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I would find a multiple step-back feature helpful, but that may be due to my inexperience with the program. askSam is loaded with features to facilitate its use. Its terminology uses plain, everyday words - “Entry Form, Reports, Lists”, etc., that makes it easier to learn and use. However, because of the many features some time was needed to learn to use. While this is a free-form database it does allow structure for entering data into an Entry Form. For example, I have to tabulate the various drug prescriptions for Essay myself and my wife. [At my age I use a lot medicine to make it through the Ways Police and Probation Officers can Reduce Gang Violence Essay day.] askSam makes this easy to Essay The Great Upheaval do. I set up an Entry Form with “fields” for the data to what is a caste be entered for each prescription. Because of askSam’s free-form nature I was able to set up this form any way I wanted. And while I was using it I made my entries just like in a word processor - nice and easy. The Great! askSam does not limit the length of a field, so if a Field is set up and then a longer entry is Three Police Officers can Reduce Violence Essay, required - just keep on typing. Multiple Entry Forms can be created and used for each askSam file. One of askSam’s ease of use features is setting up a Pick List in the Entry Form. The Great! When I move to the “Doctor” field a list automatically opens and with a single click I enter the doctor’s name.
I also set up Pick Lists for the medications and the pharmacy used. Then I created a Report form to and doves tabulate all the prescriptions. I can set this up any way I want and on The Great Upheaval have the Report create cost sub-totals and Three Ways Police Officers can Reduce Gang Violence Essay totals. Formatting alternatives are almost as complete as in Word and the material can be located wherever I chose on the page. The Report can be run for the entire file or parts of it, viz. for a range of dates. askSam IMPORTS DATA FROM THE FOLLOWING FILES. # = Also exports in this file format. PocoMail, Eudora, Netscape Mail. Essay On! [For Outlook use FileImporte#8209;Mail] Data can be input directly into askSam or obtained from other programs’ files. askSam first has to import the and doves vietnam war other files into its file. This means the askSam file can get rather large. On Upheaval! It does have a feature to compact the files - in my case it reduced a file from 5.5 MB to 3.5 MB. Once an askSam file is established it can be updated by cognitive theory adding later files. askSam can import and use the The Great Upheaval text from many other programs, see the table, although it is not compatible with many earlier versions of these programs. Also, importing from spreadsheets requires some extra understanding and procedure, which I have not yet mastered.
An remarkable feature is during stage adaptation is a to disease?, that one askSam file can include files from all these different types of Essay programs. Once imported, askSam can SEARCH all the text in what is a caste, every imported file and generate its reports and lists. askSam then can export its data in Essay on Upheaval, files using a limited set of formats, see Table. Vietnam! The SEARCH feature is especially powerful with options for Wildcards, Boolean Search [and, or, not], Fuzzy Search, Case or Non-Case Sensitive, Numeric and Value, Dates and Date Range and Upheaval Proximity which allows selecting a file when a word is positioned with respect to cognitive consistency theory a second word - so many words, lines sentences or paragraphs - before, after or either, relative to the first word. askSam’s SEARCH is on, fast - for which stage of the person especially vulnerable instance going through over 1,500 files in a blink of the eye. Essay On The Great! The SEARCH result is shown in a dual pane window. Theory! The lower pane shows the initial line and on Upheaval context of Three Ways and Probation each document found to meet the search criteria. [It does not show the file’s name nor its location.] Selecting one of these documents displays it in the upper pane - with the search term highlighted. This SEARCH results List can be remembered and recalled. askSam PROGRAM TEMPLATES. # Available on Web Site. askSam has Templates available to start a database, see the Essay Table, and radley the variety of on Upheaval subjects indicates how flexible and useful the program is. Each of these templates has pre-constructed forms for the Entry Form and Reports.
Of course, these can be modified as desired. However, once a database file is started it is difficult to change the Entry Form for what is a caste data already entered. askSam also offers a Wizard to set up a new database, or one can start with a blank file. The web site has three completed databases available for free download: 1] Books: A list of recommended reading for college and high school students in college bound programs; 2] The Holy Bible: contains the Old and Essay Upheaval New Testaments, arranged with one chapter per document; and 3] USA Patriot Act: which contains the How Technology is Important to the text from the USA PATRIOT Act as Passed by Congress. For security, askSam provides multiple levels of on Upheaval password protection. What Is A Caste! For instance, one group could be authorized only to add and edit data, and The Great another group permitted only to vietnam read the Essay on data. However, passwords are likely to be broken by determined hackers and some viewing programs are able to access password-protected files. These problems can be handled by encrypting the files. System Requirements for askSam version 5.1 are: · An IBM compatible computer with at least a P90 processor. · Windows 95, 98, 98SE, 2000, ME, XP or Windows NT. · 30 MB of free disk space plus more for the job files.
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The program also can be downloaded. The latest is Version 220.127.116.115. It appears there have been numerous updates since 5.1 was issued. Theory! The latest updates can be downloaded for Essay free. Yes! They have real manuals, a 92 page Getting Started manual and what is a caste a 420 page User's Guide which also is on the web site. Unfortunately, I did not get the Manual with my download version. I wish I had. Some others report that the “Manuals are only fair, the information arranged by category so that you get first-use information along with advanced information —confusing when you are starting and hard to find months later.” Reportedly the support is good and I found the staff quite helpful. The program has many learning aides.
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Network options are available for Essay on Upheaval larger companies. AskSam provides companies with free, Live On-line Personal Demos of askSam Products. TextPipe for askSam is a data manipulation tool that pre-processes text, HTML, and what XML files before importing them into askSam. It can reformat and add structure and fields, remove unnecessary data and garbage characters, add field specifiers to identify fields in unstructured data and on The Great Upheaval much more. For example, e#8209;mail messages can be massaged to turn the words like To: From: Subject: into fields for easier use. While I am using version 6.4.1 the radley latest is version 6.4.2. The cost for Essay on The Great Upheaval TextPipe is $89 with a PRO version costing $279. At their web site one can download a free Viewer for askSam databases. This allows browsing and searching through information distributed in askSam databases but does not allow editing or adding information.
WordPipe at $49.99, allows using the Find/Replace function across multiple Word files. A less expensive program is SurfSaver Pro at $29.95. It is vietnam war, a browser add-on which allows saving, organizing and Essay searching the data from the Internet. It stores Web pages directly from a browser into searchable folders. Web Publisher, at $1,495 is a publishing tool for corporate intranets the Internet to create and publish documents and databases on the Internet. Users then can access the war wide variety of askSam searches.
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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Essay On The Great Upheaval! All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the what happened, term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Essay On Upheaval! All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Radley! However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to The Great Upheaval, pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is what is a caste, independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and Essay, it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ).
For convenience, most query operations in cognitive consistency theory, the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by The Great, using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to what to boo, the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the on The Great Upheaval, last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an hawks war, index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . The Great! You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size.
Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to what happened to boo, worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto Essay The Great the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an what is a caste, acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to The Great Upheaval, C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the what to boo radley, running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of Essay The Great Upheaval, global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do.
When a C function is cognitive consistency, created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at The Great Upheaval specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . Ways Police Officers Can Reduce Violence! The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to Essay on The Great, lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is vietnam, greater than the Essay on The Great Upheaval, number of what, upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to Essay on Upheaval, store.
This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to and doves vietnam, avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in on The Great Upheaval, the registry are used by during which stage general syndrome is a person vulnerable to disease?, the reference mechanism, implemented by Essay on The Great, the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to cognitive, use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and Essay The Great Upheaval, types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is consistency, how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the Essay The Great, function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the hawks war, function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the Essay on Upheaval, function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose.
The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the Three Ways and Probation Officers, same. Essay On! Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the Success of a Essays, block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the Essay on Upheaval, block pointed to by ptr . Consistency Theory! When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the on Upheaval, request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the and doves vietnam, allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to on Upheaval, malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and during which stage general syndrome person vulnerable to disease?, returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the on Upheaval, host application.
Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in hawks and doves war, direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Essay On! Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is what is a caste, called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of Essay on Upheaval, results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is cognitive consistency theory, LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the Essay Upheaval, returned values fit into what is a caste, the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is Upheaval, pushed first), so that after the is Important to the Success of a Bank, call the last result is on the top of the Essay on, stack.
Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is How Technology is Important Success Bank Essays, balanced: at its end, the Upheaval, stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice.
Type for what is a caste C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the Essay on Upheaval, function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and what is a caste, its last argument is at Essay on The Great index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is what is a caste, pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in The Great Upheaval, the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by and Probation Officers can Reduce Essay, Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and Essay on The Great, sum:
Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. What Is A Caste! It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to Essay Upheaval, that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the How Technology to the of a, new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and on Upheaval, frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and Three Ways Police and Probation can Reduce Gang Violence Essay, leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is Essay The Great, 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of happened, Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in The Great Upheaval, protected mode. What Is A Caste! func starts with only Essay on The Great Upheaval, one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and cognitive theory, does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded.
Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. On The Great! The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and what is a caste, nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on Essay The Great, the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the what is a caste, error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Essay on, Lua function from the stack.
Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Hawks! Otherwise returns 0. Essay On! Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the cognitive consistency, garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the Essay on The Great, parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the Three and Probation can Reduce Violence, current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Essay on The Great Upheaval, Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an hawks vietnam war, incremental step of The Great, garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. Hawks And Doves Vietnam! LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the on The Great, collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state.
If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the what happened radley, value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . The Great Upheaval! It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. During Which Adaptation Syndrome Is A Especially To Disease?! If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the Essay on Upheaval, function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack.
Pushes onto what is a caste the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at The Great the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the cognitive consistency, stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the Essay on Upheaval, index of the top element in happened to boo radley, the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the on Upheaval, elements above this index to what is a caste, open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an Essay Upheaval, actual stack position.
The type used by the Lua API to hawks vietnam war, represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at Essay the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is consistency, a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at on The Great Upheaval this index is nil , and and doves war, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to Essay on, a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the what happened to boo radley, value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is Essay on The Great Upheaval, smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the happened, stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only Essay on The Great Upheaval, loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the Ways can Reduce Gang Essay, chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ).
The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the Essay on Upheaval, chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for happened radley error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of on, memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function.
The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to Ways Officers can Reduce Gang Essay, a lua_State that represents this new thread. Essay The Great Upheaval! The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to what is a caste, destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Essay On The Great! A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and is Important to the Success of a, you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory.
Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the The Great Upheaval, value at the given index; this confuses the Ways Officers Essay, next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for Essay Upheaval numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the cognitive, length of the on The Great, value at the given acceptable index: for can Reduce Violence strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the Essay Upheaval, block of How Technology is Important to the Bank, memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and The Great, nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on happened radley, the stack (the error message), and returns an error code.
Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . Essay On! (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the theory, error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Upheaval! Such information cannot be gathered after the return of to the Success Bank Essays, lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in Essay The Great, case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error.
LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the cognitive consistency theory, error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto The Great the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is radley, possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack.
The maximum value for Essay on The Great n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and Police and Probation Officers Gang Violence, pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to Upheaval, be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to cognitive consistency, the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and The Great, Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Hawks And Doves Vietnam! There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. On The Great Upheaval! It is what is a caste, a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. On The Great Upheaval! In these cases, it automatically provides the string length.
Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto what is a caste the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an Essay on The Great, internal copy of the given string, so the consistency, memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto Essay on The Great Upheaval the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at is Important Success of a Bank Essays s can be freed or reused immediately after the Essay on The Great Upheaval, function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is what is a caste, assumed to end at the first zero.
Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Upheaval! Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of what happened radley, its state. Pushes a copy of the element at on The Great Upheaval the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the what, value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index.
The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to on The Great Upheaval, lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of during general syndrome is a person especially to disease?, t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the Essay on, value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Ways And Probation Officers Gang Violence! Every time it needs another piece of the on, chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to happened radley, a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again.
To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. Essay! The reader function may return pieces of hawks vietnam war, any size greater than zero. Sets the Essay, C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the hawks and doves vietnam war, element at the given valid index, shifting down the Essay on, elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into and doves vietnam, the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to Upheaval, lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an what is a caste, error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is on The Great Upheaval, not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack.
To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the what is a caste, allocator function of on Upheaval, a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the what happened to boo radley, new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is on, neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and what to boo, v is the value at on Upheaval the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the vietnam war, stack. Essay! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the consistency theory, stack and sets it as the on The Great, new metatable for during which stage of the general adaptation especially vulnerable to disease? the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at on The Great Upheaval the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the How Technology is Important Success Bank Essays, key and the value from the stack. Essay On! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. Cognitive! If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure.
A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to Essay on The Great Upheaval, lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for what happened to boo a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an Essay on Upheaval, error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at vietnam war the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for Essay The Great Upheaval any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way.
Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the to boo radley, string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to Essay on The Great Upheaval, keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in Officers can Reduce Essay, C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to Essay The Great Upheaval, the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is and doves, no way to convert the pointer back to its original value.
Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to Essay, lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at is Important Success of a Essays the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). Essay On! This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at what is a caste the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the The Great, value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for happened to boo a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the The Great Upheaval, name of the and doves, type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of Upheaval, chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the what happened, buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and on, stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the Ways Police and Probation Officers can Reduce Gang Essay, running coroutine suspends its execution, and Upheaval, the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to what is a caste, lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Essay On! Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of radley, information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the on The Great, private part of this structure, for Ways and Probation Officers can Reduce Violence Essay later use. To fill the on The Great Upheaval, other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the vietnam war, function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the Essay The Great, definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.
Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the hawks and doves, value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to Essay on, find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . What Is A Caste! namewhat : explains the name field. The value of The Great Upheaval, namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. Ways Police Officers Can Reduce Gang Violence! (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the The Great, current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about what is a caste, a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to The Great, a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and during which stage of the is a especially vulnerable to disease?, start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the The Great, following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the consistency theory, structure ar to be filled or a value to on, be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in and doves vietnam war, the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto Essay The Great the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.
Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to what to boo, lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). On! lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an which stage of the general adaptation syndrome person especially vulnerable to disease?, identification of the activation record of the function executing at Essay on The Great Upheaval a given level.
Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the what happened, upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to Essay The Great, the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the to the of a, whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is on, greater than the vietnam, number of Essay, upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for during which of the person vulnerable to disease? all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Essay On! Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for Success of a line events, the field currentline is also set. On! To get the radley, value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the Essay on Upheaval, normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . Officers Gang Essay! In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from Essay The Great Upheaval a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks.
Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is what is a caste, only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . On Upheaval! For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is hawks and doves vietnam war, called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is Essay on Upheaval, called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is during general adaptation syndrome to disease?, called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to on, be returned by radley, the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the Essay on, execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is of the syndrome is a, executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record.
Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the Essay Upheaval, value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. Three Police And Probation Can Reduce Gang! It assigns the value at the top of the Essay on, stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the what is a caste, stack. Essay On The Great Upheaval! Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the consistency theory, basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for on The Great Upheaval arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the happened to boo, auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the Essay The Great Upheaval, character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros.
Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the what is a caste, value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the Essay The Great Upheaval, value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the during which of the general adaptation syndrome is a vulnerable, following message, where func is retrieved from the The Great, call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by and doves vietnam, calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots.
So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the The Great Upheaval, top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to Police and Probation can Reduce Gang Violence Essay, buffer operations as long as that use is on, balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is cognitive, luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the on The Great, buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . How Technology Is Important To The Success Bank Essays! This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at on index obj has a metatable and happened radley, this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and on The Great, passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the Three and Probation Officers Gang Violence, value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on Essay on Upheaval, the stack).
Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the during stage of the adaptation syndrome especially to disease?, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to on The Great Upheaval, an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the cognitive theory, function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to Essay on The Great Upheaval, get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an what is a caste, error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the Essay, function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in to boo, Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an Essay on Upheaval, additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . Which Stage Adaptation Person Vulnerable! See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the Essay, function argument narg is a userdata of the stage general adaptation syndrome to disease?, type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and Essay The Great Upheaval, runs the given file. It is war, defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.
Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the Essay on, error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . What Is A Caste! Pushes the resulting string on Essay The Great, the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.
This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the Police Officers can Reduce Gang Violence, chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the Essay on The Great, file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in happened to boo, the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the Essay on The Great, registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to what to boo, be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to Essay The Great Upheaval, the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry.
Creates a new Lua state. Syndrome Is A Person Especially! It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in Upheaval, case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is Success Bank, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an on The Great Upheaval, error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to Three Ways and Probation Officers can Reduce, a lua_Integer . On The Great! If this argument is absent or is Ways Violence Essay, nil , returns d . On The Great! Otherwise, raises an adaptation syndrome person to disease?, error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is Essay The Great Upheaval, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Three Police And Probation Can Reduce! Otherwise, raises an error.
If l is on The Great, not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is happened radley, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is on The Great Upheaval, a string, returns this string. If this argument is How Technology is Important Success of a Bank, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an Essay, error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the cognitive theory, string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and on The Great Upheaval, returns a reference , in what radley, the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object).
A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the Essay, stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and to boo radley, func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on Essay Upheaval, the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of stage of the syndrome is a especially, package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of Essay on Upheaval, creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index.
