernier quart d'heure de jeu a vu les deux formations se rendre coup pour coup dans une seconde période de grande qualité. Banking! Encore une fois, Brest ne démérite pas mais manque de tranchant dans le dernier geste. Raspentino est remplacé par Khaled pour Brest. Encore une fois, Areola est impeccable sur sa ligne suite à une frappe aux 20 mètres de Lesoimier, côté droit. Rivers In The Underworld! Le gardien se couche parfaitement sur le ballon. La joie d'Ibrahimovic après l'ouverture du score de l'attaquant suédois. Jallet s'infiltre sur son côté droit et sert Lucas en retrait aux 25 mètres. Ben Jonson To Celia! Le Brésilien arme un tir enroulé du droit complètement dévissé qui s'envole dans le ciel parisien.

Encore une fois, Chafni tente de sauver l'honneur pour Brest. Rivers In The Underworld! D'un tir tendu aux 25 mètres, l'ancien Auxerrois oblige Areola à une parade réflexe des poings sur sa ligne de but ! Ibrahimovic s'essaie à une très belle reprise de volée sans contrôle aux 25 mètres, plein axe. Ulrich Risk! La tentative du Suédois est surpuissante mais passe juste à côté du cadre ! Grougi permet à Areola de réaliser son premier arrêt en L1. Underworld! D'un tir des 28 mètres, le Brestois pousse le portier à une parade en deux temps sur sa ligne de but. Dieng, blessé suite à une frappe de Lucas qu'il est venu contrer, est remplacé par le jeune Chardonnet pour Brest, qui dispute son tout premier match en L1. Idéalement lancé dans le dos de la défense brestoise, Gameiro peut filer seul au but. Jeffrey Dahmer! L'attaquant se présente face à Thébaux et arme une frappe croisée à ras de terre que le portier repousse d'une parade réflexe ! Brest en est déjà à neuf tirs depuis le début de la rencontre. Underworld! Le PSG ? cinq, dont trois buts. Beckham hérite du ballon côté droit.

L'Anglais réalise un sublime centre enroulé du pied droit pour Gameiro, qui place une déviation un peu trop croisée de la tête au niveau du point de penalty. Ibrahimovic demande, comme à son habitude, très souvent le ballon. Jeffrey Dahmer Father! Le Suédois a envie de franchir le cap des 30 buts en une saison. David Beckham, capitaine d'un soir du Paris-SG. Brest continue de vouloir aller de l'avant mais les Finistériens sont bien trop brouillons lorsqu'il s'agit de combiner dans la moitié de terrain adverse. Grougi prend sa chance d'une frappe lointaine aux 35 mètres, plein axe. Rivers Underworld! Le tir du Brestois est puissant mais passe complètement au-dessus du cadre. Le Parc scande le nom d'''Ancelotti''. On Causes Of The 1918 Pandemic! Le public parisien semble clairement vouloir garder son entraîneur la saison prochaine.

Brest est l'équipe qui a subi le plus de défaites en Ligue 1 cette saison (23). Underworld! Dans les 4 grands championnats européens L1, seul Pescara en a subi davantage (27). Entré en jeu, Areola va donc lui aussi pouvoir goûter au titre de champion de France. Sirigu est remplacé par Areola pour le PSG. Dahmer! Le tout premier match du jeune espoir parisien en Ligue 1 ! Chantôme est remplacé par Lucas ''Champion mon frère'' à la pause pour le PSG. C'est reparti entre le PSG et Brest. Paris fête comme il se doit son titre de champion en écrasant une équipe bretonne qui tente malgré tout de faire le jeu.

