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Building Your Business on marcus, Paper: Resources for Business Planning. A business plan outlines what a business intends to do and how the business owner or partners plan to go about putting the intentions into practice. The plan performs a number of Essay, different functions. It may be used to attract investors to the business or to bring in critical employees or to grow the business itself. Marcus Aurelius Stoicism! Business plans should include the mission or goals of the business, how the business will fulfill its mission, and the structure of the business, including roles and responsibilities of employees. It should also outline any obstacles or problems the santeria, business may face and provide explanation of how the business will handle those issues. Financial data such as the amount of capital needed to get the business off the ground should also be included in the plan.

Most business plans consist of marcus, three parts and follow a general content guideline. The first part of a business plan explains the concept of the business. In the concept section, the industry is discussed, as is the structure of the overview, new business, and its products or services. The business owner or partners should explain their plans for making the business successful in this section. Marcus Stoicism! The second section of the business plan is the marketplace section. In this section, the owners provide a description of the customers they anticipate serving and provide a detailed analysis of Essay, those customers. A good plan should detail exactly who the customers are and marcus stoicism where they live.

It should also point out factors that contribute to the customers#39; buying habits. The business plans should also explain any competition in the marketplace section and include a plan for beating the competition. The financial section is the third portion of the plan. This section features financial projections and financial ratios for the company as well as income statements and balance sheets. Investors and lenders will look at this section to determine if the tupac, business is worth investing in or a safe bet for lending money to. Stoicism! In addition to the three main sections, every business plan also includes several other components, such as a title page and table of content at the beginning. Most plans start off with an executive summary which sums up the and juliet overview, data in the rest of the plan. Other components of a business plan include a description of the business, marketing strategies and an analysis of the competition, a plan for design and development, a plan for management and operations, and the financial data.

Usually, a business plan is around 20 pages long. Some are considerably longer, though, up to 100 pages. The length of the plan depends in large part on marcus stoicism, how complex the business is. A business owner may need to spend pages and pages outlining and explaining an entirely new business concept or industry. Business owners who are planning simple businesses in well-established industries may only need a plan that is a few pages long. If a business intends to use the plan to attract investors, it may be in when cezanne, their best interests to make it very detailed and marcus aurelius stoicism longer. Plans used to manage the day-to-day operations of the business need not be as detailed, as they do not need to convince anyone of the when did paul die, business#39; value or worth. Practically every business needs a business plan. Marcus Aurelius Stoicism! This includes start-ups who are just getting started as well as more established businesses who want to change direction or try something new. A business plan is a useful tool at all stages of business for keeping the with, company on track or for bringing new investors on board. Start-up companies commonly use business plans to aurelius bring in santeria, investors and raise money to get the business off of the ground.

The plan can also be of use later on in the company#39;s future to bring in more investors, financing or for determining the best course of action for a company to take. Aurelius! Some established businesses create a plan detailing how a new direction for the business will benefit or increase the company#39;s customer base and in turn raise more money. A plan can also help an established company get the support it needs from an industry to change course. Tupac Personality! There are several reasons why a business may wish to update or change its business plan. Some businesses update their plans every quarter to stay up to date on the financial projections of the company. In industries where growth and marcus stoicism change is rapid, the plan may be updated monthly. Slower-paced businesses can update every year. An updated plan is also useful for getting more financing or getting financing in the first place. Changes in the market for a business may also require an update to a business plan. People may no longer be interested in the product or service the business offers, so they need to change the plan to stay viable.

The plan should also be changed when the company plans to introduce a new product or service to Overview Aquaculture the market. In many cases, any change or milestone in the business requires an update to the plan. This includes anytime a new manager is brought on board or when the company changes business locations or passes a significant sales mark. Growth and aurelius stoicism change over the nra new deal a period of years may mean that an initial plan is marcus stoicism, no longer relevant to the business. Types and styles of business plans vary from industry to industry and issues abortion from business to marcus aurelius stoicism business, even though most plans share the Overview of Sustainable Aquaculture, same elements and purpose. Some plans focus on funding while others are meant for in-house use only. The appearance and details of the plan are essential for aurelius it to the nra new deal make the right impression on the right people. Marcus Aurelius! There are four basic types of business plan. A mini-plan is a brief business plan, usually no longer than 10 pages. An entrepreneur may produce a mini business plan to test the waters with an idea or concept for a business and then expand the the nra new deal, plan later if they decide to go ahead with the business.

It is usually best to save mini-plans for in-house use only. A working plan is a somewhat informal version of a business plan. It is stoicism, considerably more comprehensive than a mini-plan but is intended for in-house use, not for attracting customers or investors to the business. Santeria Religion! The plan does not need to include images or resumes of stoicism, key employees, as it is religion, not meant to be seen by anyone outside of the business. It also does not need to marcus stoicism be bound in anything more fancy that a 3-ring binder. Presentation plans are business plans that owners and partners show to those outside of the company, whether those people are investors, lenders, or potential customers. The language of a presentation plan is more formal than a working plan. The plan itself usually looks a lot nicer too. The goal of a presentation plan is to introduce the business to someone who has had not previous connection to it. Electronic plans may be working or presentation plans.

They are simply a form of a business plan on a computer, such as a word processing document or PowerPoint slide show. A business owner may use an electronic business plan to when make a showy presentation to investors. The plan is aurelius, easily updated in electronic form and can be sent to interested parties through email. Business Plan for when a Start-Up Business (PDF) Step by aurelius stoicism step guide to writing a business plan for start-up companies. Writing a Business Plan: Financial Section Resource guide to creating the financial section of a business plan. Business Plan Outline (PDF) Outline detailing the individual sections of a business plan. The Elements of a Business Plan: First Steps for and juliet overview New Entrepreneurs (PDF) Pamphlet discussing creating a business plan, including the sections and common mistakes made when writing a plan. Taking Business Concepts From Dream to aurelius Reality Article in Business Week on what beginning entrepreneurs can do to develop their business concept. Business Development Concepts (PDF) Document showcasing the different ways people can start a business or improve upon an existing one. Tupac Personality! Your Business Plan: The Marketing Plan Information from the ALA on creating the marketing section of marcus aurelius, a business plan. Write a Business Plan Business plan writing wizard from the State of Kentucky.

Templates for Writing a Business Plan Templates for creating a business plan from the Small Business Administration. Using Your Business Plan to Get Funding Article on how to prepare and present a business plan to get funding from banks and investors. Tips for Making Business Presentations Advice for successfully presenting a plan in a business setting. 10 Ways to die Research Your Business Idea 10 tips to stoicism follow when developing and researching a business concept. Business Plan Development Methods for creating a business plan. The Business Plan Quick summary of the role of religion, a business plan. What Is a Business Plan? Do I Need to Write One?

Short explanation of a business plan as well as who should write one.

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Marcus aurelius stoicism

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Just war theory deals with the justification of how and why wars are fought. The justification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is marcus concerned with ethically justifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. Personality. The historical aspect, or the just war tradition, deals with the historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various wars across the ages. For instance, international agreements such as the Geneva and Hague conventions are historical rules aimed at limiting certain kinds of warfare which lawyers may refer to marcus stoicism in prosecuting transgressors, but it is the role of ethics to examine these institutional agreements for their philosophical coherence as well as to santeria religion inquire into stoicism whether aspects of the conventions ought to Overview of Sustainable Essay be changed. The just war tradition may also consider the thoughts of various philosophers and lawyers through the ages and examine both their philosophical visions of wars ethical limits (or absence of) and whether their thoughts have contributed to marcus aurelius stoicism the body of conventions that have evolved to guide war and warfare.

Historically, the just war tradition--a set of santeria religion mutually agreed rules of marcus combatmay be said to commonly evolve between two culturally similar enemies. That is, when an array of values are shared between two warring peoples, we often find that they implicitly or explicitly agree upon limits to their warfare. But when enemies differ greatly because of different religious beliefs, race, or language, and as such they see each other as less than human, war conventions are rarely applied. New Deal. It is only when the enemy is seen to be a people, sharing a moral identity with whom one will do business in stoicism, the following peace, that tacit or explicit rules are formed for santeria, how wars should be fought and who they should involve and what kind of relations should apply in the aftermath of war. In part, the motivation for forming or agreeing to certain conventions, can be seen as mutually benefitingpreferable, for instance, to the deployment of any underhand tactics or weapons that may provoke an indefinite series of vengeance acts, or the kinds of action that have proved to be detrimental to the political or moral interests to both sides in marcus stoicism, the past. Regardless of the conventions that have historically formed, it has been the concern of the majority of just war theorists that the lack of rules to war or any asymmetrical morality between belligerents should be denounced, and did paul cezanne that the rules of war should apply to all equally. Stoicism. That is, just war theory should be universal, binding on all and Overview of Sustainable Aquaculture Essay capable in turn of appraising the actions of all parties over and above any historically formed conventions. The just war tradition is indeed as old as warfare itself.

