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argumental essay on Youve spent quite a bit of invention, time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and youve even gotten pretty good at writing on keats bright analysis, the topics your instructor assigns. Invention. But when it comes to Ulysses S. Grant, choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. Invention. Its not that there arent any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. About. Chances are, all you need to do is relax and find a topic youre passionate about and, of course, one that is debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics?

Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library. The name of the essay says it all argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an essay on something that people generally agree on, but thats not really the point of an argumentative essay. Its important to invention, choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. The world isnt black and whitethere are a lot of gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. Uk Prison By Race. Ive separated the of radio, topics into five categorieslegal, moral, social, media and familyand included a helpful link for each topic.

Feel free to use the topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about uk prison population legal matters are a popular choice. These types of topics can include laws that you would want to create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. You dont have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on invention, what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say.

After all, you dont want to suggest a changing a law thats already been changed in keats bright analysis the way you want. Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the invention, benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the burmese days, United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and use?

At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the of radio, easiest to S. Grant, get carried away with. They can cover a variety of invention, moral dilemmas, from animal testing to the death penalty.

These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinionsand justifications for those opinionson what they think is burmese days, right or wrong. If youre talking about invention human or animal rights, and its something youre very passionate about, its tempting to let your emotions take over. While its good to blood meaning, be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and invention organized. Its definitely worth your time to create an outline so you dont stray off topic. Photo by John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should childrens beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for people to do volunteer work?

Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of taoist, speech give people the of radio, right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to burmese days, overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of people. This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and of radio even more that you could create on your own.

If you get stuck on star, which topic to of radio, write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to rely on facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to uk prison, the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on invention, teenagers to go to college? At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of water meaning, anything more?

In what case(s) could it be considered fair for invention, a company to taoist afterlife, not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to of radio, curb mens catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life?

10 Advertising and Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole. Afterlife. Essays written on invention, these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and uk prison population what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isnt hard to find. Just turn on a television and of radio dont change the taoist afterlife, channel when the commercials come on. Pay close attention to all things electronic, and youll be sure to find something debatable about what you see. Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons.

Should sex be allowed to invention of radio, be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the taoist afterlife, line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about of radio celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for in the water, companies to advertise in invention of radio schools?

In what situations should advertisements for in the, alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and of radio side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. Thats because every family is different. Rules in families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is different, its hard to generalize in these types of hydrogen peroxide, essays.

However, if you look into research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for any of the topics below (or for of radio, a topic of your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from taoist (way more than are on of radio, this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started. Once youre ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in mind that its much easier to write about something that you already have interest ineven if you dont know a whole lot about it. Afterlife. Researching the topic will allow you to learn more about what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If youve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in invention your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors.

Theyll help give you the winning edge in whatever youre debating. Psst. Burmese Days. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the invention of radio, Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education.

You can find her on catalyzed by potassium iodide, Google+. Of Radio. Thank you for burmese days, these! I appreciate that you divided the of radio, topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about anti immigrants. I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi AbdulI#8217;m not sure *who you#8217;re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Uk Prison By Race. Thank you for the help and the quick feedback!

Please give me an example. Is the hook on the title or on invention, the body? Thanks. Essay About Ulysses. The hook is the first sentence of your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an of radio, arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw I#8217;m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya so I think the population by race, important thing would be to choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and sorry if I#8217;m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the effects of invention of radio, video games on Essay about, young people. Invention Of Radio. Here is a great resource to hydrogen catalyzed by potassium iodide, help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the of radio, ideas but I#8217;m still not sure. What would be a good resource for uk prison, supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong?

I#8217;m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. Of Radio. I was writing on peroxide by potassium, how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn#8217;t help me on this and it was a hard topic to argue about. Invention. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in our near public places (look at laws in California and Colorado for example).

I need to write an argumentative research paper about 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to burmese days, write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day lifemaybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Invention. Speaking of 3k words, here#8217;s a good post on making an essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I#8217;m sorry to hear that. Maybe you#8217;ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to do that. I need to write 3 essays and I 5 days to burmese days, do it need HELP and I#8217;m 15. Of Radio. Hi Dysoneep that#8217;s a lot of essays in a short amount of time. You#8217;re going to population, want to stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for that it really helps me.

You#8217;re welcome. Thanks for reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay. My argument is broad and about Self-harm and invention of radio Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i don#8217;t have any idea can you help me what is it good to catalyzed, write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay.

I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for the comment. Hi there. My name is Lisa. Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and I will be glad to help.

Contact me for non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and invention of radio always on time. Uk Prison Population. Thank you in advance. I have to of radio, right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable#8230;. Uk Prison. Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in this post should lead you to of radio, something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to taoist, possibly even *enjoy the process of researching and writing. Invention Of Radio. Remember, an arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an in the water, argumentative thesis statement and invention also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is taoist, literally the same thing i#8217;m going thru for english 202. It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and invention of radio it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough.

Don#8217;t despair. You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for about S. Grant, help in invention formulating a thesis (a good argument) for taoist afterlife, a 3000 word research paper on the following #8221; Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on bilingualism and of radio multilingualism#8221; . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper. It may look something like this: The social and about Ulysses cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and invention argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of bilingualism and in the meaning multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and invention of radio aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the points you want to defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. Population By Race. #128578; Hi Naomi. I have started writing the paper. However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper.

Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. Invention Of Radio. It#8217;s fantastic that you understand the taoist afterlife, value of invention, having someone proofread your essay. While I can#8217;t do this for burmese days, you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading.

I have to of radio, do 700-900 word essays a week and keats I loose my nerve a lot. but trust me, it can be worse#8230; Good luck on your writing though!I#8217;m sure you need it more than me#8230; i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to seem longer, highlight all the periods, and of radio change the font size from 12 to 14. I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to afterlife, hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. Invention. So true! If you#8217;re armed with plenty of sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it#8217;s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to take to execute an argumentative essay: 1) pick your topicthis post is a good place to start. 2) do your researchhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statementhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an outlinehttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paperhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading.

7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on star analysis, inspiration vs infringement and so far I#8217;ve written only of radio, 200. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like #8220;tomorrow afternoon#8221; has arrived. Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed Iodide. I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. This makes me think of Walt Disney and how all of invention, his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on (in the 90s) Disney led the uk prison by race, charge in more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this. hi Naomi, me and of radio my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on our courses. I#8217;m studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an burmese days, idea on what will be our topic. please help us for invention of radio, we are desperate. we would be so thankful if you#8217;l help us a little bit.

I#8217;m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to hydrogen peroxide catalyzed iodide, find a topic for a research paper that is related to both computer science and entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the question I#8217;m attempting to invention, answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. Essay. You two would do well to sit down and of radio brainstorm a list of bright star analysis, potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project. Of Radio. For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in uk prison population business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I#8217;d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to find out if any of of radio, them have enough material to support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because #8220;computer science#8221; and afterlife #8220;entrepreneurship#8221; or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. Of Radio. You might find this post helpful for you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and in the also helped me a lot for invention, my project#8230;.but i am currently writing a novel and i need some pointers for keats bright star, it#8230;..would you be able to invention, help.

The novel is a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson#8230; Congrats on taoist, starting the invention, rewarding project of writing your own novel. Blood In The Meaning. The best advice for writing a novel is invention, just sitting down and writing it. Afterlife. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it#8217;s coming out as you want it to, but if you#8217;re serious about this, you#8217;ll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to be perfect. In fact it won#8217;t be perfect. Of Radio. It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to be okay with that fact and just get through it. Set a word count goal for every day, and Essay S. Grant every week. A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in invention of radio mind!

It#8217;s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it#8230; again and again until it#8217;s right. were recquired to uk prison population, do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. I#8217;m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading. Naomi help me please? i#8217;am looking for the disadvantages of a physical store and found only minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of owning one?

I assume you mean shopping at invention one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to population, travel there (gas, wear and of radio tear on your car). There is a higher risk that the store will be out in the water of the item you need (or won#8217;t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. Prices may be higher due to of radio, overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is such a big help. Happy to Essay about, help! Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing #8212; just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons.

Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in a month so any advice on how to get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is invention, a good long while. I#8217;d definitely break it down into burmese days, lots of invention, smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time #8212; brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. Keats Bright Star Analysis. The outlining step will save you a ton of invention, work; I#8217;d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out about S. Grant https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an long af essay and english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is invention, imagination and nothing else.

Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Burmese Days. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I#8217;m need to invention of radio, write a thesis for my uni#8217;s project this year. But, I#8217;m having a problem with my topic, is blood water, it a good topic or not? I#8217;m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, #8220;Students#8217; perception on integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.#8221; *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an effect to the students, in the way of education. I think you#8217;re off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic. Here is an invention, example of what I mean: #8220;Students#8217; perception of integrity, which is Ulysses S. Grant, one of NDUM#8217;s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education.#8221; In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success.

Another approach, if you want to focus only on positive impacts, might be: #8220;Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of NDUM#8217;s core characteristics, tend to be more successful in invention of radio their educational endeavors.#8221; I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an online tutor. Uk Prison. I do a wider array of of radio, assignments from essays, projects and research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments. All the assignments are done in 12-24 hours. Be free to inquire more. Hydrogen Iodide. Email: [emailprotected] . I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about of radio mental health. I don#8217;t know specifically what to write about keats bright analysis because the topic itself is so broad.

Can someone give ma an invention, advice on population by race, this? I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don#8217;t know specifically what to write about because the of radio, topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on this? You#8217;re right that #8220;mental health#8221; is a really broad topic. If you#8217;re writing an argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance that#8217;s a) debatable and b)provable.

Here are a few examples of Ulysses S. Grant, possible approaches: Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to increase funding for mental health initiatives. Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in favor of/against. Does the invention, mental health of parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for meaning, how you can narrow your topic to be more specific.

Happy writing! Thank you. I started my essay on government should increse the fundings. Now I#8217;m on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; That#8217;s a long one, but you can totally do it. Invention Of Radio. Just make sure to organize your ideas before you start. You might want to check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for taoist, a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims you#8217;re making and how much evidence you use to back them up. Invention. Much respect for your decision to go back to school! What an awesome example you#8217;re setting for your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for population, writing help. Of Radio. I#8217;m obviously biased, but they#8217;re a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck. As for this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of autism.

Off the top of my head: 1. Hydrogen. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that it#8217;s simply a type of neurodiversity and should not be treated as something #8220;wrong,#8221; just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors. Invention Of Radio. The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too. 3. Hydrogen By Potassium. Argue that Asperger#8217;s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.

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1 Computing with Language: Texts and Words. We're all very familiar with text, since we read and write it every day. Here we will treat text as raw data for the programs we write, programs that manipulate and analyze it in of radio, a variety of keats bright star, interesting ways. Of Radio. But before we can do this, we have to get started with the Python interpreter. One of the burmese days friendly things about Python is that it allows you to type directly into the interactive interpreter the program that will be running your Python programs. You can access the Python interpreter using a simple graphical interface called the Interactive DeveLopment Environment (IDLE). On a Mac you can find this under Applications > MacPython , and on Windows under All Programs > Python . Under Unix you can run Python from the shell by typing idle (if this is not installed, try typing python ). The interpreter will print a blurb about of radio, your Python version; simply check that you are running Python 3.2 or later (here it is for 3.4.2): If you are unable to run the Python interpreter, you probably don't have Python installed correctly. Please visit http://python.org/ for detailed instructions. NLTK 3.0 works for Python 2.6 and 2.7.

If you are using one of taoist afterlife, these older versions, note that the / operator rounds fractional results downwards (so 1/3 will give you 0 ). Invention. In order to get the in the water expected behavior of division you need to type: from invention of radio __future__ import division. The prompt indicates that the Python interpreter is now waiting for input. When copying examples from hydrogen iodide this book, don't type the yourself. Now, let's begin by using Python as a calculator: Once the interpreter has finished calculating the answer and displaying it, the prompt reappears. This means the Python interpreter is of radio waiting for keats bright, another instruction. Your Turn: Enter a few more expressions of your own. You can use asterisk ( * ) for multiplication and slash ( / ) for division, and invention parentheses for bracketing expressions. The preceding examples demonstrate how you can work interactively with the Python interpreter, experimenting with various expressions in the language to see what they do. Now let's try a nonsensical expression to see how the interpreter handles it:

This produced a syntax error . In Python, it doesn't make sense to end an instruction with a plus sign. The Python interpreter indicates the line where the problem occurred (line 1 of stdin , which stands for standard input). Now that we can use the Python interpreter, we're ready to start working with language data. Before going further you should install NLTK 3.0, downloadable for free from http://nltk.org/ . Taoist. Follow the instructions there to download the version required for your platform. Once you've installed NLTK, start up the Python interpreter as before, and install the data required for the book by typing the following two commands at the Python prompt, then selecting the book collection as shown in 1.1. Figure 1.1 : Downloading the NLTK Book Collection: browse the available packages using nltk.download() . The Collections tab on the downloader shows how the packages are grouped into invention of radio, sets, and you should select the line labeled book to obtain all data required for the examples and exercises in this book.

It consists of about 30 compressed files requiring about 100Mb disk space. The full collection of data (i.e., all in the downloader) is nearly ten times this size (at the time of writing) and continues to expand. Once the data is downloaded to your machine, you can load some of it using the Python interpreter. Uk Prison Population By Race. The first step is to type a special command at the Python prompt which tells the interpreter to load some texts for us to explore: from nltk.book import * . This says from NLTK's book module, load all items. The book module contains all the data you will need as you read this chapter. After printing a welcome message, it loads the text of several books (this will take a few seconds).

Here's the command again, together with the output that you will see. Take care to get spelling and punctuation right, and remember that you don't type the . Any time we want to find out about these texts, we just have to enter their names at invention the Python prompt: Now that we can use the Python interpreter, and have some data to keats star, work with, we're ready to get started. There are many ways to examine the context of a text apart from invention simply reading it. Keats Analysis. A concordance view shows us every occurrence of a given word, together with some context.

Here we look up the invention word monstrous in Moby Dick by entering text1 followed by a period, then the uk prison term concordance , and then placing monstrous in parentheses: The first time you use a concordance on a particular text, it takes a few extra seconds to build an index so that subsequent searches are fast. Your Turn: Try searching for other words; to save re-typing, you might be able to invention, use up-arrow, Ctrl-up-arrow or Alt-p to access the previous command and modify the word being searched. You can also try searches on some of the other texts we have included. For example, search Sense and Sensibility for by race, the word affection , using text2.concordance( affection ) . Invention. Search the book of Genesis to find out blood meaning how long some people lived, using text3.concordance( lived ) . You could look at text4 , the Inaugural Address Corpus , to see examples of English going back to 1789, and invention of radio search for words like nation , terror , god to see how these words have been used differently over time. Population By Race. We've also included text5 , the NPS Chat Corpus : search this for invention of radio, unconventional words like im , ur , lol . (Note that this corpus is uncensored!) Once you've spent a little while examining these texts, we hope you have a new sense of the richness and diversity of language. In the taoist afterlife next chapter you will learn how to access a broader range of text, including text in languages other than English. A concordance permits us to see words in context. For example, we saw that monstrous occurred in contexts such as the ___ pictures and a ___ size . What other words appear in invention of radio, a similar range of about Ulysses S. Grant, contexts?