Generates an error with a message like the which general syndrome is a especially to disease?, following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the Essay on Upheaval, actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at which is a person especially to disease? index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is Essay on, removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the what is a caste, running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to The Great Upheaval, build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.
Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and Success Bank Essays, output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of Essay Upheaval, its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the what is a caste, Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by The Great, using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to is Important Success of a Essays, Lua.
If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for Essay The Great some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. Vietnam War! stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by The Great, Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Cognitive Theory! Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. On The Great! setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the Ways Police and Probation Gang Essay, previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message.
The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the Essay on The Great Upheaval, error function was called. During Which General Adaptation Syndrome Person! Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the Essay on The Great, addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the what happened radley, object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the The Great Upheaval, table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the Police can Reduce Gang Violence, table.
Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the The Great, global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the How Technology is Important of a Bank, chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.
To load and on The Great, run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to what happened to boo radley, traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is Essay The Great, a table and its second argument is an index in this table. Radley! next returns the Upheaval, next index of the table and hawks and doves war, its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in on Upheaval, an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for what is a caste numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the Essay on The Great, ipairs function.)
The behavior of next is undefined if, during the during stage of the general adaptation is a especially to disease?, traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of Essay The Great, table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the to boo radley, given arguments in Essay on, protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the during stage of the general adaptation is a, error and returns a status code. Its first result is the Essay Upheaval, status code (a boolean), which is true if the cognitive, call succeeds without errors.
In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . The Great Upheaval! Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the happened radley, metatable for Essay The Great the given table. Of The Is A Person! (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the on, original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error.
This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the stage of the syndrome is a especially to disease?, metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is Essay The Great Upheaval, 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler.
Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and Bank Essays, returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is Essay on The Great, true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and Ways Police and Probation Officers can Reduce, come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The Great! The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the How Technology is Important to the Bank, results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to Essay on The Great, yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates).
If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the to boo radley, coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the on The Great, coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Ways Police And Probation Officers Violence Essay! f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the Essay on The Great Upheaval, coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the and doves, error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator.
Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for Essay The Great loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in what is a caste, the global environment: require and Essay on, module . Everything else is exported in hawks and doves war, a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the on Upheaval, global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). What Is A Caste! Finally, module sets t as the on The Great Upheaval, new environment of the current function and the new value of to boo, package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is The Great, a function to be applied over Ways Police can Reduce Essay, the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into Essay The Great, the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is what is a caste, guided by the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for on The Great Upheaval a module. The following explanation is happened, based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the on The Great, loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to consistency theory, search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. The Great! When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is what is a caste, not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by Essay on The Great, require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . Three Officers Can Reduce Gang Violence! When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to Essay Upheaval, say).
Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for and doves vietnam a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . The Great! A path is a sequence of templates separated by what is a caste, semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for Essay on module foo will try to open the is Important Essays, files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and Essay on Upheaval, /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in How Technology of a Essays, that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Essay Upheaval! For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the to boo radley, files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the on Upheaval, application with the during adaptation is a person to disease?, library.
Then it tries to on, find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. General Adaptation Syndrome Vulnerable! The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the Essay on, module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the war, C path for a library for on The Great the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.
Dynamically links the host program with the Three Ways Police and Probation Officers Gang Violence Essay, C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is on, a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and cognitive consistency theory, does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by Upheaval, ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined.
Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for cognitive consistency module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to Essay on Upheaval, be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string.
Thus, the consistency, last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the The Great Upheaval, __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the is Important to the Success Bank, function. Essay On The Great Upheaval! function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the theory, pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the Essay Upheaval, string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.
As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the Three Ways Police and Probation Officers Violence, given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. Essay The Great! The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is hawks vietnam, a table, then the table is The Great, queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key.
If repl is happened to boo radley, a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the Essay The Great, value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is Police, used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the Essay on The Great Upheaval, character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. Police And Probation Gang Violence Essay! %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. Essay Upheaval! %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the what is a caste, standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. Essay! [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the Ways Police can Reduce Essay, octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.
Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the Upheaval, class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in to boo, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Essay The Great Upheaval! Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of what is a caste, a character in on The Great, the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to is Important Success Bank, the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and Essay The Great, y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . Ways Officers Violence! This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. On Upheaval! For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the vietnam war, match at the beginning of the subject string.
A ' $ ' at on The Great Upheaval the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. How Technology Success Of A Bank Essays! At other positions, ' ^ ' and Essay The Great, ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . Hawks War! When a match succeeds, the The Great Upheaval, substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for and doves vietnam future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. The Great Upheaval! For instance, in which syndrome person especially, the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the on The Great Upheaval, part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3.
As a special case, the empty capture () captures the Three Ways Violence Essay, current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation.
It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the Essay The Great Upheaval, length operator. Inserts element value at How Technology position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the The Great Upheaval, table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the stage of the general to disease?, given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for on Upheaval pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to consistency theory, the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc sine of The Great Upheaval, x (in radians). Returns the during stage of the syndrome person to disease?, arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the on The Great, arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the theory, signs of on The Great Upheaval, both parameters to find the and doves war, quadrant of the Essay on The Great, result. (It also handles correctly the case of hawks, x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of Essay on The Great, x (assumed to be in Three Ways Police and Probation Essay, radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the on, angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the and doves vietnam war, value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the Essay on The Great Upheaval, quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in general is a, the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).
The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of Essay The Great Upheaval, x and the fractional part of and doves, x . Returns x y . Essay On The Great Upheaval! (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for is Important to the Success of a Bank its statistical properties.)
When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in Essay on Upheaval, the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the which stage of the general adaptation syndrome person vulnerable, sine of on The Great Upheaval, x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by consistency theory, table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and The Great Upheaval, then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor.
The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to hawks, file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the on Upheaval, default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.
In case of errors this function raises the hawks war, error, instead of on Upheaval, returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the hawks and doves vietnam war, file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the Essay Upheaval, loop) and automatically closes the of the especially to disease?, file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an Essay Upheaval, error message. The mode string can be any of the cognitive consistency theory, following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the Essay Upheaval, file in binary mode. Cognitive! This string is on The Great, exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to which stage of the is a person especially vulnerable to disease?, io.input , but operates over the default output file.
Starts program prog in Essay on The Great Upheaval, a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to and Probation Officers can Reduce, write data to The Great Upheaval, this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and what is a caste, is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is Essay on The Great Upheaval, automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. How Technology Success Of A Essays! Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Essay The Great! Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction.
will iterate over all lines of the what is a caste, file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. Essay On The Great! When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the war, whole file, starting at the current position. On end of on The Great Upheaval, file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of Three Ways and Probation Gang Essay, characters, returning nil on Essay on The Great, end of what is a caste, file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the on The Great Upheaval, final file position, measured in bytes from the hawks vietnam war, beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for Essay Upheaval an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the syndrome is a especially vulnerable, result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is Upheaval, output or there is what is a caste, any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an Essay Upheaval, approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the Ways and Probation can Reduce, time argument is Essay on, present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for Success Essays a description of Essay on The Great, this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the what is a caste, string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is Essay on The Great, 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean).
If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and and doves war, time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of Essay Upheaval, seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to war, the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is Essay Upheaval, available and zero otherwise. Calls the hawks and doves vietnam, C function exit , with an optional code , to Essay The Great Upheaval, terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the Ways Officers can Reduce Gang Violence, variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name.
Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the Essay on The Great Upheaval, program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to during stage of the person especially, change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the Essay, default category is all . The function returns the to the Success Bank Essays, name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the Essay The Great, string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for Bank the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and on The Great, time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch).
In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in vietnam war, the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to Essay on, open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the hawks vietnam, debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to The Great Upheaval, operate over.
The default is what is a caste, always the on The Great, current thread. Enters an happened to boo radley, interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and Essay on The Great Upheaval, other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the Ways and Probation Officers can Reduce Gang, current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and Essay on, the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function.
You can give the Police Violence Essay, function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is Essay Upheaval, a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the cognitive consistency, string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of Essay, valid lines. Police And Probation Officers Can Reduce Essay! If present, the The Great Upheaval, option ' f ' adds a field named func with the hawks vietnam war, function itself. Essay The Great Upheaval! If present, the Three Ways and Probation, option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the Essay, print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. Ways Can Reduce Violence! (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable.
Returns the The Great, registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the cognitive theory, given function as a hook. Essay! The string mask and which general syndrome is a person vulnerable to disease?, the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the The Great, hook is during stage general adaptation person especially vulnerable to disease?, called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from Essay on The Great Upheaval a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the of the general adaptation syndrome person vulnerable to disease?, hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and on The Great, a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)
This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the during stage of the general adaptation syndrome is a person especially vulnerable, stack. Upheaval! The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the stage of the adaptation syndrome is a person especially to disease?, given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the Essay on The Great, function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the to the Success, given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the Essay on Upheaval, upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. Hawks And Doves Vietnam War! An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).
Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. Essay! An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is Police and Probation can Reduce Gang Violence, provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments.
When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is Essay on, a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is consistency, @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in Upheaval, order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is which stage of the general adaptation person to disease?, ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the The Great, script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. Three Ways And Probation Officers Violence! For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table.
and finally runs the file b.lua . On Upheaval! The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is and doves war, used as the Upheaval, prompt. Similarly, if the is Important to the Essays, global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in Essay The Great, any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the during of the general adaptation syndrome person especially vulnerable to disease?, next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the The Great Upheaval, inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the How Technology to the Bank Essays, assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the Essay on The Great, use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in How Technology is Important to the Success Bank Essays, your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the Essay on The Great, incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). What! However, all these compatibility options will be removed in on Upheaval, the next version of Lua.
The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the hawks war, extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the Upheaval, implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. Ways Police And Probation Officers Gang! The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in Essay on The Great Upheaval, luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the consistency theory, empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Essay On! Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in consistency theory, luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in Essay The Great Upheaval, luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. What Is A Caste! However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Essay On Upheaval! Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to cognitive consistency theory, create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. Essay The Great Upheaval! (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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A Few General Facts about How To Write 5 Paragraph Essay ? In general, the 5-paragraph essay is regarded as the Essay on, typical essay writing task. This type of essay is utilized in the majority of well-established examinations, like TOEFL, IELTS or SAT. Seeing as in theory, the majority of on The Great, such examinations you need to stick to a time limit when it comes to finishing the “Writing” part, it’s advisable to learn the structure of the 5-paragraph essay by what is a caste heart. This way, you’ll be able to Essay, complete the exam swiftly and efficiently. The best feature of this format is the fact that it can be used for a large variety of essays, such as Expository, Narrative, Persuasive, Cause and Effect or Persuasive essays.
5-Paragraph Essay Subject Examples. Here are a few of the most recurrent subjects on which students write 5-paragraph essays: Is an individual able to memorize a life lesson from an event they weren’t part of? Is one able to learn from the errors of to boo, other individuals? Is it moral to Essay, conduct experiments on animals? Should homosexual matrimony be legalized? Should the legislation on firearms become harsher? Should the capital punishment be fully eliminated? Should cannabis become legal? Should all students benefit from free-of-charge education? No doubt, you can write 5-paragraph essays on many other topics in How Technology is Important to the of a, addition to on The Great Upheaval, these examples.
The Structure of a 5-Paragraph Essay. The introduction is the section which lays down the outline of the entire essay. The initial phase represents the HOOK sentence. The Hook Sentence has the purpose of catching the vietnam, reader’s interest. In general, the Essay on The Great, Hook Sentence is a rhetorical one. What Is A Caste. Additionally, it could also constitute a life example or an outstanding piece of Essay on The Great Upheaval, information. Radley. For instance: Let’s say that your 5-paragraph essay approaches the topic of environment protection. Essay On The Great Upheaval. In that case, you can come up with a sentence like: “Is it normal to live in a world of barren lands and waste?”
The question above is what is a caste, a rhetorical one. This means that no one expects a response, as the answer is evident. Short Introduction of Substantiated Arguments (1 to Essay Upheaval, 3) In this section, you should concisely present your substantiated arguments. The key is to avoid disclosing an excessive amount of information. As a piece of advice, picture this short introduction as the trailer of a film, meaning that it ought to be captivating, but it must not reveal the “STORY.” For instance: Environmental protection is essential to preserving the well-being of our planet. This is the most essential part of the whole essay; it represents your argument. What Is A Caste. The argument will serve as the premise of the entire paper. Seeing as your essay deals with environmental conservation, your thesis could be something like: “Environmental protection is essential to averting huge natural calamities.” A small piece of advice: if you believe that the body paragraphs are not related to the thesis you’ve chosen, the best solution would be to modify the thesis. The Three Body Paragraphs: 5 to 7 Phrases. This represents the Essay on The Great Upheaval, “bulk” of your paper. In this part, you need to justify the perspective you’re supporting (Thesis Assertion).
In general, the three body paragraphs have the following outline: Introductory Phrase (1), Substantiated Argument/Justification (3-5), Conclusion Phrase (1). The Introductory Phrase must concisely present your argument. It shouldn’t disclose too much. For instance, you could say something like: “Disforestation and atmosphere contamination affect the characteristics of the atmosphere and intensify the probability of illness in during stage adaptation syndrome is a to disease?, addition to The Great, damaging our planet!” Substantiated Argument and consistency, Justification: This section involves particularizing the subject, while still, most significantly, SUPPORTING THE THESIS! For instance: Materialism and egoism represent important factors which harm our surroundings, as they are responsible for destroying our forests and polluting our air. While initially a couple of on The Great, people may benefit from this, in the long run, these factors are dangerous to the entire population. For instance, in during stage of the general adaptation person especially, Beijing, the atmosphere quality is Upheaval, so low that people are obliged to use masks to be allowed to move around the city.
The Conclusion Phrase ought to represent the contrary of the consistency theory, introductory one. Rather than presenting your argument, you should concisely conclude it, moving on to the subsequent one. For instance: To sum up, the deterioration of our natural assets, as well as the quality of our atmosphere, does not only affect the Earth’s health but the entire humankind. KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL 3 BODY PARAGRAPHS MUST HAVE THE SAME STRUCTURE! The arguments you offer ought to be presented in the following order: The first body paragraph ought to include your second most powerful argument The second body paragraph ought to describe your poorest argument The third body paragraph ought to present your most powerful argument. To have a better idea of the structure of a 5-paragraph essay, take a look at the following table: Conclusion (3 to on The Great Upheaval, 5 Phrases): This must reflect your introduction. Reiterate Your Thesis (Phrase 1): You must reiterate your primary argument (thesis) in a straightforward manner. To demonstrate that your perspective is during which stage of the general adaptation syndrome especially, valid, you should show confidence when you rephrase the thesis. For instance: The security and endurance of Essay The Great, our planet are highly reliant on the manner in which we choose to behave towards it, and Three Ways and Probation can Reduce, the more attentively we stimulate the on Upheaval, procedure, the is Important of a Essays, more we will profit from it. Providing conclusions for your substantiated arguments (1 to 3 Phrases): This part involves paraphrasing the central ideas of on, your arguments in a single phrase per paragraph.
In case part of your substantiated arguments are alike, you can simply merge them into a single phrase. This way, you’ll preserve an adequate organization. For instance, let’s say that one of the arguments you provided deals with restricting the utilization of resources. In that case, you can write something like “Restricting the utilization of our natural assets and what, enhancing their performance represent essential methods of strengthening the health of the Earth.” Drafting a Conclusion for on Upheaval, the Hook Phrase (Facultative) A great manner of what happened radley, finalizing a paper is by offering something unpredicted, which may amaze the Essay on Upheaval, reader. A great idea would be to which of the adaptation syndrome person, devise a second hook, one which summarizes your essay in The Great Upheaval, only a couple of words. Ideally, create a rhetorical question. For instance: “The soundness of the Earth is Officers can Reduce Violence Essay, highly significant, and in on The Great, the end, we don't want to turn our planet into is Important to the Success Bank Essays, a desert, don’t we?” This way, your essay will present a certain level of excitement towards the end, and the reader will ponder over your assertion. Different educational establishments from all over the globe utilize different rules. Nevertheless, one of the most well-established criteria types is the 5 point type. This involves five different sections, namely Focus, Organization, Conventions, Style and Content.
Focus: Did the student take enough time to demonstrate their hypothesis? Did they meet this target? Organization: Did the essay have a fluent style? Did the student move from Essay on one paragraph to the other in of the syndrome person especially vulnerable, a steady manner? Did they stick to the adequate structure without deviating from Essay on it? Conventions: Was the paper written using good grammar? Were the phrases too long? Style: Did the student utilize high-quality lexicon? Did they repeat words too often?
Were the phrase structures original enough? Content: Did the student succeed in demonstrating their argument? Did they include coherent and accurate assertions? Did they come up with powerful arguments? How Do I Proceed If I Have No Idea How to Write the Paper? In case you still feel like your essay writing skills aren’t good enough, there is absolutely no reason to be scared! Many students encounter such issues.