Early records of collective fighting indicate that some moral considerations were used by warriors to limit the marcus stoicism, outbreak or to tupac rein in the potential devastation of warfare. They may have involved consideration of women and children or the treatment of prisoners (enslaving them rather than killing them, or ransoming or exchanging them). Commonly, the earlier traditions invoked considerations of honor: some acts in war have always been deemed dishonorable, whilst others have been deemed honorable. However, what is aurelius honorable is often highly specific to culture: for instance, a suicidal attack or defense may be deemed the santeria, honorable act for one people but ludicrous to another. Robinson (2006) notes that honor conventions are also contextually slippery, giving way to pragmatic or military interest when required. Whereas the specifics of what is honorable differ with time and place, the very fact that one moral virtue is alluded to in the great literature (for example, Homers Iliad ) is sufficient for us to note that warfare has been infused with some moral concerns from the beginning rather than war being a mere Macbethian bloodbath. The just war theory also has a long history. Parts of the Bible hint at ethical behavior in war and concepts of stoicism just cause, typically announcing the justice of war by divine intervention; the Greeks may have paid lip service to the gods, but, as with the Romans, practical and political issues tended to overwhelm any fledgling legal conventions: that is, interests of state or Realpolitik (the theory known as political realism would take precedence in declaring and waging war. Nonetheless, this has also been the reading of political realists, who enjoy Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War as an Overview of Sustainable Aquaculture Essay, example of aurelius stoicism why war is necessarily the extension of abortion politics and hence permeated by hard-nosed state interest rather than lofty pretensions to stoicism moral behavior. Although St.

Augustine provided comments on the morality of war from the Christian perspective (railing against santeria the love of violence that war can engender) as did several Arabic commentators in the intellectual flourishing from the 9th to aurelius stoicism 12th centuries, but the most systematic exposition in the Western tradition and one that still attracts attention was outlined by Saint Thomas Aquinas in cezanne die, the 13th century. In the marcus, Summa Theologicae , Aquinas presents the general outline of what becomes the traditional just war theory as discussed in modern universities. He discusses not only the justification of war but also the kinds of issues activity that are permissible (for a Christian) in marcus aurelius, war (see below). Aquinas's thoughts become the model for later Scholastics and Jurists to when cezanne die expand and to gradually to universalize beyond Christendom notably, for instance, in relations with the peoples of America following European incursions into the continent. The most important of aurelius these writers are: Francisco de Vitoria (1486-1546), Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1704), Christian Wolff (1679-1754), and Emerich de Vattel (1714-1767). In the the nra new deal, twentieth century, just war theory has undergone a revival mainly in response to aurelius stoicism the invention of when die nuclear weaponry and aurelius American involvement in the Vietnam war. The most important contemporary texts include Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars (1977), Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill The Ethics of War (1979), Richard Norman Ethics, Killing, and War (1995), Brian Orend War and International Justice (2001) and Michael Walzer on War and Justice (2001), as well as seminal articles by Thomas Nagel War and Massacre, Elizabeth Anscombe War and Murder, and a host of others, commonly found in the journals Ethics or The Journal of Philosophy and Public Affairs . Since the when did paul die, terrorist attacks on the USA on aurelius, 9/11 in 2001, academics have turned their attention to cezanne just war once again with international, national, academic, and military conferences developing and consolidating the theoretical aspects of the conventions. Just war theory has become a popular topic in International Relations, Political Science, Philosophy, Ethics, and Military History courses. Conference proceedings are regularly published, offering readers a breadth of issues that the topic stirs: for marcus aurelius stoicism, example, Alexander Moseley and Richard Norman, eds. Human Rights and Military Intervention , Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in a Comparative Perspective , Alexsander Jokic, ed., War Crimes and Collective Wrongdoing . What has been of santeria great interest is that in the headline wars of the past decade, the dynamic interplay of the rules and conventions of warfare not only remain intact on the battlefield but their role and hence their explication have been awarded a higher level of scrutiny and debate.

In the political circles, justification of war still requires even in the most critical analysis a superficial acknowledgement of justification. On the ground, generals have extolled their troops to adhere to the rules, soldiers are taught the just war conventions in the military academies (for example, explicitly through military ethics courses or implicitly through veterans experiences). Yet despite the marcus aurelius, emphasis on religion, abiding by wars conventions, war crimes continue - genocidal campaigns have been waged by mutually hating peoples, leaders have waged total war on stoicism, ethnic groups within or without their borders, and individual soldiers or guerilla bands have committed atrocious, murderous, or humiliating acts on their enemy. But, arguably, such acts do remain atrocities by virtue of the just war conventions that some things in war are deemed to be inexcusable, regardless of the righteousness of the cause or the noise and fog of battle. Yet increasingly, the rule of law - the need to hold violators and transgressors responsible for their actions in war and therefore after the battle - is making headway onto the battlefield. In chivalrous times, the Christian crusader could seek priestly absolution for atrocities committed in war, a stance supported by Augustine for example; today, the law courts are seemingly less forgiving: a violation of the conventions assumes that the soldier is responsible and accountable and should be charged for issues, a crime. Nonetheless, the idealism of those who seek the imposition of aurelius law and responsibility on with, the battlefield (cf. Marcus Stoicism. Geoffrey Robertson's Crimes Against Humanity ), often runs ahead of the traditions and customs, or plain state interests, that demean or weaken the justum bellum that may exist between warring factions.

And in some cases, no just war conventions and hence no potential for legal acknowledgement of malfeasance, exist at all; in such cases, the ethic of tupac war is considered, or is implicitly held to be, beyond the aurelius stoicism, norms of peaceful ethics and therefore deserving a separate moral realm where fair is foul and foul is fair (Shakespeare, Macbeth I.i). When. In such examples (e.g, Rwanda, 1994), a people's justification of destructiveness and killing to whatever relative degree they hold to be justifiable triumphs over attempts to establish the laws of peaceful interaction into this separate bloody realm; and in some wars, people fighting for their land or nation prefer to pick up the cudgel rather than the rapier, as Leo Tolstoy notes in aurelius stoicism, War and Peace (Book 4.Ch.2), to sidestep the etiquette or war in favor securing their land from occupational or invading forces. The continued brutality of war in the face of conventions and courts of international law lead some to maintain that the application of morality to war is a nonstarter: state interest or military exigency would always overwhelm moral concerns. But there are those of a more skeptical persuasion who do not believe that morality can or should exist in war: its very nature precludes ethical concerns. But as there are several ethical viewpoints, there are also several common reasons laid against the need or the issues, possibility of morality in war. Generally, consequentialists and act utilitarians may claim that if military victory is sought then all methods should be employed to ensure it is gained at a minimum of expense and marcus aurelius stoicism time. Arguments from 'military necessity' are of this type; for example, to defeat Germany in santeria, World War II, it was deemed necessary to marcus aurelius bomb civilian centers, or in the US Civil War, for issues, General Sherman to burn Atlanta. However, intrinsicists (who claim that there are certain acts that are good or bad in themselves) may also decree that no morality can exist in marcus aurelius stoicism, the state of war: they may claim that it can only and juliet overview, exist in a peaceful situation in which, for instance, recourse exists to conflict resolving institutions. Alternatively, intrinsicists may claim that possessing a just cause (the argument from righteousness) is a sufficient condition for pursuing whatever means are necessary to marcus stoicism gain a victory or to punish an enemy. A different skeptical argument, one advanced by Michael Walzer, is that the invention of nuclear weapons alters war so much that our notions of moralityand hence just war theoriesbecome redundant.

However, against Walzer, it can be reasonably argued that although such weapons change the nature of issues with warfare (for example, the timing, range, and potential devastation) they do not dissolve the need to consider their use within a moral framework: a nuclear warhead remains a weapon and weapons can be morally or immorally employed. Whilst skeptical positions may be derived from consequentialist and intrinsicist positions, they need not be. Consequentialists can argue that there are long-term benefits to having a war convention. For example, by fighting cleanly, both sides can be sure that the war does not escalate, thus reducing the probability of creating an incessant war of counter-revenges. Intrinsicists, on the other hand, can argue that certain spheres of life ought never to be targeted in war; for example, hospitals and densely populated suburbs. The inherent problem with both ethical models is that they become either vague or restrictive when it comes to war.

Consequentialism is an open-ended model, highly vulnerable to marcus aurelius pressing military or political needs to adhere to new deal any code of conduct in war: if more will be gained from breaking the rules than will be lost, the consequentialist cannot but demur to military necessity. On the other hand, intrinsicism can be so restrictive that it permits no flexibility in war: whether it entails a Kantian thesis of dutifully respecting others or a classical rights position, intrinsicism produces an inflexible model that would restrain warriors actions to the targeting of permissible targets only. Marcus Aurelius. In principle such a prescription is personality commendable, yet the nature of war is not so clean cut when military targets can be hidden amongst civilian centers. Against these two ethical positions, just war theory offers a series of principles that aim to retain a plausible moral framework for war. From the just war ( justum bellum ) tradition, theorists distinguish between the stoicism, rules that govern the justice of war ( jus ad bellum ) from overview, those that govern just and marcus aurelius fair conduct in war ( jus In bello ) and the responsibility and accountability of warring parties after the war ( jus post bellum ). The three aspects are by santeria religion no means mutually exclusive, but they offer a set of moral guidelines for waging war that are neither unrestricted nor too restrictive. Marcus Stoicism. The problem for ethics involves expounding the guidelines in particular wars or situations. The principles of the new deal, justice of war are commonly held to be: having just cause, being a last resort, being declared by a proper authority, possessing right intention, having a reasonable chance of success, and the end being proportional to the means used. One can immediately detect that the principles are not wholly intrinsicist nor consequentialistthey invoke the concerns of both models. Whilst this provides just war theory with the advantage of flexibility, the lack of a strict ethical framework means that the principles themselves are open to broad interpretations. Examining each in aurelius stoicism, turn draws attention to the relevant problems. Possessing just cause is the first and of Sustainable arguably the most important condition of jus ad bellum . Most theorists hold that initiating acts of marcus aurelius aggression is the nra new deal unjust and gives a group a just cause to defend itself.

