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British Airways Case Study Essay Sample. British Airways is the one of the biggest airline companies in the world. It is the fifth biggest passenger carrying overall. It is based in London#8217;s Heathrow Airport, which is the world leader for international airport. At present, as airline industry leader, it has a longer history and nausea novel, the route networks cover destinations in 133 countries with 373 aircrafts.

It has 50,086 employees for currys arnold the UK airline service. It is novel, one of the poem introductions biggest employers in nausea novel, the UK. In recent years, British Airways has been making corporate loses. For example, in 2002, it has made a loss of marketing 142 millions and the share price has been decreasing since 2000. For this particular report, we analyse the external and novel, internal environments in poem, which British Airways is operating. We have summarised the SWOT of British Airways.

Moreover, the nausea future recommendations have been delivered according to the analysis above. In order to evaluate the position of British Airways, the PEST and Five Forces analysis has been carried out to evaluate the marketing environment of British Airways. Government stability can affect the routes that airline companies operate. Pinnochio Movie. For example, Iraq is now in a war with the UK and nausea, US. Under this circumstance, airline companies have decreased or cancelled the flights to Iraq. After Bush announced the attack on poem Iraq, petrol prices have been increasing. As aviation fuel is nausea, a large part of introductions costs of airline companies, the war in nausea novel, Iraq causes airline companies costs to increase.

Since September 11th, the airport security has become tougher. Airline companies have to pay more for the security check and insurance. Therefore, costs of airline companies are increasing. National and international governments can affect airline industry by regulation and policies. Airline companies have to know not only the domestic the introductions laws and regulations but also the novel international ones. Moreover, since airline companies provide multiple services to customers, they are regulated by various legislations and regulations.

Such legislations and regulations include protection of environmental pollution, health and safety regulations, security legislation, and so on. In recent years, the what anthropology world economy has been in recession. Nausea. The unemployment rates in most countries have increased. The number of worldwide tourist is in a trend of decreasing. According to the World Tourism Organisation, Worldwide tourist arrivals experienced a 0.6 per cent decrease, which is somewhat less than what was feared after 11 September. The world economy recession also affects share prices of airline companies. BAs share price has been in a trend of decrease since 2001. Since September 11th, insurance costs of what is medical airline companies increased due to the tighter airport security check and the fear of terrorism. The Airline industry serves a wide range of global destinations, carrying passengers from many different national, religious, disability, ethnic, language and cultural backgrounds.

For example, when airplane arrives in a different country to its departure a different language service should be used. In addition, in-flight services are also related to social/cultural issues. Airline companies should have a clear idea of the novel cultural issues of profusion pandora destination countries. For example, the in-flight meal services of a flight to India should not include pork. Today, airline industries have used some new technology in aeroplanes. For example, British Airways invested a huge amount of money in Lotus and associated technology. The Lotus technology installed sits within a complex and nausea, sophisticated IT environment that also encompasses the use of UNIX for real-time and other database applications. Moreover, many airplane companies would like to use the Global Airline Inventory Network(SM), which is supplied by Boeing Company. With the disney marketing strategy rapid development of technology, airline companies now are forced to adopt technology into in-flight services.

For example, British Airways have started to provide in-flight Internet services. Additionally, airline companies have Internet ticket booking systems in order reduce costs and novel, become more competitive. The competition between airline companies is intense. Pinnochio Movie. In recent years, airline companies have been suffering from losing customers. Many companies have been involved in cost efficiency savings; for example, British Airways has a Company Restructure Plan which includes a 20 per cent reduction in manpower (British Airways Annual Report, 2002). Also, the emergence of low cost airlines makes the competition tighter in the short distance travel area. Threats of entry. Threats of entry of the airline industry are low due to the following reasons: * The capital requirement of entry. A large amount of nausea capital is required to Essay, set up an airline company. For example, a 737-800 cost $57.5-64.5 millions in 2002.

Experience is important for an airline company. Such experiences include staff training and working; co-operation of each department; customer service and nausea novel, so on. Is Medical. * Access to distribution channels. The existing airline companies have established their distribution channels for years, which is difficult for new entrants to break into. Threats of substitutes. Since the 11th September, the nausea airline industry has been suffering from the loss of My Dream Essay customer confidence. Substitutes such as trains, ships and coaches may take over the position of airplanes for short distance transportation. However, these transport tools cannot substitute airplanes for long distance transportation. The rapid development of technology is a threat of airline companies. According IATA#8217;s Corporate Air Travel Survey 2002, 37% of business travelers have used video conferencing in order to novel, save money and time. Buying power of customers is high.

Airline companies often provide over-complex offers to customers. Low cost airline companies e.g. EasyJet and Ryanair sometimes provide customers with unbelievable prices. In addition, traditional airlines also give competitive offers to customers. These factors increase the bargaining power of customers. Power of suppliers. Airline companies have multiple types of suppliers, for marketing strategy example, suppliers of aircrafts, fuel and in-flight services.

For airline companies, the switching costs from one supplier to another are high. Also, the brand of supplier is powerful. For example, if the airline companies have Boeing airplanes, they have to keep the services and maintenance of nausea novel their airplanes with Boeing. Analysis of British Airways organizational environment, it has been considered by My Dream Career Essay, Value Chain and 7S framework. The value chain.

The value chain can include primary and support activities, primary activities are directly concerned with the process of creation or delivery of a product or service. Nausea Novel. It is supported and controlled by support activities, so support activities is very important within an organization. It can be divided into four areas: procurement, technology development, human resource management and infrastructure. Strategy. The British Airways uses an e-procurement system; it can save time and costs in five operational areas: maintenance and engineering, fuel and fuel services, catering and nausea, cabin services, airport services and general procurement. Moreover, it can build up key supplier relationships. Pinnochio Movie. BSAFE (British Airways Security Architecture for Everyone) is the BA overall security infrastructure and Web SAFE is the security infrastructure within the nausea novel Web world. BA will cut procurement costs over the next few months.

It will save funds for British Airways, but it also may influence the quality of service. Passengers are willing to currys arnold, pay for quality products. British Airways have invested a lot of money in self-service products. These new products include designed seats with adjustable headrests and footrests, new design infant seats and nausea, personal video. British Airways have invested a lot of funds in IT, so it can add value and improve BA#8217;s overall service and effectiveness in a very competitive industry. Electronic ticketing that improves customer service, reduces costs, and provides faster and pinnochio movie, more efficient passenger processing. The amount of de-icing fluid purchased in the UK has decreased. Nausea. Spillages have reduced since the older B747-200 aircraft have been retired from the fleet. The material sent to the recovery facility is still increasing.

It means the material recycling is not very good. What Is Medical. Human resource management. One of the novel policies in British Airways is marketing strategy, promote equality of opportunity in employment regardless of sex, marital status, race, colour, disability and nationality. British Airways are committed to build good employee relationships. Strengthen the communicating and efficient problem solving among the employees, it can well inform about the business and nausea novel, the airline industry. Customer service training is provided to all employees who deal directly with customers.

British Airways Flight Training provides training for flight and cabin crews and maintenance training for engineers. Introductions. BA ensures that its staff are trained and can deliver a safe and secure service. Novel. It also focuses on training in good people management. BA has improved both performance appraisal and a linked reward system. As mentioned before, British Airways has worldwide routes and London#8217;s Heathrow Airport is BA#8217;s main base; it is also the world#8217;s leading international airport. Electronic commerce is fast becoming a critical and integral part of British Airways; this new infrastructure will help ensure the companies ability to meet changing customer needs.

Heathrow#8217;s ability to offer a wide choice of destinations and frequencies for the business traveller will continue to be constrained by limits on the number of take-offs and landings that the disney airport can handle. (see appendices, exhibit 1) Primary activities Strategy. 1. Cost efficiency. The business strategy of British Airways is to change the short haul pricing structure and schedules, and to reduce costs. British Airways is reducing its supplier base drastically as part of its plan to cut costs during the next two years. (Damage relationship with supplier) Cost reduction plan also includes a 20 per cent manpower reduction. (Lose employee confidence) 2. Fleet and Network Strategy. BA current strategy aims to reduce BA exposure to unprofitable market segments C short-haul and connecting leisure passengers C while strengthening BAs position in profitable market which depend heavily on business travel to / from UK. 3. Product and service Improvements. Alongside this fleet and network strategy, a programme of product enhancements is being implemented to increase the attractiveness of BA to its core UK-based business customer base. These product changes include the introduction of the nausea novel new (r)flying bed for Club World on ling-haul aircraft and the introduction of (r)world traveller Plus C a business/economy product.

Configuration and product changes, particularly the new Club World (r)lounge in is medical, the sky flat bed, also reduce the number of nausea novel seats on offer, with reductions focused on the world traveller cabins. Direct contact with all staff is considered so important that (r)down route briefings are developed to ensure that mobile and isolated staffs are not neglected. (r)Passenger group Co-ordinator was introduced to poem, make staff feel happier about the working environment and as a result facilitate the nausea novel production of emotional labour. Awards for Excellence and an Employee Brainwaves programme encouraged staff input. In order to shape staff emotions, winning for Customers, A Day in the Life, To Be the Best, Leading in a Service Business and Leadership 2000 are included in the Putting People First and Managing People First. Skills training is also carried out in all BA areas.

The airlines Cranebank centre, near Heathrow, is one of the largest airline training establishments in the world. Its flight crew unit houses 17 simulators. Career. Quest open learning centres provide employees with additional training and development opportunities through multi-media including interactive video, computer-based training, on-line learning and an extensive business library. BA continues to recruit people into the business to nausea, boost its drive to enhance customer service. This could be strength of profusion pandora BA. British airways has a comprehensive internal communications programme to ensure employees are well informed about the business and the airline industry in general. Managers from across the business are encouraged to share information on company strategy and business issues. This information is novel, them communicated through departmental forums thereby ensuring that each part of the business understands the companys goals and disney, objectives and nausea novel, the part they play in delivering these.

BA also supplies a contact system to their customer. Contact BA enables customers to what is medical anthropology, use their preferred method of communication to contact BA 24 hours a day. It is a strategy to establish the right blend of people and technology, champion the adoption of nausea novel online means, reducing costs, in each of BAs customers from trade to the executive club the general consumer. Contact BA is made up of the following: 2. Customer care information C the voice of the airline; 3. Customer relations . This is strength of BA. From long term vision, BA will face lots of problems.

British Airways will not find it easy to recover. The company is under assault on all fronts. First there is the currys arnold global slowdown in the travel industry. Losing focus, two segments of the market have been particularly hit: Transatlantic flights and business travel. And that is BA#8217;s core problem. In its attempts to claw back into profit, the nausea company focused on exactly these two groups of passengers. There is also weakness to BA. THE COMPETITION OF BRITISH AIRWAYS. THE COMPETITORS OF BA.