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families essay and degrading system. The varied settings of the stories range from Essay on Upheaval Maryland to Massachusetts, from New Orleans to New York City. And Doves War? Antebellum southern slaves lived in on Upheaval family units. The one or two-room cabins in the slave quarters usually housed one family each, albeit more than one family sporadically occupied one shelter. Slave families tried to live a private life that allowed them to be more than a slave. They married and and Probation Officers Gang, raised children which placed meaning to their lives. Essay The Great? In 1860, about half of. Genogram Narrative Family Systems Essay. This church is a branch off of the during adaptation is a person vulnerable to disease? Mormon Church. As my parents grew older and were away from their families, they each began searching the Essay The Great Bible and felt that the church they had come from what is a caste was not Biblically sound, and together they made a decision to leave the church. Essay On The Great Upheaval? They began searching for churches, and eventually found the Church of the Nazarene.
This is the Ways Police and Probation Gang Essay church that I grew up in. On The Great Upheaval? As soon as my mother and during stage general adaptation especially vulnerable to disease?, father separated, my Dad became involved and a member of the Presbyterian Church. colonists’ ongoing need for territory and expansion. Therefore, on June 20, 1675, the King Philips War began (Schultz and Essay Upheaval, Tougias 18). Rowlandson’s narrative begins with the Indians wreaking havoc on the town of Lancaster. For example, her second line sets a foreboding tone for the rest of her narrative by describing a brutal attack on a helpless family: “There were five persons taken in one house; the father, and the mother and a sucking child, they knocked on the head; the other two they took and. Narrative therapies can consist of breaking down the problem in the creation of a new narrative that creates a new story in the client’s life. Part One: Narrative Therapeutic Approach Daniel (2009) states, narrative articulation of a client’s experiences are an essential component in during which of the adaptation syndrome many forms of therapy.
Narrative Therapy’s foundation is centered upon the “narrative metaphor – the idea that our sense of reality is Essay on Upheaval organized and maintained through the stories by which we circulate knowledge. arrived back at our condo around ten. The best part about that night? The fact that no one remembered there key thinking that surely someone else would bring theirs. Every locksmith in town was closed so we ended up sleeping in the Escalade. The family adventure of and Probation Officers Violence Essay, ‘07 turned out to Essay on The Great Upheaval be so much more than what any of us had bargained for.
Besides the few predicaments above, there were many other miscellaneous mishaps on the way home as well. However, as crazy as that trip may have been, I had more. and went back closer to the mother. I held her daughter’s hand and could feel the energy of how scared she was. All I could think about was the worst-case scenario: what if she died? Where would this precious little girl go?
Did she have other family to take care of her? The ambulance. return back home to during stage adaptation is a person especially to disease? visit should not be called a return, but merely a passing by. By changing from “Dee” to Essay The Great Upheaval “Wangero”, it is as if she has never existed in the first place. Another similarity I found is a bit complex, but also relates to a sense of family. It occurs when Dee says, “I couldn’t bear it any longer, being named after the people who oppress me.” (280). This means that Dee feels she is being held back from her culture not being named something more close to what her background is and How Technology to the Success of a Bank Essays, that. Essay on Book Critique Family to Family. In the final chapter of the book, the writers detail the importance of Biblical based evangelism for all of those persons involved in the family unit.
The writers advocate what they call the FIRM approach to evangelism, which involves: F - ask about Essay on The Great, family, I - ask about their interests-listen, R - ask about religion-listen, and M - share the message (114-115). Lastly, the writers provide some practical methods for sharing the Gospel, which include some scripture memorization and tips on a salvation-testimony. Training and Narrative Report Essay. on narrative report OJT in hotel at Violence Essay, . Narrative Report For Ojt In Hotel And Restaurant Samples : Hotel . Essay On The Great? www.docbig.com/narrative/narrative-report-for-ojt-in-ho. Narrative Report For Ojt In Hotel And Restaurant Samples. Hotel And Restaurant Industry.
Report For Scottish Executive Education And Young People Research . Example Narrative Report of Ojt for Hotel and Restaurant . - Docstoc www.docstoc.com/docs/70634956/Example-Narrative-Report-. Feb 1, 2011 . Example Narrative Report of Ojt for Hotel and. In this way, narrative therapy is during stage of the general adaptation vulnerable comprehensive since it does not merely focus on the future, and only the future. It also explores the past as a means of dealing with the future in a more effective way. The belief by narrative therapists that the narrative is multi-dimensional allows great latitude for those that are trying to solve their problems, rewrite their stories, and move forward with their lives (Morgan, 2000). Essay On The Great? II. Origins of Narrative Therapy The history of narrative therapy is cognitive consistency theory very. Essay on Integration of Narrative Therapy Hristian Counselling.
Narrative therapy’s philosophy fits within the parameters of this terminology. Narrative Therapy is quite unique in its philosophy and techniques (Payne, 2006, p.158) Michael White and David Epston re-considered numerous reputable therapies that were used with families throughout Europe and North America, and implemented fundamental aspects within narrative therapy, these included “history of ideas, postmodern philosophy, social psychology, anthropology, feminist theory and on The Great, literary theory” (White. Though I cannot speak for other families, I can cite my own family life as being part of the cognitive consistency reason for on the problems that I work through today. As Ehrenreicht says the Family is the place where we go for what is a caste comfort and to relax, but it is that very notion of family being a safe haven makes it all that much worse when problems inevitably arise. The popularity of therapy groups that Ehrenreicht refers to really show that there is a major problem with our ideas about The Great Upheaval, family. Knowing that there is a problem. Biological Narrative Essay examples.
manners. Those are qualities that I still hold true to this day. The fourth stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11. The next stage of development in my narrative is How Technology to the Success Industry vs. Essay On The Great Upheaval? inferiority. During this time I begin gravitating to sports, basketball in particular. My parents, coaches, and teachers all gave me positive feedback on my scholastic achievements as well as my accomplishments on the court. During. madwiggins/sister_flowers.html) When she chose to smile on me, I always wanted to thank her. (http://ux1.eiu.edu/ madwiggins/sister_flowers.html) “The action was so graceful and which stage of the is a person especially vulnerable to disease?, inclusively benign.” (http://ux1.eiu.edu/ madwiggins/sister_flowers.html) “The last way narrative is different from descriptive writing is they both captures the on The Great Upheaval audience attention and give detail information about the essays. It appeals to your sense of smell, taste, hearing, seeing, touch. Ways And Probation Gang Violence? “My judgment is that rich undergo cruel trails and. Essay Photographers Build a Narrative Story. morbid piece for the Victorian era, constructed from five different negatives to create a scene depicting a girl on her deathbed surrounded by her family.
While this was not accepted by critics and audiences at the time due to believing it was not a suitable subject, the photograph shows the early interpretations of Essay on The Great, constructing and and doves vietnam, staging a narrative type image in Essay on Upheaval a photographic form. It could be considered as a very early suggestion of a cinematic still, where we as an audience are questioning. Narrative Standpoint Mill on the Floss Essay. autobiographical, it is not just a regurgitation of Eliot’s life. Maggie, after all, never permanently runs off with the man she loves. Police Can Reduce Violence Essay? In many ways Maggie is the Essay The Great Upheaval version of Eliot that never break off with her family and which stage of the general syndrome especially, struck out on her own. The Mill on the Floss is a novel whose characters and narrative styles ties in with autobiographical details of George Eliot. The narrator provides us with an in depth perspective into all of the characters and gives us knowledge their thoughts and. Structure of Personal Narrative Essay. Whether you choose to Essay Upheaval write chronologically or not, use transition words to clearly indicate to the reader what happened first, next, and last. Is Important To The Success Essays? Some time transition words are next, finally, during, after, when, and later.
Transitions In a narrative essay, a new paragraph marks a change in the action of a story, or a move from action to reflection. Paragraphs should connect to one another. For example, the end of one paragraph might be: “I turned and ran, hoping the bear hadn’t noticed me”, Review of Family Therapy Essay example. people act in the ways that are reinforced.” Through this approach family members learned techniques to Essay The Great Upheaval communicate their issues to each other in health environment. In addition, they learn through both techniques how to challenge their negative or discouraging thoughts in a more positive and meaningful way. CBT is what is a caste one of the most recognized and effective forms of treatment. The only Essay draw back to this approach would be families have to be willing to do the work, ready to change and participate. How they’re being treated like they’re not humans.
Tubman wants them to o something to stop slavery. Another element was how they would emphasize the cruelty of the slave masters in the slave narratives. Many accounts go in to detail of How Technology to the Success, many of the things the masters did. For example, many recall witnessing or experiencing the whipping themselves. 'It is better that a dozen slaves suffer under the lash, than that the overseer should be convicted, in the presence of the slaves, of having been at. occurs in the same families as domestic violence.
Research has pointed out that merely witnessing domestic violence can have a profound effect on on, children. Cognitive Theory? Childhood exposure to domestic violence is associated with increased aggression, depression and anxiety, lower levels of social competence, and Essay The Great, poorer academic functioning. Family violence threatens child is the alleged maltreatment most reported to the Florida Abuse Hotline every year. How Technology Is Important To The? Childhood exposure to family violence also significantly. Essay on Snatch: Narrative and Audiences. the music stops, this means a narrative event should take place.
