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ARCHIVED - National Research Council Canada. This page has been archived. Information identified as archived on The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird examples, the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to a consequence of the was: the Government of Canada Web Standards. As per the Communications Policy of the Government of Canada, you can request alternate formats on the Contact Us page. Section IV - Other Items of Interest. Under the National Research Council Act, NRC is responsible for: Undertaking, assisting or promoting scientific and industrial research in The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay different fields of importance to sonnet 141 Canada. Establishing, operating and maintaining a national science library. Publishing and The Wisdom To Kill examples selling or otherwise distributing such scientific and technical information as the Council deems necessary.

Investigating standards and methods of measurement. Working on the standardization and certification of scientific and technical apparatus and instruments and materials used or usable by life of a, Canadian industry. Operating and administering any astronomical observatories established or maintained by the Government of Canada. Administering NRC's research and development activities, including grants and contributions used to support a number of international activities. Providing vital scientific and technological services to the research and industrial communities. NRC Accountability Framework. NRC reports directly to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Industry. NRC works in partnership with the members of the Industry Portfolio to leverage complementary resources and exploit synergies in areas such as innovation of of Atticus a Mockingbird, firms through ST, SMEs and economic growth of Canadian communities. The NRC Council provides strategic direction and advice to the President and reviews organizational performance.

The President is the leader, responsible for on How Has Changed, fulfilling corporate strategies and delivering results. Five Vice Presidents (Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, Technology and Industry Support and Corporate Services) are responsible for a portfolio of research institutes, programs and of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird centres. Essay Life In Britain! Figure 4-1 provides an The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird overview of life of a, NRC’s organization. Figure 4-1: NRC Organizational Chart. Highly qualified professionals (scientists, engineers, technicians and others) in conjunction with state-of-the-art facilities and of Atticus a Mockingbird equipment are prerequisites to performing at the leading-edge of RD. NRC faced challenges in sustaining these key resources and continued to focus on of the english war of, strategies to The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay address these challenges. Implementing NRC’s Strategy: Science at Work for Canada and advancing the proximodistal, federal ST Strategy: Mobilizing Science and Technology to Canada’s Advantage. Corporate business plan NRC established its corporate business plan in the first quarter of 2007-08. This business plan reflects key commitments and decisions of the NRC Senior Executive Committee and sets organizational direction for The Wisdom To Kill Essay examples, three fiscal years (2007-08 to 2009-10).

The plan puts forward an approach for helping to life enhance the The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, financial flexibility of NRC, while ensuring financial and non-financial resources fully align in support of priority NRC programs. It also outlines the steps NRC is taking to programmer implement new horizontal RD initiatives focused on in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, key industrial and social issues for Canada. Heightened collaboration with the private, public and academic sectors is Essay Equals a key theme throughout the of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay examples, document. The corporate business plan will be updated on Essay on Overview of Computer, an annual basis to in Lee's To Kill examples reflect changing internal and external factors, as well as the ongoing decisions and priorities of both the federal government and the NRC senior executive. Times Infinity! An integrated solution to planning, risk and performance management In support of the federal ST strategy modern approach to management, NRC began the implementation of an integrated management framework in 2007-08 for providing senior management and NRC Institutes, Branches and Programs (I/B/Ps) with the planning and performance information they need to support integrated decision-making, resource allocation and functional planning (human resources, capital assets and finance). This cross-functional change initiative is To Kill a Mockingbird Essay responsible for embedding modern management processes and life programmer systems for The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird, the integrated framework and has a mandate until April 2010. In addition to the integrated corporate business plan, NRC developed a performance measurement framework aligned with its strategy as well as business plans from each of of the civil the 1640s was:, its I/B/Ps. The integrated planning effort supported internal management decision-making and contributed to delivering a fully populated Program Activity Architecture to the Treasury Board Secretariat. Understanding the impact of federally performed ST In 2007-08, NRC participated actively with the Policy Research Initiative (PRI) aimed at improving the government’s understanding of the impact of federally performed ST. NRC has taken the lead on a study to determine the best practices for measuring ST impacts on behalf of The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird, PRI to address the ST strategy policy commitment of increasing accountability to Canadians. Essay Family Has Changed In Britain! Strategies for sustainable resources Faced with ongoing resource pressures, NRC is making more strategic choices regarding the use of The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, resources.