In short routes, the low cost carriers are British Airways main competitors, such as Easy Jet and Ryanair. Their strategy is, offering stunning pricing to the passengers, which excluding the disney marketing meal service in order to reduce the nausea novel cost. They are in the best of the Low Cost operators. By contrast, there are more competitors in long routes for Career BA. Novel. The major competitor is Virgin Atlantic in the U.K, (see appendices 2) which is the same as BA, is the Best Executive/Business Class category. Profusion Pandora. also, as we can see from the news in business time. BA and Virgin are in nausea, position to do battle for a stake in SA, Virgin is major competitor for BA from 5 years ago. Additionally, Qantas offers the best safety record, it has never had an profusion pandora air crash. Nausea Novel. America airline used to be a strong competitor, however, it became one of the worst hit by the terror attacks during 11th September 2001. Air France airline, Lufthansa airline and Swiss Airline also have their own competition advantages, such as the disney strategy location advantage, being in the middle of the Europe. British Airways competitors.

Better service, Long Routes Airline. As we known the nausea BA has a good reputation on Career its service. Nausea Novel. It provides high quality services, advanced facilities to satisfy the strategy customers. On the novel other hand, to marketing, against low cost airlines, it also has launched e-commerce in order to attract new customers, However its still focus on its service, for example in dealing with the nausea hot topic-the pneumonia at present, BA has cut the numbers of the cabin seat; press on with the checking-in systems for security, and so on. Profusion. So, the competitive advantage position of the BA is focus on differentiation.

The table below has explore the position of BA clearly: Opportunity for BA. Alliance gain competitive advantage. Firms enter alliances for competitive reasons. Alliances allow firms to gain economies of scale in nausea novel, production and marketing; they can also overcome regulatory barriers and facilitate access into new markets. British Airways co-operates with other airlines forming different types of alliance, the pinnochio movie savings are enormous, including common purchasing of planes and equipments; rationalization of maintenance and training, and the ability to transfer aircraft from novel, one place to another in order to match supply with demand. Government and airports. Currys Arnold. In dealing with suppliers such as airports and the government, the industry has few options.

Taxation and deregulation have already revealed the significant influence the government has on the sector. The lucrative routes or slots are scarcely available. But for companies with big market share like BA is relatively easier to nausea novel, get these resources. BA emulate the low cost structures. The economy recession has reduced the purchasing power of passenger. However, this has increased the demand of low cost airlines. BA is changing their strategy, they are repositioning themselves, developing new brand, using the internet to launch a cut-price travel war against low-cost airline, offering big discounts on tickets bought online, an attempt to emulate the low cost structures of airlines.

Gatwick has been hit proportionately harder with 3,000 jobs going across all its operations including its head office staff. BA is almost pulling out pinnochio movie completely from long-haul services at Gatwick reducing the number of destinations from 41 to 15 and several short-haul routes have also gone. BA has also signalled that Gatwick will become the centre of a re-jigged European strategy, which will see it fight it out with the novel budget airlines. Poem. And where BA is pulling out of take-off and landing slots, the likes of Easy Jet, which is nausea, staring several services at Gatwick, its ready to step in. (Workers daily) Although BA cant cut their price to what anthropology, as low as Easy Jet, considering their reputation and novel, service, the customer might to introductions, find the balance between price and service. The economy depression influences on customer#8217;s demand. The global economic recession makes companies minimize their budgets for executive travelling; this makes demand fall for air travel services. And it leads to big airlines like BA ground planes and make staff redundant. Terrorist attack on nausea Sept. 11.

The terrorist attacks in poem introductions, the US had plunged Europes major aviation industry into a financial crisis. To counteract falling passenger volume, Europes major airlines cut flights, raised fare, and axed jobs. Low cost airlines. Low cost airlines provides a much lower price on air travel, this will increase the novel competition, however, this wont affect the international routes, as low cost airlines are not strong enough to compete in this market segment. Attack to Iraq could cause fuel crisis. The attack to Iraq could cause the increase of pandora fuel prices, as we know Iraq is a big oil exporting country.

The Concorde has been in commission for 25 years, and facing superannuate. They have become more and more unreliable and difficult to maintain. Also, it could be difficult to find substitute for nausea novel this kind of plane. From the external and internal environment analysis of British Airways, we can see the following strengths. * British Airways is one of the biggest airlines in the world. Branding strategy has been used. * It has one of the best airline website in the world.

E- BA is also responsible for all customer facing online activity. Such as online tickets booking. * Partnership within world wide with excellent customer service. Also joint venture with some holidays agency, such as Thomas Cook holidays. * A global distribution team, which is responsible for making BA easy to access BAs business. * Continent of airline operations, British Airways Engineering is a world leading aviation maintenance organisation providing full support for the aircraft fleets of BA and for currys arnold the aircraft of a number of novel other customer airlines. And it uses the most advanced information technologies to drive the commercial aspects of business. However, the weaknesses are more seriously for British airways development in the existing airline industry. As we can see, from the history of profusion pandora British Airways, it is an initial national company, it is still carrying the high level of employee wages, pension. It is included in the company cost. Nausea. According to the annual Report of BA in Essay, 2002, 2,329 million was spent on the employee cost, which is the highest percentage of the operating expenses. And also, British Airways, which always lands in the big international airports, which are cost much higher than the local small airports. According to the life cycle, British Airways now is in nausea novel, the stage of mature with decline. In previously analysis, we spot its weakness and opportunities and depend on its business strategy, some recommendations for British Airways have been concluded as follows: * Stand on disney marketing strategy the strengths.

Continue to improve customers services (such as: lounge in the sky, and reduce the number of seats on offer, and nausea novel, so on) Continue to enter alliances for gain more competitive advantage (for example: BA has dropped its partnership with American airlines, as the currys arnold consequence, BA needs to look for new partners in order to gain more competitive advantage and reduce risks.) 1. Development its Human resource manage, reducing its employee expenditure. 2. Reducing booking process (online booking) 3. Cut suppliers base. 1. Develop the short-haul service at Gatwick to attract more low cost carriers. Novel. 2. Improve the airport security systems. Profusion Pandora. Is this the perfect essay for nausea novel you? Save time and order British Airways Case Study. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for British Airways Case Study. Life at is medical anthropology “old” British Airways lacked a unifying corporate culture. The 1971 merger of British European Airways (BEA) and British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), by the British Airways Board, only#8230; Competitive pricing british airways and ryanair.

In this table I have compared flights in August, September and November. I have written down all closest times to nausea novel, 7 AM, 1 PM an 6PM. Pandora. There were no flights left#8230; Introduction: Qatar Airways is the national airline of the novel State of Qatar. It is considered as one of the major leading airlines in the world today. Qatar Airways began its#8230; Case Study: Ryanair. 1) What#8217;s your assessment of Ryanair#8217;s launch strategy?

In 1986, the Ryan siblings are getting ready to Career, start competing against British Airways and Aer Lingus on the Dublin-London route. This#8230; British Airways Case Study. 1. From each change perspective, what are the key issues to understanding the wildcat strike? From an OD perspective, the leadership at BA failed in a number of areas. They#8230; Political Factor- An activity related to government policy and its administrative practices that can have an effect on something. Most business operators will keep a watchful eye on any political#8230;

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How To Write a College Application Essay. Most college institutions require application essay before getting accepted. This should be seen as a chance to prove your greatest skills! Your application essay can help you stand out novel, from the rest of the candidates and get noticed by the admission board. Unless you abide by currys arnold an adequate set of rules, it can be pretty hard to write a college application essay. So, we’ll guide you through the easiest methods and most essential aspects of writing an essay. College Application Essay: How to Begin Writing It. First thing’s first, you can’t possibly get accepted into a good college unless you start with a compelling and nausea engaging introduction.

To do so, you should brainstorm an adequate subject which expresses your personality and your greatest accomplishments. The manner in which you begin your application essay is essential to how well it will be received. So, you'd better take your time and focus during this phase. As you start the writing process, the two most useful pieces of advice from admission committee members are to show who you are and to make your point clear. Brainstorming is of great importance. This goes for any type of essay.

As you start to draft your paper, consider all of the aspects that define your individuality. Think about your passions, pastimes or concerns. It is very important to consider which college application essay subjects are best for exhibiting your personality and strategy providing a great answer to the prompt. Find out precisely what the requirements of the prompt are. In most cases, the prompt is very complex and open to novel interpretation. Take enough time to profusion meditate upon it and analyze it. After making sure that you are aware of the novel precise question of the prompt, list out all of the possible topics you could approach in response to it. For instance, let’s say the prompt requires you to profusion write about an important transformation that occurred in your life. Nausea! In that case, you could talk about what anthropology moving to another city or joining a band.

Afterward, write for approximately ten minutes without pausing. This way, you’ll make sure that you’re able to write down all of your ideas. The brainstorming process will aid you in determining your subject and will ease up the outlining phase. When dealing with a college application essay, flow is crucial. Novel! This is why you need to disney structure your writing in a manner which doesn’t divert attention from your thoughts. In case you started off later than expected, this also has a great potential for saving time. Nausea! Devise a draft of all of the ideas you wish to express in currys arnold, your paper. Draw inspiration from other essays. Nausea Novel! With the right organization, you could do away with a great deal of anxiety.

Take a look at the following college application essay recommendations, and it will be much easier for you to pandora get started: Use description instead of narration: If you’ve taken a look at some essay examples, you’ve probably noticed that the nausea most successful papers use description rather than provide a straightforward narration of poem occurrences. In addition to making the essay more captivating, this will also display your viewpoints better. Don’t forget that admission committee members are not familiar with you in person! This can be both favorable and novel unfavorable: favorable because you have a shot at making an My Dream awesome first impression and unfavorable if you don’t know how to nausea novel sell yourself right. Command of language: Seeing as you’re dealing with a college application essay, you should show that you are someone who is prepared to start college. Profusion! To this end, avoid all sorts of writing errors and nausea utilize words which are sophisticated and efficient. To put it otherwise, do not automatically add random words from the synonym dictionary or use sophisticated lexicon excessively. To augment your writing, utilize fancy terms. The worst thing that could happen is anthropology, sounding condescending or amusing.

Be concise: Convey your ideas in as few words as you can. People don’t like reading a whole paragraph that could easily be expressed in a single phrase. Sentence organization: Your sentences should be neither splintered and nausea novel hectic nor excessively long. Is Medical Anthropology! In other words, to enhance efficaciousness and flow, your sentences should be of nausea novel different sizes. Peer revisions: While it would be a good idea to have someone revise your paper for strategy, language and morphology mistakes, you should avoid asking too many people to look over nausea your essay, as you may end up feeling puzzled. You should also revise the essay by yourself. A great tactic is to look at profusion, other essays and compare them to your own. Of course, that doesn’t mean you should reproduce their structure, but no one says you can’t use it as inspiration. Analyze the prompt: As indicated earlier, an essential aspect to consider during the prewriting stage is analyzing the prompt. Read the following college application prompts and take a look at the manner in novel, which we dissect them: Discuss a person who has inspired you: If you’re required to talk about an individual who has exerted an impact on your life, don’t talk about famous historical figures. Introductions! The admission officer who will be reading your paper knows very well that Winston Churchill was a great personality.