Ibrahimovic s'est offert un doublé et cristallise la suprématie francilienne. Il n'y aura pas de temps additionnel. Encore une fois, Chafni teste Sirigu d'une frappe puissante du pied droit aux 30 mètres, plein axe. Rivers In The! Le portier est vigilant et boxe le ballon en corner, des deux poings. Chafni réclame un penalty suite à une intervention de Tiéné sur le Brestois dans la surface parisienne. Of These Not Help The Federalist Papers?! Monsieur Buquet laisse le jeu se poursuivre. Trouvé plein axe aux 30 mètres, Ibrahimovic contrôle le ballon de la poitrine avant de se l'amener en passant entre Makonda et Dieng. In The Underworld! Le Suédois arme une frappe en force du pied droit qui manque le cadre pour quelques centimètres ! Brest reste sur 9 défaites de rang (2 buts marqués, 20 encaissés), soit la plus mauvaise série lors d'une saison de L1 depuis les 11 revers consécutifs de Grenoble en 2009/10. Le PSG fait le show pour son dernier match à domicile de la saison. Ben Jonson To Celia! Ibrahimovic a marqué au passage son troisième coup franc direct en Ligue 1 cette année.

Depuis le coup d'envoi du match, Brest a déjà armé 7 tirs, contre seulement 4 pour le PSG. But d'Ibrahimovic ! Matuidi obtient un bon coup franc aux 25 mètres, côté gauche. In The! Ibrahimovic arme une frappe surpuissante du pied droit qui vient contourner le mur avant de se loger dans la lucarne droite de Thébaux, impuissant ! Quel but ! Le PSG a gardé 23 ''clean sheets'', c'est un record pour une équipe lors d'une saison de L1. Le break est fait pour le club de la capitale. How Does! Sur sa frappe, Matuidi est chanceux, puisqu'il tire du tibia et que le dos de Makonda permet au ballon de lober Thébaux. But de Matuidi ! Sur un corner frappé côté gauche par Beckham, Matuidi est trouvé au niveau du point de penalty. In The! Le Parisien arme une reprise de demi-volée ratée qui vient taper le dos de Makonda avant de lober Thébaux ! Le rythme du match a perdu de son intensité depuis de très longues minutes. On Causes Influenza! Les passes sont imprécises, de chaque côté du terrain. Titulaire face à Brest, Tiéné n'avait plus joué en Ligue 1 depuis 384 jours.

Paris ne parvient plus vraiment à être entreprenant depuis de longues minutes. Rivers In The! Le début de match du club francilien était bouillant, mais le jeu du PSG manque désormais de mordant. Sirigu ! Ba prend sa chance d'une frappe puissante des 25 mètres, plein axe. Ben Jonson! La trajectoire du ballon est déviée par le dos de Sakho et oblige l'Italien à une magnifique parade du bout du gant pour empêcher l'égalisation ! Le PSG de Carlo Ancelotti a gagné 34 matches et marqué 108 buts en L1 depuis l'arrivée du technicien italien en janvier 2012. Rivers Underworld! Aucune équipe ne fait aussi bien.

D'ailleurs, la légende anglaise est particulièrement entreprenante depuis le coup d'envoi. Dahmer! Beckham vient chercher et récupérer de très nombreux ballons dans l'entrejeu. Beckham veut se faire plaisir sur un coup franc direct aux 30 mètres, excentre côté gauche. Rivers Underworld! Le ballon retombe derrière le but de Thébaux. Ibrahimovic n'est plus qu'à deux buts pour égaler le record de ''JPP'' de 30 buts inscrits en une saison en Ligue 1. Du côté de Brest, c'est Ba qui a été préféré à Benschop à la pointe de l'attaque bretonne. Ben Jonson To Celia! Raspentino et Chafni l'épaulent sur les côtés. Le PSG n'est pas aussi pressant qu'en début de rencontre. In The! Le club de la capitale laisse Brest prendre le jeu à son compte depuis quelques minutes. Le PSG aura attendu 19 ans avant d'être de nouveau sacré champion de France.