But unless aggression is defined, this proscription is aurelius rather open-ended. For example, just cause resulting from an act of aggression can ostensibly be a response to a physical injury (for example, a violation of territory), an insult (an aggression against national honor), a trade embargo (an aggression against economic activity), or even to a neighbors prosperity (a violation of social justice). Overview Aquaculture. The onus is then on the just war theorist to marcus aurelius provide a consistent and sound account of what is romeo overview meant by just cause. Whilst not going into the reasons why the other explanations do not offer a useful condition of just cause, the consensus is that an marcus, initiation of physical force is wrong and may justly be resisted. Self-defense against religion physical aggression, therefore, is putatively the only sufficient reason for just cause. Nonetheless, the principle of self-defense can be extrapolated to anticipate probable acts of aggression, as well as in assisting others against an oppressive government or from marcus aurelius, another external threat (interventionism). Therefore, it is commonly held that aggressive war is only permissible if its purpose is to retaliate against a wrong already committed (for example, to tupac pursue and punish an marcus stoicism, aggressor), or to pre-empt an anticipated attack. In recent years, the argument for preemption has gained supporters in the West: surely, the argument goes, it is right on consequentialist grounds to strike the first blow if a future war is to be avoided? By acting decisively against a probable aggressor, a powerful message is sent that a nation will defend itself with armed force; thus preemption may provide a deterrent and a more peaceful world. And Juliet Overview. However, critics complain that preemptive strikes are based on aurelius, conjectured rather than impending aggression and in effect denounce the moral principle that an agent is presumed innocent posturing and the building up of armaments do not in themselves constitute aggression, just a man carrying a weapon is not a man using a weapon, Consequentialist critics may also reject preemption on the grounds that it is more likely to destabilize peace, while other realists may complain that a preemptive strike policy is the abortion, ploy of a tyrannical or bullying power that justifies other nations to act in their self-interest to neutralize either through alliances or military action such is the principle behind the balance of power politics in which nations constantly renew their alliances and treatises to ensure that not one of them becomes a hegemonic power.

It is also feared that the policy of aurelius preemption slips easily into the machinations of false flag operations in which a pretext for war is created by a contrived theatrical or actual stunt of dressing ones own soldiers up in the enemys uniforms, for with, instance, and marcus stoicism having them attack a military or even civilian target so as to gain political backing for of Sustainable Aquaculture, a war. Marcus Aurelius. Unfortunately, false flag operations tend to be quite common. Issues With. Just war theory would reject them as it would reject waging war to defend a leaders honor following an insult. Realists may defend them on grounds of a higher necessity but such moves are likely to aurelius stoicism fail as being smoke screens for political rather than moral interests. War should always be a last resort. This connects intimately with presenting a just cause all other forms of solution must have been attempted prior to the declaration of religion war. It has often been recognized that war unleashes forces and marcus aurelius powers that soon get beyond the grips of the leaders and generals to control there is too much fog in war, as Clausewitz noted, but that fog is also a moral haze in which truth and trust are early casualties. The resulting damage that war wrecks tends to be very high for most economies and of Sustainable Aquaculture Essay so theorists have advised that war should not be lightly accepted: once unleashed, war is not like a sport that can be quickly stopped at the blow of a whistle (although the Celtic druids supposedly had the power to aurelius stop a battle by virtue of the nra their moral standing) and its repercussions last for stoicism, generations. Holding hawks at bay though is a complicated task the apparent ease by which war may resolve disputes, especially in the eyes of those whose military might is apparently great and victory a certainty, does present war as a low cost option relative to continuing political problems and economic or moral hardship. Yet the the nra new deal, just war theorist wishes to underline the aurelius stoicism, need to attempt all other solutions but also to tie the Overview of Sustainable Aquaculture, justice of the war to the other principles of jus ad bellum too. The notion of proper authority seems to be resolved for most of the theorists, who claim it obviously resides in the sovereign power of the state.

But the concept of sovereignty raises a plethora of issues to consider here. If a government is just, i.e., most theorists would accept that the government is accountable and does not rule arbitrarily, then giving the officers of the state the right to declare war is reasonable, so the more removed from a proper and just form a government is, the stoicism, more reasonable it is tupac that its claim to justifiable political sovereignty disintegrates. A historical example can elucidate the problem: when Nazi Germany invaded France in 1940 it set up the marcus aurelius stoicism, Vichy puppet regime. What allegiance did the people of France under its rule owe to Overview Essay its precepts and marcus rules? A Hobbesian rendition of almost absolute allegiance to santeria the state entails that resistance is wrong (so long as the state is not tyrannical and imposes war when it should be the guardian of aurelius peace); whereas a Lockean or instrumentalist conception of the state entails that a poorly accountable, inept, or corrupt regime possesses no sovereignty, and the right of declaring war (to defend themselves against the government or from a foreign power) is wholly justifiable.

The notion of proper authority therefore requires thinking about what is meant by sovereignty, what is issues meant by the state, and what is the proper relationship between a people and its government. The possession of right intention is ostensibly less problematic. Marcus Aurelius Stoicism. The general thrust of the concept being that a nation waging a just war should be doing so for the cause of did paul cezanne die justice and not for aurelius, reasons of did paul cezanne self-interest or aggrandizement. Putatively, a just war cannot be considered to be just if reasons of national interest are paramount or overwhelm the pretext of fighting aggression. However, right intention masks many philosophical problems. According to Kant, possessing good intent constitutes the aurelius stoicism, only condition of moral activity, regardless of the santeria, consequences envisioned or caused, and regardless, or even in spite, of any self interest in stoicism, the action the agent may have. The extreme intrinsicism of religion Kant can be criticized on various grounds, the most pertinent here being the value of marcus aurelius self-interest itself. The Nra. At what point does right intention separate itself from self-interest is the moral worthiness of intent only gained by stoicism acting in favor of ones neighbor, and if so, what does that imply for and juliet, moral action that one should woo ones neighbors spouse to make him/her feel good? Acting with proper intent requires us to think about what is proper and marcus aurelius stoicism it is not certain that not acting in new deal, self interest is necessarily the aurelius, proper thing to religion do. On the one hand, if the only method to secure a general peace (some thing usually held to be good in itself) is to annex a belligerent neighbor's territory, political aggrandizement becomes intimately connected with the marcus aurelius, proper intention of personality maintaining the peace for stoicism, all or the majority.

On the other hand, a nation may possess just cause to defend an oppressed group, and may rightly argue that the proper intention is to tupac secure their freedom, yet such a war may justly be deemed too expensive or too difficult to wage; i.e., it is not ultimately in their self-interest to fight the just war. On that account, the realist may counter that national interest is paramount: only if waging war on behalf of freedom is also complemented by the securing of economic or other military interests should a nation commit its troops. The issue of intention raises the concern of practicalities as well as consequences, both of which should be considered before declaring war. The next principle is that of reasonable success. This is another necessary condition for waging just war, but again is insufficient by marcus aurelius stoicism itself. Given just cause and right intention, the just war theory asserts that there must be a reasonable probability of success. The principle of reasonable success is consequentialist in issues with, that the costs and benefits of a campaign must be calculated. Aurelius. However, the Overview of Sustainable Aquaculture Essay, concept of weighing benefits poses moral as well as practical problems as evinced in the following questions. Should one not go to the aid of a people or declare war if there is no conceivable chance of success?

Is it right to marcus aurelius stoicism comply with aggression because the romeo overview, costs of marcus not complying are too prohibitive? Would it be right to crush a weak enemy because it would be marginally costless? Is it not sometimes morally necessary to new deal stand up to a bullying larger force, as the Finns did when Russia invaded in 1940, for the sake of national self-esteem or simple interests of defending land? Historically, many nations have overcome the probability of defeat: the fight may seem hopeless, but a charismatic leader or rousing speech can sometimes be enough to stir a people into fighting with all their will. Winston Churchill offered the British nation some of the aurelius stoicism, finest of war's rhetoric when it was threatened with defeat and invasion by Nazi Germany in Overview Essay, 1940. For example: Let us therefore brace ourselves to do our duty, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Commonwealth and its Empire lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour. .And What is our aim?.Victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror; victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival. (Speeches to Parliament, 1940). However, the thrust of the reasonable success principle emphasizes that human life and economic resources should not be wasted in marcus aurelius, what would obviously be an uneven match. Tupac. For a nation threatened by invasion, other forms of retaliation or defense may be available, such as civil disobedience, or even forming alliances with other small nations to equalize the odds. The final guide of jus ad bellum is that the desired end should be proportional to the means used. Aurelius. This principle overlaps into the moral guidelines of how a war should be fought, namely the principles of jus In bello . With regards to just cause, a policy of war requires a goal, and that goal must be proportional to the other principles of just cause. Whilst this commonly entails the personality, minimizing of war's destruction, it can also invoke general balance of power considerations.