Instead, you ought to concentrate on your own perspective. Talk about the way in which the person changed you and your viewpoints as well as how he or she stimulated you to change. Why do you wish to attend this college? – This supplement question is often amazingly difficult to respond to. Rather than using general statements such as “because it is a respectable institution,” try to be specific in your answer. Nausea! For instance, if you want to what get admitted to a medical college, a good idea would be to write a sentence such as “Studying medicine is my lifelong desire and your medical department has an nausea astonishing reputation.” Colleges are searching for students who can see beyond prestige and rank. What! Talk about your favorite book: Don’t respond to this prompt by writing a synopsis of a book you love. The perfect way to go about it is to discuss the way in which the book influenced you and why you relate to it. Mention the reason for novel, which the book defines you. When dealing with college application essays, you should always give a sincere response.

Do not opt for a book simply because it’s a classic one. If you don’t really love the book you write about, the reader will figure it out. Present an is medical anthropology important extracurricular activity: This prompt offers you the chance to nausea novel discuss a moment in which you learned something meaningful. Talk about a provocation which stimulated you to escape your comfort zone and become more mature. You should regard this as a chance to account your story and emphasize your greatest features. College Application Essay Formatting Requirements. When it comes the format of your paper, comply with the following guidelines: Use the Times New Roman font with 12-point letter size Use double spacing Margins must have the size of profusion pandora 1” Add an indent to each paragraph Last name and nausea novel the page number appear at top left corner of the page As a general rule, college application essays have a relatively short length (400-600 words)

Ways to Approach the Common Application. The Common Application enables you to currys arnold apply to more or less 700 different colleges. Year after year, these institutions offer students the possibility of opting for one of the 7 common prompts. Nausea! Read on to find out the marketing common college application essay questions provided for nausea novel, the 2017-2018 year. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. [No change] The lessons we take from My Dream Essay, obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience? [Revised] Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking?

What was the outcome? [Revised] Describe a problem you've solved or a problem you'd like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma - anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution. [No change] Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others. [Revised] Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to novel when you want to Essay learn more? [New] Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. [New] While all of novel these prompts may seem like a piece of cake, at first sight, responding to them in a compelling and meaningful way is not so easy. Take a look at our ideas on Career how to approach each prompt: Prompt 1: Write about yourself and your story. Nausea! Seeing as the prompt requires you to talk about your personality, you should mention things that are special about Career Essay you. Don’t talk about matters like high school achievements.

Admission committee members already know about those things from your application. Talk about your family history or specific hobbies that define your individuality. Make sure you are imaginative and truthful. Novel! Prompt 2: Facing obstacles. In some cases, displaying your best self can be accomplished by presenting your flaws. Write about a difficult period in your life and explain how you managed to prevail over the circumstances. This way, you’ll demonstrate your bravery and pinnochio movie the fact that you can keep going when you are confronted with challenges. Nausea! Regardless of the amplitude of the challenge you discuss, you should concentrate on the impact it exerted on your life. Prompt 3: Ideas and profusion pandora convictions. A modification of novel viewpoint could represent a very intense account.

In case you’ve experienced a specific event you can describe and meditate on, this is the prompt you should opt for. An ambiguous paper regarding an actual political matter would show next to introductions nothing about your personality; therefore it would be a failure. Prompt 4: An answer to an issue. Novel! This prompt gives you the opportunity of talking about something you truly care about. Describe the way in which you encountered the problem and explain why you believe it should be solved urgently. Prompt 5: Maturity and insight. This might be one of the hardest prompts on the list. You can either talk about a crucial situation in your life or describe a more trivial time of awareness that modified your viewpoints. Explain the way in which that event stimulated your personal growth and changed you as a person. You should also mention what you learned from that moment.

Prompt 6: Keen interest. This prompt represents a completely new addition to pinnochio movie the common applications. It offers you the possibility of talking about things that are important to nausea you. Colleges are on the lookout for students who are concerned about the environment and like to engage in specific activities. Prove your thoughtfulness and talk about who or what stimulates you to follow your passion. Prompt 7: Full liberty of currys arnold answer! For this alternative, there aren’t any specific guidelines. You should choose this topic if you’ve been influenced by one of the papers you’ve written as part of nausea novel other assignments, or if you have a specific question that you wish to find answers to. Pinnochio Movie! Keep in mind that you need to highlight your significance!

Your essay should include responses to how and why questions. A Successful Scholarship Application Essay. Scholarship essays are somewhat different from typical college application essays. Nevertheless, you should stick to the same guidelines. Nausea Novel! Your target is to prove your originality, enthusiasm, and individuality. When writing a scholarship application, it is essential to accentuate how you can contribute to the college you’re aiming for. Don’t think twice to put yourself out there and poem present your best features first. Typical Varieties of College Application Essays. The Common Application doesn’t constitute the sole platform for this type of essays. A lot of institutions demand their own style.

Next, we’ll describe some standard platforms which also require college application essays, and we’ll tell you how to approach them. While the Florida State University doesn’t ask for an application essay, it’s advisable to send them one. Your paper should feature less than 650 words. You ought to opt for one of the nausea novel subjects listed below: Talk about a personal experience that either displays your personality or helped model it. Talk about a time in profusion pandora, which you substantially contributed to other people, with the greater good in mind. Describe the nausea novel provocations and recompenses of making that contribution. Talk about marketing strategy a moment in which one of your most precious or well-established convictions was challenged. Mention the way in which you answered. Novel! Discuss the way in which the challenge modified your beliefs. Now take a look at the prompts for the FSU Application Essay:

Prompt 1: Here you should discuss your hobbies, positive features, and previous experiences. Talk about all aspects that define your personality. Concentrate on a particular quality you wish to underline. Prompt 2: Generosity represents a great personality feature. Currys Arnold! Concentrate on the way in novel, which you’ve made a contribution to society and describe how you felt. Prompt 3: This is virtually the same as the third prompt on the Common Application.

The University of California institution requires you to Essay opt for 4 out of 8 essay questions. This is definitely not easy, seeing as you’ll need to write much more content than for nausea, other colleges. To figure out what needs to be done, you should take a look at a great deal of other essay examples. Talk about an instance of your management experience where you’ve exerted a positive impact on other people, aided them in what is medical, settling conflicts or played a part in group endeavors in the course of nausea novel time. Each individual has a significant part. Poem Introductions! Creativity manifests itself in nausea novel, a lot of ways, like problem-solving, unique and pioneering thinking or art. What! Talk about the way in which you demonstrate your creativity. Talk about your best talent or ability and the way in which you’ve cultivated and proven that talent in the course of nausea time. Talk about how you’ve profited from an important learning opportunity or struggled to what is medical anthropology prevail over a learning impediment you’ve confronted with. Novel! Talk about the most important provocation you’ve been confronted with and what you did to prevail over this provocation. How has this provocation influenced your educational accomplishments?

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Present an instance of your management experience in which you exerted a good impact on other people, aided in settling conflicts or made a valuable contribution to group endeavors. In general, the nausea novel essay prompts are similar to poem introductions those of the Common Application. Prompt 1 – You need to use narrative to present an occurrence which shaped you and emphasizes your top features. Focus on the impact it exerts on you. The magnitude of the novel event is not of importance. Prompt 2 – Talk about the profusion pandora way in which you influence the world around you and the people in it. This prompt is a great choice for service individuals.

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What’s the Point of Nudist Nude Photo Blogs ? Nudist Photo Blogs Without Context Are Just Blogs of Nude Photos. Nudist Photography and nausea Photo Nude Blogs – With this question, I’m not talking about the photos used to introductions represent topics for discussion, or that represent organizations, or the novel, couple of photos that go along with an article. I’m mainly talking about nude photo blogs and websites. The ones that are just photo after photo of naked people doing everyday activities. Posing and smiling, swimming naked, playing sports, making food, eating food, sunbathing nude, walking on a beach, etc. Here are the general characteristics of the nudist nude blogs and websites I’m referring to: Little to currys arnold no context is given with nude photos Just nude photos – no back-story or topic offered for discussion or to provoke thought Naked People in the photos are all one gender, one body type, one race, etc.

The only “interesting” thing about the nude blogs is that the photos have nudity The nude photos have no intention or stated purpose other than to “promote naturism” Nudist Nude Photo Blogs. There are many, many nude “nudist photo blogs” on nausea novel Tumblr. Currys Arnold! Granted, some of these are actually voyeur / soft core porn blogs, and those are pretty easy to identify. Nausea! Their photos are mainly focused on genitals and breasts. In others, the cast is is medical entirely made up of young nubile women looking unawares on a nude beach. Some may even feature voyeuristic images as if they were taken secretly and without the person’s knowledge or permission.

Or the photos resemble mainstream soft core porn straight out of nausea novel Playboy . Nudist Photography Blog? Look! Boobs! Just because people are naked in the pictures, it doesn’t make it a “naturist” photo! This Picture of Topless Girls With Big Boobs At The Beach Is Another Example Of The Type Of Voyeuristic Images Found On “Nudist” Photo Blogs. But enough about the titillation nude “nudist” blogs. There are others that focus on real nudist photos, with different types of bodies. The more “true nudist” blogs will feature naked pictures that aren’t sexual or voyeuristic in nature. But even if these are photos of currys arnold smiling, happy presumed-to-be naked nudists just having innocent fun… I still say, what is the point? Certainly there is no interest in them for most real nudists.

I personally find them boring. They’re not original nor are they artistic or interesting – at least to nausea novel me. An example of currys arnold a boring nudist photo blog post. Without context, what is a person supposed to think of this? I can’t help but wonder what non-nudists think about such images? Do the novel, photos help normalize nudity and reduce shame toward the what is medical anthropology, naked human body?

Do they encourage people to try naturism? Are people looking at all the nausea novel, photos and currys arnold thinking – “Gee this looks great, I want to try naturism now”? My guess is nausea no. My guess is pinnochio movie that the biggest fans of these nude photo blogs and online “nudist” picture galleries are, for the most part, men and novel college age boys who get sexual gratification from Career, looking at naked photos. I’ve also seen sites that are dedicated to nonsexual nudist photos, but they only show young, thin / “sexy” women. I’d write it off as a titillation blog, but the weird thing is, some of these photo curators genuinely seem to think they are promoting naturism. Their site features one body type and almost only women. Still, they believe that they are spreading the word about naturism. A telling sign with regards to the nude-photo bloggers on novel Tumblr is their followers. What Anthropology! You don’t get 10,000 followers in one or two months because people find naturism really interesting. Nausea Novel! I think it’s more likely your followers have a greater interest in pinnochio movie, boobs, vaginas or penises.

There are exceptions. Oddly, though, they are mostly from outside the nudie world. There are nude photo sites with a different and effective purpose. Examples of these would be body-positive photo galleries that address body image issues. Nausea Novel! There are nude photography projects that explore different ideas or themes. There are talented photographers, artists really, who portray the naked body in disney strategy, a unique way. With these nudist nude photo blogs, though, I just don’t get it.

Why are so many people from within the nudist world so focused on the images and nausea not on the substance of our lifestyle? Why do we have to go to mainstream to find such quality content? What do you think? Are photo blogs really an effective way to tell people about naturism? And to encourage them to learn about it or try it? Or are these nudist bloggers just kidding themselves in disney marketing, thinking they’re really promoting naturism? This article about Nude Nudist Photography and novel Nude Photo Blogs and My Dream Career Nudist Photos was published by – Young Naturists Nudists America. Author of Felicity's Blog.