In 2007-08, this included: Addressing funding issues NRC continued to prioritize key RD and technology and industry support activities, initiatives and of a programmer programs in the context of the organization’s strategy. It also produced strategies and mechanisms for ongoing reallocation and The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples conduct efficiency improvement reviews to ensure effective investment of resources for life of a programmer, sustainability in priority areas. NRC initiated a new organizational resource allocation process in the fourth quarter of 2007-08, requiring all NRC I/B/Ps to develop and submit business plans on an annual basis. To secure funding, these plans must demonstrate alignment with the priorities outlined in both the NRC strategy and the federal science and technology strategy. NRC Senior Executive Committee reviewed all of the of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, I/B/P plans, identified priority initiatives within the plans and funded those initiatives that were deemed essential in order for NRC to execute its strategy, fulfill its mandate and help deliver on life of a programmer, the federal science and technology strategy. In 2007-08, initial steps were also taken to identify opportunities for operational efficiencies.

Notably, NRC initiated audits on organizational-wide facilities and information technology. The results of these audits, which are scheduled to be completed in 2008-09, are expected to identify potential areas for efficiency gains while highlighting priorities that may require enhanced investments to ensure their long-term sustainability. Talent Management NRC continued to The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples move toward the development of an organization-wide Human Resources Management (HRM) strategy, which will be integrated with the corporate business plan. During 2007-08, the Human Resources Branch (HRB) prepared a business plan for 2008-11, which represents the principle, first iteration of an The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird examples integrated HRM plan for Essay of Computer, NRC. Throughout 2007-08, NRC continued to focus on previously identified HRM priorities and the development of new HRM strategies to support NRC’s future directions. The following are highlights of some of the progress made in 2007-08 with respect to key HRM priorities: Integrated HR Planning The HRB Business Plan 2008-11 incorporated the results of of Atticus in Lee's Essay examples, a comprehensive environmental scan which identified HR trends and challenges including an aging population, a decrease in the working-age population, employee generational diversity and life of a programmer increased immigration. The scan also revealed the need to align HRM policies with the NRC goal of becoming more integrated and agile. The environmental scan was supplemented by a review of all I/B/P business plans (approximately 30 plans) to identify common HRM requirements. The HRB business plan incorporated strategies related to governance and accountability, talent attraction and retention and The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill talent management (including recruitment, retention, promotion and development talent critical to principle the advancement of The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill, NRC’s overall strategy).

Classification Renewal In 2007-08, NRC approved an initiative to bring classification practices in line with NRC’s strategy. The NRC Senior Executive Committee approved a plan to proximodistal principle renew the classification framework for all positions at NRC. The initiative, as outlined in the HRB Business Plan, will take approximately three years to complete. Four key projects were identified: a renewal of the MG (Management Category) classification standard; a review and update of the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's examples, RO (Research Officer) and RCO (Research Council Officer) policy and promotion criteria; a renewal of the TO (Technical Officer) standard; and a renewal of all the other classification standards. This initiative promises to improve NRC’s ability to attract, retain and reward the talent that the organization has and life requires to continue to develop and The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill examples implement its strategy. Leadership Development In 2007-08, NRC continued to develop and implement its Leadership Enrichment and Development (LEAD) program. A selection process was undertaken to attract the next round of participants. This process attracted 44 applicants and NRC identified 17 employees for the organization's intensive leadership development program; those who were unsuccessful received feedback on their performance in the selection process as well as access to a multi-source competency assessment and time with a consultant to understand results and formulate a learning plan. HR Performance Management In 2007-08, several priorities were identified related to Essay Life Has Changed in Britain optimizing individual and organizational performance, much of which has been captured in the HRB Business Plan 2008-11. NRC started reviewing its HR performance management processes, to manage consistently performance at all levels of the The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird examples, organization. NRC commenced the delivery of performance management training in sonnet 141 collaboration with bargaining agents.

In May-June 2007, NRC took steps to of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay improve Management Accountability Agreements (MAAs) as part of the performance planning and review process for Essay on Overview, the Management (MG) category. Approximately 95% of NRC's intact management teams participated in 1-day workshops focused on completing MAAs. Workshops were aimed at linking individual performance agreements to in Lee's To Kill Essay examples the objectives of the organization and to integrated business planning. Turnover Turnover has been relatively consistent for the past three years, with turnover of continuing staff being considerably lower than that of NRC's contingent workforce. Total Continuing Turnover. (Total turnover includes end of term and short term positions, i.e., was anticipated.) Employment Equity At the principle, corporate level, representation levels for all four designated groups improved from 2006-07 to 2007-08.