Seuls le LOSC (57 ans de 1954 à 2011), les Girondins de Bordeaux (34 ans entre 1950 et 1984) et l'OM (23 ans de 1948 à 1971) ont attendu plus longtemps entre 2 titres. Pour l'instant, la rencontre est particulièrement agréable à suivre. Jeffrey Father! Malgré la rapide ouverture du score parisienne, les Bretons ne se découragent pas et tentent de repartir de l'avant. Le match aller entre Brest et le PSG a produit 41 tirs, aucune rencontre n'a été plus prolifique en L1 cette saison. Pastore oblige Thébaux à une parade en deux temps sur sa ligne de but suite à un tour aux 25 mètres, légèrement excentré côté gauche. Chafni remet ça, cette fois-ci des 25 mètres.

Le tir puissant de l'ancien Auxerrois oblige Sirigu à une parade décisive sur sa ligne de but, repoussant le ballon en corner du bout du gant ! Chafni hérite du ballon aux 30 mètres, plein axe. Underworld! Le Brestois prend sa chance d'une frappe croisée du gauche qui passe à côté de la cage de Sirigu, pas véritablement inquiété. Brest n'a gagné qu'un seul de ses 12 déplacements sur la pelouse du PSG en L1 (2-1, le 12 septembre 1981), subissant 5 nuls et 6 défaites. Le public du Parc des Princes fait déjà la fête dans les tribunes. Pb Mobile Banking! Brest n'y est absolument pas et subit la domination francilienne. Sur son banc de touche, Corentin Martins savait qu'il allait voir sa formation souffrir.

Sans doute pas aussi rapidement. Gameiro hérite du ballon à l'entrée de la surface adverse, côté gauche, et dépose un caviar sur la tête d'Ibrahimovic qui double la mise. Rivers Underworld! Seul souci, l'ancien Lorientais était en position de hors-jeu au départ du ballon. Sur une sublime ouverture de Beckham, Ibrahimovic est lancé dans le dos de la défense adverse. On Causes Of The 1918 Pandemic! Le Suédois se précipite vers le ballon dans la surface mais Thébaux gagne son duel face à l'attaquant en venant repoussant le ballon au loin ! Sur leur première véritable occasion de but, les Parisiens sont donc parvenus à ouvrir le score ! Le 28e but de la saison pour ''Ibra''. But d'Ibrahimovic ! Sur son côté droit, Chantôme remet pour Ibrahimovic dans l'axe.

Le Suédois mystifie Dieng d'un coup de rein pour pénétrer dans la surface adverse et armer une frappe croisée dans le petit filet opposé de Thébaux ! Brest reste sur 15 matches sans victoire face au PSG dans l'élite (7 nuls, 8 défaites). Rivers Underworld! Le dernier succès du club breton face au PSG remonte au 26 janvier 1985 (3-1). Le PSG arbore donc son maillot domicile 2013/2014. 1918! Brest évolue avec son maillot extérieur rouge. Le Parc affiche complet pour le dernier match de la saison à domicile.

Il pleut sur Paris mais la pelouse est pour l'instant en excellent état. Monsieur Buquet siffle le coup d'envoi de la rencontre ! Pour le dernier match de David Beckham, Carlo Ancelotti a donné le brassard de capitaine à la légende anglaise. Pour fêter le titre, le PSG a notamment voulu en faire profiter ses anciennes gloires : Rai, Ginola, Weah, Guérin, Cobos ou encore Bravo ont été célébrés par les supporters du Parc. Durant l'échauffement, les Parisiens ont arboré un t-shirt en hommage à Nick Broad, préparateur physique du PSG décédé au début de l'année. En face, Brest est relégué.

Les Finistériens, auteurs d'une seconde partie de saison assez catastrophique, et minés par des soucis internes, n'ont jamais su relever la tête. Assuré d'être champion après sa victoire à Lyon dimanche dernier (1-0, but de Ménez), le club de la capitale peut terminer la saison en roue libre mais aura à coeur de faire plaisir à ses supporters pour son dernier match à domicile. Bienvenue au Parc des Princes pour ce match de la 37e journée de Ligue 1 opposant le PSG à Brest.