Co-founder of Young Naturists America. Nausea Novel! 3rd-generation nudie. Avid reader. Feminist. 70% vegan, 30% vegetarian. When I'm not busy eating, I'm writing about currys arnold, naturism, censorship, topfree equality, body image and other fun topics. I like feedback, so plz leave a comment when you've got something to say!

The Top 5 Mistakes Made On Nudist Websites. Ocean City Passes Emergency Law Against Topfreedom For Women. Body Image and nausea novel Body Shaming Genitalia. Sadly the Bible has no true point of My Dream Career origin in novel, terms of who actually wrote it? The King James version is nothing but a conglomerate opinion of 17th Century British Bible scholars who had no access to any ancient scrolls or papyrus. A They just compiled what had been written over the centuries prior and made choices including books they considered “Outside The Bible Context” known as Gnostic books which often have more fact in them then the accepted ones! Scary to think how many have died over such totally undocumented works and writings! The disciples didn’t appear to write anything down but relied on others who didn’t walk with Christ to pinnochio movie transmute and convey all of this.

The same for the Old Testament! Scary and only now are we waking up to this huge fraud! livefyrebobA Jag2u727A mpapaiA jochanaan Very few and very far inbetween as Larry Flynt once said “Religion has had it’s hand on nausea the crotch of America since Plymouth Rock!” Dave_n_NM Normal! Horible thing to profusion pandora be called.

“Normal is an illusion. What’s normal for the spider is chaos for nausea novel, the fly.” – Morticia Addams. As with beauty, naturist, art, titilation, pornography, or crappy is in the eye of the beholder. Jag2u727A mpapaiA jochanaanA. In my experience, there are exceptions to Career Jag’s rule. mpapaiA jochanaanA Any Bible discussion always leads down the same pathways. An old desert book written by old homophobic sexist men who were genocidal in their rages and nausea novel pious and Career Essay hypocritical in the way they tried and mostly succeeded in getting society to conform! mpapaiA jochanaanA Not really true, all in the contextA check out PeterVernon Excellent article on your website, Peter. We’ll be sharing it on ours soon. Nausea! Say hi to Kim for us and enjoy your summer!

mpapaiA jochanaan Well, it might be interesting to dialogue about it, but since you and I are on the same page about nudity, this is not the best place for it.A Thanks for your interest! jochanaan Most of the verses against pinnochio movie, nudity that I found are not inA Leviticus 18 don’t have to do with incest. Actually, many of novel those verses are in Leviticus 18, and what is medical if one insists on a foolishly literal interpretation, they prohibit fathers showering with their sons or adults taking care of disabled parents. A So in those verses at least, something other than simple nudity must be happening; and in fact, the traditional understanding is that those verses aren’t actually about nausea, nudity but rather about varying degrees of incest. A And most of the other verses that mention nakedness have traditionally been misinterpreted in just this way. mpapai The trouble with much of “Christianity” is profusion pandora that it has added a little too much to the teachings of the Bible and especially those of Jesus of Nazareth.A In fact, there is nausea no general prohibition against nudity in the Bible, and there are many Christian naturists in this country.A It is not Christianity itself that is the problem; rather, a false “Puritanism” that is more about “Thou shalt not…” and less about loving God and pinnochio movie our neighbors as ourselves.A Yes, nudism is a challenge to many churches–but not to the Bible or the Bible’s God, Who made us in His image, naked and unashamed. WzrdWizitch Not to say that there’s anything wrong with getting a sense of nausea novel community from currys arnold, nude photos, but just wanted to point out that there are online groups for socializing with other naturists. There’s Facebook, Google+, Google groups, Yahoo groups. Interacting in these groups, I would think, would be more satisfying than just looking at nude photos. But I can understand how the nude photos can play a role when you feel isolated.

And if it’s any consolation, the outdoor nudie season is still only a few months long in NY, so we end up keeping up with a lot of people online too :) Smoothalx Agree with both points. People taking photos posting them online is novel wrong. These voyeur photos should not be reblogged or supported. And yeah, for a naturist blog I think it’s important to portray different body types and use photos of what real, average people! Otherwise with the porn star photos, it’s really catering to the male gaze and it’s not real. When people see those blogs it should be no wonder that they think they need to get in nausea, shape and look a certain way to try naturism.

Thank you for reaching out to me to include me in pinnochio movie, the conversation, Felicity. Not to start off all patriotic off the bat but this is sort of the burden of living in a free country. A big portion of the population wants to novel see one gender, one body type, etc. so a market is created for it and someone else fills that market. A I post a fair number of similar photos on my tumblr and wordpress as I consider this a gateway to disney strategy getting people to think about nudism. A I actually use pornographic tags in order to jujitsu the people looking for something more illicit into content that gives them something to think about, like people watering their lawn, doing laundry or an nausea novel actual pro-nudist article from the web. A Personally, I have drawn lines not to introductions be crossed on my blogs like no blatant crotch shots, no erections, no one who appears to have not given permission, no celebrities who are not promoting nudism, etc. A Otherwise, there is not much we can do aside from carrying on with our side of the discussion. I also think one has to consider the technology. A Wordpress is good for novel, getting information out while something like tumblr is basically a photo sharing site. Profusion! A It’s hard to get images into novel links or into text posts on tumblr; the technology either does not accept the photo or,through some voodoo, doesn’t display an image without clicking on it. A A straight picture post, however, is easy to create but the accompanying text often gets lost. A So a tumblr blog is going to essentially be a collection of images. It’s up to the viewer, in the end. A If they are looking for pinnochio movie, titillation but find a blog serving up something mundane, they are free to explore and hopefully learn something or they are free to nausea novel move along. Some fascinating points being made here.

I’m interested to note that none of the points raised seem to fully correlate to Career Essay my own experiences with online nudist photo blogs.A. I’m something of a lone nudist – my partner supports but does not partake of my lifestyle choice. I live in a rural area and nausea exist on a very low income which makes it very difficult for introductions, me to enjoy social nudity in clubs which require membership fees and so forth. Novel! For someone like me these photo-blogs offer something that does not seem to have occurred to other commenters here. That something is poem a sense of fellowship. The photo above of a gentleman watering his lawn is nausea novel far from boring to me. As a gardener who takes pride in marketing strategy, his lawn I derive a sense of nausea companionship and connection to anyone who willingly takes on the task of maintaining a nice garden. In the same way a cyclist will feel a connection to photographs of other cyclists. I feel the same sense of connection with photographs of naked people. Naked gardening images are a bonus!

What I derive from poem introductions, these photos is utterly non-sexual (although I can appreciate a successfully titillating image as well as the next person). I gain a sense of ‘community’ with other naturists – for a lone nudist like myself it’s the closest I can get to social nudity. I cannot attend social nude events such as Naked Bike Rides or monthly club swimming nights etc very often as I live in an isolated location. For me casually wandering through a nudist photo blog and glancing at a series of nausea nude pictures like the ‘boob’ picture and the ‘hose’ picture in Felicity’s post is the equivalent (or more accurately, the closest I can get) to casually wandering through a popular busy nudist beach. I get essentially random glimpses into the lives of fellow naturists and, above all else, a feeling that I’m not alone.A. The associations I have with nudity are positive and healthy and strategy I derive a simple pleasure from seeing others enjoying those same positive and healthy associations. Perhaps if I was in a situation where I was socialising regularly with other fellow naturists as Felicity does in her role with YNA I might be more inclined to disparage nude photo blogs. As it is I have followed Nudiarist and his blogs for many years and subscribe to several blogs that I feel the closest affinity to.

This applies not only to my interest as a nudist but also my interests as a photographer and a graphic artist.A. I also follow various science blogs, musicians blogs, gardening blogs, movie blogs and spiritually oriented blogs. Novel! In every case the chief reward I derive from My Dream Career, these blogs is a sense of comradeship, community and connection with my fellow human beings – regardless of what they are or are not wearing! In closing, I suspect that the distaste I experience at seeing exploitive and/or voyeuristic images is much the same as anyone elses who has a modicum of respect for themselves and their fellow humans. The point for me is nausea novel that there are other purposes and disney strategy rewards from nausea novel, nude photographs that go way beyond the needs of is medical anthropology pornography or the nausea, promotion of naturist values. While I think it is an interesting question, I feel we may. be over pinnochio movie analyzing it. In my opinion sites. like Flickr, Shutterfly, Tumblr or even Facebook are about sharing photos and.

may be ideas. Do photos of nausea novel scenery, objects or clothed people need to have a purpose in order to be shared? A Maybe the purpose is as simple as sharing a. photo regardless of whether the subject is clothed or not. Obviously there are a great variety of photos out. there.

Some are boring to me, so I can simply ignore those. Pinnochio Movie! Others are of. sceneries, waterfalls, lakes, etc. Nausea! where a single or group of nude bodies definitely. add to the artistic value of the photo in my opinion.A I do feel that these have value in promoting. naturism regardless of whether the profusion pandora, subjects in the photos may consider themselves. naturists or not. I also think that photos of groups of individuals in. non-sexual situations help promote naturism or nudism by breaking the. perception of most of nausea society that nudity = sex.

Photos taken on marketing strategy the WNBR, Bare Runs, World. Naked Skinny Dipping records, etc. fall in nausea novel, this category. While the subject may not be nudist or. naturist it does reflect the human body and body acceptance in poem introductions, non-sexual. Of course I agree that not every photo of a naked person promotes. naturism, some are clearly intended to promote specific websites such as dating. sites or porn sites, others are voyeuristic or exhibitionist. I personally dislike the headless photos, the.

voyeuristic photos taken on beaches with concealed cameras and sites that try. and use nudist photos to redirect the novel, viewer to a porn site. Finally there are all the selfies taken by currys arnold many young. people on the internet. While some may be staged, or sent to a friend who the nausea, posts them on the Internet many others do appear genuine. Don’t these photos reflect some form of body confidence and body acceptance possible expressed on website where they may not. have the confidence to do it at home or some other social setting? Could this be a road towards nudism or simply. sexual gratification?

How can we really know the intention of the individual posting the Essay, photo? However, while we probably all can agree that there is nausea novel good. and bad nudist or naturist photos, I agree that in many cases it will depend on. the eye of the beholder. Pandora! Personally, I. think it should work like clothing optional beaches should work, if you are not. interested in the photos don’t look at the just like if nude beaches are not.

for you, don’t go, but respect the novel, right of naturist to have designated. clothing optional beaches. In conclusion, I do feel that some of My Dream Career Essay these photos make. contribute to making some people more open to nudity and body acceptance. I have similar worries as the novel, ones you mention. I really do not see a problem posting pictures from nudists – naturists. Even though a story or at least a caption would be more appreciated, just a picture I believe it’s fine. What I’m concerned about is mainly two points: First, I doubt that many of the disney marketing strategy, people in these pictures know that a picture from them is on the Internet.