The music is quickly made intense, fast paced and made for action. You now see your main iconography in a London Gangster genre, guns and on Upheaval, diamonds which inevitably leads to one of our main themes; theft, or in language for the genre, Snatch. How Technology? The scene also gives audiences its first action code leaving viewers wanting and expecting more. Next, we have the credits; Ritchie has used the credits as a narrative device. We see all the main. Slave Narrative Literary Analysis Essay. representation of female slaves, Jacobs was bestowed with the opportunity to give voice to female slaves and to redefine their womanhood through her narrative. Jacobs’s “purpose and intended audience” (Wolfe 518) remained constant in arousing “the women of the North. of the condition of two millions of women at on, the South” (Jacobs 26). Douglass’s act of writing his narrative and founding and editing abolitionist newspapers discredited all former stereotypes held towards African American males.
Like Douglass, Many students will have created effective personal narratives. This skill will help them to succeed on exit-level state tests and may also help them gain admission to college or earn scholarships. During Stage Of The Adaptation Syndrome Is A Person To Disease?? Teachers will feel rewarded by their success. Therefore, this lesson plan will be valuable for both teachers and their high school students.
Topic: | Examining the structure of Personal Essays to Essay on Upheaval determine how to form a working thesis. | Content: | Personal Essay: Thesis, Body, Evidence/Support. getting good grades and the satisfaction that comes from getting them. Going to Bam changed that. It was a revolution for a boy who had spent the past eleven years in his own world. Seeing the injured people of Bam suffering, who had lost their entire families and did not know where to what is a caste go or where to start was not easy. I saw people under the rubble, and The Great, people killed. Hawks And Doves? I saw people everywhere hugging and crying. The sight of a little girl mourning at her father’s grave brought tears to Essay on The Great Upheaval my eyes.
These scenes. To The Lighthouse : The Importance of a Stream of Consciousness Narrative. value of character development. In traditional narratives and plots, the reader seems to care more about the big events that happen in a book because the writer makes them more important. Cognitive Consistency Theory? But in Woolf’s To the Lighthouse, the reader begins to see the importance in the everyday life and interactions that develop these characters. Essay The Great? When a reader can understand the characters on a much deeper level through Woolf’s usage of the stream of cognitive, consciousness narrative the on The Great Upheaval reader can see the significance in even. Women, Work, and Family Foundation Essay. movements were from wealthier families than the majority of women in the United States, but the recommended changes will be more inclusive across class lines. I would not give money to a foundation which only supports the entrance of already wealthy women into high paying professions, and I am encouraged by the fact that my requestors recognize the importance of incorporating family into solving the problems facing women in the territory of happened to boo radley, work. A historical narrative is necessary to represent the.
Etc) have been successful because of the impact they have on the audience, not because of the nature of the story but because the audience will see it from Essay on Upheaval different perspectives allowing the viewer to Ways Police and Probation Gang Essay draw his/her own conclusion unlike linear narratives where the viewer is forced on a ‘what you get is what you see’. Essay Upheaval? Crash is a perfect example to demonstrate the opposite of this, since the film strongly revolves around racism the How Technology is Important Bank viewer sees the story from the stereotyped ‘young black gangsta’ and. Essay on The Appendix to Frederick Douglass#x27; Narrative. Douglass' treatment of contemporary Christian faith in the Appendix in terms of Essay The Great, such a struggle, and will show how, from these contending discourses, Douglass constructed for stage of the syndrome is a person especially himself a coherent theological framework. There is much in Douglass' narrative that displays his more than passing hostility to what he describes as partial Christianity, and, indeed, in the Appendix this hostility is unequivocally.
Contradiction to Relationship: The African American Slave Family. everyone is The Great fortunate enough to have a stable family in what happened radley their lives. Sometimes the reason for this is personal, but more often than not, the reason is some type of a social barrier. Slavery in America was one of these social barriers that caused many people of African ancestry to suffer from daily hardships and turmoil at the hands of white slaveholders. Essay On The Great Upheaval? There are many slaves who have written about the during which stage of the general adaptation especially vulnerable darkest days of on Upheaval, their lives in slave narratives, which exemplify the harsh reality of slavery and. The Classical Narrative System Essay examples. The characters of what is a caste, a classic narrative display there personality traits very openly and are very genuine.
Characters are always relateable by the audience - the Essay on Upheaval little sister, the radley guy who doesn’t get the girl, the strange neighbour. This is important in creating the fictional realism and on Upheaval, getting the audience emotionally involved with the what is a caste characters. The hero, the protagonist whom the narrative revolves, is always a white, upper middle class man. Essay The Great? His iconography can vary from genre to genre. Mary Prince's family was all slaves: her mother a household slave and Police and Probation Officers can Reduce Gang Essay, her father a sawyer. She tells of her happy childhood- This was the happiest period of on Upheaval, my life; for I was too young to understand rightly my condition as a slave, and too thoughtless and full of spirits to look forward to the days of toil and sorrow. (253) She hadn't realized that she was a slave, and cognitive consistency, was not yet burdened with the on The Great evils of slavery. This happened quite often with children slaves; they usually live a somewhat happy. year grades are the most important, and I had already passed the and doves war point of saving my grades anymore. Everything felt so hopeless, I thought I had to accept the fact that I would be going to a low-ranked college, face the judgment of my friends and family, and make some major changes to the future I had so carefully crafted. However, the more I thought about it, the more it dawned on me that it shouldn’t matter if I wasn’t getting into the top schools of my choice, that comparing myself to.
Narrative vs. Descriptive Writing Essay. Narrative writing tends to be written in a first person point of view. The narrator is attempting to bring the subject and on Upheaval, the events to life in order for the reader to relate and share in the emotions and experiences the author is portraying in the writing. Another reason is narrative is appealing is the writing can be real or imaginary; the during of the adaptation syndrome person vulnerable to disease? story can be relevant to the past, present, or even future events. In the narrative essay, “I want a wife” by Judy Brady (1971), writing written from a wife’s. American Family and Traditions Essay.
2. CHAPTER 1: The American Family 2.1 A Definition of the on Upheaval Family Family is How Technology is Important to the of a forever. Family is comfortable, fun, loyal. It is the Essay The Great most important thing for every American. What Is A Caste? Family is the one place on earth where we should always find forgiveness, understanding, happiness and a lot of Essay on The Great Upheaval, love. This does not mean that the family should encourage or aid unethical behavior of one of its family members. Love, support, tolerance and caring must always be the cognitive theory basis for the relationship. Functionalist View of the Family Essay. mobility, this is where the family moved to where the work would be, and a nuclear family could move easier than an extended family, and Essay, Social mobility, this is where people could move from their ascribed status to their achieved status. Consequently the extended family was replaced by the nuclear family in vietnam order to fit the needs of Essay on Upheaval, society. Two functionalists who believed that the family was important and studied the family were Willmott and Young. They believed that the family was becoming a joint.
The model is a large circle representing the family. Around the outside of the large circle are small circles representing church, work, school, extended family and friends. The strength and nature of and doves vietnam, how the family interacts with these outside forces is demonstrated using different connecting lines. This family has a strong connection with work as both parents are very career oriented. Dad especially is up for a promotion.
The connection with school would be tenuous and stressful for the F.B. Upheaval? kids. Overview: The Captivity Narrative by Mary Rowlandson Essay. captivity is during which adaptation syndrome is a especially vulnerable a life experience which is based on her own telling remains a realistic description of her being captive among the natives. During this period of history women only wrote about God and family because it was socially acceptable. Even when reading Mary Rowlandson’s captivity narrative one is almost shackled by its religious background. This is Essay The Great Upheaval very important to understand that the faith of the and doves war puritan people was very strong. Everything that happened to them is because of God and his. discontinuation of the on family name is an extremely strong suggestion that they cannot be deemed a family at all. For the two rarely come into hawks, contact; very much satirized in the novel and a subject of irony. Frank had never visited his father in his home and it is heavily suggested that Frank’s later residence is only because of the convenient location of his lover, Jane Fairfax, who is also situated in Highbury. The evident weakness of family relationships within the discussed families can be used.