We can find out by appending the term similar to the name of the text in question, then inserting the relevant word in parentheses: Observe that we get different results for different texts. Austen uses this word quite differently from Melville; for her, monstrous has positive connotations, and sometimes functions as an intensifier like the word very . The term common_contexts allows us to examine just the contexts that are shared by two or more words, such as monstrous and very . We have to of radio, enclose these words by keats analysis square brackets as well as parentheses, and separate them with a comma: Your Turn: Pick another pair of words and compare their usage in two different texts, using the similar() and invention common_contexts() functions. It is one thing to taoist, automatically detect that a particular word occurs in a text, and to display some words that appear in invention, the same context. However, we can also determine the location of a word in the text: how many words from the beginning it appears. This positional information can be displayed using a dispersion plot . Blood. Each stripe represents an invention of radio instance of a word, and each row represents the entire text. In 1.2 we see some striking patterns of word usage over the last 220 years (in an artificial text constructed by joining the texts of the Inaugural Address Corpus end-to-end).

You can produce this plot as shown below. You might like to try more words (e.g., liberty , constitution ), and different texts. Can you predict the dispersion of a word before you view it? As before, take care to get the quotes, commas, brackets and parentheses exactly right. Figure 1.2 : Lexical Dispersion Plot for Words in U.S.

Presidential Inaugural Addresses: This can be used to investigate changes in population by race, language use over time. Important: You need to of radio, have Python's NumPy and Matplotlib packages installed in blood in the water meaning, order to invention of radio, produce the graphical plots used in this book. Please see http://nltk.org/ for installation instructions. You can also plot the frequency of word usage through time using https://books.google.com/ngrams. Now, just for fun, let's try generating some random text in the various styles we have just seen. To do this, we type the name of the text followed by the term generate . (We need to include the parentheses, but there's nothing that goes between them.) The generate() method is not available in NLTK 3.0 but will be reinstated in a subsequent version. The most obvious fact about texts that emerges from the preceding examples is blood water that they differ in the vocabulary they use. In this section we will see how to use the invention of radio computer to count the words in taoist, a text in of radio, a variety of useful ways. As before, you will jump right in and experiment with the Python interpreter, even though you may not have studied Python systematically yet.

Test your understanding by modifying the examples, and blood in the trying the invention of radio exercises at the end of the chapter. Let's begin by finding out the burmese days length of a text from start to finish, in invention, terms of the words and punctuation symbols that appear. We use the term len to get the length of something, which we'll apply here to the book of Genesis: So Genesis has 44,764 words and punctuation symbols, or tokens. A token is the technical name for blood water meaning, a sequence of characters such as hairy , his , or :) that we want to treat as a group. When we count the number of tokens in a text, say, the phrase to be or not to invention of radio, be , we are counting occurrences of these sequences. Thus, in our example phrase there are two occurrences of to , two of be , and catalyzed by potassium one each of or and not . But there are only invention of radio, four distinct vocabulary items in this phrase. How many distinct words does the book of Genesis contain? To work this out in Python, we have to pose the question slightly differently. The vocabulary of a text is just the set of tokens that it uses, since in a set, all duplicates are collapsed together.

In Python we can obtain the vocabulary items of text3 with the command: set(text3) . When you do this, many screens of words will fly past. Keats Star Analysis. Now try the following: By wrapping sorted() around the Python expression set(text3) , we obtain a sorted list of invention of radio, vocabulary items, beginning with various punctuation symbols and continuing with words starting with A . All capitalized words precede lowercase words. We discover the size of the vocabulary indirectly, by taoist afterlife asking for invention of radio, the number of items in the set, and again we can use len to obtain this number . Although it has 44,764 tokens, this book has only 2,789 distinct words, or word types. A word type is the form or spelling of the word independently of bright star, its specific occurrences in a text that is, the word considered as a unique item of vocabulary. Our count of 2,789 items will include punctuation symbols, so we will generally call these unique items types instead of word types.

Now, let's calculate a measure of the lexical richness of the text. The next example shows us that the number of distinct words is just 6% of the invention total number of words, or equivalently that each word is used 16 times on average (remember if you're using Python 2, to start with from afterlife __future__ import division ). Next, let's focus on particular words. We can count how often a word occurs in a text, and compute what percentage of the text is taken up by a specific word: Your Turn: How many times does the word lol appear in text5 ? How much is this as a percentage of the of radio total number of taoist, words in this text?

You may want to repeat such calculations on several texts, but it is tedious to keep retyping the formula. Instead, you can come up with your own name for a task, like lexical_diversity or percentage, and associate it with a block of code. Of Radio. Now you only uk prison population by race, have to type a short name instead of one or more complete lines of Python code, and you can re-use it as often as you like. The block of code that does a task for us is called a function , and we define a short name for our function with the invention of radio keyword def . By Race. The next example shows how to define two new functions, lexical_diversity() and percentage() : The Python interpreter changes the prompt from to . Invention Of Radio. after encountering the taoist afterlife colon at the end of the first line. The . prompt indicates that Python expects an indented code block to appear next. It is up to you to do the indentation, by typing four spaces or hitting the invention tab key. To finish the indented block just enter a blank line.

In the definition of lexical_diversity() , we specify a parameter named text . This parameter is a placeholder for the actual text whose lexical diversity we want to compute, and reoccurs in the block of code that will run when the function is taoist afterlife used . Similarly, percentage() is defined to take two parameters, named count and total . Once Python knows that lexical_diversity() and percentage() are the names for of radio, specific blocks of code, we can go ahead and use these functions: To recap, we use or call a function such as lexical_diversity() by typing its name, followed by an open parenthesis, the name of the text, and then a close parenthesis. These parentheses will show up often; their role is to separate the name of about Ulysses, a task such as lexical_diversity() from the data that the task is to invention, be performed on such as text3 . The data value that we place in the parentheses when we call a function is an argument to the function. You have already encountered several functions in burmese days, this chapter, such as len() , set() , and sorted() . Invention Of Radio. By convention, we will always add an empty pair of parentheses after a function name, as in len() , just to make clear that what we are talking about is a function rather than some other kind of Python expression. Afterlife. Functions are an invention of radio important concept in programming, and taoist afterlife we only invention of radio, mention them at the outset to give newcomers a sense of the power and creativity of programming. Don't worry if you find it a bit confusing right now. Later we'll see how to blood in the water meaning, use functions when tabulating data, as in 1.1. Each row of the table will involve the same computation but with different data, and we'll do this repetitive work using a function. Lexical Diversity of Various Genres in the Brown Corpus.

2 A Closer Look at Python: Texts as Lists of Words. You've seen some important elements of the Python programming language. Let's take a few moments to review them systematically. What is invention of radio a text? At one level, it is a sequence of symbols on taoist a page such as this one. Invention. At another level, it is a sequence of chapters, made up of a sequence of sections, where each section is a sequence of paragraphs, and so on. However, for our purposes, we will think of a text as nothing more than a sequence of words and punctuation. Blood Water. Here's how we represent text in Python, in this case the opening sentence of Moby Dick : After the prompt we've given a name we made up, sent1 , followed by of radio the equals sign, and then some quoted words, separated with commas, and surrounded with brackets. This bracketed material is known as a list in Python: it is how we store a text. We can inspect it by typing the name . We can ask for its length . We can even apply our own lexical_diversity() function to it . Some more lists have been defined for you, one for the opening sentence of each of our texts, sent2 sent9 . We inspect two of them here; you can see the rest for yourself using the uk prison population Python interpreter (if you get an error which says that sent2 is not defined, you need to first type from nltk.book import * ). Your Turn: Make up a few sentences of your own, by typing a name, equals sign, and a list of words, like this: ex1 = [ 'Monty' , 'Python' , 'and' , 'the' , 'Holy' , 'Grail' ] . Repeat some of the invention other Python operations we saw earlier in 1, e.g., sorted(ex1) , len(set(ex1)) , ex1.count( 'the' ) . A pleasant surprise is that we can use Python's addition operator on lists.

Adding two lists creates a new list with everything from the hydrogen catalyzed first list, followed by everything from the invention of radio second list: This special use of the addition operation is called concatenation ; it combines the lists together into a single list. We can concatenate sentences to build up a text. We don't have to literally type the lists either; we can use short names that refer to pre-defined lists. What if we want to uk prison population by race, add a single item to invention of radio, a list? This is known as appending . When we append() to a list, the list itself is updated as a result of the operation. As we have seen, a text in taoist afterlife, Python is a list of words, represented using a combination of brackets and quotes. Invention. Just as with an ordinary page of text, we can count up the total number of star analysis, words in text1 with len(text1) , and count the occurrences in a text of a particular word say, 'heaven' using text1.count( 'heaven' ) . With some patience, we can pick out the invention 1st, 173rd, or even 14,278th word in a printed text. Analogously, we can identify the elements of a Python list by their order of occurrence in taoist afterlife, the list.

The number that represents this position is the item's index . We instruct Python to show us the item that occurs at invention an index such as 173 in a text by writing the name of the text followed by peroxide catalyzed the index inside square brackets: We can do the converse; given a word, find the index of when it first occurs: Indexes are a common way to access the words of a text, or, more generally, the elements of any list. Python permits us to access sublists as well, extracting manageable pieces of language from large texts, a technique known as slicing . Indexes have some subtleties, and we'll explore these with the help of an artificial sentence: Notice that our indexes start from zero: sent element zero, written sent[0] , is the first word, 'word1' , whereas sent element 9 is 'word10' . The reason is of radio simple: the moment Python accesses the content of a list from the keats bright computer's memory, it is already at the first element; we have to tell it how many elements forward to invention, go. Thus, zero steps forward leaves it at the first element. This practice of Essay about Ulysses S. Grant, counting from zero is initially confusing, but typical of modern programming languages. You'll quickly get the hang of it if you've mastered the system of of radio, counting centuries where 19XY is a year in the 20th century, or if you live in a country where the floors of a building are numbered from 1, and so walking up n-1 flights of stairs takes you to uk prison, level n . Now, if we accidentally use an index that is too large, we get an error: This time it is not a syntax error, because the program fragment is syntactically correct.

Instead, it is of radio a runtime error , and it produces a Traceback message that shows the context of the error, followed by the name of the error, IndexError , and Essay Ulysses a brief explanation. Let's take a closer look at slicing, using our artificial sentence again. Here we verify that the slice 5:8 includes sent elements at of radio indexes 5, 6, and 7: By convention, m:n means elements m n-1 . As the next example shows, we can omit the first number if the slice begins at the start of the list , and we can omit the second number if the slice goes to the end : We can modify an element of a list by assigning to one of its index values. Burmese Days. In the next example, we put sent[0] on of radio the left of the equals sign . Blood In The Meaning. We can also replace an entire slice with new material . A consequence of of radio, this last change is that the list only has four elements, and accessing a later value generates an error . Your Turn: Take a few minutes to define a sentence of your own and modify individual words and groups of words (slices) using the burmese days same methods used earlier.

Check your understanding by trying the exercises on lists at the end of this chapter. From the start of 1, you have had access to texts called text1 , text2 , and of radio so on. It saved a lot of typing to be able to refer to a 250,000-word book with a short name like this! In general, we can make up names for anything we care to calculate. We did this ourselves in the previous sections, e.g., defining a variable sent1 , as follows: Such lines have the Essay about form: variable = expression . Python will evaluate the expression, and of radio save its result to the variable. This process is called assignment . It does not generate any output; you have to type the variable on a line of its own to inspect its contents. Keats. The equals sign is invention of radio slightly misleading, since information is moving from the right side to the left. It might help to think of it as a left-arrow. The name of the variable can be anything you like, e.g., my_sent , sentence , xyzzy . Burmese Days. It must start with a letter, and can include numbers and invention of radio underscores.

Here are some examples of variables and assignments: Remember that capitalized words appear before lowercase words in sorted lists. Notice in the previous example that we split the blood water definition of my_sent over two lines. Python expressions can be split across multiple lines, so long as this happens within any kind of brackets. Python uses the . prompt to indicate that more input is expected. It doesn't matter how much indentation is used in these continuation lines, but some indentation usually makes them easier to read. It is good to choose meaningful variable names to remind you and to help anyone else who reads your Python code what your code is invention of radio meant to do. About. Python does not try to make sense of the names; it blindly follows your instructions, and does not object if you do something confusing, such as one = 'two' or two = 3 . The only restriction is that a variable name cannot be any of of radio, Python's reserved words, such as def , if , not , and import . If you use a reserved word, Python will produce a syntax error: We will often use variables to keats bright star, hold intermediate steps of a computation, especially when this makes the code easier to follow. Invention Of Radio. Thus len(set(text1)) could also be written:

Take care with your choice of names (or identifiers ) for Python variables. First, you should start the name with a letter, optionally followed by digits ( 0 to 9 ) or letters. In The Meaning. Thus, abc23 is fine, but 23abc will cause a syntax error. Names are case-sensitive, which means that myVar and myvar are distinct variables. Variable names cannot contain whitespace, but you can separate words using an underscore, e.g., my_var . Invention Of Radio. Be careful not to insert a hyphen instead of an underscore: my-var is wrong, since Python interprets the - as a minus sign. Some of the methods we used to access the elements of a list also work with individual words, or strings . For example, we can assign a string to a variable , index a string , and population slice a string : We can also perform multiplication and addition with strings: We can join the words of a list to make a single string, or split a string into a list, as follows: We will come back to invention, the topic of strings in 3. Burmese Days. For the time being, we have two important building blocks lists and strings and are ready to of radio, get back to some language analysis. 3 Computing with Language: Simple Statistics. Let's return to about Ulysses S. Grant, our exploration of the ways we can bring our computational resources to bear on large quantities of text. We began this discussion in of radio, 1, and saw how to search for words in context, how to compile the vocabulary of taoist afterlife, a text, how to generate random text in the same style, and so on.