For example, if nation A invades a land belonging to the people of nation B, then B has just cause to take the land back. According to the principle of proportionality, Bs counter-attack must not invoke a disproportionate response: it should aim to retrieve its land and not exact further retribution or invade the aggressors lands, or in graphic terms it should not retaliate with overwhelming force or nuclear weaponry to resolve a small border dispute. That goal may be tempered with attaining assurances that no further invasion will take place, but for B to invade and annex regions of A is nominally a disproportionate response, unless (controversially) that is the only method for securing guarantees of no future reprisals. For B to invade and annex A and then to aurelius continue to invade neutral neighboring nations on the grounds that their territory would provide a useful defense against other threats and a putative imbalance of power is did paul cezanne die even more unsustainable. On the whole the principles offered by aurelius stoicism jus ad bellum are useful guidelines for reviewing the morality of religion going to war that are not tied to the intrinsicists absolutism or consequentialists open-endedness. Philosophically however they invoke a plethora of problems by either their independent vagueness or by mutually inconsistent results a properly declared war may involve improper intention or disproportionate ambitions.

But war is a complicated issue and the principles are nonetheless a useful starting point for ethical examination and they remain a guide for both statesmen and women and for those who judge political proceedings. The rules of marcus stoicism just conduct within war fall under the when cezanne die, two broad principles of discrimination and proportionality. The principle of marcus aurelius stoicism discrimination concerns who are legitimate targets in war, whilst the principle of proportionality concerns how much force is tupac morally appropriate. A third principle can be added to marcus stoicism the traditional two, namely the principle of responsibility, which demands an examination of where responsibility lies in war. One strong implication of the justice of warfare being a separate topic of analysis to the justice of personality war is that the theory thus permits the marcus stoicism, judging of acts within war to be dissociated from it cause. This allows the theorist to claim that a nation fighting an unjust cause may still fight justly, or a nation fighting a just cause may be said to fight unjustly. New Deal. It is a useful division but one that does not necessarily sever all ties between the two great principles of warfare: the justice of stoicism a cause remains a powerful moral guide by which warfare is to be judged, for what does it matter, it can be asked, if a nation wages a war of aggression but does so cleanly? In waging war it is considered unfair and unjust to attack indiscriminately since non-combatants or innocents are deemed to stand outside the field of war proper. Immunity from war can be reasoned from the fact that their existence and activity is not part of the essence of war, which is the killing of combatants. The Nra New Deal. Since killing itself is marcus stoicism highly problematic, the just war theorist has to proffer a reason why combatants become legitimate targets in of Sustainable Essay, the first place, and whether their status alters if they are fighting a just or unjust war.

Firstly, a theorist may hold that being trained and/or armed constitutes a sufficient threat to combatants on the other side and thereby the donning of uniform alters the persons moral status to legitimate target; whether this extends to peaceful as well as war duties is not certain though. Voluntarists may invoke the stoicism, boxing ring analogy: punching another individual is not morally supportable in a civilized community, but those who voluntarily enter the boxing ring renounce their right not to be hit. Normally, a boxer does not retain the tupac, right to hit another boxer outside of the ring, yet perhaps a soldiers training creates a wholly different expectation governing his or her status and that wearing the uniform or merely possessing the training secures their legitimacy as a target both on marcus aurelius, and off the battlefield. Such an argument would imply that it is right to attack unarmed soldiers or soldiers who have surrendered or who are enjoying the normality of civilian life, which just war theorists and historical conventions have traditionally rejected on the claim that when a soldier lays down his weapons or removes his uniform, he or she returns to civilian life and hence the status of the non-combatant even if that return is Essay temporary. Conversely, in joining an army the individual is said to renounce his or her rights not to be targeted in war the bearing of arms takes a person into marcus stoicism an alternative moral realm in which killing is the expectation and possible norm: it is world removed from civilian structures and historically has evolved rites of personality passage and exit that underline the alteration in status for cadets and veterans; all analogies to the fair play of marcus aurelius sports fail at new deal this juncture, for war involves killing and what the British Army call unlimited liability. On entering the army, the aurelius, civilian loses the right not to be targeted, yet does it follow that all who bear uniform are legitimate targets, or are some more so than others those who are presently fighting compared to those bearing arms but who are involved in supplies or administration, for instance? Others, avoiding a rights analysis for issues with abortion, it produces many problems on delineating the boundaries of rights and the bearers, may argue that those who join the army (or who have even been pressed into conscription) come to terms with being a target, and stoicism hence their own deaths. Overview. This is argued for example by Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill in marcus aurelius stoicism, The Ethics of War (1979).

However, since civilians can just as readily come to terms with their own deaths and it is santeria not necessarily the case that a soldier has, their argument, although interesting, is not sufficient to marcus stoicism defend the issues with, principle of discrimination and why soldiers alone should be targeted legitimately in war. In turn, rights-based analyses may be more philosophically productive in giving soldiers and critics crucial guidelines, especially those analyses that focus on the renouncing of rights by marcus aurelius combatants by virtue of their war status, which would leave nominally intact a sphere of immunity for civilians. Yet what is the romeo, status of guerrilla fighters who use civilian camouflage in order to press their attacks or to hide? Similarly, soldiers on covert operations present intricate problems of identification and legitimization: is there a difference between the two? Referring back to the fighters cause (for example, the guerrilla is aurelius a freedom fighter and thus carries a moral trump card) creates its own problems, which the just war theory in dividing the justice of the cause from the justice of the manner in which war is fought attempts to avoid: the guerrilla fighter may breach codes of conduct just as the soldier on a politically sensitive covert operations may avoid targeting the wrong people. Walzer, in his Just and Unjust Wars (1977) claims that the lack of identification does not give a government the with abortion, right to marcus stoicism kill indiscriminatelythe onus is on the government to identify the combatants, and so, the implication goes, if there is any uncertainty involved then an attack must not be made. Others have argued that the nature of die modern warfare dissolves the possibility of discrimination: civilians are just as necessary causal conditions for the war machine as are combatants, therefore, they claim, there is no moral distinction in targeting an armed combatant and a civilian involved in arming or feeding the combatant. The distinction is, however, not closed by the nature of modern economies, since a combatant still remains a very different entity from a non-combatant, if not for the simple reason that the former is presently armed (and hence has renounced rights or is prepared to die, or is a threat), whilst the marcus stoicism, civilian is not. On the other hand, it can be argued that being a civilian does not necessarily mean that one is not a threat and hence not a legitimate target. If Mr Smith is the only individual in the nation to possess the correct combination that will detonate a device that could kill thousands, then he becomes not only causally efficacious in the firing of a weapon of war, but also morally responsible; reasonably he also becomes a legitimate military target. His job effectively militarizes his status even though he does not bear arms.

The underlying issues that ethical analysis must deal with involve the logical nature of an romeo, individual's complicity and the aiding and abetting the war machine, with greater weight being imposed on those logically closer than those logically further from the aurelius stoicism, war machine in their work. At a deeper level, one can consider the role that civilians play in supporting an and juliet overview, unjust war: to what extent are they morally culpable, and if they are culpable in giving moral, financial, or economic support to some extent, does that mean they may become legitimate targets? This invokes the issue of collective versus individual responsibility that is in itself a complex topic but one that the principle of discrimination tries to circumvent by presenting guidelines for soldiers that keep their activity within the marcus stoicism, realms of war and its effects rather than murder. It would be wrong, on the principle of discrimination, to group the enemy into one targetable mass of people some can not be responsible for a war or its procedures, notably children. Yet, on the other hand, if a civilian bankrolls a war or initiates aggression as a politician, surely he or she bears some moral responsibility for the ensuing deaths: some may argue that the wars justification rests upon the nra new deal such shoulders but not the marcus, manner in which it is fought, while others may prefer to saddle the leader or initiator with the entire responsibility for how a war is personality fought on the argument that each combatant is responsible for those below him or her in rank so the political or civilian leaders are analogously responsible for aurelius, all operating in the military field. The second principle of just conduct is that any offensive action should remain strictly proportional to the objective desired. This principle overlaps with the proportionality principle of just cause, but it is with distinct enough to consider it in marcus stoicism, its own light. Proportionality for jus In bello requires tempering the extent and violence of warfare to minimize destruction and casualties. It is broadly utilitarian in that it seeks to minimize overall suffering, but it can also be understood from other moral perspectives, for instance, from harboring good will to all (Kantian ethics), or acting virtuously (Aristotelian ethics).

Whilst the romeo overview, consideration of discrimination focuses on who is aurelius stoicism a legitimate target of war, the personality, principle of proportionality deals with what kind of force is morally permissible. In fighting a just war in which only military targets are attacked, it is still possible to aurelius breach morality by employing disproportionate force against an enemy. Of Sustainable Aquaculture. Whilst the earlier theoreticians, such as Thomas Aquinas, invoked the Christian concepts of charity and aurelius mercy, modern theorists may invoke either consequentialist or intrinsicist prescriptions, both of which remain problematic as the foregoing discussions have noted. However, it does not seem morally reasonable to completely gun down a barely armed albeit belligerent tribe. The Nra New Deal. At the battle of Omdurman in 1898 in the Sudan, six machine gunners killed thousands of dervishesthe gunners may have been in aurelius, the right to defend themselves, but the principle of proportionality implies that a battle end before it becomes a massacre. Similarly, following the battle of overview Culloden in 1746 in Scotland, Cumberland ordered No Quarter, which was not only a breach of the principle of discrimination, for his troops were permitted to aurelius kill the wounded as well as supporting civilians, but also a breach of the principle of proportionality, since the battle had been won, and the Jacobite cause effectively defeated on the battle field.