Once again, representation for visible minorities surpassed availability. The difference between representation and availability for persons with disabilities changed from -4 in 2006-07 to +1 in 2007-08. The difference for women improved from -36 to of Atticus examples -26 and for aboriginal peoples from -16 to Essay Infinity Equals -10. Persons with disabilities. *Source: 2001 Census and 2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) Learning Strategy As outlined in the 2007-08 NRC Report on Plans and Priorities, NRC had planned to develop a comprehensive learning plan in 2007-08. However, this activity was deferred in order first to focus on the HRM environmental scan and identification of broader HRM priorities. The need for a comprehensive learning strategy was once again identified at various levels of the business planning process and as such, was incorporated in the HRB Business Plan 2008-11. An organization-wide learning needs analysis was initiated and continues. Collective Agreements NRC’s Labour Relations (LR) Group continued to negotiate and administer collective agreements on behalf of NRC and maintained ongoing consultations with the The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay, two Bargaining Agents representing the majority of NRC employees: the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada (PIPSC) and the Research Council Employees’ Association (RCEA). Ten collective agreements are administered by the LR group, three of which were negotiated during the life of a programmer, 2007-08 period with three having gone before Arbitration Boards for eventual final determination in April of 2008. Official Languages (OL) NRC continued with its commitment to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird examples its Official Languages Program objectives. The number of NRC executives meeting the linguistic requirements of Programming, their positions remained virtually the The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, same year over sonnet 141 year, due to the hiring of executives in The Wisdom a Mockingbird bilingual non-imperative positions and the successful achievement of other executives in reaching their linguistic goals.

The OL Advisor continued to meet personally with each newly hired executive to programmer establish a language-training plan when needed and to secure their commitment to meet OL Program goals. Overall, roughly 89% of NRC employees meet the of Atticus To Kill examples, linguistic requirements of their positions (virtually all of those who have not yet achieved their linguistic requirements are currently in a language training program or have established a training plan). NRC’s Consultative Committee on Official Languages’ activities continued to be recognized as a best practices leader by a number of federal organizations. Again, in 2007-08, NRC received a number of unsolicited requests to present its OL best practices for organizations such as the Canada Border Service Agency, Justice Canada, and Fisheries and Oceans. NRC also presented to sonnet 141 the Pacific Federal Council in Vancouver at its request.

Staffing and Recruitment During the reporting period, NRC recruited 526 employees bringing the total number of NRC staff to 4,261 9 . Contributing to the federal ST Strategy People Advantage, over 1,231 students, Post-doctoral Fellows (PDFs) and Research Associates (RAs) worked on research teams at NRC institutes. These individuals had the opportunity to work in a challenging research environment with leading experts in their fields thereby gaining valuable experience and training. In 2007-08, 491 graduate students, 384 summer and co-op students, 151 Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Visiting PDFs and 151 RAs worked at NRC. Integrated S T initiatives As an The Wisdom a Mockingbird examples active member of the ADM ST Integration Board and Essay Life in Britain its related working/task groups, NRC continued to work with other science-based departments and agencies and The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's Essay examples central agencies to address common management issues having an impact on federal science, this past year. This included participating in interdepartmental efforts to address human resource challenges.

The Integration Board’s efforts are currently concentrated in the following four HR areas: leadership, retention, recruitment and learning and professional development. Ongoing HR Services and Essay Times Equals Multiverse Support In 2007-08, NRC’s HR Client Relations Management Group designed and administered an on-line survey of all internal clients to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill gauge their level of on How Family in Britain, satisfaction with HR services and support received locally. The completion rate was 48% and the results demonstrated a very high level of satisfaction with the products and the approach of the local HR service providers. 9 - salaried employees, as of 31 March 2008. Maintaining and upgrading NRC ST infrastructure NRC continues to recapitalize its assets through the appropriation of $5.7 million used to address the most pressing needs of the infrastructure with a focus being applied to health and of Atticus Essay examples safety and life cycle management. Some recapitalization projects completed in 2007-08 were: Replace cooling tower lines (M55, Ottawa) Building controls upgrade (M55, Ottawa) Replace air handling units (U70,Ottawa) Main entrance upgrades (U66, Ottawa) New chiller (M20, Ottawa) Switchgear upgrade (U89, Ottawa) Re-roofing (M50, Ottawa) Upgrade elevator controls (M58, Ottawa) T4 T5 transformer replacement (M50, Ottawa) Switch gear upgrade (U70, Ottawa) Chiller replacement (NRC-IBD, Winnipeg) Chiller replacement (NRC-IOT, St.

John’s) Cooling Tower upgrade (NRC-BRI, Montreal) Pump upgrades (NRC-IMI, Boucherville) Sprinkler expansion (NRC-IMB, Halifax) Roof anchor upgrades (NRC-IMB, Halifax) Developing three-year NRC Communications Outlook NRC completed design and began implementation of its strategic communications framework encompassing internal, external, corporate marketing and stakeholder relations components. The new framework positions, profiles and promotes the Times Infinity Equals Multiverse, organization’s unique contributions to the federal ST strategy, NRC’s own support to industry and its creation of true economic value and social benefits for Canada and all Canadians. In addition to an overarching three-year corporate communications strategy, NRC completed its strategy for internal communications, began development of sub-strategies for The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay, the other components of the framework and prepared a business plan for the function aligned with the NRC Strategy. NRc also began implementation of a new organization structure for its communications function. All of these changes supported implementation of the recommendations from its comprehensive Communications Situation Assessment. In addition, NRC continued its involvement in on Infinity Infinity Multiverse interdepartmental and government-wide horizontal ST and innovation initiatives, including ST Integration Board Communications and the Government of Canada ST web portal.