In this section we pick up the question of what makes a text distinct, and use automatic methods to find characteristic words and expressions of invention, a text. As in 1, you can try new features of the Python language by copying them into the interpreter, and you'll learn about these features systematically in the following section. Before continuing further, you might like to check your understanding of the last section by predicting the output of the following code. You can use the by race interpreter to check whether you got it right. If you're not sure how to do this task, it would be a good idea to review the of radio previous section before continuing further. How can we automatically identify the keats bright analysis words of a text that are most informative about the topic and genre of the text? Imagine how you might go about finding the 50 most frequent words of a book. Invention. One method would be to keep a tally for each vocabulary item, like that shown in 3.1. The tally would need thousands of rows, and it would be an exceedingly laborious process so laborious that we would rather assign the task to a machine. Figure 3.1 : Counting Words Appearing in a Text (a frequency distribution)

The table in 3.1 is known as a frequency distribution , and it tells us the frequency of each vocabulary item in the text. (In general, it could count any kind of observable event.) It is a distribution because it tells us how the Essay about Ulysses total number of word tokens in the text are distributed across the invention of radio vocabulary items. Since we often need frequency distributions in language processing, NLTK provides built-in support for them. Let's use a FreqDist to by race, find the 50 most frequent words of Moby Dick : When we first invoke FreqDist , we pass the invention of radio name of the text as an argument . We can inspect the taoist afterlife total number of words (outcomes) that have been counted up 260,819 in the case of Moby Dick . The expression most_common(50) gives us a list of the 50 most frequently occurring types in the text . Your Turn: Try the preceding frequency distribution example for yourself, for text2 . Be careful to invention of radio, use the correct parentheses and uppercase letters. If you get an error message NameError: name 'FreqDist' is not defined , you need to Essay Ulysses S. Grant, start your work with from nltk.book import * Do any words produced in the last example help us grasp the topic or genre of invention, this text? Only one word, whale , is taoist slightly informative! It occurs over 900 times. Of Radio. The rest of the words tell us nothing about the text; they're just English plumbing. What proportion of the text is taken up with such words?

We can generate a cumulative frequency plot for these words, using fdist1.plot(50, cumulative=True) , to produce the graph in keats bright star, 3.2. These 50 words account for nearly half the book! Figure 3.2 : Cumulative Frequency Plot for 50 Most Frequently Words in Moby Dick : these account for nearly half of the invention of radio tokens. If the burmese days frequent words don't help us, how about the words that occur once only, the so-called hapaxes ? View them by invention of radio typing fdist1.hapaxes() . This list contains lexicographer , cetological , contraband , expostulations , and taoist about 9,000 others. It seems that there are too many rare words, and without seeing the context we probably can't guess what half of the of radio hapaxes mean in any case! Since neither frequent nor infrequent words help, we need to try something else. 3.2 Fine-grained Selection of keats bright star, Words. Next, let's look at invention of radio the long words of a text; perhaps these will be more characteristic and informative. For this we adapt some notation from set theory. We would like to find the words from the vocabulary of the text that are more than 15 characters long.

Let's call this property P , so that P(w) is true if and only if w is more than 15 characters long. Now we can express the hydrogen catalyzed by potassium words of interest using mathematical set notation as shown in (1a). This means the set of all w such that w is an element of V (the vocabulary) and w has property P . The corresponding Python expression is given in (1b). (Note that it produces a list, not a set, which means that duplicates are possible.) Observe how similar the invention two notations are. Let's go one more step and write executable Python code: For each word w in the vocabulary V , we check whether len(w) is greater than 15; all other words will be ignored.

We will discuss this syntax more carefully later. Your Turn: Try out the previous statements in the Python interpreter, and experiment with changing the text and taoist changing the length condition. Does it make a difference to your results if you change the variable names, e.g., using [word for word in vocab if . ] ? Let's return to our task of finding words that characterize a text. Of Radio. Notice that the long words in text4 reflect its national focus constitutionally , transcontinental whereas those in text5 reflect its informal content: boooooooooooglyyyyyy and yuuuuuuuuuuuummmmmmmmmmmm . Have we succeeded in automatically extracting words that typify a text? Well, these very long words are often hapaxes (i.e., unique) and perhaps it would be better to find frequently occurring long words. This seems promising since it eliminates frequent short words (e.g., the ) and infrequent long words (e.g. antiphilosophists ). Here are all words from the chat corpus that are longer than seven characters, that occur more than seven times: Notice how we have used two conditions: len(w) 7 ensures that the taoist words are longer than seven letters, and fdist5[w] 7 ensures that these words occur more than seven times. At last we have managed to automatically identify the frequently-occurring content-bearing words of the text.

It is a modest but important milestone: a tiny piece of code, processing tens of thousands of invention, words, produces some informative output. A collocation is a sequence of words that occur together unusually often. Thus red wine is a collocation, whereas the wine is not. A characteristic of collocations is that they are resistant to substitution with words that have similar senses; for example, maroon wine sounds definitely odd. To get a handle on taoist afterlife collocations, we start off by extracting from invention of radio a text a list of word pairs, also known as bigrams . This is easily accomplished with the function bigrams() : If you omitted list() above, and just typed bigrams([ 'more' , . ]) , you would have seen output of the form generator object bigrams at 0x10fb8b3a8 . This is Essay about Ulysses S. Grant Python's way of saying that it is of radio ready to peroxide catalyzed by potassium iodide, compute a sequence of items, in this case, bigrams. For now, you just need to know to tell Python to convert it into a list, using list() . Here we see that the pair of invention of radio, words than-done is a bigram, and we write it in hydrogen peroxide iodide, Python as ( 'than' , 'done' ) . Now, collocations are essentially just frequent bigrams, except that we want to pay more attention to the cases that involve rare words. In particular, we want to find bigrams that occur more often than we would expect based on the frequency of the individual words. The collocations() function does this for invention of radio, us.

We will see how it works later. The collocations that emerge are very specific to the genre of the uk prison population texts. In order to find red wine as a collocation, we would need to process a much larger body of invention of radio, text. Counting words is taoist useful, but we can count other things too. For example, we can look at the distribution of word lengths in a text, by creating a FreqDist out of a long list of numbers, where each number is the length of the of radio corresponding word in the text: We start by deriving a list of the burmese days lengths of words in text1 , and the FreqDist then counts the of radio number of afterlife, times each of these occurs . Invention. The result is a distribution containing a quarter of a million items, each of blood water, which is a number corresponding to a word token in the text. But there are at most only invention of radio, 20 distinct items being counted, the numbers 1 through 20, because there are only 20 different word lengths. Blood. I.e., there are words consisting of just one character, two characters, . Of Radio. twenty characters, but none with twenty one or more characters.

One might wonder how frequent the different lengths of word are (e.g., how many words of length four appear in the text, are there more words of length five than length four, etc). We can do this as follows: From this we see that the hydrogen catalyzed by potassium iodide most frequent word length is of radio 3, and that words of length 3 account for roughly 50,000 (or 20%) of the words making up the book. Although we will not pursue it here, further analysis of word length might help us understand differences between authors, genres, or languages. 3.1 summarizes the functions defined in frequency distributions. Functions Defined for NLTK's Frequency Distributions. Our discussion of frequency distributions has introduced some important Python concepts, and Essay S. Grant we will look at them systematically in 4. 4 Back to Python: Making Decisions and invention Taking Control. So far, our little programs have had some interesting qualities: the star ability to invention of radio, work with language, and the potential to save human effort through automation.

A key feature of programming is the ability of machines to make decisions on our behalf, executing instructions when certain conditions are met, or repeatedly looping through text data until some condition is satisfied. This feature is known as control , and is the focus of this section. Python supports a wide range of operators, such as and = , for testing the taoist afterlife relationship between values. The full set of these relational operators is shown in invention of radio, 4.1. Numerical Comparison Operators. We can use these to Essay Ulysses S. Grant, select different words from a sentence of news text.

Here are some examples only the operator is changed from one line to the next. They all use sent7 , the first sentence from text7 ( Wall Street Journal ). As before, if you get an error saying that sent7 is undefined, you need to first type: from nltk.book import * There is invention a common pattern to all of these examples: [w for w in text if condition ] , where condition is a Python test that yields either true or false. In the Essay about cases shown in the previous code example, the condition is invention always a numerical comparison. However, we can also test various properties of words, using the functions listed in meaning, 4.2. Some Word Comparison Operators. Here are some examples of these operators being used to select words from our texts: words ending with -ableness ; words containing gnt ; words having an initial capital; and words consisting entirely of digits. We can also create more complex conditions. If c is a condition, then not c is also a condition. Invention. If we have two conditions c 1 and c 2 , then we can combine them to form a new condition using conjunction and disjunction: c 1 and taoist afterlife c 2 , c 1 or c 2 . Your Turn: Run the following examples and try to explain what is going on in each one.

Next, try to make up some conditions of invention of radio, your own. In 3, we saw some examples of counting items other than words. Let's take a closer look at the notation we used: These expressions have the form [f(w) for . ] or [w.f() for . ] , where f is a function that operates on a word to compute its length, or to convert it to uppercase. For now, you don't need to understand the difference between the notations f(w) and taoist w.f() . Instead, simply learn this Python idiom which performs the invention same operation on every element of a list.

In the taoist afterlife preceding examples, it goes through each word in text1 , assigning each one in turn to the variable w and performing the specified operation on the variable. The notation just described is called a list comprehension. This is our first example of a Python idiom, a fixed notation that we use habitually without bothering to analyze each time. Mastering such idioms is an of radio important part of becoming a fluent Python programmer. Let's return to burmese days, the question of vocabulary size, and apply the same idiom here: Now that we are not double-counting words like This and this , which differ only in capitalization, we've wiped 2,000 off the vocabulary count! We can go a step further and eliminate numbers and punctuation from the vocabulary count by filtering out any non-alphabetic items: This example is slightly complicated: it lowercases all the purely alphabetic items. Perhaps it would have been simpler just to count the lowercase-only items, but this gives the wrong answer (why?). Don't worry if you don't feel confident with list comprehensions yet, since you'll see many more examples along with explanations in the following chapters. Most programming languages permit us to execute a block of invention, code when a conditional expression , or if statement, is satisfied.

We already saw examples of conditional tests in code like [w for w in sent7 if len(w) 4] . In the following program, we have created a variable called word containing the string value 'cat' . Uk Prison By Race. The if statement checks whether the test len(word) 5 is true. It is, so the body of the if statement is invoked and the print statement is invention of radio executed, displaying a message to the user. Remember to indent the print statement by typing four spaces. When we use the Python interpreter we have to blood water meaning, add an of radio extra blank line in order for it to detect that the nested block is complete. If you are using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you need to include the following line in order for the above print function to be recognized: If we change the conditional test to len(word) = 5 , to check that the length of word is greater than or equal to 5 , then the test will no longer be true. This time, the body of the if statement will not be executed, and taoist no message is shown to the user: An if statement is known as a control structure because it controls whether the code in the indented block will be run.

Another control structure is invention of radio the for loop. Try the following, and remember to include the colon and the four spaces: This is called a loop because Python executes the code in taoist, circular fashion. It starts by performing the invention assignment word = 'Call' , effectively using the word variable to name the first item of the list. Then, it displays the value of Essay S. Grant, word to the user. Invention. Next, it goes back to the for taoist afterlife, statement, and performs the assignment word = 'me' , before displaying this new value to the user, and so on. It continues in this fashion until every item of the list has been processed. Now we can combine the if and for statements. We will loop over every item of the list, and print the invention item only keats bright analysis, if it ends with the letter l . Invention Of Radio. We'll pick another name for the variable to demonstrate that Python doesn't try to make sense of variable names. You will notice that if and for statements have a colon at the end of the taoist line, before the indentation begins.

In fact, all Python control structures end with a colon. The colon indicates that the current statement relates to invention, the indented block that follows. We can also specify an action to by race, be taken if the condition of the if statement is not met. Here we see the invention of radio elif (else if) statement, and the else statement. Taoist. Notice that these also have colons before the indented code. As you can see, even with this small amount of invention of radio, Python knowledge, you can start to build multiline Python programs. Taoist Afterlife. It's important to develop such programs in pieces, testing that each piece does what you expect before combining them into a program. Of Radio. This is why the Python interactive interpreter is so invaluable, and keats why you should get comfortable using it.

Finally, let's combine the idioms we've been exploring. First, we create a list of cie and cei words, then we loop over invention, each item and print it. Notice the extra information given in the print statement: end=' ' . This tells Python to print a space (not the iodide default newline) after each word. 5 Automatic Natural Language Understanding. We have been exploring language bottom-up, with the help of texts and the Python programming language. However, we're also interested in exploiting our knowledge of language and computation by invention building useful language technologies. We'll take the opportunity now to step back from the catalyzed by potassium iodide nitty-gritty of code in order to paint a bigger picture of of radio, natural language processing. At a purely practical level, we all need help to analysis, navigate the universe of information locked up in text on the Web. Search engines have been crucial to of radio, the growth and popularity of the Web, but have some shortcomings. It takes skill, knowledge, and about S. Grant some luck, to extract answers to such questions as: What tourist sites can I visit between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh on a limited budget? What do experts say about digital SLR cameras?

What predictions about the steel market were made by credible commentators in invention of radio, the past week? Getting a computer to answer them automatically involves a range of language processing tasks, including information extraction, inference, and population summarization, and would need to be carried out on a scale and invention of radio with a level of blood in the water, robustness that is still beyond our current capabilities. On a more philosophical level, a long-standing challenge within artificial intelligence has been to build intelligent machines, and invention of radio a major part of intelligent behaviour is understanding language. For many years this goal has been seen as too difficult. However, as NLP technologies become more mature, and robust methods for analyzing unrestricted text become more widespread, the prospect of natural language understanding has re-emerged as a plausible goal. In this section we describe some language understanding technologies, to give you a sense of the S. Grant interesting challenges that are waiting for you. In word sense disambiguation we want to work out which sense of of radio, a word was intended in a given context. Consider the ambiguous words serve and dish : In a sentence containing the phrase: he served the uk prison population by race dish , you can detect that both serve and dish are being used with their food meanings. Invention Of Radio. It's unlikely that the topic of discussion shifted from sports to crockery in the space of three words.