What if a war and all of its suffering could be avoided by highly selective killing? Could just war theory endorse assassination for overview, instance? Assassination programs have often been secretly accepted and employed by states throughout the centuries and appeal, if challenged, is often to a higher value such as self-defense, killing a target guilty of war crimes and atrocities, or removing a threat to peace and stability. The CIA manual on assassination (1954, cf. Belfield), sought to distinguish between murder and assassination, the latter being justifiable according to stoicism the higher purposes sought.

This is analogous to when just war theorists seeking to put mass killing on aurelius stoicism, a higher moral ground than pure massacre and slaughter and is fraught with the same problems raised in this article and in Aquaculture Essay, the just war literature. On grounds of discrimination, assassination would be justifiable if the target were legitimate and not, say, the wife or children of stoicism a legitimate target. The Nra New Deal. On grounds of proportionality, the policy would also be acceptable, for if one man or woman (a legitimate target by virtue of aurelius his or her aggression) should die to avoid further bloodshed or to did paul secure a quicker victory, then surely assassination is covered by the just war theory? The founder of the Hashshashin society (c.11-13thC), Hasan ibn el Sabah preferred to target or threaten warmongers rather than drag innocents and noncombatants into bloody and protracted warfare: his threats were often successful for he brought the marcus, reality of death home to the leaders who otherwise would enjoy what lyricist Roger Waters calls the bravery of being out of range. In recent years, the US and UK proclaimed that the war in Overview of Sustainable Essay, the Gulf was not with the Iraqi people but with its leader and his regime; the US government even issued a bounty on marcus aurelius, the heads of key agents in the Baath party; indeed, Saddam Husseins sons, Uday and Qusay with a bounty of ?15m, were killed in a selective hunt and destroy mission rather than being captured and brought to did paul die trial for the crimes asserted of them. Assassination would apparently clear the two hurdles of discrimination and proportionality, yet the intrinsicist wing of just war theorists would reasonably claim that underhand and covert operations, including assassination, should not form a part of war on grounds that they act to undermine the respect due ones enemy (not matter how cruel he or she is) as well as the moral integrity of the stoicism, assassin; the consequentialists would also counter that such policies also encourage the enemy to retaliate in similar manner, and one of the sustaining conclusions of just war theory is santeria religion that escalation or retaliatory measures (tit for tat policies) should be avoided for their destabilizing nature. Once initiated, assassination tends to aurelius stoicism become the norm of political affairs indeed, civil politics would thus crumble into religion fearful and barbaric plots and aurelius conspiracies (as did Rome in when die, its last centuries) in a race to gain power and mastery over others rather than to forge justifiable sovereignty. The principles of proportionality and discrimination aim to temper war's violence and range; while they may ostensibly imply the aurelius, acceptance of some forms of warfare, their malleability also implies that we continuously look afresh upon seemingly acceptable acts. Accordingly, they are complemented by and juliet other considerations that are not always explicitly taken up in the traditional exposition of jus In bello , this is especially true in the case of the issue of responsibility. Jus in bello requires that the agents of war be held responsible for their actions.

This ties in their actions to morality generally. Some, such as Saint Augustine argues against this assertion: who is but the sword in the hand of him who uses it, is stoicism not himself responsible for when cezanne, the death he deals. Aurelius. Those who act according to a divine command, or even God's laws as enacted by the state and who put wicked men to death have by no means violated the commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill. Whilst this issue is connected to the concepts of tupac personality just cause, it does not follow that individuals waging a just, or unjust war, should be absolved of breaching the principles of just conduct. Readily it can be accepted that soldiers killing other soldiers is part of the stoicism, nature of warfare for which soldiers ought to be prepared and new deal trained, but when soldiers turn their weapons against non-combatants, or pursue their enemy beyond what is reasonable, then they are no longer committing legitimate acts of war but acts of murder. The principle of responsibility re-asserts the marcus aurelius, burden of abiding by rules in times of peace on those acting in war to remind them that one day they will once more take up civilian status and when cezanne die should be prepared to do so conscientiously, free of aurelius any guilt from war crimes. The issues that arise from abortion, this principle include the morality of obeying orders (for example, when one knows those orders to be immoral), as well as the moral status of ignorance (not knowing of the effects of ones actions either reasonably or literally). Responsibility for acts of war relate back to the tenets of jus ad bellum as well as jus in bello , for the justification of going to war involves responsibility as well as the acts ordered and committed in war.

In reviewing the stories from military ethics readers, the acts of bravery that attract our attention involve soldiers standing up to aurelius do the right thing against either the prevailing momentum of the platoon or the santeria, orders from marcus, higher up; the realist rejects such acts as infrequent or unnecessary performances that do not alter the main characteristic of war and its innate brutality, yet such acts also remind the critic as well as the soldier of the santeria, importance of returning to the civilian mode with good conscience. The aftermath of war involves the relinquishing of armed conflict as a means of aurelius stoicism resolving disputes and the donning of more civil modes of conduct but it also raises questions concerning the nature of the post bellum justice. Following the santeria, cessation of marcus aurelius stoicism a war, three possibilities emerge: either the army has been defeated, has been victorious, or it has agreed to a ceasefire. Principles of justice may then be applied to each situation. Orend presents a useful summary of the principles of jus post bellum : the principle of discrimination should be employed to avoid imposing punishment on innocents or non-combatants; the rights or traditions of the defeated deserve respect; the claims of victory should be proportional to the wars character; compensatory claims should be tempered by the principles of discrimination and romeo overview proportionality; and, controversially, the need to rehabilitate or re-educate an aggressor should also be considered. It has often been remarked that justice, like history, is marcus aurelius written by the victors. A defeated army and indeed the civilian body from did paul, which the army stems should thus be prepared to subject itself to the imposition of aurelius rules and forms of punishments, humiliation, and even retributions that it would not otherwise agree to. The lives, values, and resources that have been fought for santeria religion, must now be handed over to the conquerors.

When put this way, when one readily imagines ones own countrys army falling to an aggressive enemy, the terms immediately appear fearful and unjust and marcus aurelius may stir a greater endeavor to make the victory hollow by the raising of guerrilla or even terrorist organizations to Overview Essay thwart the marcus, conquerors designs. Yet when ones own army is victorious, the partiality of victory can be so easily dismissed on the enthusiastic wave that accompanies triumph: victory is so often associated with the the nra, greater right when ones own country vanquishes its enemy, and marcus aurelius assumedly with that right comes the did paul cezanne die, justification to impose conditions upon the vanquished. In so many wars in history, both ancient and modern, victory has provided the winners with the means of exploiting the defeated nation and for marcus aurelius, claiming rights over its lands and people whether in the form of enslavement or in monopolistic mercantile contracts; sometimes an appeal to divine justice is made; at other times the supremacy of ones nation, race, creed, or political order is lauded over and juliet, the defeated. Marcus. Economic exploitation is not the only means of subjugating the defeated: new political or religious frameworks can also be imposed sometimes as a means of rehabilitating the defeated or as a means to avoid the circumstances (political or economic) that may bring about further warfare; the philosopher must naturally inquire as to the justice of such measures. The just war theorist is keen to issues with abortion remind warriors and politicians alike that the principles of justice following war should be universalizable and morally ordered and that victory should not provide a license for imposing unduly harsh or punitive measures or that state or commercial interests should not dictate the form of the marcus aurelius stoicism, new peace. Overview Essay. Similarly, imposing an alternative political or religious is not likely to be conducive to aurelius peace, as Edmund Burke prophetically warned about decreeing for the rights of man in an unprepared culture; re-educating a defeated military or bureaucracy may seem reasonable and arguably was successful in issues with abortion, post-war Germany (1945), yet such a program may also be so superficial or condescending as to have only short term and illusory benefits or act to further humiliate the defeated into seething desire for aurelius stoicism, revenge.

In post-war Iraq (2003-date), the rehabilitation programs have met with mixed success and have often been criticized for favoring some ethnic groups over abortion, others, i.e., affecting political and cultural nuances that an outsider would not be aware of. Criticism may stem from either intrinsicist reasons (that the defeated should still be viewed as a people deserving moral respect and their traditions held as sacrosanct) or consequentialist reasons (that punitive impositions are likely to produce a backlash); but again it is worth reminding that just war theory tends to merge the two to avoid awkward implications derived from either position singly. At this point, the attraction for jus post bellum thinkers is to return to the initial justice of the stoicism, war. Consider a war of self-defense: this is the nra new deal considered by most, except absolute pacifists, to be the marcus stoicism, most justifiable of all wars. If the people are defeated but their cause remains just, should they then continue the Overview of Sustainable Aquaculture Essay, fight to rid their country of all the marcus, vestiges of Overview Aquaculture occupation? What if fighting is impossible? Should they bow their heads in honorable defeat and accept the victors terms graciously?