You can tell that many of nausea novel them were taken without their knowledge. Most of pinnochio movie these cases are taken on nausea public nude beaches. Second, pictures from soft porn sites that pretend to be from currys arnold, true nudists – naturists. Novel! It is OK to currys arnold show naked bodies and try to “normalize” nudity but these picture may not serve that purpose effectively. JordanBlumA nudiaristA FelicityJones. a) If it makes you feel better, use the nausea, word “written” instead of “recorded” b) Photography is an art form. Certainly there is what is medical anthropology bad art and good art, much of it subjective, but art nonetheless. c) I don’t condone voyeuristic photography, but if you are naked in Times Square, on a bike ride, or at a beach, people will take your photo. Nausea Novel! Generally I don’t post such voyeuristic photos, unless they are of the marketing, WNBR, which is a public event..

d) Felicity draws many arbitrary lines when differentiating between what is good, and nausea what is bad, for My Dream Essay, nudism. That’s not a slam against her, just an nausea novel observation of poem what she is doing in her essay. People draw arbitrary lines all the nausea, time. e) The debate about what makes good art versus what makes bad art is a never ending circle. What Is Medical Anthropology! Some people love Picasso, others hate his work. Some praise Spencer Tunick, others think he should be arrested (which has happened to novel him a few times, I believe) f) What exactly is marketing “artistic merit”?

For some the nudes in Playboy are pornographic, for others they are artistic. Nausea! Or you can just go with what Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart once said about defining pornography – “I know it when I see it.” g) Did you really just say that art generally reflects “the values of that society”? You do realize that most of the profusion, great art throughout history has pushed those values, not conformed to them. Look for example at Manet’s “Olympia” and “Luncheon in the Grass” and how A those pieces shocked society by novel presenting issues of poem sexuality and prostitution as fine art.

More recently, Robert Mapplethorpe’s works drew fierce criticism wherever they were displayed, And do you really believe that Felicity, by stripping nude in Times Square and nausea having her body painted reflects broad, general, American values? No, art is at its best when it CHALLENGES societal norms, which is disney marketing what Andy Golub and his models are doing. I give Felicity and anyone else involved in those events great respect for putting themselves on the line for nausea novel, art and body freedom. So my “in closing” remark is just this – artistic merit is in the eye of the beholder, and it’s not up to any single individual to poem decide what, if anything, said art does for anything. we’re all on the journey to human wholeness. we experiment with our sexuality. we present ourselves in a variety of ways, including selfies of various kinds. as we mature, our presentations of ourselves may become more graceful. may we embody — pun intended — better and better expressions of love and truth. Eloquent . Jordan Felicity.

Couldn’t agree more and your article has inspired us to redouble our efforts to nausea publish photos on our blog and website that would illicit yes answers to introductions the key questions you cite “Do the novel, photos help normalize nudity and reduce shame toward the naked human body? Do they encourage people to pinnochio movie try naturism? Are people looking at nausea novel, all the is medical, photos and thinking “Gee this looks great, I want to try naturism now?” nudiaristA FelicityJones Hey. Chet – nice to hear from you again. I would like to start off my making. a small correction… When you said: “The human race has been creating.

visual arts since well before recorded history” I am assuming you mean. written history as paintings do record historical events and offer a. glimpse into nausea the lives of ancient civilizations.As. for the currys arnold, debate with Felicity… When you brought up the word “art” you. shifted the debate. Posting sexy pictures is not art, especially those. that were taken in secret and nausea posted without the knowledge nor. permission of the pinnochio movie, person in that image.A.

did not draw any arbitrary line, not as far as I can tell. But there is. a line between nudist and pornographic and I think we can both agree on. that. The problem is nausea that you don’t seem to have a coherent and. constant view (or it may be just the way I read your comment)…. On the. one hand – bring on the nudes but on the other you say that not all / any nude photos are good for naturism. Most of us will agree with you.

when you say that nude photos and art which celebrate the human body are. positive for nudism. But then you open the door to the same debate. about art and what constitutes a celebration of the human body – both. are purely subjective – thus the marketing, debate continues. I agree, and my guess is that Felicity does too that nudists should.

embrace nude art. My hope is that nudists embrace art in general. Nausea Novel! But. there needs to be artistic merit otherwise you are taking away from. those who are considered to be true artists. past and present accomplishments are nice. Your short stint in the AANR.

PR and all the other things are great and I really hope you keep at. them. Career! But, for better or worse, you are most known for your nudiarist. blogs. Nausea Novel! It is what you have been doing consistently and for Career, the longest. time.

Thus the “nude photo blogger” comment. It was not meant as a dig. also need to nausea correct another issue with your comment about the body. painting project. Your statement “No words are needed because you are. making an artistic statement” is pinnochio movie off. Novel! We had signs up, the models were. chanting body positive messages and we made sure that people knew. exactly what is going on and why. She also took a major role in putting. together the NYC body painting day in addition to being painted herself.

So she was not just a canvas. the end of the day, art is important and what anthropology values are vital. They both go. hand in hand as the art that is produced will generally reflect the. values of that society (in a broad general sense).A. So in closing, I agree with Felicity – naked pictures with no artistic merit do absolutely nothing for anything. nudiaristA FelicityJonesA I agree we need a program of unapologetic Nudist and novel that will require a proA active approach by clubs and pinnochio movie resorts all over the country whereby they offer discounts and nausea novel bonus privileges forA those willing to pandora tell their story in pictures and hopefully some words.A I’ve seen young 20 something couples and 30 somethings and 40 andA 50’s whoA would make great “Poster Children” for this kind of publicity and it would be clear by the non sexual but possibly sensual nature of the stories that this is a lifestyle all by itself that America is becoming more interested in. FelicityJones Let me add one more thing. Nausea! There is pinnochio movie a serious shortage of “true” nudist or naturist photos out there, simply because people are afraid of being “found out” and perhaps losing their jobs.

Aside from AANR’s Bulletin and The Naturist Society’s magazine, and some here and there from YNA, there’s nothing available to the public. All the nudist magazines are gone. Novel! There’s a site called “The Naked Club” which produces some fine images, but they are all under copyright and only a few are available for reblogging on Tumblr. Currys Arnold! Blue Turtle Productions has produced a few fine videos for free, and has some good stuff but you have to pay for a membership. The issue is not one of too much “non nudist” imagery, but a serious lack of the nausea, real thing to share online. Oh, and there are some great images online from Andy Golub’s work and Spencer Tunick’s installations, but those are not really naturist, more like fine art.

The best defense is generally seen to be a good offense. Nudism and naturism seem to be constantly on the defensive, and until people are willing to “come out” and be proud, the nudist idea will continue to fade into anthropology oblivion. We need to stop complaining about things over nausea which we have no control, and marketing strategy begin fighting back with our own images and ideas. No they’re not helpful in promoting our lifestyle choices. Nausea! I’ve always maintained that when it comes to marketing our choices to others the usage of images has to anthropology be very carefully considered. Novel! To much visual information can cause the shutters to come down very quickly. Tell the story and let them fill in currys arnold, the blanks.

FelicityJonesA nudiarist Well now you are steering the debate to one about defining what is, and what is not, art. As I previously stated, the value and meaning of art is novel generally left to poem introductions the observer. The artist sometimes has a specific message to send, but 100 people who see the work will often have 100 different interpretations. And then you want to somehow draw this arbitrary line between what constitutes a nudist photo, and what constitutes porn. American society in general defines ANY nude photo as being pornographic or indecent, especially when it comes to images of children. Even toddler girls are supposed to wear tops when they go to the swimming pool. So what you personally perceive to nausea novel be nudist will be seen as titillating to many, even though you see otherwise. I guarantee that countless teenage boys have found sexual stimulation from their parents’ nudist magazines over the decades. This is not a new debate in the nudist world.

Lee Baxandall scolded Ed Lange years ago about his publication which featured nudist children and teens, calling such images “rancid meat” for pedophiles. Publications such as “Jaybird” started out as “nudist” but quickly evolved into soft porn ( And no, I simply don’t believe in the “agree to disagree” A meme. I believe in constructive criticism and what healthy debate. You’ve touched upon a nerve here in nausea novel, the nudist world where sometimes nudists become so protective of poem introductions their own vision of what nude recreation really means that they begin finding offense at things that are really tangentially related. All Nudist, for example, campaigns vigorously against anything that does not fit his own narrow definition of nudism, when the truth is that there is a lot more sexual activity going on at nudist resorts than he would care to admit.

Swingers, fetishists and BDSM groups have all been welcome inside the locked gates of nudist resorts for many years. Nausea! Even Naturist Society gatherings have workshops on polyamory, sexting, zensual massage, group massage, tantric sex, intimacy, nude drawing and currys arnold photography, body painting, nudism and sex, and much more. Show a typical gathering schedule to any non-nudist and they will say absolutely yes, these are sexual topics. And no, I did not say that “any” nude photos are good for naturism. There’s a lot of hardcore pornography out nausea novel, there which certainly has its place in the human experience, but is not representative of the basic naturist idea, which is more about behavior than anything else.A. Personally I think that nude photos and art which celebrate the human body are positive for nudism. Again, everyone will have his or her own personal definitions on this issue – some will say depictions of poem erections are OK, some will say they are not. Some will say an open view of the vulva is novel OK, others will say that it is pinnochio movie pornographic. Ultimately, we need to work to nausea novel end shame about the human body, and there is pinnochio movie no reason for nudists and naturists to be threatened by glamour, pin-up, erotic or boudoir photography. Nausea! The human form has been depicted in art for many centuries, and it shows no sign of letting up. In fact, there is probably more photographic and artistic nudity being produced today than at pinnochio movie, any other time in history.A.

The main mistake made by nausea nudists over poem introductions the past 100 years has been the denial of anything sexual related to being nude in social situations. While a typical nudist gathering does not include overt sexual activity, there are indeed many benefits to human sexuality, in nausea novel, both body and mind. But that’s a subject for anthropology, another thread. Bottom line is that I think nudists should embrace nude art and photography even if it does not specifically represent nudism and naturism. Human beings have spent centuries keeping the human body covered for novel, religious and poem introductions “moral” reasons, and nausea public opinion is not going to be changed overnight.A. On a personal note, yes, I have a Tumblr blog which is primarily photos, but I am also on Facebook, Google+, Pinterest, Twitter and poem I have also served on AANR’s PR Committee, wrote articles for their Bulletin, and have done many positive things for the campground I belonged to nausea novel for five years, and pinnochio movie am in the process of nausea forming my own travel club. Pandora! So to label me simply as a “nude photo blogger” is rather unfair. nudiarist Hey Chet, nice to nausea hear from an actual nude photo blogger! Let me start by.

saying everyone may be an artist, but not every photograph is “art.” And. I know you can debate that point but for the most part, this statement. Van Gogh doesn’t need a written message, no, because he is a prolific. artist that gets his “message” across through his work. There is My Dream also. context there as in aˆ“ his life, his work and nausea novel so forth. So when you look. at his work it is undeniably artistic aˆ“ whether or not you may think it. is good or bad is a different topic all together.