This would force you to invent bizarre images, like a tennis pro taking out his or her frustrations on a china tea-set laid out beside the court. Taoist. In other words, we automatically disambiguate words using context, exploiting the simple fact that nearby words have closely related meanings. As another example of this contextual effect, consider the word by , which has several meanings, e.g.: the book by Chesterton (agentive Chesterton was the author of the invention book); the cup by catalyzed by potassium iodide the stove (locative the stove is where the cup is); and submit by Friday (temporal Friday is the time of the submitting). Observe in (3c) that the meaning of the italicized word helps us interpret the meaning of by invention . A deeper kind of language understanding is to taoist, work out of radio who did what to whom i.e., to detect the subjects and objects of uk prison, verbs. You learnt to do this in elementary school, but it's harder than you might think. Invention Of Radio. In the sentence the thieves stole the paintings it is easy to tell who performed the stealing action. Consider three possible following sentences in (4c), and try to determine what was sold, caught, and found (one case is ambiguous). Answering this question involves finding the antecedent of the pronoun they , either thieves or paintings. Computational techniques for tackling this problem include anaphora resolution identifying what a pronoun or noun phrase refers to and semantic role labeling identifying how a noun phrase relates to the verb (as agent, patient, instrument, and so on). If we can automatically solve such problems of keats analysis, language understanding, we will be able to move on to tasks that involve generating language output, such as question answering and machine translation . In the invention of radio first case, a machine should be able to answer a user's questions relating to collection of texts:

The machine's answer demonstrates that it has correctly worked out that they refers to paintings and not to thieves. Bright. In the second case, the machine should be able to translate the text into another language, accurately conveying the invention meaning of the original text. In translating the example text into French, we are forced to choose the gender of the pronoun in the second sentence: ils (masculine) if the thieves are found, and elles (feminine) if the paintings are found. Correct translation actually depends on peroxide catalyzed iodide correct understanding of the pronoun. In all of these examples, working out the sense of a word, the invention subject of blood water, a verb, and the antecedent of a pronoun are steps in establishing the meaning of a sentence, things we would expect a language understanding system to be able to do. For a long time now, machine translation (MT) has been the holy grail of language understanding, ultimately seeking to provide high-quality, idiomatic translation between any pair of languages. Its roots go back to the early days of the Cold War, when the promise of invention, automatic translation led to uk prison population, substantial government sponsorship, and of radio with it, the genesis of Essay about, NLP itself. Today, practical translation systems exist for particular pairs of languages, and some are integrated into web search engines. However, these systems have some serious shortcomings, which are starkly revealed by translating a sentence back and forth between a pair of languages until equilibrium is reached, e.g.:

Observe that the system correctly translates Alice Springs from English to invention, German (in the afterlife line starting 1 ), but on the way back to invention, English, this ends up as Alice jump (line 2 ). The preposition before is initially translated into the corresponding German preposition vor , but later into the conjunction bevor (line 5). After line 5 the keats sentences become nonsensical (but notice the various phrasings indicated by of radio the commas, and the change from jump to leap ). The translation system did not recognize when a word was part of a proper name, and it misinterpreted the water meaning grammatical structure. Your Turn: Try this yourself using http://translationparty.com/ Machine translation is difficult because a given word could have several possible translations (depending on its meaning), and because word order must be changed in of radio, keeping with the grammatical structure of the keats bright star target language. Today these difficulties are being faced by collecting massive quantities of parallel texts from news and government websites that publish documents in two or more languages. Invention Of Radio. Given a document in German and English, and possibly a bilingual dictionary, we can automatically pair up the sentences, a process called text alignment . Once we have a million or more sentence pairs, we can detect corresponding words and Essay Ulysses S. Grant phrases, and build a model that can be used for translating new text.

In the history of artificial intelligence, the chief measure of intelligence has been a linguistic one, namely the Turing Test : can a dialogue system, responding to a user's text input, perform so naturally that we cannot distinguish it from a human-generated response? In contrast, today's commercial dialogue systems are very limited, but still perform useful functions in narrowly-defined domains, as we see here: You could not ask this system to provide driving instructions or details of nearby restaurants unless the invention required information had already been stored and uk prison by race suitable question-answer pairs had been incorporated into invention, the language processing system. Observe that this system seems to understand the user's goals: the user asks when a movie is keats bright star showing and the system correctly determines from this that the user wants to see the movie. This inference seems so obvious that you probably didn't notice it was made, yet a natural language system needs to be endowed with this capability in order to interact naturally. Without it, when asked Do you know when Saving Private Ryan is playing? , a system might unhelpfully respond with a cold Yes . However, the developers of commercial dialogue systems use contextual assumptions and business logic to ensure that the different ways in which a user might express requests or provide information are handled in a way that makes sense for the particular application. So, if you type When is . , or I want to know when . , or Can you tell me when . , simple rules will always yield screening times. This is enough for the system to provide a useful service. Figure 5.1 : Simple Pipeline Architecture for a Spoken Dialogue System: Spoken input (top left) is analyzed, words are recognized, sentences are parsed and interpreted in context, application-specific actions take place (top right); a response is planned, realized as a syntactic structure, then to suitably inflected words, and finally to invention of radio, spoken output; different types of linguistic knowledge inform each stage of the process.

Dialogue systems give us an opportunity to mention the commonly assumed pipeline for NLP. Star. 5.1 shows the architecture of a simple dialogue system. Along the top of the diagram, moving from left to of radio, right, is S. Grant a pipeline of some language understanding components . These map from speech input via syntactic parsing to invention of radio, some kind of star analysis, meaning representation. Invention. Along the middle, moving from right to left, is the reverse pipeline of components for converting concepts to speech. Taoist. These components make up the dynamic aspects of the system.

At the bottom of the diagram are some representative bodies of invention of radio, static information: the repositories of language-related data that the burmese days processing components draw on to do their work. Your Turn: For an example of of radio, a primitive dialogue system, try having a conversation with an NLTK chatbot. To see the keats bright available chatbots, run nltk.chat.chatbots() . (Remember to import nltk first.) The challenge of language understanding has been brought into focus in recent years by a public shared task called Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). The basic scenario is simple.

Suppose you want to find evidence to support the hypothesis: Sandra Goudie was defeated by Max Purnell , and that you have another short text that seems to be relevant, for example, Sandra Goudie was first elected to Parliament in the 2002 elections, narrowly winning the seat of of radio, Coromandel by defeating Labour candidate Max Purnell and pushing incumbent Green MP Jeanette Fitzsimons into third place . Does the text provide enough evidence for you to accept the hypothesis? In this particular case, the meaning answer will be No. You can draw this conclusion easily, but it is very hard to come up with automated methods for making the right decision. The RTE Challenges provide data that allow competitors to develop their systems, but not enough data for brute force machine learning techniques (a topic we will cover in chap-data-intensive). Consequently, some linguistic analysis is of radio crucial. Essay About. In the previous example, it is important for the system to note that Sandra Goudie names the person being defeated in the hypothesis, not the invention of radio person doing the defeating in the text. S. Grant. As another illustration of the difficulty of the of radio task, consider the blood following text-hypothesis pair: In order to determine whether the invention hypothesis is supported by burmese days the text, the system needs the following background knowledge: (i) if someone is an author of a book, then he/she has written that book; (ii) if someone is an editor of a book, then he/she has not written (all of) that book; (iii) if someone is editor or author of invention, eighteen books, then one cannot conclude that he/she is author of eighteen books. Despite the research-led advances in tasks like RTE, natural language systems that have been deployed for real-world applications still cannot perform common-sense reasoning or draw on world knowledge in a general and robust manner. We can wait for these difficult artificial intelligence problems to be solved, but in the meantime it is necessary to taoist, live with some severe limitations on the reasoning and invention knowledge capabilities of natural language systems. Taoist. Accordingly, right from the of radio beginning, an important goal of taoist afterlife, NLP research has been to make progress on the difficult task of building technologies that understand language, using superficial yet powerful techniques instead of unrestricted knowledge and reasoning capabilities.

Indeed, this is of radio one of the goals of this book, and we hope to equip you with the knowledge and star skills to invention of radio, build useful NLP systems, and to contribute to the long-term aspiration of building intelligent machines. Texts are represented in Python using lists: [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] . We can use indexing, slicing, and the len() function on lists. A word token is a particular appearance of a given word in a text; a word type is the unique form of the word as a particular sequence of letters. We count word tokens using len(text) and word types using len(set(text)) . We obtain the vocabulary of a text t using sorted(set(t)) . We operate on each item of a text using [f(x) for x in text] . To derive the vocabulary, collapsing case distinctions and ignoring punctuation, we can write set(w.lower() for w in text if w.isalpha()) . We process each word in a text using a for statement, such as for w in t: or for word in text: . This must be followed by the colon character and an indented block of code, to be executed each time through the Essay S. Grant loop. We test a condition using an invention of radio if statement: if len(word) 5: . This must be followed by the colon character and an indented block of afterlife, code, to be executed only of radio, if the condition is true. A frequency distribution is a collection of items along with their frequency counts (e.g., the taoist afterlife words of a text and their frequency of invention of radio, appearance). A function is a block of code that has been assigned a name and can be reused. Functions are defined using the def keyword, as in Essay Ulysses S. Grant, def mult (x, y) ; x and y are parameters of the function, and act as placeholders for actual data values. A function is called by specifying its name followed by zero or more arguments inside parentheses, like this: texts() , mult(3, 4) , len(text1) . This chapter has introduced new concepts in programming, natural language processing, and invention of radio linguistics, all mixed in together. Many of them are consolidated in Essay about S. Grant, the following chapters. Invention Of Radio. However, you may also want to consult the online materials provided with this chapter (at http://nltk.org/ ), including links to additional background materials, and links to online NLP systems.

You may also like to meaning, read up on some linguistics and NLP-related concepts in Wikipedia (e.g., collocations, the Turing Test, the type-token distinction). You should acquaint yourself with the Python documentation available at http://docs.python.org/ , including the many tutorials and comprehensive reference materials linked there. A Beginner's Guide to Python is available at http://wiki.python.org/moin/BeginnersGuide . Miscellaneous questions about Python might be answered in the FAQ at http://python.org/doc/faq/general/ . As you delve into NLTK, you might want to subscribe to the mailing list where new releases of the toolkit are announced. There is also an NLTK-Users mailing list, where users help each other as they learn how to use Python and NLTK for language analysis work. Details of these lists are available at invention of radio http://nltk.org/ . For more information on the topics covered in 5, and on peroxide iodide NLP more generally, you might like to consult one of the invention following excellent books: Indurkhya, Nitin and Fred Damerau (eds, 2010) Handbook of keats bright star, Natural Language Processing (Second Edition) Chapman Hall/CRC. 2010. Invention. (Indurkhya Damerau, 2010)(Dale, Moisl, Somers, 2000) Jurafsky, Daniel and James Martin (2008) Speech and Language Processing (Second Edition). Prentice Hall. (Jurafsky Martin, 2008) Mitkov, Ruslan (ed, 2003) The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics . Oxford University Press. (second edition expected in 2010). (Mitkov, 2002) The Association for blood meaning, Computational Linguistics is the international organization that represents the field of NLP.

The ACL website ( http://www.aclweb.org/ ) hosts many useful resources, including: information about international and regional conferences and workshops; the ACL Wiki with links to hundreds of useful resources; and the ACL Anthology , which contains most of the NLP research literature from the invention of radio past 50+ years, fully indexed and freely downloadable. Some excellent introductory Linguistics textbooks are: [Finegan2007]_ , (O'Grady et al, 2004), (OSU, 2007). You might like to consult LanguageLog , a popular linguistics blog with occasional posts that use the techniques described in blood in the water, this book. #9788; Try using the Python interpreter as a calculator, and typing expressions like 12 / (4 + 1) . #9788; Given an alphabet of 26 letters, there are 26 to the power 10, or 26 ** 10 , ten-letter strings we can form. That works out to 141167095653376 . How many hundred-letter strings are possible? #9788; The Python multiplication operation can be applied to lists. What happens when you type [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] * 20 , or 3 * sent1 ? #9788; Review 1 on invention of radio computing with language.

How many words are there in text2 ? How many distinct words are there? #9788; Compare the lexical diversity scores for humor and romance fiction in 1.1. Which genre is more lexically diverse? #9788; Produce a dispersion plot of the four main protagonists in blood in the water, Sense and Sensibility : Elinor, Marianne, Edward, and Willoughby. What can you observe about the different roles played by the males and females in this novel? Can you identify the couples? #9788; Find the collocations in text5 . #9788; Consider the following Python expression: len(set(text4)) . Invention. State the purpose of this expression. Afterlife. Describe the two steps involved in performing this computation. #9788; Review 2 on invention lists and strings.

Define a string and uk prison population assign it to a variable, e.g., my_string = 'My String' (but put something more interesting in the string). Invention. Print the by race contents of this variable in two ways, first by simply typing the variable name and pressing enter, then by using the print statement. Try adding the invention of radio string to itself using my_string + my_string , or multiplying it by a number, e.g., my_string * 3 . Notice that the keats star strings are joined together without any spaces. How could you fix this? #9788; Define a variable my_sent to invention of radio, be a list of catalyzed iodide, words, using the syntax my_sent = [ My , sent ] (but with your own words, or a favorite saying). Use ' ' .join(my_sent) to invention, convert this into blood in the water meaning, a string. Use split() to split the string back into the list form you had to start with. #9788; Define several variables containing lists of words, e.g., phrase1 , phrase2 , and so on. Join them together in various combinations (using the invention of radio plus operator) to about Ulysses S. Grant, form whole sentences.

What is the relationship between len(phrase1 + phrase2) and len(phrase1) + len(phrase2) ? #9788; Consider the following two expressions, which have the same value. Which one will typically be more relevant in NLP? Why? #9788; We have seen how to represent a sentence as a list of invention, words, where each word is a sequence of characters. Burmese Days. What does sent1[2][2] do? Why?

Experiment with other index values. #9788; The first sentence of text3 is provided to invention, you in uk prison population, the variable sent3 . The index of invention of radio, the in sent3 is 1, because sent3[1] gives us 'the' . Uk Prison Population. What are the of radio indexes of the population two other occurrences of invention of radio, this word in sent3 ? #9788; Review the discussion of conditionals in 4. Find all words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ) starting with the letter b . Show them in alphabetical order. #9788; Type the expression list(range(10)) at the interpreter prompt. Now try list(range(10, 20)) , list(range(10, 20, 2)) , and list(range(20, 10, -2)) . We will see a variety of uses for this built-in function in later chapters. #9681; Use text9.index() to find the bright analysis index of the of radio word sunset . You'll need to insert this word as an argument between the parentheses. By a process of trial and error, find the peroxide by potassium iodide slice for the complete sentence that contains this word.

#9681; Using list addition, and the set and sorted operations, compute the vocabulary of the sentences sent1 . sent8 . #9681; What is the difference between the invention of radio following two lines? Which one will give a larger value? Will this be the case for other texts? #9681; What is the uk prison difference between the following two tests: w.isupper() and not w.islower() ? #9681; Write the invention slice expression that extracts the last two words of text2 . #9681; Find all the four-letter words in uk prison population by race, the Chat Corpus ( text5 ). With the help of invention, a frequency distribution ( FreqDist ), show these words in burmese days, decreasing order of frequency. #9681; Review the discussion of invention, looping with conditions in 4. Use a combination of for and if statements to water meaning, loop over the words of the movie script for Monty Python and the Holy Grail ( text6 ) and print all the uppercase words, one per line. #9681; Write expressions for finding all words in text6 that meet the conditions listed below.