Locke believed that an unjustly defeated people should bide their time until their conquerors leave: if God has taken away all means of seeking remedy, there is nothing left but patience. ( Second Treatises , 177); however, the right always remains with those who fought against an unjust war but they do not gain any moral right to attack indiscriminately or disproportionately (such as terrorizing the invaders own civilians or soldiers at rest), although they may carry on their claim for freedom over the generations. A realist, however, may ask how a people are to regain their freedom if they do not raise arms against their sea of stoicism troubles? Nonetheless, if the good fight is to continue, most theorists follow Locke and prohibit breaches of the jus in bello principles: while it would be wrong to bow to a tyrant or conquering army, it would be immoral to target their families in order to encourage the occupying army to leave. Others may counsel civil disobedience and did paul cezanne die other forms of intransigence to signal displeasure. If, on the other hand, the victors have won a just war against aurelius an aggressor, Locke argues that the victors right does not extend to the aggressive nations civilian population, but that it does extend to all those engaged in the aggression and that it extends absolutely: that is, the just conqueror has absolute rights of life and death over the defeated aggressors. When Did Paul. The aggressor, one who initiates war, puts the marcus stoicism, individual or the community into a state of war, he argues, and so the defender has an absolute prerogative to use whatever force necessary to secure freedom and peace: accordingly, in victory, the victors may enslave or kill the aggressors. Lockes is an extreme although not logically incoherent position and his exhortations may be compared to other moral positions (often emerging from religious thinking) to temper the justice in favor of other virtues such as charity, liberality, and justice. The Nra New Deal. Indeed, King Alfred the Great of Wessex (c.878AD) defeated the Viking invader Guthrum in battle and rather than executing him as the Vikings would have done Alfred, he ordered them to join the Christian religion and then, and probably more importantly, offered them a stake in the land: toleration merged with prudence and marcus aurelius self-interest ensured Guthrum was no longer a threat.

Indeed, Machiavelli warned that killing an opponents family is likely to raise their ire but taking away their land is guaranteed to continue the fight over new deal, generations. It may be reasonably held that the aggressors deserve punishment of some sort, although Alfreds example highlights an alternative view of dealing with an enemy, one that reminds the theorist that peace not further war remains the goal. But what if the defeated aggressors are guilty of marcus stoicism atrocities, surely they should be made to when stand trial to send a signal to other war criminals as well as to punish them for their own misdeeds? Here we enter the debates regarding punishment: does punishing a violator make any sense except to exact either retribution, revenge, or to promote a deterrence? Can the marcus aurelius stoicism, victors be sure of their claim to overview punish the aggressors and what good could possibly flow from marcus stoicism, bringing more violence or enslavement to the world? In asserting the need to find universalisable principles, the just war theorist is usually keen to insist that any war crimes trials are held in neutral states and presided over by neutral parties, rather than the victors whose partiality in proceedings must be presumed: after all, in the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, no allied generals or politicians were held accountable for the atrocities created by bombing civilian centers in Germany and Japan and the dropping of nuclear bombs on romeo overview, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The end game and hence the jus post bellum certainly merit attention before the battles are lost or won: what should be the ruling affairs once the marcus aurelius, peace is proclaimed? Should the terms of wars end be elaborated and publicly pronounced as to ensure all parties are aware of the costs of defeat?

Is it right that an with, army should demand unconditional surrender, for instance, when such a policy may entail a protracted war for marcus aurelius stoicism, no incentive is given to the other side to surrender; on personality, the other hand, unconditional surrender implies a derogatory view of the marcus, enemy as one not to be respected either in did paul, or after war. Yet if an unconditional surrender policy does suitably raise the marcus aurelius stoicism, stakes of of Sustainable Essay fighting war it may act as a sufficient deterrent against possible aggressors or act as a useful diplomatic tool to bring a worried enemy back to peaceful overtures. Similarly, is it right that an marcus aurelius stoicism, army should demand reparations in advance rather than leave them undisclosed and thereby risk the uncertainty of punishment creating a backlash from the defeated, who may not wish to santeria religion be so subjected? To keep the marcus aurelius stoicism, expected conditions of santeria religion wars end secretive does not seem a wise move in that uncertainty generates fear, and fear can generate a harder campaign than otherwise would be necessary; but if the publicized conditions appear onerous to the enemy, then they have good reasons to prolong and/or intensify their own fight. Of course, if promises of an amnesty or fair treatment of prisoners is aurelius stoicism reneged on by the victor, then all trust for future arrangements is lost and the consequences imply embedding hatreds and mistrust for generations. Assume that victory is tupac given, that the army has defeated its enemy on the battlefield so attention turns to the nature of the post bellum justice of dealing with the aurelius stoicism, defeated regardless of its intentions beforehand. Arguably, the very nature of the warring participants vision of each other and of themselves will color the proceedings both politically and morally. A victorious side, for instance, that sees itself as rightfully triumphant is more likely to impose its will and exactions upon the defeated in a more stringent manner in Overview Aquaculture Essay, which a victorious side that sees itself as its enemys equal; but universality demands seeing ones enemy as oneself and understanding not just the marcus aurelius stoicism, Realpolitik of romeo and juliet state interests and state gains in aurelius stoicism, victory but also the conventions of magnanimity and honor in santeria, victory (or defeat). Consider the demands for reparations.

A defeated aggressor may just be asked to pay for the damage incurred by the war (as justice demands of marcus criminals that they pay for their crimes). But to what extent should the reparations extend? Should there be demands for retribution and deterrence added in, so that those deemed responsible for their aggression should be put on Overview of Sustainable Aquaculture, trial and suitably punished (and what would suitable mean in this instance that Saddam Hussein stand trial for his invasion of Kuwait implies that George W Bush similarly stand trial for his invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq?). Stoicism. In forming the conditions of defeat, should neutral third parties be turned to so as to avoid later accusations of tupac personality victors justice and the partiality that such justice can invoke or imply, or does victory present the aurelius, victor with the ultimate moral wreath to justify whatever demands seen appropriate or fitting? Should a war be indecisive though, the character of the peace would presumably be formed by the character of the ceasefire namely, the tupac, cessation of fighting would imply a mere hiatus in which the belligerents regain the marcus stoicism, time and with abortion resources to stock their defenses and marcus prepare for further fighting. As such, a ceasefire would be merely a respite for the military to regain its strengths. However, just war theory also acts to remind contenders that war is a last resort and that its essential aim is always peace, so if peace is forthcoming in any guise, it is morally critical for all parties to seek a return to a permanent peace rather than a momentary lapse of santeria war. This article has described the main tenets of the just war theory, as well as some of the problems that it entails.

The theory bridges theoretical and applied ethics, since it demands an adherence, or at aurelius least a consideration of meta-ethical conditions and models, as well as prompting concern for the practicalities of war. A few of personality those practicalities have been mentioned here. Other areas of marcus aurelius interest are: hostages, innocent threats, international blockades, sieges, the of Sustainable Essay, use of weapons of mass destruction or of anti-personnel weapons (for example, land mines), and marcus the morality and Overview Aquaculture practicalities of aurelius interventionism.

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1091 Words complete Essay on Regionalism. Regionalism has been the marcus stoicism most potent force in Indian politics since India#8217;s independence. It has remained the basis of regional political parties. It is a significant type of sub-territorial loyalty. Interestingly enough, regionalism in India, has flourished in close identification with the regions. In the post-independence period, it has often been conflicting as well as collaborating force, largely depending on the manner of accommodation.

Regionalism in India is deeply rooted in its manifold diversity of languages, cultures, tribes, religions, communities, etc. It originates from the feeling of regional concentration, which is often fuelled by a sense of regional deprivation. The country of more than a billion people of different castes, creeds, customs and cultures, India#8217;s broad regions are distinct from one another. Aquaculture? For instance, southern India, the home of Dravidian cultures, itself a region of many regions is very different from the north. To say, every region is quite different from one another, will not be an exaggeration. In Indian context, regionalism refers to assertion of distinct ethnic, linguistic or economic interests by various groups within the nation. Since the roots of regionalism lie in linguistic, ethnic, economic and cultural identities of the people living in specific geographical area, political scholars have treated various forms of regionalism which include economic regionalism, linguistic regionalism, political regionalism and even sub-regional movements in the general frame of regionalism. Image Source : In other words, it is the manifestation of those neglected socio-political elements which fail to find expression in the mainstream polity and culture.

These feelings of frustration and anger resulting from stoicism exclusion and neglect find expression in regionalism. Prejudices and biases have a lasting impact on the mind of the people. They themselves do not play a part in the political process, but as a psychic factor they do influence their party organisations and their political behaviour. Seen in this perspective, regionalism in India, as elsewhere, is basically a psychic phenomenon. It has its root in the minds of the people. The emergence of the independent Lahore Kingdom under the capable legendary leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was a deep and everlasting impact on the minds of the Sikhs of the region. Similarly, people of Maharashtra can never forget the heroic deeds of Shivaji. Since politics sometimes is emotional, not rational, people adore these heroes and their achievements.

They often identify themselves with them. This helps in arousing the did paul cezanne sentiments of the people which are later exploited by marcus stoicism the regional political leadership. The resurgence of regionalism in various parts of the country has emerged as such a serious problem that it literally threatens to divide the country. Tupac? The creation of new states like Jharkhand, Uttaranchal (Uttarakhand) and Chhattisgarh in recent times is in fact the marcus stoicism expression of territorial regionalism. Again, the demand for Bodoland, Vidarbha, Telangana, Gorkhaland, etc. cannot be traced in the earnest desire of the people to have their regional identity, which results from and juliet regional imbalances.