But the world is filled with people who are not artists and post content. under the general umbrella of art but with ulterior motives. If these. artists truly have a message then, as is the case with many of these. photo bloggers, they need words or better skills to convey their. message. I don’t think my problem is not being able to recognize or.

appreciate art here aˆ“ as you said, I am surrounded by some of the best. examples in the art world. My work with Andy Golub, which by the way, is My Dream Career Essay not limited to nausea novel just modeling, is also a form of. artistic expression. That said, are you really going to My Dream Essay compare the work. of Andy Golub to some crappy boring nude photos?

You want to say Jock Sturges’ work is on par with all the amateur nude photos on the Internet? I have. more respect for the arts than that (or perhaps you) as I do not. consider every single image to be art. I don’t think there’s anything wrong with voyeur / titillation or even. crappy photo blogs (at least at face value).

Privacy issues aside (in. the case of the voyeur images) I agree they should not be censored. I. just think they’re not beneficial to nudism. Most of them, in my. opinion, shouldn’t be using the word “nudist” when their photos are.

solely about offering sexual gratification to nausea the viewer. Introductions! They are not. sending out a message that jives with real core values of naturism. If. you’re going to subscribe to the idea that any nude photos are good for.

naturism, well then you ought to start promoting magazines like. Penthouse and Hustler in the name of naturism. The women are naked so, based on what you say, it must be good for normalizing nudity and. Like it or not that is my personal opinion and we can agree to disagree (as I. have not heard any compelling argument that would sway my opinion so far). I don’t know if they are really about naturism, but it still gets people interested. Novel! The only thing I have a problem with is the what anthropology, ones with Just boobs everywhere.

HappyBareA That is true but baby steps first get the nausea, public used to shows like Naked and Afraid (Not alwaysA hard bodies on that show) and pinnochio movie Naked Dating and nausea VH1 will either do spin off’s with other types or in coming season expand the demographic past where it is My Dream now1. FelicityJonesA HappyBareA Well some of what you speak of is what I call “Glossy Porn” air brushed PhotoShopped etc. but overall I think it’s important to push back against the prudes and religious types in nausea novel, America who for so long have had their hands on the crotch of Essay America so to nausea speak. What Anthropology! The Plymouth Rock Pilgrims (Many of whom were pregnant before they hit that rock I might add ) need to be put in their place and that’s what I’m for the simple right of “Your rights don’t get past your nose so keep them out of my rights and we wont’ have a problem” I understand where you are coming from and it has been a question I have pondered many times.A I also worry about the legalities of posting content that you have not acquired permission to use.A Without the context of the photo, you have (as you have already made mention) no idea if the nausea, person in the photo when the photo was taken wanted to be a representative of what nudism is about.A You have no idea if the photographer taking the picture wanted their photo to be used that way.A I honestly do not have an answer for you…perhaps it is the what anthropology, context of the blog and the fact that viewers/readers of the blog can either take photos of naked people and get turned on or not. You made mention to the social networking and blog site tumblr.A There are millions of subscribers to this site and novel each of My Dream Essay them have their own need to have their page.A Whether it be a devotion to novel the comic book super anit-hero Deadpool, Devotion to coffee, Halloween or to profusion the appreciation of nudism.A It offers a very simple rudimentary blog interface without any real ability to allow for comments like you have here.A In fact in order to reply to a post you either (a) repost it and nausea novel leave your comment, or (b) hope the author has ended the post in is medical anthropology, a question and nausea novel allowed for comments.A Long story short…subscribers of poem tumblr follow and gather followers who have similar interests as them.A If I created a tumblr page because I wanted to share my passion of Deadpool (I love this character by the way in case you can’t tell), and I get followers I don’t need to provide context as to why I am sharing a photo from a comic book of nausea novel Deadpool doing something awesome, funny, or in character.A If I share a photo of someone dressed up as Deadpool who went to a comic book convention and did something that was true to the character of Deadpool I wouldn’t need to leave context because my followers and my audience would all understand why I posted the picture. I believe it is to this extent that I believe is the heart of the matter.A A photo of a naked body can be arousing.A It can be artistic.A It can be of a bunch of My Dream nudists hanging out nausea, having a good time playing volleyball (because that’s what we love to do right?).A The problem is we have no way of poem controlling how the novel, photograph is going to be viewed.A What may be perceived by you and I as a bunch of people hanging out My Dream, having a good time ala-nude, but it can still be viewed by someone else sexually.A We can provide all the nausea novel, context that we want stating flat out “THIS IS NOT A SEXUAL SITUATION, THIS IS NOT TO BE VIEWED IN A SEXUAL MANNER.”A It is the audience to My Dream Career the page, the viewer, the follower, the friend, etc…that has control. I will finish this up by saying that I do agree that “if” we as authors are intending to be “champions of nudism” by creating blogs that focus on what nudism is, than we should do what we can to make sure that we are projecting the best image possible.A That as good “reporters and editors” we should do our best to get the who, what, where, why, when, how before we start to write.A This means checking sources, and nausea novel citing those sources to give credit where credit is due. When I was researching naturism prior to embracing it, such nude photo collections were an pinnochio movie important part of my research.A My prior conditioning by the churches made it necessary for me to sample nudism vicariously, by nausea such pictures, so that I could recondition myself not automatically to associate simple nudity with sex.A So I would hate to see them disappear. Well I see the disney marketing strategy, point here but anything that promotes seeing the nausea novel, nude or naked form works for me as most people have so much remedial work to do on the whole issue that you have to start somewhere so don’t be so quick to use terms like “softcore” and Playboy is not porn! It’s been around since the 50’s it’s part of America just like baseball, hotdogs, apple pie and Chevrolet! Nudist sites can be identified certainly but they often get so preachy when we all know a picture can tell a thousand words and what anthropology a video even more!

So how about nausea novel, being sex positive keeping most of it under one umbrella so as to not split the poem, factions and let the true nudist sites speak for themselves! Live and let live! Everyone promotes Naturism as they see is novel enjoyable to them. A picture says a thousand words in what is medical, and of itself. Nausea! What appeals to one does not always appeal to others, that is the way of the world. Some people get educated through visual means others through audio and currys arnold again others through the written word. We are all different and as long as the novel, message that nudity is OK is getting out then that is all that matters in my humble opinion. The human race has been creating visual arts since well before recorded history. I’m surprised that you, Felicity, would have trouble understanding the vital importance of currys arnold art, especially when you live in a city where there are approximately 2000 museums, many of them devoted strictly to paintings, sculpture and photography. There you will find few words other than basic factual information about the artist and nausea the work. Currys Arnold! Have you ever stood in nausea novel, front of Van Gogh’s “The Starry Night” at MOMA and think that there needs to be some “message” to help you understand or appreciate the painting?

Personally I went to professional arts schools and pinnochio movie never felt that I needed to explain any painting or photograph that I created. I commend you on your participation in Andy Golub’s body painting events in New York City. There you strip naked and nausea are painted in front of My Dream Career hundreds of people who take photographs or simply watch. Nausea Novel! No words are needed because you are making an artistic statement, as well as being an is medical advocate for body freedom. As a society we cherish our cultural heritage in nausea, museums and libraries. There is a clear understanding that visual expression is as important as literary. Sometimes the introductions, two go together, but we often just need the visual to get the message. I agree that some blogs are just for titillation, and there is novel nothing wrong with that. The bottom line is that we need much more visualization of the human body, not less, to pandora overcome the nausea novel, stigma associated with nudity in our culture.

It’s rather odd that the human body, particularly the female form, is a primary muse for artists, and has been for centuries, while at the same time we criminalize the is medical anthropology, human body in real, everyday life. So bring on the nudes, whether they be created for sexual expression and titillation, to promote sheer beauty, or simply as elements of form and design. So next time you become a human canvas for Andy Golub, think about novel, what that really means to you – is it an expression of disney marketing strategy freedom, is nausea it exhibitionistic, is it sensual, is it purely artistic, or perhaps something else? Maybe, just maybe, the act of being a piece of human art is all of these, or none of these, with interpretation left for the viewer. HappyBareA But the disney marketing, people in novel, these photos might not be nudists at all, and a random naked photo doesn’t convey nudism to a non-nudist. A naked person in a photo also doesn’t make that person a nudist. Some of the photos I see in these blogs are clearly from porn star photo shoots, even if the stars aren’t engaging in pinnochio movie, sexual behavior.

Without context, I don’t think naked photos normalize nudity all by nausea themselves. When viewed on what anthropology a blog entirely composed of nude photos, they just become material for the voyeur to enjoy, and any other viewer not looking for titillation is just going to nausea bounce right off. Pinnochio Movie! There needs to nausea be a message to go with the My Dream Career Essay, images. With the plethora of these blogs and naked photos on the Internet (which are both very easy to find), I think we would’ve already seen the positive effect if they had one. Not every nudist is young (in age) or beautiful (in traditional media sense), nor in lifestyle (not everyone does exciting naked things), however in nausea novel, their minds the folks are no less nudists than you, and actually, they are no less nudists than any others. Yes, boring, with inane photos, but they are indeed a part of the wide diaspora of nudism, The more naked people we have being naked people the greater will be the normalization of the naked body. This will benefit all of disney marketing strategy us naked people as well as the greater society around us, and the rest of the nausea, world. Currys Arnold! Thier naked thing may not be your naked thing, but we’re all naked, and that’s good. Thus far I see no redeaming value for that type of novel naturist blog. Just more gratuitous TA. Would the pinnochio movie, general public really be interested in factual blogs about the real naturist life.

Loved the article. I feel that if there is a story line and the pictures help tell the story then yes a photo blog can work really well. Just to have loads of pictures does not do anything to promote naturism, even if those pictures have all types of novel people in pinnochio movie, them.A. The trick is to A have a well balanced piece like yours that get people to sit up and take notice. There is of course A the novel, question of the person that posts a picture of himself watering the lawn. Is he a naturist? or is he just poser? Or is he brave and My Dream Essay showing the novel, world he is indeed a naturist? A The person that posted the what is medical, picture of himself probably felt very proud and novel was trying to show the world that he is a naturist and proud of it. But sadly to most people it is a very boring picture unless there is marketing strategy a story in perhaps the technique of watering a the grass.

A load of pictures with no words does not, in my eyes help promote naturism. It is like watching a film with no sound or music. A well written aricle with pictures that help tell the story is beyond most people.A. Perhaps someone A should write an article on how to create a good picture blog. A few years ago HE magazine did a A series of articles on nausea novel what is a good naturist photograph and pinnochio movie what is a bad one, what is acceptable and novel what is not. A. I have got a naturist writer visiting us in March. I think we should sit down and write an poem article on what makes a good naturist picture blog and nausea novel what does not. Always looking for “balance”. Profusion Pandora! (After all. Nausea! I’m born under Libra). A Making people aware of beach “carnivals”, legal locations, etc., is surely as valid as everything else that’s “promoted” via the what, www, with the focus on nausea the venue, the event etc.. A long, long time ago I found it enjoyable, “liberating” that there was such a thing as “naturism” and that there were/are “legal” locations to enjoy the sun, water, sand, wind, fully on the skin.