The result should be in invention, the form of a list of words: [ 'word1' , 'word2' , . ] . Ending in ize Containing the letter z Containing the sequence of letters pt Having all lowercase letters except for an initial capital (i.e., titlecase ) #9681; Define sent to be the list of words [ 'she' , 'sells' , 'sea' , 'shells' , 'by' , 'the' , 'sea' , 'shore' ] . Now write code to taoist afterlife, perform the invention following tasks: Print all words beginning with sh Print all words longer than four characters. #9681; What does the following Python code do? sum(len(w) for w in text1) Can you use it to work out the taoist average word length of a text? #9681; Define a function called vocab_size(text) that has a single parameter for the text, and invention of radio which returns the vocabulary size of the text. #9681; Define a function percent(word, text) that calculates how often a given word occurs in burmese days, a text, and expresses the result as a percentage. #9681; We have been using sets to store vocabularies. Try the following Python expression: set(sent3) set(text1) . Experiment with this using different arguments to set() . What does it do?

Can you think of a practical application for this? About this document. UPDATED FOR NLTK 3.0. This is a chapter from invention Natural Language Processing with Python , by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein and Edward Loper, Copyright 2014 the authors. It is distributed with the Natural Language Toolkit [ http://nltk.org/ ], Version 3.0, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/].

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make beer essay Brewing beer in your home can be as simple, or as complicated, as you want to make it. Here, were going to of radio, present the simple way. There is a lot of science you can get into, but were going to skip a lot of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed that as there are a lot of people who can tell you about it a lot better than we can. And they have books out of radio (John Palmers How to Brew (online), and Charlie Papazians The Complete Joy of Homebrewing ). Wed recommend reading these books at some point. Youll learn a lot about burmese days, why everything happens, how brewing really works and just a lot more in-depth information. If you want to make this a serious hobby, those are two cant miss books. In this article, though, were going to run through step-by-step how to brew in a small kitchen setting. We know many of you live in invention, apartments (we do), and weve heard too many people say they cant brew because of this. Peroxide Iodide! You can! We know this, because we do it.

Well show you how to go about brewing your first batch. Plus, were including pictures to really show you how its done. So, lets get brewing! Step 0: Yes there is a Step 0, before you brew you need to invention, decide what you want to brew and how you're going to brew it. Are you going to S. Grant, brew all-grain or extract? All grain brewing is how your favorite craft breweries make their beer. This process starts with malted barley, and you actually convert the starches to sugar yourself.

You get more control over the final product, as you control everything that goes into the beer, and the process of the mash. Invention! That being said, with extract somebody has basically done the mash for you, then dehydrated the uk prison population resulting wort for ease of transport and use for you. Of Radio! Either way works just fine and will yield a great beer with the right recipe. We started out on extract. Once you get the process down you can move up to all-grain pretty cheaply. That being said, this article will show you how to do all-grain. If you are brewing extract, just shoot down to Step 7. Blood! From that point on, it's the same process.

You just get to of radio, skip some steps. Now, it's time to water meaning, decide what type of beer you want to brew and a recipe. Invention! This is actually easier than most make it out to be. Peroxide Catalyzed By Potassium! Just choose a style you like and go for it. We recommend using BeerTools.com to invention of radio, get your recipe. Also, you can get info on grains for blood in the meaning your recipe here: http://www.beersmith.com/Grains/Grains/GrainList.htm. BeerTools.com offers a great resource for recipes and allows you to easily craft your own as well. Most basic recipes will, and should, use 2 row or Pilsner malt as the base grain. You want to make sure you mill your grain before you brew.

Your local homebrew shop should have a mill. If they dont you may need to invention, invest in peroxide catalyzed by potassium iodide, a mill or order online where you can order pre-milled grain. Only mill what you need for invention of radio this recipe, as the grain will last much longer un-milled. Do not mill the analysis grain too much; you just want to invention, break the hull and expose the starchy inside that will be turned into blood in the water meaning, sugar. Also, the invention hull will later act as a filter, so if its crushed to much it will not perform this function well and you could get a stuck sparge (more on that later). Special note: We realize that not everyone has access to a home brew shop. Ulysses! If this is the invention of radio case for uk prison population by race you, you can still brew.

Milled and un-milled grain as well as malt extract is available online, we recommend HomeBrewing.org . You can buy your grain or malt extract, hops, yeast or pre-built recipes there. BeerTools.com allows you to construct recipes using extract as well. If you choose to follow the malt extract method skip to of radio, Step 7. Malt extract brewing is also a good way to start and get some of the fundamentals down. You can always move on burmese days, to all-grain later for very little money. This is what we did. - Fermentation bucket or glass carboy. - Phils False Bottom.

- Clamp for the tubing. Get everything you need in Homebrewing.org's Basic Homebrewing Kit (make sure to invention, add-on the 5 gallon brew pot, long stem thermometer and catalyzed iodide, auto-siphon). - Glass beer bottles. - Caps for invention of radio the bottles. - Iodophor (for sanitizing) The mash is the first step in making beer after your grain is all set. In malted grain, there is starch and enzymes that can convert this starch in Essay about, sugar. These enzymes are active at invention of radio, the temperatures you will mash at. Essay About Ulysses! In this way, you get sugar from the grain, which is food for the yeast to later produce alcohol and carbon dioxide for invention your beer.

The grain will also give your beer its flavor and color. Step 1: Turn on your burner and heat the water. You should heat 1 quart of water per pound of grain. You can either use your kitchen stove or a dedicated outdoor burner. Both will do the job, the outdoor burner just does it a bit faster. Step 2: Heat water to 160 degrees.

Once you reach this temperature, add your grain. This is called mashing in. The consistency should be that of thin oatmeal. If the about S. Grant mash it too thick, you will not have the enzymes moving around enough to invention, convert the starch to sugar. If the mash is too thin, there will not a high enough concentration of the hydrogen peroxide catalyzed iodide necessary enzymes to convert the starch into sugar. Once grain is added temperature will drop to around 150 degrees.

Step 3: You will want to invention, maintain the temperature of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by potassium your mash between 144-158 degrees for of radio 60 minutes for a regular beer (if you are doing a high gravity beer over 8% this step is 90 minutes). Stir every 10 minutes or so and take temperature readings from in the multiple locations. Stirring is invention key during the mash process. Stir constantly while applying heat, as the bottom will tend to get hotter than the top and might scorch the burmese days grain. You also need to make sure the enzymes spread around enough to turn all the starch into invention, sugar. Burmese Days! There is a lot of mass and water in your mash, though, so you dont need to invention, apply heat constantly.

Get it up to temperature, and then put a lid on it to keep in heat. The hotter you mash at the more body your beer will have. This is because, in the higher temperatures of this range, you are producing more unfermentable sugars. Dont worry too much here, you really cant screw your beer up too much at this point as long as you stay within this range, for most beers, Pale Ales, IPAs, regular stouts you want to be around 144-152. For a stout or any beer with more body, go up a bit. Do not keep your mash above 155 degrees for the entire time, as your beer will most likely end up overly sweet and very thick, with few sugars that yeast can turn into taoist afterlife, alcohol. Step 4: Heat up the mash to 170 degrees Fahrenheit, while stirring constantly to prevent the grain from scorching. At 170 degrees, you end the process where the invention enzymes convert starch into meaning, sugar.

This is called mashing out. You have now completed your mash process and now its time to sparge. During your mash process you introduced water to your milled grain. The heated water and the enzymes from the grain converted the starch in the grain into sugar. Of Radio! Now we need to about S. Grant, remove those sugars. The sparge process helps remove sugar water (known as wort) from the grain/water mixture you have made.

These sugars will later be converted to alcohol by the yeast. Step 5: To begin the sparge process, convert your bottling bucket into a lauter tun. How to build a lauter tun: a) Insert Phils False Bottom attached to invention, stopper and hose. b) Fit stopper to hole in bottling bucket. c) Clamp off hose. Step 6: First, you will add 170 degree water to your lauter tun, filling to water, at least 3 inches above the Phils False Bottom. This will help prevent a stuck sparge.

You now want to add the contents of your mash tun to the bucket. Be careful here as a) the contents will be quite hot and have a tendency to splash and b) if you pour it too hard, you will compact the grain, causing a stuck sparge which is invention of radio kind of bad and real obnoxious. Once the Essay full contents of your mash tun have been added you can begin the of radio sparge process. We highly recommend you use a sparge arm at this stage. A sparge arm distributes water lightly and keats star, evenly over the grain you just added (preventing a stuck sparge). Invention Of Radio! We dont have one, though, and weve done fine. You can now open the clamp on about Ulysses, your hose slightly. Of Radio! You want a slow and afterlife, even flow back into your brew pot (which you rinsed out invention after putting the contents into the lauter tun). Releasing too much liquid too fast will result in a stuck sparge, to put more simply, the water will leave too fast and the grain will go dry creating a stuck gooey mush (there it is, thats what a stuck sparge is!). You will need to have extra hot water around, at 170 degrees, as you dont have enough liquid in the mash to sparge (we usually have 2 gallons).

Using a sparge arm you will slowly add this hot water (if you have no sparge arm, just pour in the water lightly and evenly). You dont want the uk prison grain/liquid mix to get too cool here, or it will runoff slower and the risk of invention a stuck sparge will increase. The liquid you are extracting at this stage is called your wort. You want to recirculate your wort a few times to make sure youve extracted all the uk prison population available sugars from your grain. Invention! Do this until the worst runs clear (without grain particles in it), then you can fill your brew pot with your wort. Ok it may seem like its taken a bit to get to this point, but we promise its easier than it sounds. Really anyone can do this. People have been doing this for thousands of years and they didnt have anyone telling them what to blood in the water meaning, do, so youll be fine. Of Radio! You now have a brew pot full of wort and its time to start brewing. R ight now, the wort is just sugar water. Youre going to boil it to sanitize it and to boil off some chemicals that will lend your beer an hydrogen catalyzed by potassium iodide off-taste.

Also, youll add hops in this stage to balance the sweetness of the beer. IMPORTANT NOTE: Anything that touches the wort after the boil must be sanitized. Follow the directions on the Iodophor bottle for invention this. Anything you dont sanitize that touches the wort may introduce an infection into your beer. Step 7: Its time to burmese days, brew! (Special Note: If brewing with extract, bring water to boil, add extract while constantly stirring, and of radio, wait for hot break.) You want to heat your wort until it boils. Keep boiling until you hit your hot break. Burmese Days! You will know youve hit your hot break as the wort will foam, you may need to reduce your heat slightly to avoid boil over, but after a few minutes the foaming will subside. Continue to stir occasionally throughout the boil.

All you want is a light boil. You dont need anything extreme. A too vigorous boil will do a few things. First, youll boil off more water and of radio, get less beer. Secondly, you can caramelize sugars in the wort and keats bright star analysis, get a sweeter beer with less alcohol. Step 8: Once youve passed the hot break you can now add your bittering hops. Start your timer here and your boil will last 1 hour. (90 minutes if its a high gravity beer over of radio, 8% abv). Essay About! These are the hops that will make your beer bitter to counteract the invention of radio sweetness which beer naturally has. They wont really impart any flavor. Compounds in hops, when boiled, isomerize over bright star analysis, time which turns them from volatile smelly oils into stable and of radio, bitter compounds. Step 9: At 45 minutes into about S. Grant, the boil you will add your flavoring hops (75 minutes in for a high gravity beer).

These isomerizes for much less time, so will add a hop flavor to invention of radio, your beer, it will be much like what the uk prison by race hops smell like. Step 10: At 55-59 minutes into the boil you will add your finishing hops (aka aroma hops) (85-89 minutes for a high gravity beer). This addition will leave all the volatile oils in the beer. This will be the invention hop smell you get. Step 11: Once your boil is complete, you want to cool your wort as fast as possible. A tub or sink full of ice water will achieve this. Afterlife! Cool your wort to 65-75 degrees (your yeast packet/vial should have instructions for the ideal temperature for the strain youre using).

Step 12: Once your wort is cool, transfer your wort to a carboy or fermentation bucket. Feel free to do this roughly, as you want to dissolve oxygen into the wort. During this step, pour a little into a tube and check your Original Gravity (OG) (water has a gravity of 1.000) with a hydrometer. The gravity is a measure of how much sugar is of radio dissolved in the water of your wort. If this is your first beer, the fermentation time may seem like forever.

This is the most important step, though, so dont rush it. The sugar you created in the mash is catalyzed iodide now being eaten by yeast, who are expelling alcohol and carbon dioxide. IMPORTANT NOTE: Sanitize everything your beer is going to touch. This includes tubing, bottling bucket, bottles, caps, siphon everything. Step 13: Add yeast to your wort, aerate vigorously and secure a blow-off tube into of radio, a bucket of sanitizer. Blood In The Water Meaning! You are now fermenting your beer. Congratulations! Leave your beer alone until you hit your Final Gravity (FG) (two weeks is usually a safe bet on beers under 8% abv). If you think youre close, use a sanitized auto-siphon or beer thief to take a sample and check gravity.

Now that the yeast have eaten the sugar in your wort YOU HAVE BEER! Congratulations! Now, youre almost there. Its time to bottle. This step will carbonate your beer (nobody likes flat beer) and give you a way to transport it. You can also keg, but weve never done that. There are some books that will tell you how to do that. Step 14: For 5 gallons of of radio beer, dissolve 2/3 of a cup of white sugar in just enough water to leave no sugar grains, and Ulysses, boil for 10 minutes. Add this solution to your bottling bucket. In primary fermentation, the yeast converted all the fermentable sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

This carbon dioxide just escaped into the air, though. Adding this little bit of sugar will give the yeast some more food, which will provide them with the fuel to produce more carbon dioxide. Because you will cap your bottles of beer so that air cant get out, this carbon dioxide will carbonate the beer. Invention Of Radio! This is known as bottle conditioning, which means the hydrogen catalyzed beer was naturally carbonated in the bottle. Also, this means your beer is a living thing, as the yeast will continually work to condition the invention beer, cleaning up certain fermentation by-products.

Step 15: Once the afterlife sugar is added, use an auto-siphon to siphon your beer into your bottling bucket. Do this gently so you dont oxidize your beer. Once all your beer is in the bucket and invention, the sugar is evenly dispersed about population, your beer you can begin bottling. Insert the invention of radio bottling wand into each bottle and by race, fill. Invention! Youll want about an burmese days inch of space left after you pull the invention of radio wand out. Do a few and youll get the hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by potassium iodide hang of it. Cap each beer as you fill them using the capper that came with your brew kit.

Step 16: Wait 1-2 weeks or so and open a beer. Do you hear a hiss? Pour it. Invention! Does it foam? If you answer yes to water, both these questions, congratulations, youve now just made homebrewed beer! Drink and enjoy!

Post your success stories on our forum or email us to let us know. Cheers!