In fact, it is the natural desire of the people in a region or territory to aurelius make rapid social and economic development so that they may live happily. Overview? But in course of time when some part of the marcus aurelius stoicism region makes rapid development, and tupac, other remains neglected, then the feelings of anger and aurelius stoicism, frustration creep into the mind of the people which find expression in demand for a separate homeland. Romeo And Juliet? Thus, this development imbalance in which some part of the state receives special attention and other areas are neglected and allowed to rot causing immense suffering and hardship to the common appeared in the form of Gorkha movement, Bodo movement, Telangana movement, etc. There is certainly no denying that social Utopias of leaders like Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru were mainly responsible for the lopsided development of the stoicism country and the creation of the tupac society in aurelius stoicism which a few rolled in of Sustainable Aquaculture Essay wealth, the majority of the people yearned for food. In fact, regionalism in India appears in four forms, e.g. demand of the people of certain areas for separate statehood, demand of people of certain Union Territories for full-fledged statehood, demand of marcus aurelius certain people for favourable settlement of inter-state disputes, and the demand of the people of certain areas for issues abortion secession from the Indian Union. However, it is agreed that the rise and growth of regionalism is rooted in the failure of the marcus stoicism national political system to meet the aspirations of the tupac personality people. This marks the inefficiency and incapability on the part of the marcus authority concerned-the Parliament, the Executive-to respond to the people#8217;s expectations and efficiently handling the growing unrest and deepening conflict. Besides, the local leadership is to be held equally responsible, which fails to reconcile with the aspirations of the people. The mixed economy of India, consisting of large state sector and corporate sector, miserably failed to generate job opportunities for majority of people who are forced to live a life of poverty, illiteracy and starvation. Large portions of the with abortion population are underhoused and live a life without benefits of rudimentary health care. In this situation in which the teeming millions languish under the crushing burden of poverty, only about twenty per cent of the populations enjoy the benefits of development.

This ever- widening gap between the two groups of India constitutes the root cause of inter-ethnic, inter-communal and inter-regional conflicts-various manifestation of regionalism. Regional parties play a prominent role in the spread of regionalism and in creating regional consciousness. Since these parties have their political existence in aurelius stoicism regional support, they arouse it to gain its benefits to serve their end. It is a well-known strategy of the regional leadership to tupac launch their agenda against marcus stoicism, the Centre, i.e. the and juliet overview opposition party for discriminating against the state with political motives. Besides, the regional press, which is primarily language-oriented, immensely contributes in the emergence of regionalism. It is a powerful vehicle for stoicism the expression of regionalism and regional sentiments. The views expressed in them are, often quite contrary to the nra new deal those in the English media, i.e. Aurelius Stoicism? national media.

In an age of coalition governments, where regional forces in the country are strengthening, vernacular press has become more vocal and articulates. Of Sustainable Essay? Naturally, it has strengthening effect on regional sentiments. Thus, the need of the hour is to develop a realistic perception of regionalism at the conceptual level focusing on righteousness and judicious outlook on the part of the political parties. If this objective is achieved, then the marcus stoicism realisation of the idea of different communities, speaking diverse languages and each linked with particular cultural expression, #8220;thinking globally, acting globally and seeing human unity in diversity in practical terms#8221; too would become a distinct possibility. Welcome to!

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I stared intently at the glass case, fascinated by the bloated head floating in it. Suddenly, realization hit me with a jolt. It was Mustafa Muffid, the dictator of a neighboring country who had disappeared during a rebellion by the masses in the early 1970s. The atrocities that he had committed. Should Kokoda Replace Gallipoli as the Focus for marcus, Australia's Commemoration of War? - Disagree. when a fleet of British and French vessels including the British battleship Queen Elizabeth, bombarded Turkish artillery along the coast.

Mutsafa Kemal Ataturk was a Turkish Army Officer, reformed statesman, and the first president of Turkey. The Nra New Deal? After the aurelius stoicism Battle of Gallipoli he made a very inspirational and. childrens home on the outskirts on Reading. When? This is Alems first experience of bullying in England. He makes friends with two kids at the home called Mustafa and Stanley but he also gets bullied by marcus one older teenager called Sweeney. When Alem refuses to give Sweeney his dinner, Sweeney struck him with his. territory from Eastern Europe to religion the Middle East for more than 600 years.

When its dissolution finally occurred in a civilian uprising led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk a secular state replaced an Islamic empire. Marcus Aurelius Stoicism? Under the Ottoman Empire influence and power came with position, which was designated from the top. other institutions. Budget of every institution were being transferred to war. After the war in embarking upon the task of building a new nation , Ataturk and his Associates coceived of education as the most important foundation. In the emerging ideology of Ataturkism, education was inevitably bound up.

In addition to these counses,Selim's father played an important role to his reforms.When Mustafa 3 was in power, he made use of Baron De Tot and Selim was with his father while Mustafa 3 was controlling the works.These works profoundly influenced Selim.Before Mustafa's death he talked. creature was evil it led to Frankenstein's ultimate downfall and death. The Creature also killed her on one of the happiest days of his life. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk suffered major consequences for his actions in the Armenian Genocide. He became a heavy drinker because of the genocide which led to him getting. country, a new society, a new state, and to achieve these, ceaseless reforms this is, in a word, the Turkish Revolution. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk 1. Introduction Mustafa Kemal Ataturk , the commander of the Turkish War of Independence, is still considered by many Turks as their national hero and romeo a great. calendar, units of marcus aurelius stoicism weights and measures were adopted to Turkish system and so on. These reforms are also continued under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk . Towards to issues abortion the middle of the marcus aurelius book Celikoglu mentions about the romeo and juliet overview transition to a multiparty system. By doing this, he criticizes the transition. 2015). Students spend most of their time interacting with each other through mobile phones.

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Foer (224-225) notes that soccer took root in Islamic societies because of the passion of modernizers such as Turkeys Kamal Ataturk and Irans Reza Shah. These two leaders introduced the game to their countries where it was adopted with great enthusiasm. However, Foer (228) states. Benefits by the Reduction in Terrorist Activities. due to changes in religious and ethnic makeup of society. The Syrian intervention was of secondary importance in this matter. In Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Pasha ( Ataturk ) attempted to the nra westernize the whole of Turkish society and shift its orientation to aurelius the West as early as the 1930s.

This attempt may still. Construction Engineering (CVEN380) - Spring 2013 Term project proposal Team Members: Md Hasibur Rahman 201002365 Malek Rashid Yasin 201000439 Mustafa Thamer Hamdi 200607162 a) Project title Heavy Construction Technology: Bridge Construction amp; Technology (Suspension Bridges) b). The Process of Democratic Consodilation in Turkey. stable (71). The Nra? When the Turkish Republic was founded by marcus stoicism Mustafa Kemal Ataturk , there was a manner in the direction of democratization with the establishment of the did paul cezanne die electoral process in Turkey in 1920s. Furthermore, following 1920s, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk initiated some reforms in order to create a new republican. Historical Evolution of aurelius stoicism Turkish Museology and New Expansions.

kulturumuzun sergilendigi muzelerin cogalmas? ve yurt cap?nda yayg?nlasmas? ise 1920li y?llardan sonra Ataturkun bu konuya verdigi onem sonucudur. Mustafa Kemal , 16 Ekim 1921de Maarif Kongresi ac?l?s konusmas?nda; Eski devirlerin bos inanclar?ndan ve yeniden kurulus ozelligimize hic de uymayan yabanc?. Although they did make rapid inroads initially with little resistance they floundered under the santeria religion counter-attack led by Mustafa Kemal the commander of the Turkish 19th Division. In reality Kemal had only a Regiment to marcus aurelius hold the ANZACS within their perimeter. But the Australian and romeo New Zealanders showed their. your C.V. Duration Level Duration 1 Month and aurelius a week 10 sessions 2 Sessions / week 2 hrs. / Session Level price 235 L.E / Level Kareem Mustafa | E-sales Administrator Mobile No. | 010 45 00 441 014 12 80 401 . no decision had been made in 40% of the cases.

On February 11, 2008, the US Department of Defense charged Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Ramzi Binalshibh, Mustafa Ahmad al-Hawsawi, Ali Abd al-Aziz Ali and the nra new deal Walid Bin Attash for the September 11 attacks under the military commission system, as established under. Rhetorical Analysis of an Advertisement. campaign during the marcus aurelius stoicism 2010 Super Bowl that has gained much publicity and and juliet overview success. With constantly changing outfits on actor and marcus aurelius stoicism spokesperson, Isaiah Mustafa , and continually shifting backgrounds and environments, this thirty-three second long commercial most definitely keeps watchers attentive and the nra new deal alert. personality create this and also if this is beneficial or harmful by marcus stoicism using specific examples; namely John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Eva Peron and Mustafa Kemal Ataturk . Santeria? At first, the term cult of personality was used to describe dictators of totalitarian regimes that sought to stoicism radically alter or transform. to see the two towers that are borders to the gate. The Clock Tower in Kaleici Square is a part of the Overview Essay fortifications of the aurelius ancient city. From the Ataturk Park to the Karaalioglu one, the tupac personality multi-coloured exotic flowers and the bright sea of the marcus aurelius bay with the Overview of Sustainable Aquaculture Essay mountains in the background reveal the reasons.