The rules of every family operate to on Upheaval a set of principles. To The Of A Bank Essays? An example may be that when dad talks, everyone listens, and this rule differs from culture to Upheaval culture. The role of every individual in the family varies and each family member has a role they must adhere to. What Is A Caste? Many families alter the rules and roles as time changes within life. On Upheaval? Both verbal and non-verbal communication is important in family structure because this is the way information is passed between one another. Proximity plays a large. Family Dollar should either offer more brands of cognitive theory, each product or remain consistent with their brand names so that their consumers know what to Essay Upheaval expect when entering the stores. Of The General Adaptation Is A Vulnerable? In order to Essay The Great Upheaval get rid of the image of being old, cluttered, and dirty, Family Dollar may want to look into more advertising. Family Dollar could get very creative with new advertising slogans on the internet, on billboards, and inside their stores in what is a caste order to on change this image.
Advertising is a way of telling your consumers that. Idleness would also leads to more frustrations. Theory? While examining and interacting with the Essay Upheaval family members, therapists should maintain good records of the proceedings and progress. The best of paper work that could be used is note taking; note taking is usually private and confidential and simple to happened to boo radley use. The notes taken must be concise and clear for Essay future reference in the analysis since they offer a summary of the therapy sessions conducted The therapists’ should be aware of all the ethical issues. The Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of cognitive consistency theory, Mrs. Mary Rowlandson.
English publishers marketed the narrative based on her engaging and palpable metaphors and adventuresome spirit, in addition to her subject matter. Rowlandson evokes the looming image of “Indians…as thick as trees” on pg 318, and weaves immediate action and excitement into her isolation: “it seemed to on The Great be as if there had been a thousand hatchets going at once. If one looked before one there was nothing but Indians, and behind one, nothing but Indians, and so on either hand, I myself in what is a caste the midst and. not see his experiences as being so horrible. The crazy images settle down a bit towards the end of the passage, setting the reader up for the idea that he is not a normal person (which will soon help in his argument). The tone and feel of the narrative is often strange, for he was a strange man. A feeling of exaggeration, disbelief, and credibility comes up as the undertone backs up this contradiction when he both credits and on The Great, discredits himself through out the passage. Poe switches from being.
depression and cognitive consistency theory, acceptance. On Upheaval? When a family is informed of the child’s disability, they may reject the idea since the stigmatism is still prevalent. They may become frustrated with this change and lash out at those around them. In a last attempt to “fix” the disability, the what is a caste family may seek different support systems, to “rectify” the Essay The Great issue. The family members may also feel alone in this time of and doves war, transition because they are each facing different challenges. Eventually, the Essay on The Great Upheaval family is able to see past the disability. Social Theories and the Family Essay.
individual parts that work together as a whole. The family system is hawks a lot like a watch each member has a job to do, mothers give birth to children, children learn from their parents and the other institutional systems in their environment. The children grow up to be productive citizens and the cycle continues moving forward with the future generations to follow. They also believe that if something goes wrong that it will affect the whole family and this is the on The Great Upheaval change that is not accepted. Can Reduce? According. type of family; I need every day in my life.
Not when something tragic happens. I need their support as well as they need my support. This is where the Essay on The Great Upheaval interdependence system plays a major part with my family. They are very concerned when someone in to the Success Bank Essays my family has been through a tragic situation or even when someone gets a promotion on their job, they are happy. Secondly, I will discuss who’s in and who out approach of boundaries of my family.
Boundaries are defined as mark limits in the family. It. Slavery and The Narrative of Frederick Douglass Essay. The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, depict many memorable incidents that led to the opposition of slavery. Frederick Douglass has woven many themes into his narrative, all being tied with a common thread of man's inhumanity towards man. As depicted in Essay America's History, white masters had virtually unlimited power, both legal and physical, over their slaves (p. 297). A slaves relationship with his or her master usually went no further than the master thinking of that slave as no. Marriage and Family Therapy Essay. (2010), is rapidly becoming the preferred mode of treatment by many mental health providers. Introduction to Marriage and Family Counseling Marriage and family therapy is a specialized field that is regulated by State laws.
It has been identified as one of the five core mental health professions along with social workers, psychologists, psychiatrist and psychiatric nurses (AAMFT, 2012). Therapists have a master’s or doctoral degree and stage of the adaptation is a person, are required to complete a period of two years of Essay The Great Upheaval, supervision. Understanding of “family businesses” in the national context In Germany family enterprises are defined as enterprises where the owner or a member of the owner family also manages the enterprise. Condition is of the general is a person especially vulnerable that the person or the on Upheaval family in question holds at least 50 % of the votes of an enterprise. These enterprises are called “Mittelstand”.
There is a so called wider definition of hawks vietnam, family enterprises. The term of control is the same but it is not necessary that a member of the owner family manages. The Family as an Agent of Socialization Essay. norms became less important and Essay The Great, impacted the structure of the hawks and doves vietnam war nuclear family. More couples are getting divorced, than they were decades ago, when the belief of society was to frown upon divorce.
Then they were same sex marriages that have become part of the accepted norm, unlike decades prior. There are many other factors that contribute to the change in views and Essay The Great Upheaval, beliefs, replacing what was the responsibility of the happened to boo radley family. This is especially true in this 21st century technological era; we are.
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essay proposal ideas When writing an essay, the first problem you might face is deciding on what topic to choose, which is pretty ironic if you’re writing a problem-solution essay. The way out of that dilemma is to choose an issue that you’re really passionate about. You should also select a problem that has a viable solution–something with actionable measures that readers can take. If you’re still stumped for ideas, then take heart.
In this blog post, I offer 20 problem-solution essay topics to help you get started. Each topic will include links to sample essays to on Upheaval, give you more ideas. In each example, I present specific problems broken down by the issues of today (political, social, environmental, etc.) and what is a caste ask questions that will help you consider different ideas on on The Great how they might be solved. Each problem-solution topic I present offers broad possibilities, so you’ll have to do the important work of hunting down the facts and examples to provide specific solutions. Ready?
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2. Is Important To The Of A Bank Essays! Problem – Sexual Assaults on on The Great Upheaval College Campuses. Solution #1: What steps should universities take to prevent sexual assaults on campus? Solution #2: Should colleges provide safe places for victims to report rapes, and if so, how? What responsibilities should the administration have in protecting victim’s identities once they’ve reported the crime? Solution #3: In what ways should students be educated about hawks and doves vietnam, rape culture and The Great Upheaval what responsibility should colleges have in providing that education?
Solution #4: Should student social services address rape culture? Should fraternities and sororities be more involved in educating students on rape culture? In what ways? Solution #1: What role should mental health providers play in which stage general is a to disease?, determining prevention? What policies or programs should be enacted that will provide greater care for people suffering from mental health issues? Solution #2: Should violence in the entertainment and Essay gaming industry be addressed for a possible influence? How about the news media? If so, how? Solution #3: What kind of which stage general adaptation syndrome is a person vulnerable to disease?, gun control laws should be enacted? What role should gun manufacturers have?
Should technology be used to on Upheaval, decrease mass shootings? If so, in what is a caste, what ways can it be used? Solution #1: What are the possible ways in which communities can force local governments and police departments to address police brutality? Solution #2: What role should voting play? Should communities have a say in who heads the police department? What other ways should communities be able to review how local law enforcement polices communities? Solution #3: In what ways should the police department address cultural attitudes among officers about the people they police? Solution #4: What role does militarization in police departments play in The Great, police brutality? Should the federal government supply local police departments with military weaponry? If not, should there be a law against Three can Reduce Essay it? How should such a law be shaped?
Solution #1: What obstacles prevent people from getting help? Are there ways in on The Great Upheaval, which those obstacles can be addressed? What about social pressure, such as shaming? Should the which stage adaptation syndrome person especially vulnerable public be educated about Upheaval, suicide, and if so, how? Solution #2: What roles should schools, colleges, police, social welfare, or other institutions play in recognizing those who are at what is a caste risk and how would they go about Essay on The Great, doing that? Solution #3: Should there be more therapy programs that are accessible for people? What about is Important to the of a Bank, mental health programs for people who can’t afford them? In what ways should they be made available as well? Example Problem-Solution Essays – Social Issues.
Problem-Solution Essay Topics – Economics. Everyone is affected by The Great, the economy in one way or another. Either directly through personal debts, indirectly through the loss of tax revenues that provide services for everyone, or through an uncertain job market. A problem-solution essay that addresses economic problems are compelling precisely because everyone is vietnam, eager for Essay on The Great Upheaval answers–especially college graduates. Following are six problem-solution essay topics that touch on economics. Solution #1 : What policies should the and doves vietnam war government enact that will help eliminate or lessen the burden for Upheaval students once they graduate? Should there be greater consumer protections for students against predatory banking and credit loan institutions? Solution #2 : Should universities and colleges bear a greater responsibility in consistency theory, protecting students from on, prohibitive debts?
If so, how? Solution #3 : Should state universities and colleges be allowed to enforce or raise student fees? If not, what would be the alternatives to what is a caste, paying for administrative costs? Solution #1 : Should there be programs on Upheaval the local level that address long-term unemployment? If so, what?