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9 Ways to Crack Into Major Markets With Personal Essays. Of Radio? #8220;Write what you know, Mark Twain supposedly said. Heres what I know: A fantastic first-person essay is the bright star analysis, best way for of radio, an unknown writer to see print fast. Hydrogen Catalyzed By Potassium Iodide? As a memoirist by day and creative nonfiction teacher by night, I am constantly thrilled and astounded by invention, how far a heartfelt three pages can take you. Not only can a brand-new author receive a prominent byline and a big check, but a single piece that strikes a chord can lead to uk prison population, radio and of radio TV appearances, film options, and calls from keats bright star analysis, top literary agents and invention major publishers clamoring for keats analysis, the book you havent written yet. Ive helped students of of radio, all ages, fields and backgrounds get it right.

But in a sea of submissionsyoull be writing these columns on spec, not merely pitching an ideaits also easy to get it wrong. Heres how to burmese days, frame your own story for invention, top newspaper, magazine and Web markets, in nine simple steps. Dont write a vague essay in hopes that you can pitch it everywhere; attempt a piece thats a perfect fit for a specific market. Every section of a newspaper, magazine, Webzine and literary journal has a different voice, style, word count and raison d e tre , and theres nothing efficient about crafting catch-all prose that wont get published. In The Water Meaning? The editors of The New York Times Modern Love column require a six-page unusual romantic saga, while the same papers Sunday magazine Lives column editors look for narratives that are shorter, timely and global. So before picking up a pen or turning on your computer, ask yourself: Where am I aiming this? When I hoped to break into The New York Times Magazine sLives column, I carefully read 100 installments that had already run. It turned out my ideahow as a bride Id worn all blackwas too frivolous by comparison. So I revised, throwing in that my mother was an orphan who had only one daughter, as well as (violins in the background) the lingering ghost of my dead grandmother.

The editor bought it on my first try. Youre so lucky, a colleague told me. Well, the invention of radio, harder you work, the luckier you get. When I sold three pieces in a row to Marie Claire , a magazine for younger women, I did not write my age or say, Thirty years ago, when I was in college. I merely used past tense. Essay About? Nobody had to invention, know how long ago my crazy carnal coed days were. Uk Prison By Race? On the other hand, for a piece Im about to submit to AARP The Magazine , I am shouting my ageand my fathers! The first mistake I often see new writers make is to pick lightweight topics that have already been everywhere.

Sorry, but no editor I know wants a mild-mannered slice of life from an unknown scribe on how cute your kids or your cats are. Think: Drama. Conflict. Tension. The worst experience of invention, my life. The day I got held at gunpoint. The first assignment I give my students is: Write three pages about your most humiliating secret. Population By Race? Ask yourself the of radio, Passover question: Why is Essay S. Grant this night different than all other nights? If its not, pick a more compelling true-life tale to tell. Invention? Here are some intensely intimate subjects tackled by authors I know that led to taoist, big bylines: Liza Monroy chronicled marrying her best gay friend for a green card in Psychology Today . Abby Sher cured her OCD with prayer in Self . Cat Marnell confessed her longtime pill addiction in invention of radio Vice . David Itzkoff went to therapy with his cocaine-addicted father in New York magazine.

Aspen Matis hiked 2,650 miles to walk off a rape in Modern Love. Maria Andreu confessed in Newsweek to being an illegal alien. Julie Metz even paved the blood in the meaning, way for invention of radio, her debut memoir Perfection with an essay in burmese days Glamour on how she found proof of her late husbands infidelity on his computer. I personally dont have a dramatic, international life-more like dumb relationships and addictions in Michigan followed by psychotherapy in Manhattan. Luckily, my weekly writing group, tough editors and even my therapist help push me to go darker and examine my motives, pain, problems and invention regrets. In more than 100 publications and nine books, Ive mined my interior dramas and star ramped up the humor and emotional panic. With practice, you can learn to dig deeper, too. A smart way to a quick sell is to use newsworthy pegs to frame your foibles.

I found that no editors were interested in invention of radio my macabre childhood obsession with my Barbies (where Id change their heads instead of their clothes)until, that is, the uk prison by race, popular playthings 35th birthday became my lead. I had so much success exploiting my old Barbie adventures that I revised them for her 40th and 50thand wound up in T he New York Times , Daily News , The Daily Beast , Vogue Australia and on TV documentaries on ABC and Oxygen. My student Melanie Gardiner recently utilized this technique, riding buzz about a hit TV shows series finale to frame her essay about of radio her one attempt at water, trying meth: How a Breakup Inspired My Attempt at Breaking Bad was published on Nerve.com. As an editor once drummed into my class: Its called newspapers, not old papers. 5. BE UNUSUAL, PROVOCATIVE OR CONTROVERSIAL: Even students who choose extreme topics and traumas tend to pick obvious angles that editors still see too much of: Tales of alcoholism and horrible dates proliferate, along with the creep who divorced me and the creep I should have divorced sooner. To tackle overdone subjects like these, youll need a surprising take or an unexpected happy ending. Consider Ophira Eisenbergs Screw Everyone: Sleeping My Way to Monogamy or Sophie Fontanels chronicle of 12 years of celibacy in of radio The Art of Sleeping Alone . Theres a moratorium on dead parents and grandparent stories, a top editor recently told my students. So my student Bryan Patrick Miller twisted his theme. Taoist? Instead of chronicling his mothers death, he focused on of radio how he followed her deathbed wish for about S. Grant, him to go meet their family in Ireland. It turned out they werent quite as well thought of as shed told him. That flip side of the invention of radio, story led to the terrific Lives essay Return of Glavin that opened, My pilgrimage to my mothers ancestral home in Ireland began with the wrong bus, to the wrong village. Often I see pieces by beginners about a conflict that isnt resolved.

They are stuck in a bad relationship or lousy addiction that has no ending or solution in sight. Its hard to bright analysis, write well about drinking or drugging unless youre sober and drug-free, and its hard to have perspective on your dating woes if youre still single. Invention Of Radio? Instead of staying stuck, chronicle your plan to change. Ive written humorous essays and even books about visiting my worst old boyfriends to get their take on taoist why we broke up, interviewing my mentors for advice, quitting all my addictions, and seeing eight shrinks in eight days (going speed shrinking instead of speed dating). A.J. Jacobs famously spent 12 months getting healthy, and another year living Biblically. Gretchen Rubin searched for happiness. Ryan Nerz traveled around the country trying to win eating contests.

Maria Dahvana Headley said yes to any nice single guy who asked her out invention of radio (and met her husband along the way). My student Kayli Stollak joined JDate with her divorced Jewish grandmother and wound up with a blog, book and burmese days TV pilot called Granny Is My Wingman . Its rare that someone finishes an invention of radio, essay on Essay about Ulysses his own, nails it, presses Send at 3 a.m. and gets an invention of radio, acceptance. After youve reworked your pages several times, and before you submit, get feedbackand I dont mean from your spouse or your mom, wholl tell you how brilliant you are. Instead, try a critical workshop, an in-person or online writing class or seminar, or even a hired editor (this is one of my own secret weapons). If you have a friend or colleague who has published similar work you admire, offer to burmese days, pay him for a serious critique. Then, dont argue or disregard the comments. If they are hard to invention, digest (personal essays are personal, after all), take a week off and read them again. I often find that the blood in the meaning, difference between my writing students who dont get published and the ones who do comes down to their ability to incorporate criticism. After one essay class, an 18-year-old student who didnt like my suggestions asked, Why should I listen to your take on my story? I said, Because Ive been doing this for 30 years and youve been doing this for 30 minutes. He took my advice and had a published clip by the end of the term. Craft a very concise cover letter (think six lines). If possible, address the invention, acquiring editor by keats bright, name (to find it, check mastheads, search online or call the publication and ask).

Start by mentioning something similar she wrote or published that you admired. Describe your piece in invention a succinct Hollywood movie pitch. Dont overdo your biojust add a line or two. If youve published before add one link (not 10 with four attachments). Most editors want you to blood in the, paste your piece in invention an email, as well as attach it, but seek out and blood water meaning follow submission guidelines for that specific market. In the invention of radio, subject line, put Submission: and the title of Essay about S. Grant, your essay. If its timely, help the editor out by saying Submission: Celebrating Yom Kippur With Bacon Cheeseburgers Oct. Invention? 3 (which Danielle Gelfand sold to The New York Times in 24 hours). Unless its a very timely piece pitched to a daily or online news magazine, wait a month to uk prison population by race, follow up.

After you send it, take a breath, then start your next piece. If an of radio, editor expresses interest in your essay but requests a revision, be willing to uk prison population by race, revisit your words or structure. Its an editors job to know her audience better than you do. More than a few have changed their minds about publishing a new writer who is invention giving them a headache with a You cant change a comma attitude. If, after your piece runs, you hate minor changes you didnt OK, write her a long letter detailing the burmese days, stupidity of invention, her every cut or punctuation change. Burmese Days? Then tear it up and send her a note saying, Thank you so much for the beautiful clip.

Im so honored you published me. Want to write better (publishable) essays? creativity-expanding guide that will help you infuse your. nonfiction with honesty, personality, and energy. Invention Of Radio? Susan Shapiro (susanshapiro.net) is a writing professor and the author of nine first-person books, including Lighting Up, Five Men Who Broke My Heart, and the new co-authored memoir The Bosnia List. About S. Grant? 4 thoughts on “ 9 Ways to Crack Into Major Markets With Personal Essays ” Useful, helpful article. Invention? Have to uk prison by race, take issue with one thing, and I will share a brief story to illustrate. Sometimes, a senior editor will green-light your story, but they will hand it to a 20-something associate editor to chop, insert bad sentences, write their own sentences in their own voice and invention of radio feel free to insert them in your copy, and other unpardonable sins. In my case, when I first started publishing first-person stories, I thought I had no choice but to submit to such distortions of my work, and to this day, there are large stories on the net that I get letters about 10 years later and I have to write back #8220;I didn#8217;t write that.

I wrote some of it.#8221; Even one headline of one of my stories still doesn#8217;t make sense that#8217;s all there is to peroxide by potassium, it. But they will not change it, and invention there it is, forever. Recently, I wrote a first-person story on peroxide by potassium a serious matter and submitted it to a well-known website, who accepted it immediately. Invention Of Radio? Their assistant editor handed me back copy that was so chirpy and taoist afterlife breezy I wanted to invention of radio, puke. I looked that person up and peroxide saw the stories she writes are about invention of radio television shows and bright analysis celebrity cellulite. I withdrew the story, and no hard feelings. Pitched it next to of radio, another important print/web publication, and same thing accepted immediately and burmese days handed off to invention of radio, a hack who chopped it up and sent it back. Blood In The Water Meaning? This time, wanting to be published for the first time in this influential newspaper, I fought. We went back and forth with revisions twice. That was fine, but I saw upon googling him that this man cranks out invention of radio opinion pieces by the dozen, each written in hydrogen peroxide by potassium iodide 2 minutes, he edits other peoples#8217; work as quickly as possible, and if he doesn#8217;t understand a word, he snips it and of radio inserts one that means what he thinks the writer means. S. Grant? He is an assembly-line editor, and he is right where he should be cranking out 10 articles a day, 5 days a week.

I appealed to his boss, who said there was nothing to be done this guy edits that column, and that#8217;s that. The editor called me at home, we talked for invention of radio, 20 minutes, and he killed the keats star analysis, story. Invention Of Radio? I emailed his boss to complain and got a 50% kill fee out of it. Ok. I submitted it to one of the most respected media outlets in the world, who bought it, paid me 8 times what the others were paying, and DID NOT CHANGE A WORD. Sometimes it#8217;s worth it to burmese days, fight, in other words, and you don#8217;t have to submit to invention, the terrible grammar skills of those who cannot write but somehow believe they can edit, and are allowed to edit because there is no budget for skilled, experienced editors who will demand a decent wage. Fight for burmese days, your work, folks. Invention? Nice tips!

Maybe following these can help us turn into professional essay writer ! I#8217;m going for these the next time a write one. Taoist? Thanks for these pointers. It was great reading the post here. The ideas provided here were great. I think this can be treated as a good essay writing guide. Great to get the tips here. Thank you.

Great stuff, Susan. I#8217;ve had a number of essays published, but you gave me some fresh ideas. I need to push more on the emotional impact (without being schmaltzy or strident, of invention of radio, course). And thank you Brian, for being the happy host here.

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Connotation And Denotation Essays and Research Papers. Denotation , Connotation and Myth Beyond its 'literal' meaning (its denotation ), a particular word may have . Invention Of Radio? connotations : for instance, sexual connotations . 'Is there any such thing as a single entendre?' quipped the comic actor Kenneth Williams (we all know that 'a thing is a phallic symbol if it's longer than it's wide', as the singer Melanie put it). In semiotics, denotation and connotation are terms describing the relationship between the signifier and blood in the water, its signified, and an analytic distinction. Connotation , Culture , Denotation 2370 Words | 7 Pages. Cadbury Advert - Connotation and Denotation. Cadburys Caramel Busy Bee Advert Denotation - A female bunny, wearing a pink bow, sits in an open area under a tree.

A bumble bee buzzes down . Invention Of Radio? from the tree and flies into a flower. Hydrogen Peroxide By Potassium Iodide? The bunny tells the bee to relax and invention, feeds him chocolate. The bee and bunny both relax when a mole come digging by disturbing them and pops up where the bunny was sitting, she moves and offers him chocolate, then he blushes. Population By Race? Connotation - The area is outside and isolated from any industrial disturbances. Nature is seen.

American films , Bee , Bumblebee 1366 Words | 4 Pages. Create a Job Alert today! | | | | Denotation : The term refers to the relationship between the signifier and its signified. . Denotation is invention of radio routinely treated as the definitional, 'literal', 'obvious' or 'common sense' meaning of a sign, but semioticians tend to treat it as a signified about which there is uk prison a relatively broad consensus. For Barthes, a denotative sign existed within what he called the first order of signification. In this framework connotation is a further sign (or signs) deriving. Alfred Hitchcock , Connotation , Denotation 1019 Words | 3 Pages. Denotation and Connotation according to semiotics Unlike Wilden, who said that signs are more open in of radio their interpretation . to their connotation rather than denotation , Roland Barthes gave priority to hydrogen peroxide catalyzed iodide, the denotative meaning rather than the connotative meaning, in this sense he argued that, in invention photography, denotation is fore grounded at taoist the expense of connotation , however he noted that denotation is of radio not the taoist, first meaning but it pretends to be so and that connotation produces this illusion. Connotation , Denotation , Lexicology 446 Words | 2 Pages. Denotaiton And Connotation Presentation. Nur Suhaila binti Aminudin Awra Awadah binti Azli Nur Dinah binti Mohamed Hafidz Denotation the literal meaning of invention of radio, a word . Connotation the implied meaning A word can have positive or negative associations or connotations . Study the following chart. Bright Star? Word Positive Negative Connotation Connotation plain easy gawky unusual extraordinary bizarre firm determined unyielding Look at the word pairs, choose the negative and the positive connotation : Stingy/thrifty Skinny/thin Threat/challenge Arrogant/proud. Connotation , Denotation , Literal 354 Words | 12 Pages.

preached in front of of radio, a massive crowd, has its individual significance. A words sound, historical background and definition has the ability to evoke emotion . and burmese days, perhaps alter an individuals thought. Invention Of Radio? Although words might possess similar denotations , its connotation can easily differ. Religion and cult, and art and craft are two sets of words that can be used to prove this statement to be true. The words religion and cult share similar characteristics, most importantly dealing with the worship of. Connotation , Cult , Denotation 546 Words | 2 Pages. how the taoist afterlife, words develop the connotations. ?How words develop connotations Words often have both meanings: denotation and connotation . . Invention? Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word the dictionary definition. Connotation , on population the other hand, refers to of radio, the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. For example, greasy is a completely innocent word: some things, like car engines, need to bright analysis, be greasy. But, greasy contains negative associations for invention most people, whether they are.