Running Head: REZONING SUNLAND HOSPITAL The Ghosts of Sunland have a New Home Mustafa Mahdi The Sunland Hospital, originally addressed on Phillips Rd, was constructed in 1952 as a Tuberculosis hospital. In 1968 it became the hospital in Florida to aurelius stoicism care for physically and mentally retarded. either purchase the product themselves or encourage men they know to purchase it. For example, the ad I watched used an of Sustainable Aquaculture Essay ex-NFL wide receiver Isaiah Mustafa , with him coming out of the shower in a towel saying Hello ladies, in a deep masculine voice and continues to talk to marcus stoicism the ladies. He tells them to. came to issues with abortion believe that a free India needed socialist authoritarianism, on the lines of Turkey's Kemal Ataturk , for at marcus, least two decades.

Bose was refused permission by the British authorities to meet Ataturk at Ankara for political reasons. During his sojourn in England, only the Labour Party and Liberal. Dave Chappelle and Mustafa Abuelhija Contract. Was the contract between Dave Chappelle and Mustafa Abuelhija valid, did Dave Chappelle breach his contract with ex-manager Mustafa Abuelhija and if so, what remedies are available to Dave Chappelle? Mr. Dave Chappelle was sued by his former manager Mr. Mustafa Abuelhija for and juliet, a breach of contract, saying. She choosed find a job and she started to work in marcus aurelius, goverment as an inspector. Also my aunties and uncles got married. My eldest aunt married with Mustafa Ceylan. He is an electrical engineer and they live in religion, Adapazar?.

They have two children a girl and aurelius a boy. Tupac? Both of their children ( Dilek and marcus aurelius Ahmet). The Accession of Overview Aquaculture Turkey to marcus aurelius the Eu: Yes or No? Historically the Ottoman Empire was dissolved after the First World War, followed by the declaration of the Turkish Republic in 1923 by the nra new deal Mustafa Kemal Attaturk. As first president of the Republic, Attaturk marked the beginning of an era characterized by drastic political and economic reform. The.

short amount of time. Ataturk goes to Bursa. During dinner in a mansion located on the road of Cekirge, someone ordinary attempts to say this to Ataturk : The Youth of Bursa should have supressed the incident, but because of its trust towards the police and marcus aurelius justice.., Ataturk quickly cuts the words. Post World War I Turkish Reforms ? ? ? ? Mustafa Kemal served as founder and president of the new Republic of Turkey for issues with, 15 years, from 1923 to aurelius stoicism his death in 1938. He introduced numerous sweeping reforms that altered the religion political, social, legal, economic, and cultural spheres of the new republic. His. Mustafa Ahmed Ibrahim Contact Information: Mobile: 01002058605 Home phone: 0133229699 E-mail: Personal information: Date of Birth: 30-4-1987. Aurelius? Nationality: Egyptian. Marital Status: . Big three * Failure * New eastern European states * Turkey * Ibn Saud creates Saudi Arabia * Turkey * Mustafa Kamal Ataturk * Universal male suffrage * Suffrage for women by tupac 1934 * Istanbul to Ankara * Friday is a work day * Roman.

GEOG 101 Week 8 Final Exam Answers. the Southern Ocean 5. an area where a state has no rights to stoicism exploit minerals Points earned on this question: 1 Question 98 (Worth 1 points) Kemal Ataturk is tupac, most closely identified with the city of: 1. Cairo 2. Aurelius? Mecca 3. Tehran 4. Ankara This is a correct answer 5. Baghdad Points earned on this. Future Conflict That Could Escalade. open for the Turks, then they may turn their backs and walk away. It is true that Europe is not Turkeys only option. Ever since 1923, when Mustafa Kemal Ataturk became the first president of the Republic of Turkey, the government line has been to look West, not East; however there are those in Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (pronounced [mus?tafa ce?mal ata?ty?c]; 19 May 1881 (Conventional) 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer in the Ottoman military, revolutionary statesman, and the first President of Turkey.

He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey. His surname, Ataturk. Kemal woliye Erkiso Telephone: Office : 0462216796, Res. : 0461100619, Mob. : 0911397653 Email: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Personal Data Date of Birth : April 1, 1983 Sex : Male Religion: ISLAM Marital Status. I live in there. In the religion morning we go to Anitkabir which is the marcus aurelius most important place in Ankara. Anitkabir is Overview of Sustainable Aquaculture, a big monument for our great leader Ataturk who was an outstanding soldier, a reformer, a smart statesman and a nation builder. He was the leader of Turkish War of Independence, and the founder.

Reading Books Is Better Than Watching Tv. October 29 by attending performances and participating in traditional processions with flags and stoicism musical bands. The Turkish Republics founder Mustafa Kemal Ataturk proclaimed Republic Day as Turkeys most important holiday. Many people go to local stadiums on October 29 to when did paul cezanne die watch performances dedicated. Merve DERMENCI Kadir Has University Mustafa CETINKAYA Kadir Has University Musaffa Demir Kadir Has University 22 February 2009 Abstract On 17 August 1999 Turkey was hit by marcus a massive earthquake.

Over 17,000 lives. Financial Services Industry Report. information and information to santeria their customers. In the marcus next decade this includes working to santeria religion become even more paperless than some organizations already are. Kemal Saatcioglu, Jan Stallaert, and Andrew B Whinston have designed a financial web-portal for financial institutions to use so the marcus day-to-day transactions. strongly suggest you be careful while entering the rooms, as the doors are very low. The most impressive item is romeo and juliet, one of the first Turkish flags, which Ataturk had prepared for the declaration of the Republic. The terrace of Divan with its view of Ankara Citadel is stoicism, also located on Overview Aquaculture, this floor and is open in.

based at the anatolian continent of the Istanbul is a significant plus, for people living or working in Anatolia. Aurelius? Instead of going a long way to Ataturk Airport, it is so easier to access to when did paul Sabiha Gokcen where Pegasus is based. Delayed flights became a major problem in marcus aurelius stoicism, our daily rushing lives. Sabiha. cannot provide basic sevices , civil society organizations engaged in.

In modern Turkey women rights start with revolutions of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk . Mustafa Kemal Ataturk outlawed polygamy and abolished Islamic courts in favour of when cezanne die secular institutions.After that in 2001 Turkish Civil Code changed.This. superficial, the citizens have no other structure to marcus follow. The Nra? The allusion to aurelius Mustapha Mond in the book is taken from a leader known Mustapha Kemal Ataturk . He founded Turkey and pulled the country into modernization and Overview of Sustainable Aquaculture secularism. In the book this character plays the same role in respect that he is. [ ASSIGNMENT OF PAKISTAN STUDIES] NAME : MUHAMMAD HAMZA MUSTAFA FATHER NAME : KAFEEL AHMED SIDDIQUI SECTION : B DEPARTMENT : COMPUTER SCIENCE * * * TABLE OF CONTENTS * * * PREFACE: INTRODUCTION OF SIR SYED AHMED KHAN : Sir syed ahmed khan is marcus stoicism, one. October 29, 1923, which is now celebrated as Republic Day, Turkeys national holiday. Mustafa Kemal was the tupac personality first president of the stoicism Republic of Turkey, and Aquaculture took on the name Ataturk , meaning father of the Turks. Ataturk is considered a national hero, for marcus stoicism, his service helping Turkey undergo social, legal. into the modern era. Starting with the romeo and juliet earliest traces of civilization and extending well beyond the democratic reforms of their beloved commander Ataturk (which literally means father of the aurelius stoicism Turks), Turkey has always historically fought to keep its global economic status. Issues With? Many, if not all, of the worlds. In 1920, the aurelius great reformer, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk emerged from the chaos of the nra World War I to stoicism establish modern Republic of Turkey in order to transform several political transitions and development initiatives leading to its position as a growing economic power.

Ataturk understand that an integrated nation. Gallipoli Campaign: Development of Kiwi, Australian and Turkish Nationalism. known commander called Mustafa Kemal , who would go on Overview, to be known as Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (The Father of the marcus stoicism modern Turkish nation). Certainly during and even before the First World War the old Ottoman Empire had been in decline from when, its former glory and Mustafa Kemal Ataturk would go on to be the catalyst. Helmholtz feels his work is empty and aurelius stoicism is unable utilize it further than prescribed in his caste. These three outcasts are forced to be judged by Mustafa Mond, one of the top ten controllers who belong to the Alpha caste to decide their fate. Religion? Mond declares to take away their freedom by deporting Bernard.

Syria to countries in Europe and elsewhere and marcus also simply by using the internet and other communications. Imam, whose real name is Abd al-Rahman Mustafa al-Qaduli, had previously been involved with al Qaeda, where he was a top deputy to leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Issues Abortion? In addition to Imam, several other. Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey to fight against the Ottoman Empire (same as Turkey). Britain planned to knock Ottoman Empire out aurelius of the war. Mustapha Kemal (Turk officer) forced Turks to of Sustainable Aquaculture fight even without ammunition. (Im no ordering you to fight, Im ordering you to die.) The British thought this would.