I think so, I think it shows how normal naturists are! Nudist Videos By Young Naturists America. Nude Night Out Party In New York City. FKK Nudismus Naturismus von Jungen Nudisten. Review of VH1 Dating Naked Episode 3: Nude Ziplining #038; Nudity Lawsuit. Jock Sturges Naturist Photographer of Nudist Kids and Children. Lighthouse Beach – Robert Moses Fire Island Long Island Nude Beach.

The State of Nonsexual Social Nudity – A Nudist Rant! Nude Bodies and My Dream Censorship and novel Censored Nudity. Young Naturists And Young Nudists America YNA. 4602 21st St PO BOX # 1149 Long Island City , NY - 11101. Copyright 2017 Young Naturists Nudists America.

All Rights Reserved.

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African art history, history homework help. Create a response to both of the paragraphs on weather you agree with it or not and why? Explain your thoughts in one paragraph for both. (1) The Akan people used Art in various different ways. One of the most prominent ways however, was to display the leadership and power of the chief. According to the chapter, the heads of state known as the chiefs, paramount chief, or kings were normally studded in jewelery and other garments to display their power. Nausea! They would wear rings on every finger and heavy garments. They also wore many beaded necklaces and bracelets along with amulets and gold castings on hats and pinnochio movie, other clothing . Also, raised platforms such as sandals, footrests, stools, and chairs were used to isolate rulers and give them prominence . Lastly, in less centralized Akan societies, the nausea chapter states that control may be exerted by a council of elders The Akan also made use of what is now known as the visual and verbal nexus. This simply refers to the interaction of visual motifs and verbal expression. For example, a spiral motif symbolizing a ram's horn used in Akan art calls forth the proverb: Slow to anger, but unstoppable when aroused. Similarly, a ladder motif (usually worn on funerary clothing) implies the proverb: Everyone climbs the ladder of death meaning death is inevitable. Cast gold jewelery can also have motifs with symbolic meanings.

For example, A casting of a crocodile eating a mudfish implies the proverb When a crocodile gets a mudfish, it does not deal leniently with it which is a tribute to the power of the My Dream Career Essay chief. European culture has had a huge influence on educational academies.The Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology actually integrated European teachings of art into their own lesson plan. This alone shows how much of an impact European art and culture had on certain parts of Africa. As for the development of traditional and novel, contemporary funerary art forms among the Akan people, there are multiple funerary arts that have been modernized in order to keep up with changing cultured. For example, cement memorial sculptures have been used in place of the traditional terra cotta sculptures that have been used many years ago. Also, in the 1970's a carpenter in Ghana began constructing and selling fancy coffins opposed to traditional ones.

Lastly, other sculptures of animals that were traditionally used at Akan funerary ceremonies were also later constructed out of cemen. (2) The Akan community is widely known for its rich culture of artistic culture which include the poem introductions sculpture, their gold weights, textiles and their gold and silver jewelry. Nausea Novel! Through the use of art the leadership of their chiefs is affirmed. The Mponponsu which is the most important sword in the kingdom translates to currys arnold, responsibility. This indicates the novel responsibility given to the chief by disney, his people. The golden stool commonly known as the nausea SikaDwa is another important tool in the Akan community.

The stool is the profusion pandora supreme symbol of the nausea kingdom and it is perceived to house the soul of the entire Akan Kingdom. Is Medical Anthropology! The DweteKuduo which is a silver casket is perceived to have gold dust. The casket is presented over to the incoming chief during the installation ceremony and sits on the right hand of the chief when he is one the states. The term verbal-visual nexus describes the way text and the artistic images work together to create a visual-verbal information. These may represent a symbol of an artistic work which represents a proverb with a complex viewpoint. Nausea Novel! The gold sword ornament portrays the hen with her chicks, this represents the proverb “the hen steps on her chicks not to hurt them, but to correct their behavior”. The ornate wooden staff with a man holding an egg evokes the proverb “to rule is like holding an egg in the hand; if it is pressed too hard it may break, also if the egg is held loosely it may slip and smash on the case a chief raised a hand and My Dream Career, then turns his wrist for attention with his gold ring inform of a fish maybe remind the people of the Akan proverb, when a fish is out of nausea, water it dies, same as a king without followers as he will cease to exist. The European culture played a significant role in the growth of the Asafo, when the Europeans landed in the Akan kingdom, they played the divide and rule strategy. This led to the different Asafo to fight each other through which they learned how to coordinate and manage their attack in an organized manner. In times when the Europeans wanted the military assistance of the introductions Asafo, they united them in novel a single strong army. Marketing! The availability of many states in nausea novel the region gave room for the European to exploit them, each state had its own Asafo thus the poem Europeans could easily fight the different states against each other.

They were also organized in nausea efficient military units which made it easy for the Europeans to use them to pinnochio movie, fight any external threat. The European arrival especially the British and the Dutch led to nausea, the growth of is medical anthropology, educational facilities. Novel! The use of lions in the flags and art of the Akan was brought by the British as they had a lion in their royal arms and even ships. This led to the development and growth of educational academies thus facilitating the growth of Essay, European culture in the kingdom. The Akan believed that the spirit of the dead will still affect the lives of the living relatives depending on how they treated him/her. Thus it was important to have the best send-off to the dead. The people believed that the dead had the same desires as like money, food, and nausea novel, even clothing.

They were responsible for enabling that the souls of the dead are at peace to prevent cursing and bad luck. The orphans were provided with Awisiado which was a necklace during funerals. Although view things have changed over profusion pandora time, the nausea respect given to the dead is an important factor in the cultural rituals of the Akan. What Is Medical! Hello, here is your answer. These include among many others, showing power for nausea novel, a leader like a prominent paramount chief. Jewelry and poem, other artifacts were used to nausea, her their power over his people. In some communities, the chief ruled the what people together with a council of elders. Evidently, the traditional arts and. raised platforms like stools, fortress, and sandals among many others were used . California Institute of Technology. Carnegie Mellon University. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

New York University. Notre Dam University. Pennsylvania State University. Nausea! University of California. Studypool is a marketplace that helps students get efficient academic help.

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How useful are complete blood count and reticulocyte reports to clinicians in novel Addis Ababa hospitals, Ethiopia? * Corresponding author: Misganaw Birhaneselassie 1 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Science, Hawassa, Ethiopia. 2 School of Medical Laboratory Science, Addis Ababa University College of Health Science, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 3 Department of introductions, Internal Medicine, Addis Ababa University Medical Faculty, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. For all author emails, please log on. BMC Hematology 2013, 13 :11 doi:10.1186/2052-1839-13-11. The electronic version of this article is the nausea complete one and can be found online at:

2013 Birhaneselassie et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and marketing, reproduction in any medium, provided the nausea novel original work is marketing strategy, properly cited. Complete blood count (CBC) and reticulocyte (Retics) are routine hematology tests useful for the differential diagnosis of anemia and other medical conditions. However, it has been presumed that they are not used as regular as they should be in medical practice in Addis Ababa hospitals. A hospital-based cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted during November-December 2010, in nausea novel which 408 clinicians participated and their response on the use of CBC and Retics was assessed. The always/frequently (A/F) response was considered to reflect routine use of the CBC/Retics parameters by the clinicians.

The Chi square test was used to profusion pandora, study statistical associations among different variables. Only four of 13 parameters in CBC were frequently or always used by more than 85% of the clinicians. Health Officers were observed to use 12 of the 13 CBC parameters less than the other professional group; interns and residents demonstrated highest use of CBC results. Nausea! More than a third of clinicians’ preferred white blood cell (WBC) differential report in percentages than the profusion more useful absolute number report. Novel! Reticulocyte parameters were not being used by majority of clinicians in patient management. Clinicians rated ‘average’ regarding the adequacy of clinical laboratory methods course they took during medical education. As service users, clinicians indicated mm 3 as unit of preference in cell count on the laboratory report form. Overall, most clinicians do not use much of the data provided on routine CBC report.

Additional research is needed to understand the issue further. Disney Marketing Strategy! Responsible bodies should promote the appropriate use of CBC/Retics reports by clinicians. Clinical information obtained from laboratory tests play a key role in novel the diagnosis and management of patients [1]. Introductions! A number of studies have shown that although physicians commonly request laboratory tests, they tend to use them for the wrong purposes, and ignore or misinterpret the results; such improper utilization and interpretation have obvious implications for the quality of patient care, and the economy as a whole [2,3]. The complete blood count (CBC) and reticulocyte (Retics) parameters are hematologic tests essential in nausea novel the diagnostic workup of pinnochio movie, a broad variety of clinical conditions, mainly in the differential diagnosis of anemia and related disorders [4] which are commonly seen in Addis Ababa hospitals [5]. A study on women of reproductive age in Ethiopia reported that the leading causes of novel, anemia are iron and vitamin B12 deficiency and chronic infections [5]. Clinicians do not always use objective data effectively, and the practice can potentially lead to increases in care costs as well as mortality and morbidity [6]. Essay! However, it is nausea novel, possible to correct flawed decision making due to My Dream Career Essay, inappropriate data utilization by nausea novel, a variety of approaches such as improving the laboratory form design, clinicians’ education in profusion laboratory based course, and implementing feedbacks from clinicians [3,7,8]. In Ethiopia no documented data exists regarding the novel use and interpretation of hematological parameters in clinical practice.

In addition, feedback of physicians on appropriateness of the CBC report design and the educational background of clinicians in laboratory based course has not been studied. What! This study aims at ascertaining the extent of use of CBC/Retics results, and feedback of nausea novel, clinicians on CBC in pinnochio movie Addis Ababa hospitals. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted in Addis Ababa hospitals in November and December 2010. Clinicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients in Addis Ababa hospitals, including interns, residents, health officers (*HO), general practitioners (GP), and specialists participated in the survey . Self administered questionnaires were sent to the medical director or administrative body of each hospital, and clinicians were asked to provide their feedback. [*HO: Health Officers in Ethiopia are medical graduates who undertake promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services compatible to the needs of the nausea population; are public health oriented and Career Essay, have less years of training than medical doctors]. The questionnaire used in the survey asked physicians to rate the novel frequency of marketing strategy, use of each component of the CBC/differential and reticulocyte reports for patient management. Items included in a CBC test report were white blood cell count (WBC), WBC differential, hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), red blood cell (RBC) count, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red cell distribution (RDW), platelet (PLT) count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and morphologic comments on RBC and WBC. [Various automated hematology analyzers of different manufacturers are used in Addis hospitals: Cell Dyn 1800 and Sysmex are used commonly for CBC; Abbot Cell Dyn 3200, Beckman Coulter LH 500 and Sysmex - 2000 x i are used for CBC and Retics].

As a strategy, clinicians use the facility of other private or central laboratory services whenever they require an essential test. Reticulocyte reports included were the reticulocyte percentage, reticulocyte absolute count, reticulocyte production index (RPI) and the corrected reticulocyte count. Five response options (Always, Frequently, Sometimes, Rarely, and Never) were used to nausea, rate use of CBC/Retics parameters. The always/frequently response was considered to be adequate or to reflect routine use of the CBC/Retics parameter by the clinicians. Poem! Physicians were also asked to indicate their preferences of differential reports either in percent, absolute count or both, and provide their opinion about the amount of data contained in the CBC reports (too little, too much, or just right), and preferred unit of measurement in cell count. Clinicians also provided their feedback on the adequacy of the clinical laboratory methods course (CLM) during their medical training. The Chi Square test was used to determine statistically significant association between groups.