Black people , Connotation , Denotation 1274 Words | 4 Pages. Every day the about Ulysses, word love so calmly slips from the mouths of ignorant people who attempt to express their lust and affection towards their significant . others. Invention? Love is such a simple yet profound word that is taoist afterlife misused far too much. Invention Of Radio? Love is rare, a privilege that most human beings will never have the opportunity to have. To me, it is unattainable. To me, love is pure imagination. It is far too complicated and Essay about S. Grant, perfect for me to be able to feel. The word love is invention of radio so diverse. Each and every person on Essay S. Grant earth. 2006 singles , 2009 albums , Adolescence 779 Words | 2 Pages.

Beyond Denotations: The Language in Poetry. Beyond Denotations If used skillfully, the language in poetry can capture the essence of invention of radio, words. It draws power from keats analysis, both the writings of the invention, . poet and the intellect and imagination of the reader, storing many layers of meaning in ordinary words. A poet does this by water, harnessing the connotations of words, meanings associated with them. While denotations are dictionary definitions, and may not change for a long time, connotations are ever-changing and gain new meanings as time passes. For example, in. Connotation , Denotation , Domestic sheep 662 Words | 2 Pages. Negative vs Positive Connotations. Sonali Shah Dr. Valerie Levy Honors English Composition 103 2 October 2012 Negative vs. Positive Connotations More often when we hear a . word, the invention, definition is not so clear; words in uk prison population by race the English language have multiple meanings.

For example, the word gay. This word is very ambiguous meaning either ecstatic or homosexual. Ecstatic obviously has a positive connotation while homosexual can be offensive. Invention Of Radio? In a very similar way, Frederick Douglass essay Learning to Read and Write questions the. Alpha Phi Alpha , Connotation , Logic 1331 Words | 4 Pages. A Study on the Cultural Connotation of bright star analysis, Chinese Dishes and Their Translation. LITERATURE REVIEW A Study on the Cultural Connotation of Chinese Dishes and Their Translation As the Kingdom of Cuisine, . China is renowned for its unique dishes. Nowadays tasting Chinese dishes has become an important element for foreigners to know better about China. Although a lot of restaurants have their English versions of menus today, those translations are not so satisfying. It occurs too often that many foreigners feel confused while they are looking through the menus. American Chinese cuisine , Chinese cuisine , Dynamic and formal equivalence 1572 Words | 5 Pages. Our Filipino Values: a Connotation to the World.

Our Filipino Values: A Connotation to the World What are Filipino values? What is distinctly Filipino in invention of radio our value system? The Filipino . value system arises from our culture or way of life, our distinctive way of becoming human in this particular place and time. We speak of burmese days, Filipino values in a fourfold sense. First, although mankind shares universal human values, it is obvious that certain values take on for us a distinctively Filipino flavor. The Greek ideal of moderation or meden agan, the. Culture , Filipino psychology , Integrity 879 Words | 3 Pages. Advertisement Analysis. Mon Secret Fragance.

Mon Secret An advertisement never has been only an advertisement. There are meanings inside it. It uses semiotics, denotation , . connotation and polysemy to invention of radio, deliver a product to the people. This essay is about analyzing an advertisement by generating the meaning. Mon Secret.

One of the famous fragrances by Nina Ricci, with a shape of an burmese days apple and in invention 2013, Nina introduces herself as more sensual, mysterious and liberated. A mixture of apple blossom, frosted neroli along with gardenia and a touch. Blond , Cosmetics , Denotation 1061 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Blood In The Water? 04 Denotations and Connotations. ? Example: However, in a year that saw the social networking juggernaut Facebook turn a profit for only the first time, it was not clear whether Twitter . Invention Of Radio? could achieve financial independence from its venture capital investors. Synonym = powerhouse Explanation: I chose the word powerhouse, because the burmese days, original word, juggernaut indicates that Facebook forcefully took over the social networking industry. Invention? I wanted to taoist, use a word to indicate powerful success. Synonyms Having demonstrated its. A Great Way to Care , Earthquake , Instant messaging 360 Words | 2 Pages. Denotation and invention of radio, Connotation A primary distinction between practical use of Essay about S. Grant, language and the literary use is that in literature, . especially in poetry, a fuller use is invention of radio made of individual words. To understand this, we need to examine the composition of a word.

The average word has three component parts: sound, denotation , and connotation . Peroxide Catalyzed By Potassium Iodide? It begins as a combination of tones and noises, uttered by the lips, tongue and throat, for which the invention, written word is a notation. But it differs from a musical tone. Connotation , Denotation , Logic 927 Words | 3 Pages. Anti- Vietnam War Connotations in Common Tv Land Sitcoms. Anti- Vietnam War Connotations in Common TV Land Sitcoms In the early 1970s, the meaning, United States was amidst a controversial and generally . unpopular war in invention of radio Vietnam. Moreover, many Americans still had fresh in their minds the atrocities and in the water, horrible aftermath of World War II and of radio, the Korean War. Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed By Potassium? At the invention, time, the television shows M*A*S*H, Hawaii 5-O, and Hogans Heroes were big primetime hits on the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS).

Considering the general unpopularity of the Vietnam War in. Cold War , Communism , Korean War 1906 Words | 5 Pages. Use of Connotations in Well Never Conquer Space by Arthur C. Afterlife? Clarke. Well Never Conquer Space In Well Never Conquer Space, Arthur C. Clarke explains his feelings about the idea of man ever entirely conquering space. In . doing so, he makes use of connotations and of radio, technical terms. In addition, he uses key words to help get his point across. Connotations are used mainly in in the water meaning a negative way in this essay of Clarkes. For example, when he states, Man will never conquer space.

Such a statement may sound ludicrous, now that our rockets are already 100 million miles. 2001: A Space Odyssey , Arthur C. Clarke , Isaac Asimov 953 Words | 3 Pages. Using Denotative and Connotative Meanings. or a negative connotation instead. Then rewrite the sentence using the connotative word. Of Radio? Type your response here: Denotative Word Connotative . Word Positive or Negative Connotation Revised Sentence Angry Rage Negative George was in rage after he lost the hydrogen peroxide iodide, race Job career Positive Anne has a career in banking c. Read each sentence in this table.

Identify whether the sentence has a negative, positive, or neutral connotation . Then rewrite the sentence so it has a different connotation . Type your response. Connotation , Denotation , Language 1282 Words | 6 Pages. Overview of Key Image Terms: Simile, Metaphor, Personification, Dominant Impression, and Connotation. thesis. This can be done, but the reader won't be left with an impression about what he or she just read.

A dominant impression exists in almost every essay, . whether intended or not. Example #2: In The Valley of Windmills, the writer uses word connotations , personification, and sensory detail to invention, convey a very creepy, ethereal, ominous dominant impression. Burmese Days? Commentary: The writer made a point about the dominant impression that the valley being described is not something you would see in a fairytale. Connotation , Denotation 1481 Words | 4 Pages. The Great Gatsby-Connotations(White) Close to Godliness: Power and invention, Immorality of the upper class in Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby Throughout the years, people have associated colors with . ideas. These color connotations help us to better understand an authors point or message. One author who used color imagery in his descriptive writing was F. Keats Bright Star Analysis? Scott Fitzgerald, uses a variety of colors symbolically for invention of radio effect.

Throughout his novel The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald uses the uk prison population, color white to represent the of radio, power, Godliness and immorality. Arnold Rothstein , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King 788 Words | 2 Pages. describe the environment. Read the commentary on page 29-30 in Carter et al (2008) and Unit 6 of your study guide. Analyse the signs you have chosen, paying . particular attention to the following aspects: purpose; language; style and audience, connotation ; denotation ; association, rhetorical devices; symbolism; contextual association, cultural. Your essay should follow the conventions of an catalyzed by potassium iodide academic essay which includes an of radio introduction, a body (with several paragraphs), a conclusion and references. Please. Connotation , Denotation , English language 1049 Words | 6 Pages. understand how this poem reveals there are journeys to be taken through literature we have to look at the use of denotation and . connotation in its writing. Denotation is the peroxide by potassium iodide, basic meaning of the word and connotation is what the word might suggest or imply.

The use of of radio, both of these allows Emily Dickinson to show us the power of a book. The greatest examples of the use of connotation are the choice of words used in comparison of reading with means of transportation. There is the frigate in line 1. Mode of transport 791 Words | 3 Pages. Connotations, themes, attitudes, and other meanings of Boy at taoist the Window by Richard Wilbur.

something Paraphrase: Stanza 1 - The boy weeps because a snowman stands alone outside and is about to suffer through a harsh night. Stanza 2 - The snowman . does not want to go inside and melt, but he feels thankful for the boy's worry of invention of radio, him. Connotation Snowman - cold and hardened person-literally and emotionally All alone - he is independent, yet lonely More than he can bear - the man is suffering outside Night of gnashings and enormous moan - sufferings for the man outside to face Fearful. Anxiety , Black-and-white films , English-language films 477 Words | 3 Pages. facing away from the burmese days, body and of radio, being leant on, (signifier), and submission being the blood in the, concept the signifier is referring to, (signified.) . Denotations are: The most basic or literal meaning of a sign (Semiotic terminology 2001, p.1) Some denotations in the image are: a thin female, a small bikini, blonde hair.

According to invention, Erkki Huhtamo (2003, p.5) connotation is the Essay about, additional cultural meanings we can also find from the image or text. Huhtamo (2003) further defines anchorage as text which. Linguistics , Mass media , Meaning 1308 Words | 5 Pages. Poem Analysis - Bruce Dawe's Life Cycle and Rod Moran's A Homage to the Elephants. Poem Essay By Oli Grandy Poetry opens a window on worlds we imagined we already knew. Poetry is of radio more than a group of miscellaneous words with no . apparent meaning.

Analysis of the in the water meaning, denotation and invention of radio, connotation of a poem can establish an in-depth understanding of the meaning of the text; therefore there are no hidden meanings in poetry. Analysis of the literal message as denoted and that which is connoted by burmese days, word choices, literary techniques and devices reveals the invited reading of the invention of radio, text. Taoist Afterlife? 'Life. Alliteration , Connotation , Linguistics 786 Words | 3 Pages. do 12 penances one including killing Meduca. What I Learned in Grade 9 English ENG 1D What I Learned in Grade 9 English ENG 1D What I Learned in Grade 9 . English ENG 1D What I Learned in Grade 9 English ENG 1D Basic Terms Denotation : Dictionary definition Connotation : Non-dictionary definition Figurative Language Antithesis: When opposite statements are strongly contrasted Apostrophe: Addressing a poem Hyperbole: Exaggeration Poetic Devices Irony: When the words refer to the problem Allusion. Dionysus , Fiction , Greek mythology 469 Words | 3 Pages. Film Noir Denotation - Double Indemnity. October 8, 2012 The Denotation of Film Noir When one thinks of invention of radio, what film noir is, their mind should automatically flash to . Double Indemnity.

This ingenious film directed by hydrogen peroxide catalyzed iodide, Billy Wilder exploits all of the true characteristics of film noir. All of the main attributes to film noir are seen first in Double Indemnity which was not only the pioneer to invention, this genre, but is keats bright star analysis still considered one of the greatest movies of all time. It was a risky move to put out this movie when it was. Billy Wilder , Double Indemnity , Film 484 Words | 2 Pages. The science of signs suggets that we read off meanings from the structured symbols represented to us, is invention of radio this true? galaxy of signifiers, not a structure of signified; it has no beginning; it is taoist afterlife reversible; .the systems of meaning. is never closed, [but] based as it is . on the infinity of invention, language (Barthes 1974) from this belief he conducted the theory connotation and denotation that illustrates that there is an endless meaning behind cultural and personal diversity of an interpretation of a sign. Uk Prison By Race? (Cobley and Jansz, 1997) As mentioned previously everything we do sends messages about us in invention a variety of codes. Ferdinand de Saussure , Linguistics , Roland Barthes 1268 Words | 4 Pages. corporate identity (Berger, 2012:11).

This paper in particular will be focused on the way that media text use connotation and . denotation techniques. While the meaning of the uk prison population, connotation is the cultural meaning of certain text, it combines historical, symbolic and emotional matters to itself, the denotation represent the literal meaning of the words.In semiotics study denotations and connotations are used to show the invention of radio, relationship between signified and signifier. The media text that will be analysed is. Connotation , Denotation , Linguistics 1171 Words | 3 Pages. and learn Instructor and blood in the meaning, pupil Servant and master Borrow and lend Come and go Toward and away Divisor and invention, dividend Parent and child . Connotation A connotation is taoist a commonly understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in invention addition to the word's or phrase's explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation.A connotation is frequently described as either positive or negative, with regards to its pleasing or displeasing emotional connection. For example, a stubborn. Affix , Connotation , Denotation 1066 Words | 6 Pages. metaphysical. The Vine is burmese days a failure in denotation . Hymn: to light is of radio a failure in connotation . The language of The . Taoist? Vine lacks objective content. Take music and song in of radio the first two lines; the context does not allow us to apprehend the terms in taoist afterlife extension; that is, there is no reference to invention of radio, objects that we may distinguish as music and song; the wine of taoist afterlife, love could have as well been song, its feast music. In Hymn: to light, a reduction to their connotations of the invention, terms violet, swadling-bands.

Denotation , Linguistics , Logic 2026 Words | 6 Pages. the world is nothing compare to the feelings of loneliness and taoist afterlife, emptiness within. This meaning is invention of radio effectively communicated by the poems imagery and by Essay, the . denotation and connotation of the words Frost has chosen. In the first stanza, the setting is invention developed with the use of population, words night and snow and they both carry negative connotation . Snow is employed throughout the poem to show the invention of radio, lack of identity; it also has characteristics of cold and formless white sheet. This observations show an. Anxiety , Connotation , Denotation 841 Words | 3 Pages. Experience Common Experience Problem in Conventions of Meaning Denotation A denotation is usually the dictionary . definition of a word. Denotative meanings name objects, people or events without indicating positive or negative qualities. Such words as car, desk, book, house, and water convey denotative meanings. Hydrogen Catalyzed By Potassium Iodide? The receiver has a similar understanding of the thing in of radio which the word is used.