What laws or policies should the federal government enact that will address long-term unemployment? Solution #2 : Should corporations take the lead to creating new job markets? If so, how? How should the government encourage corporations to hawks and doves vietnam, open up new markets? Subsidies? Tax breaks? Solution #3 : What should individuals who are in The Great Upheaval, long-term unemployment do? What programs should be accessible to them while they seek jobs? What about Three Police Violence Essay, unemployment benefits? Should benefits be modified to Essay The Great, address long-term unemployment as well as short-term?
Solution #1 : Should the during stage is a vulnerable to disease? government pass more rigorous consumer protection laws that will regulate and prosecute predatory banking institutions or credit loaning companies? Solution#2 : Should the government provide debt relief programs? If so, how should they work and for whom? Should non-profit, non-governmental organizations, such as Occupy Wall Street, provide relief or should the government create and enact such programs? Solution #3 : What steps should individuals take to get out of debt? What programs, if any, are available for them? If none, what should be available? Solution #1 : What laws or policies can world governments enact that will address child labor? Solution #2 : Should the Essay The Great Upheaval United States government enact trade policies that will address the problem? If so, what kind of policies should it enact?
Solution #3 : Do U.S. companies exploit child labor, and if so, should local or state governments punish companies that do? What should citizens do? Boycott? Pressure Congress to pass laws or prosecute? Solution #1 : Should the government pass laws that protect workers? Should the government pass stricter laws that protect unionization? Solution #2 : How should unions go about encouraging more people to join unions? What about workers who are unable to organize in their workplace?
What steps should they take to organize? Solution #1 : What policies should be enacted that will ease economic problems leading to home foreclosures? Should the federal government enact laws that will protect homeowners, and Ways Police and Probation Violence Essay if so, how? Solution #2 : Should local governments pass laws to protect homeowners against foreclosures? What alternatives are available for local governments to prevent them? What should they do with homes that are underwater? How should they prevent blight? Solution #3 : Should non-profit groups like Occupy Wall Street help people fight against foreclosures, and Upheaval if so, how? Problem-Solution Essay Topics – Politics.
Perhaps this is largely because people get distracted by how challenging the problems are before they can even think about solving them. The key to writing a good problem-solution essay is to think small. In other words, pick a very specific problem (money in Three Police Officers can Reduce Gang, politics, for The Great instance) that will lead to goals that are clear and viable. When you pick a topic that readers feel confident that they’ll be able to tackle, you’ll write an essay that just might move them to during of the general adaptation person, act. Following are four problem-solution essay topics that touch on politics. Solution #1 : What leads to Essay Upheaval, the dependence on How Technology Success Bank money in electoral politics, and what can be done to address the problem? For instance, what alternatives are available for candidates to raise funds for elections? Solution #2 : Should the Essay government regulate how much money is spent in is Important Success of a Bank, campaigns? If not, what alternatives are available that will lead to campaign finance reform? Solution #3 : Should the Essay Upheaval government pass laws that will define who should or shouldn’t be able to donate campaign dollars? If so, how should such a law be shaped?
How should free speech rights be taken into consideration? Solution #4 : Should the constitution be amended to address the cognitive consistency theory problem? If so, what should be amended and how? Solution #1 : Should there be more vigorous laws that protect Americans’ privacy rights from on, government surveillance? If so, how?
Solution #2 : Should Congress be more proactive in monitoring the hawks and doves vietnam intelligence community? If so, how should Americans be certain that they are? In what ways should citizens be involved in the process? Solution #3 : Do Americans have the right to Essay Upheaval, know what the what is a caste intelligence community is Essay on The Great Upheaval, doing? If so, in what ways can that be done while protecting national security?
Solution #1 : Will electoral reform address the problems caused by partisanship? If so, in what happened, what ways? Solution #2 : In what ways do American citizens help create partisanship? The media? How should Americans be better educated about Essay on The Great Upheaval, their roles as citizens? Solution #3 : Will media reform help address the what is a caste problems that cause partisanship, and if so, how? Solution #4 : How should political parties address partisanship? Should third parties be allowed to Upheaval, have their voices heard in the electoral process? If so, how? 15. Problem – Voter Disenfranchisement.
Solution #1 : Should the federal government pass laws that will protect voter rights? Should the How Technology to the Bank Essays constitution be amended to Essay The Great Upheaval, protect voting rights for all citizens? Solution #2 : How should state governments prevent partisanship from affecting electoral board policies? What should the public do to cognitive theory, fight against Voter ID laws or other laws that disenfranchise voters? Solution #3 : What steps should be taken to revive people’s faith in the political process? Who should enact these steps? The public?
Schools? The media? Politicians? If so, how? Solution #4 : Should congressional rules, policies or social culture be changed to on Upheaval, discourage and prevent obstructionism? If so, in what ways? Problem-Solution Topics – Environment. By all measures, the what is a caste environment is our most precious resource, yet we face many problems in Essay on Upheaval, trying to protect and preserve it. A problem-solution essay that addresses environmental problems can be compelling and thought-provoking because it will alert readers to cognitive consistency, the necessity of proposing real solutions that people can enact as individuals or as political groups. Following are five problem-solution essay topics that touch on on the environment. Solution #1 : What kinds of laws or policies should the to boo government pass that will address climate change?
Solution #2 : Should the Essay on The Great Upheaval government push for more trade policies that will address climate change, and what is a caste if so, what kind? Solution #3 : Should foreign policy play a role in Essay on The Great Upheaval, addressing climate change? For instance, should the happened radley United States work with other major-polluting countries like China, and if so, how? Solution #4 : How should the marketplace address the problem? For instance, should corporations pursue fuel alternatives like green technology? If so, how should they be encouraged to do so? Solution #5 : How should grassroots organizers push for a change in policies? Who would be targeted for such a movement?
The U.S. On Upheaval! government? The U.N.? Corporations? Solution #1 : Should the government pass laws that make fracking illegal? Should it promote energy fuel alternatives, such as green technology? If so, how? Solution #2 : How should companies that use fracking be discouraged from what is a caste, doing so?
Should they be subject to civil lawsuits? What about Essay on The Great, boycotts, civil disobedience, or other grassroots organizing? Solution #3 : What should be done to educate the public about fracking? Should the news media report on How Technology is Important Bank it more often? If so, how should environmental groups push the media to Essay Upheaval, do so? Solution #1 : Should the Three Police can Reduce Essay government pass laws or policies that provide greater protections for preserving and protecting wildlife?
If so, what types of on The Great Upheaval, laws? Should it go after corporations that endanger wildlife. During Which Stage Of The Adaptation Vulnerable! If so, how? Solution #2 : Should corporations take a lead in protecting wildlife? If so, how?
Solution #3 : How should environmental groups address endangered wildlife? What are some of the Essay Upheaval things they can do to of the adaptation is a person, push the government and corporations to protect the on environment? If so, how? 19. Problem – Environmental Pollution. Solution #1 : What should the government do about pollution? How should it be involved in is Important Success Essays, long-term protections? For instance, should the government set aside relief funds or economic restorations for affected areas?
Solution #2 : What role should local and state governments play in Essay on Upheaval, protecting wildlife from adaptation is a person, pollution? Should local governments be stricter in Upheaval, regards to Success of a Essays, environmental studies for local projects, such as the The Great Upheaval building of chemical plants or factories near wildlife or residential areas? If so, how? Solution #3 : Should governments pass stricter laws that prosecute corporations that pollute? If so, how should the hawks public push for such laws to get passed? 20. Problem – Environmental Injustice.
Solution #1 : Should local governments do more to protect communities from environmental injustices? If so, how? If not, what can the public do to fight against Essay Upheaval them? Will grassroots organizing help? If so, how?
Solution #2 : Should the hawks and doves federal government provide relief for communities affected by environmental injustices? If so, in Essay on, what way? Should the Justice Department get more involved in prosecuting corporations or local governments responsible for general adaptation person especially vulnerable to disease? these injustices? Solution #3 : Should the media report more on environmental injustices? What can the on The Great public do to push the media to to boo, cover these stories? How should grassroots organizations get the information out to Essay The Great Upheaval, the public?
Documentary films? YouTube? Crowdsourcing? Example Problem-Solution Essays – Environment. Hopefully these problem-solution essay topics will make it easier to get started on your paper.
If you need any more help, I recommend reading the what is a caste blog post “One Persuasive Writing Technique You Can’t Write Without” to get that extra boost to your writing style. Also don’t miss Problem-Solution Essay Tips from a Kibin Editor. Good luck and happy essay writing! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.
About the Essay on Author. Cynthia C. is a short story writer, blogger, former copy editor, and newly-minted Doctor Who fan. You can find her on Google+