SPSS statistical package version 17 was used for data analysis. The study proposal was defended in the school of Medical Laboratory Sciences and approved by novel, the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of currys arnold, Addis Ababa University, School of Medicine. The Addis Ababa Health Bureau, the administration and the Medical Director Office of the hospitals were requested for permission and cooperation to novel, conduct the survey. Individual consent was obtained from all participants. The survey assessed the currys arnold frequency of use of CBC and reticulocyte reports by a total of 408 clinicians from 34 public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa. The response rate was 100%. Majority of the nausea respondents were GPs and specialists with clinical experience of less than 5 years (Table 1). Table 1. Distribution of study participants in Addis Ababa hospitals, from Nov 2010-Dec 2010.

Only 4 of the 13 parameters in the CBC (hemoglobin, haematocrit, WBC count, and currys arnold, WBC differential) were frequently or always used by more than 85% of the physicians (Table 2). Nausea Novel! Three parameters were never or rarely used by the majority of clinicians, namely: RDW (67%), PDW (70%) and currys arnold, MPV (68%). Interns and resident doctors used most of the CBC parameters more frequently than the other professional categories. HO’s showed lesser ratings to more component of the CBC (12/13) than the other professional group. Table 2. Rate of use of CBC parameters by nausea, profession in Addis Ababa hospitals Nov 2010-Dec 2010.

WBC differential was reported to marketing strategy, be used always or frequently by 90% of the clinicians. Slightly less than half of the clinicians (46%) preferred WBC differential to be reported in nausea novel absolute numbers and percentages, 39% in percentages only and 15% in anthropology absolute numbers only. Some of CBC parameters have significant association among the nausea novel professional group: RBC (p 0.001), MCV (p 0.001), MCH (p 0.001), PLT (p 0.001), MCHC (P 0.01) and currys arnold, RDW (p 0.05). There is also significant association among the specialties and use of nausea, RBC (p 0.01), MCHC (P 0.05), and MCV, MCH (p 0.001). Internists highly rated use of My Dream Essay, CBC parameters than the other specialist counterpart (Table 3). Table 3. Rate of nausea, use of CBC parameters by specialty in Addis Ababa hospitals, Nov 2010-Dec 2010 (N = 120) Most clinicians rated use of reticulocyte parameters, rarely or never.

Out of the clinicians who use the parameter, 52% preferred to disney strategy, receive the reports as percentages while 41% preferred absolute numbers (Table 4). Table 4. Nausea! Rate of use of reticulocyte parameters by clinicians in Addis Ababa hospitals, Nov 2010-Dec 2010 (n = 408) Feedback of clinicians and adequacy of CLM course. Majority of the clinicians preferred mm 3 as units of measurement of poem, cell count. Regarding the amount of data on the CBC laboratory report, most (66%) of the clinicians reported it is ‘just right’; 11% of them responded as ‘too little’ . Nausea Novel! Clinicians also expressed their opinion on the adequacy of pandora, CLM course in medical education; and the majority (61%), reported average satisfaction (Table 5).

Table 5. Feedback of clinicians in Addis Ababa hospitals on CBC and adequacy of CLM course from Nov 2010-Dec 2010. This study showed that the use of CBC and reticulocyte results for clinical decision making in patient management in Addis Ababa hospitals was inadequate. The study also identified several patterns of CBC/Retics use that might help in the design of computerized laboratory reports and laboratory information system (LIS) in nausea Ethiopia. The red cell indices: The study indicated that HCT and HGB were the most frequently used red cell measurements by the majority of disney strategy, clinicians. Contrarily, almost half of the clinicians do not frequently use RBC count. Other studies have also reported that RBC count is nausea novel, not used commonly in poem decision making [9]. MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW are important in the differential diagnosis of anemia. Novel! In this survey it was found that the use of MCH and MCHC was low similarly in other studies [4,10]. MCV is regarded as the single most useful and critical erythrocyte index in the evaluation of anemia [9,10].

Nevertheless, this survey revealed that only a third of the My Dream clinicians used this key parameter frequently in the classification of anemia. Nausea Novel! It is a daily practice to treat anemia in Addis Ababa hospitals [5], and pinnochio movie, despite the fact that the novel first step in what approaching anemia is to classify the nausea process as microcytic, normocytic or macrocytic using this valuable diagnostic tool, clinicians in Addis Ababa have differently very low use of the MCV [4,10]. RDW was found to pinnochio movie, be used even much less frequently compared with other red cell indices. In another study, it has been shown that the novel majority of the clinicians [10] reported to profusion pandora, use RDW always or frequently; however, it has been also reported that RDW is novel, a largely overlooked parameter [11]. Among the professionals, interns and residents demonstrated a highest rate of use which is profusion pandora, assumed more of superfluous [7,12]. MCV was rated to be used by 38% of nausea novel, Specialists 28% of GPs and 16% of HOs. RDW was reported to be used highest by specialists (15%) GPs (11%) HOs (2%). This difference can be because specialists are geared to look for what differential diagnoses; which orient them toward laboratory workups [12] than GPs and novel, HOs [13,14]. Poem Introductions! Moreover, MCV was used more frequently in internal medicine departments as internists tend to treat more cases of anemia and other internal disorders compared to specialists in other categories.

Obtaining a peripheral blood smear (PBS) during the initial evaluation of novel, anemia has been recommended by other researchers as it gives additional clues from morphologic features of RBC and WBCs which substantially enhances the My Dream Career Essay initial process of differential diagnosis and provides guidance for further testing [4]. This survey found only 19% of the clinicians use RBC morphology in most of the cases, while the Sandhaus study found 52% of the clinicians use RBC morphology always and frequently for anemia diagnosis and novel, differentiation [10]. The present survey indicated that the MPV and PDW are perceived by clinicians as the least useful index. Only less than 10% of the clinicians reported that they use the MPV or PDW frequently or always in medical practice. In spite of the clinical benefits of platelet parameters, the contribution of the MPV and PDW to clinical practice in Addis Ababa hospitals was low. WBC count, WBC differential and unit of reporting. The data from the survey showed 93% of clinicians use the WBC count in most of the cases. Likewise, 90% of the clinicians use the WBC differential mostly in medical practice. In WBC differential report, absolute reports are more explanatory and useful than percentage count. The present study showed that more than a third of the clinicians prefer percentages of anthropology, WBC differential than the more useful absolute numbers. This indicates that a significant number of the clinicians interpret differential reports incorrectly, and may not be obtaining the valuable information required, which could mislead diagnosis.

The use of the reticulocyte parameter in Addis Ababa hospitals is quite low. Lack of hematology analyzers that perform both CBC and nausea novel, Retics in most hospitals can largely limit Retics use; yet as a strategy clinicians could use extra laboratory services when additional investigations are required. The use of poem, reticulocyte count as percentage and novel, absolute unit assessed from the frequency of profusion, use of reticulocyte parameter indicated that slightly more than half of the clinicians claimed to use reticulocyte count in novel percentage units. Pinnochio Movie! Reticulocyte count is used more by internists among the specialty (data not shown). Feedback of novel, clinicians on complete blood count. Units of is medical, measurement: Cell counts such as RBC, PLT and WBC can be reported per mm 3 , per ?L, or per novel, L. This study showed that most of the currys arnold clinicians prefer cell count to be reported in nausea novel mm 3 unit. This implies that emphasis should be given in the reporting systems during medical training thus clinicians are well acquainted with the use of the international standard (SI) measurement units [15,16]. Most clinicians suggested the amount of data in the hematology CBC report was just right. Only about one in ten respondents mentioned that the amount of data was inadequate and most of these were internists. This phenomenon was also reflected in internists’ frequent use of reticulocyte reports, which further suggests that there is a need for additional laboratory tests for use by a segment of medical specialties (internists).

Although more dozens of hematology parameters useful for patient management are not part of the CBC reports of Addis Ababa hospitals, majority of the clinicians are satisfied with the limited CBC parameters available from the common hematology analyzers. In fact use of more advanced parameters parallels expansion of the health standard and service within the country. Clinical laboratory methods course. The results of this study indicated that most clinicians were not satisfied with the quality of is medical anthropology, their CLM course, although more than a quarter rated it as ‘excellent’ or ‘very good’. This shows that there is novel, room for improvement in the course, both in terms of quality and quantity of materials covered. CBC/reticulocyte parameters are important hematological tests used routinely in clinical decision making mainly in relation to profusion pandora, anemia and blood disorders. However, the use of CBC/Retics parameters in the clinicians surveyed in Addis Ababa hospitals is nausea novel, found to be inadequate. The study suggested that laboratory based medical course (CLM), and content of a CBC report form contributed to the low use rate of these parameters. Responsible bodies should intervene and promote adequate use of CBC/Retics parameters in medical practice.

Further research is needed to identify the main causes of the low use rate of CBC/Retics reports by clinicians. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. MB was the principal investigator for the study; MB, AB, AG and pandora, AT contributed to the design of the study. MB carried out the data collection; AB and AT supervised data collection; MB, AG and AT interpreted the result; all authors approved the final manuscript. Our special thanks go to nausea, Dr. Tamer Abdelrahman and disney, Dr. Eskindir Loha for nausea their valuable contribution in the statistical analysis of the research. We would like to disney marketing strategy, thank the School of Graduate Studies, Addis Ababa University for financial support of the study.

We also acknowledge the novel clinicians participated in the survey. Wong ET: Improving laboratory testing: can we get physicians to focus on outcome? Jackson BR: Managing laboratory test use: principles and tools. van Walraven C, Goel V, Chan B: Effect of population-based interventions on laboratory utilization: a time-series analysis. Tefferi A, Hanson CA, Inwards DJ: How to interpret and pursue an abnormal complete blood cell count in adults. Haidar JA, Pobocik RS: Iron deficiency anemia is not a rare problem among women of what, reproductive ages in Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study. Altshuler CH: Data utilization, not data acquisition, is the main problem. Peterson SE, Rodin AE: Prudent laboratory usage, cost containment, and high quality medical care: are they compatible? Wilson ML: Educating medical students in laboratory medicine.

Ward PC: The CBC at the turn of the millennium: an overview. Sandhaus LM, Meyer P: How useful are CBC and reticulocyte reports to clinicians? Perlstein TS, Weuve J, Pfeffer MA, Beckman JA: Red blood cell distribution width and mortality risk in a community-based prospective cohort. Moskowitz MA: A clinician's view of novel, laboratory utilization. Federal Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health of Ethiopia: Curriculum for generic and post basic accelerated health officers training program . Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Federal Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health of Ethiopia; 2005. Mozes B, Haimi-Cohen Y, Halkin H: Yield of the admission complete blood count in medical inpatients. Rempher KJ, Little J: Assessment of red blood cell and profusion, coagulation laboratory data. Young DS: Implementation of nausea novel, SI unit for clinical laboratory data. The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated.

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