Denotation A connotation is an implication of a word or a suggestion separate from the usual definition. Barrier , Connotation , Denotation 839 Words | 4 Pages. Proofreading Marksand Usage Effective Sentences and hydrogen catalyzed, Word Choice Fragments, Run-On, Parallel Structure, String/Wordy Sentences, Colorful Language, . Denotation Connotation , All types of Figurative Language (all) 2.3 Parallel vs. Non Parallel 2.5 Wordy Sentence Chart 2.6 Be Specific, choose vivid verbs, include strong, precise modifiers 2.7 Denotation / Connotation be ready to of radio, identify 2.8 Similes, Metaphors, Personification Extra Alliteration, Hyperbole, Oxymoron, Idioms, Overstatements/Understatements . Adjective , Bankruptcy in the United States , Grammar 453 Words | 2 Pages. to a fierce raging body of water. 2. A connotation is an inferred meaning that can be negative or positive.

However, the negative or . positive aspect is not always referenced and is not necessary for a connotation to exist. In The Water Meaning? In Lewis' The Hack Driver Lewis positively connotes individuals from rural (less populated) areas as friendly and welcoming to strangers (Lewis, 1997). 3. A dictionary definition is considered a denotation . Of Radio? Denotations are literal meanings. Many terms are used. Analogy , Denotation , Fiction 880 Words | 3 Pages.

difficult and Essay about Ulysses, most sophisticated of of radio, all literally genres. One of burmese days, its distinct characteristics is that it is briefly written but it suggests many . connotation . As compared to other literally forms, it is invention more musical. Elements of Poetry A.Sense of the Poem 1. Denotation vs. Bright Analysis? Connotation DENOTATION - is the dictionary meaning of the word while CONNOTATION is the suggested or implied meaning/s associated with the word beyond its dictionary definition. 2. IMAGERY - is the use of sensory details . Figure of invention of radio, speech , Idea , Literature 772 Words | 5 Pages.

Popularity and Essay Ulysses S. Grant, Connotation of Pick up Lines. that can be utilized in students participative learning. Invention Of Radio? Objectives of the blood water meaning, Study The general objective of the study is to determine the Popularity . and Connotation of invention, Pick-up Lines. Specifically it aims to burmese days, address the following: 1. Determine the extent of invention of radio, Popularity of Pick-up lines to the respondents. 2. Determine the connotations of Pick- up Lines as to hydrogen catalyzed, their: a. Implied meaning b. Word artistry c. Tone/ Mood 3. Find out if there are significant differences on the popularity of pick-up. Arithmetic mean , Conversation opener , Mean 9831 Words | 56 Pages. ?Allen Jones and the Nude Pop Art is an art movement that started in the mid-1950s and presented a challenge to the traditional expectations of art. . Artists who were involved focused on various themes such as mass production and invention, sexuality in the hope of making references to contemporary society.

In this essay I am going to keats, discuss how sexuality and women are presented in Pop Art by analysing Allen Jones works in relation to invention of radio, John Bergers argument on how women are depicted in western paintings. Female body shape , Gender , Gender role 3058 Words | 7 Pages. Robert Frosts, the Road Not Taken: a Metaphor for Life, Now and keats bright, Then. dissimilar things (Harmon and Holman, 321). This definition of metaphor can be seen in the connotations of certain words as well in invention this . piece of work. Burmese Days? Lets take a look at the language used in this poem. Of Radio? In the first line, Two roads diverged in a yellow wood (Frost,209), the denotation of the word yellow is simply the color yellow, the color of the leaves, a color of fall. But the connotation of the word is much different. The underlying meaning of the word yellow could also be viewed. Conceptual metaphor , Connotation , Denotation 1673 Words | 5 Pages.

Literary Terms and Concepts to star, Define. story, the author makes reference the express man. He comments on how this man will probably get to Heavens gate and call St Peter Pete (LaRocco . Coughlin, 1996, p. 59). Invention Of Radio? Connotation - Connotation is the blood in the, meaning or implication that the invention, author gives, and the reader receives while reading a literary work. Connotations are not difficult to spot, because they are usually presented in the form of an opinion or assumption. For example, To Be of taoist, Use, by Marge Piercy, refers to of radio, workers becoming natives.

Gabriel Garcia Marquez , Linguistics , Literal 1267 Words | 4 Pages. Self-Checked Activities Read the instructions for peroxide catalyzed by potassium iodide the following activities and type in your responses. Click the of radio, link to uk prison population, the Student Answer Sheet at of radio the . end of the lesson. Use the answers or sample responses to evaluate your own work. 1. Identifying Connotations a. Decide whether the blood in the water, bold word in each sentence is using a denotative or connotative meaning: Wendy hit the tennis ball. Phil bought a cheap car at the used car lot. They often serve a lot of invention, strange foods at. Connotation , Denotation , Elie Wiesel 1247 Words | 7 Pages. further begins to expand into a terminological distinction between two different types of population by race, meaning.

Denotation is the term used when dealing . with the 'first order' of signification generated by the signifier and the signified [Chandler, WWW]; the initial, common-sense and obvious meaning of the sign [Fiske, 1990 : 85]. Hall [cited in Chandler, WWW] regards this as the 'literal' meaning of a sign. Connotation , on the other hand, refers to of radio, the 'second order' of signification. Hall views this as the 'associative'. Advertising , Ferdinand de Saussure , Linguistics 1913 Words | 5 Pages. 3 August 2011 Com 100 Nigga Please The Connotation and Denotation of the N-Word The word nigger has several . denotations and connotations . The different emotions and Essay about, meanings attached are different for each individual. Dictionary.com defines nigger as a person of any race or origin regarded as contemptible, inferior, ignorant, etc. Of Radio? Slang: a black person (Nigger).

The website also states that the term nigger is now probably the most offensive word in English (Nigger). Nigger as. African American , Afro-Latin American , Black people 1629 Words | 5 Pages. Analysis of the burmese days, poem Still I Rise components: rhyming, rhythm and imagery, in a manner which communicates her optimism regarding discrimination, with a high degree of effectiveness. Key . concepts which exist within this poem included the use of invention of radio, smiles, imagery, symbolism, denotation , connotation and couplets. Angelou uses similes to compare societys perception of burmese days, her and what the reality actually is. Invention Of Radio? The simile, Just like moons and like suns,/With the certainty of tides,/Just like hopes springing high,/Still Ill rise(9-12) depicts. Alliteration , Lyric poetry , Maya Angelou 1254 Words | 6 Pages.

understanding a specific semantic domain of an burmese days Ethnography. Denotation and connotation . Invention Of Radio? Denotation refers to Essay about, . the literal meaning of a word, the dictionary definition.? For example, if you look up the word snake in a dictionary, you will discover that one of its denotative meanings is any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles?Khaving a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions. Connotation , on the other hand, refers to the associations that. Connotation , Denotation , Linguistics 1674 Words | 5 Pages. segment. You may attend a live lesson (see the calendar on the course announcement page) or complete the traditional collaboration with a partner. Module 1 . Week 1 00.00 Getting Started 01.00 Introduction 01.01 Grammar 01.02 Poetry 01.03 Connotation , Denotation , and Imagery Week 2 01.04 Humor 01.05 Tone 01.06 Plot, Pacing, and Point of View Week 3 01.07 Alternate Plot Structures 01.08 Narrative Writing 01.09 Pre-Writing Process Week 4 01.10 Writing Tips 01.11 More Writing Tips 01.12 First. Assessment , Completeness , First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC 282 Words | 1 Pages.

from http://www.medialit.org/reading_room/article227.html [accessed 24/04/08] DECODING ADVERTISING IMAGES Ads/images have different levels of meaning: . Denotation : what can be seen the literal, commonsense or natural meaning of the ad (first order meaning). Denotation is commonly implied by the use of photography. Connotation : the hidden meaning (second order meaning); a range of possible meanings which may depend upon invention the readers knowledge, social background and other factors. Connotation , Denotation , Implied volatility 1501 Words | 6 Pages. Music and in the meaning, Poetry The song I Swear this Time I Mean it is by a band called Mayday Parade. The song is on their Anywhere but Here album that was . Invention? released in 2009. Essay Ulysses S. Grant? This speicfic song has a lot of similarities including poetic devices, denotation and connotaion and also musical presentaion. Poetic devices are very common in music including the song I Swear this Time I Mean it. The first poetic device noticed in invention this song is rhyme. Rhyming is when two words sound the same or. Definition , Meaning , Opera 595 Words | 2 Pages.

content, the meaning of the object; what we experience, think and feel when we interact with the artefact. Therefore the bright star, signifier, the form is at the centre . of invention of radio, mans interest.4 Denotation and bright star, Connotation Denotation and Connotation are also two basic concepts in semiotics that are very useful. Denotation refers to the literal, actual meaning of invention of radio, a sign what the product is, i.e. a chair, a telephone, a book etc. In a world of technological and uk prison population by race, product development, recognizing what. Design , Industrial design , Linguistics 2036 Words | 7 Pages.

Love And Friendship By Emily Bronet Essay Analysis. the analysis will also make the invention, reader comprehensively find and understand that poetry. Hence in obtaining a good understanding of the poetry, the reader . need to paraphrase the poem and determine several points such as: symbolism, the burmese days, denotation and connotation , imagery, figurative language, musical device and of radio, theme. To easily understand the hydrogen catalyzed by potassium iodide, poem, arranging paraphrase is needed because paraphrase means to restate a poem in different language as clearly as posibble. By Paraphrasing the poem of Love. Emily Bronte , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1599 Words | 6 Pages. Poes The Raven demonstrates that the invention, sorrow the death of about Ulysses, a loved one brings will stay with you forever. Poe communicated this theme through abstract . Of Radio? language connotation , tone, and Essay, allusion. I would like to start off by showing how Edgar Allan Poe has communicated this thesis through the use of abstract language and connotation . An abstract phrase repeated throughout the poem is the word nevermore combined with different phrases depending on each stanza.

This word can have countless meanings. Edgar Allan Poe , Eliza Poe , Graham's Magazine 1223 Words | 3 Pages. METHODS OF A PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT DEFINITION 1. The Atlyn Formation was deposited in a shallow, warm sea, an environment indicated by the presence of fossil algae called stromatolites. Aside . from these, a word can be defined through denotation and connotation . Denotation is the literal or exact dictionary meaning of the word. Connotation , however, involves all the associations related to the word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. If you look at of radio the meaning of the word snake in the dictionary.

Definition , Extensional definition , Meaning of taoist, life 960 Words | 8 Pages. distribution and are less arbitrary than the linguistic sign. Hall believes that the widely accepted distinction for connotation and . denotation is inaccurate and of radio, he states that the blood in the water, distinctions between the two concepts are simply analytic. Signs are not always organized in of radio a discourse to bright star, signify only their literal meaning but a combination of both denotation and connotation . Invention Of Radio? Therefore, the distinctions between these two notions are largely a matter of taoist, analytic value (133). Connotative signs. Communication , Connotation , Linguistics 1378 Words | 3 Pages. Media Influences on invention of radio Public Opinion. 2013 Ford Escape.

The words and the pictures in the ad are innocent enough at first glance, but it is important for a reader to consider what can be . construed from taking in more than the literal message found there. The message contains denotations , connotations and a dominant ideology that is important to consider when one attempts to make sense of the true effect of todays advertising on Essay society. Fords advertisement features three different shaped and sized photos. The first picture captures. Advertising , Automobile , Ford Explorer 975 Words | 3 Pages. controversy over advertisements in of radio order to attract consumers to the brand. Second, the afterlife, argument will transition into how American Apparels branding model . is often viewed as controversial because of the of radio, heavily saturated sexual nature of the connotations and denotations within its advertisements. Lastly, this section will analyze a case study of how American Apparels branding model not only burmese days creates ads which are demoralizing to women, but initiate a productive dialogue on feminism in modern culture. With. Advertising , Advertising campaign , American Apparel 1345 Words | 5 Pages.

language of the poem, which make it enjoyable to read. The denotations and connotations of this poem create more depth and . Invention Of Radio? richness. In line 5, the word mermaid denotes a beautiful, mythical creature. The first connotation that comes to mind is the burmese days, myth because mermaids are usually thought to of radio, be fictional. This goes along with Donnes message because he believes that finding a woman so perfect is impossible.

The other connotation of the term mermaids is more negative because they can also. Alliteration , Denotation , Mandrake 1047 Words | 3 Pages. This essay is about the by race, connotations of the words house and home the structure you live in? Would it be a house, or a home? While the invention of radio, words house and home possess similar definitions and can be used interchangeably-- . after all both do provide some sort of shelter or protection- they embody very different connotations , and their usage evokes different emotional responses. About Ulysses? A home does not have to be a building, or even something physical. Invention? The song, My Old Kentucky Home by Stephen Foster, makes it clear a home is not just a dwelling, but rather the place one. Bill Clinton , Building , English-language films 649 Words | 2 Pages. Facebook, the Thing That Connect Us. question. It states that Facebook is the thing connecting us and star, use chairs to represent it.

To start with, I would like to invention of radio, explain the . denotation and connotation of chairs that Facebook choose to represent itself. For the denotation , chair is a facility for people sit on and have different activities such as playing games, telling jokes. For the connotation , there are many subjective meanings. Essay? For example, chair is used to get people together, so they can open up and connect anything. Since chair. Sociology 852 Words | 3 Pages. often chooses a word because it suggests a connotative meaning that comes from its use in various social contexts Denotation The specific . dictionary definition of a word. Connotation The emotions or associations a word normally arouses in invention of radio people using, hearing, or reading the by race, word. A word may have: A POSITIVE connotation , A NEGATIVE connotation , or a NEUTRAL connotation Exposition The author lays the groundwork for the story by revealing the: setting . Climax , Connotation , Denotation 989 Words | 5 Pages. Applying Roland Barthes Communication Theory. Barthes later revised his work on of radio semiology and specified two distinctive meanings in myth.

Denotation (first order meaning) and uk prison, . Invention? Connotation (second order meaning). Denotation is the hydrogen catalyzed by potassium iodide, stable definitive description of a visual, whereas connotation depends on a context, such as ideological beliefs, situations, times or history - that is invention Myth. The result is shown on a digram on a side: - denotation (first order meaning), is taoist afterlife stated as a Language as it is linguistic order. The first box. Connotation , Denotation , Ferdinand de Saussure 1014 Words | 3 Pages.