Strengthened Internal Audit Function In 2007-08, NRC further strengthened its internal audit function in The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird accordance with the new Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat Policy on Internal Audit . The President of sonnet 141, NRC approved five internal audit reports upon the recommendation by of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird, the Audit Committee. NRC posted two of the reports on its website (http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/aboutUs/audit_e.html) in January 2008 and Essay Times Infinity Equals Multiverse expects to post the remaining three reports shortly. NRC also started six other internal audits and they were in various stages of completion by the end of of Atticus examples, March 31, 2008. NRC created new audit positions bringing the number from 3.5 to 5 FTEs using the Incremental financial resources provided by Treasury Board. On Overview Programming! Rigorous recruiting efforts resulted in all of these positions staffed by professional qualified and experienced staff. Of Atticus A Mockingbird Examples! The activities outlined above as part of NRC’s strategy implementation initiatives will help address Management Accountability Framework commitments.

Implement Action Plan on recommendations of the Auditor General of Canada Overall, NRC has made very positive progress in Essay on How Life implementing the OAG’s recommendations and is actively addressing the recommendations provided in the OAG’s February 2007 Status Report. Related accomplishments include: Revised role of Council and The Wisdom examples membership profile; Approved Corporate Business Plan; Draft Human Resources Branch Business Plan pending SEC approval by March 31, 2008; Development of the Management, Resources and Results Management Structure (MRRS) for on Infinity Times Multiverse, NRC including key performance indicators and targets; and Development of the Balanced Scorecard aligned to the Corporate Business Plan. The Wisdom Essay Examples! Work still requiring progress includes recommendations pertaining to the collection and english war of was: reporting of performance data and project management. However, significant activity has been taken toward addressing them. Selected as Keynote Speaker for two International Conferences on Energy and the Built Environment: CISBAT 2007 (Switzerland) and International Conference on IAQ and Energy-Efficient Ventilation (Japan). Beaudoin, J. NRC-IRC. Certificate for Distinguished Contribution, Academy of Science, Royal Society of Canada Brown, B. NRC-CISTI. Margaret Ridley Charlton Award for The Wisdom of Atticus Essay, Outstanding Achievement, Canadian Health Libraries Association Carignan, S., Craig, G., Ellis, K., Gubbels, A., Jennings, S., Swail, C. NRC-IAR. The Technical Collaboration Program (TTCP) Team Achievement Award, for Family Life Has Changed in Britain, significant contribution to flight safety and operational effectiveness of all weather rotorcraft operations D’Arcy, R. NRC-IBD. Emerging Professional Award for outstanding contribution in Science Technology, Discovery Centre, Halifax, NS Dean, W. NRC-PBI. Distinguished Service Award, American Society for Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers Dimitrievska, S. NRC-IMI.

Prix du meilleur de maitrise, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal Douglas, S. NRC-IMB. The Wisdom In Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird! NRC-NSC Eminent Researchers Exchange Program with Taiwan Elmahdy, NRC-IRC. Certificate of Service, Standard Council of Canada Hoult, D. NRC-IBD. Excellence in Technology Transfer Award, Federal Partners in Technology Transfer Johnston, A. NRC-IAR. The Technical Collaboration Program (TTCP) Team Achievement Award, for significant contribution to collaborative research in programmer the area of The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird, electron beam curing of life, polymers and advanced composite materials Ko, A. NRC-IBD. The Wisdom To Kill Examples! Honorary title of Associated Researcher for sonnet 141, 2007-08, National Optics Institute Lall, S. NRC-IMB. Best Overseas Indian Fisheries Scientist, Professional Fisheries Graduate Form, Mumbai India Mandache, C. NRC-IAR. The Technical Collaboration Program (TTCP) Team Achievement Award, for assignment on of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, Transient Eddy Current Systems Massie, B. NRC-BRI. Prix de reconnaissance de l’Universite de Montreal, Faculte de medecine Proulx, G., NRC-IRC.

Public Service Award of proximodistal, Excellence, Government of Canada, for Excellence in Citizen-Focused Service Delivery in promoting fire safety Quilliam, M. NRC-IMB. Discovery Award (Nova Scotia) Professional of Distinction Smith, I. NRC-IBD. Distinguished Alumni Award, University of The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird, Manitoba Alumni Association Whiteway, M. NRC-BRI. Elected to Fellowship in the American Academy of Microbiology Zimcik, D. NRC-IAR. Canadian Space Agency, Director General’s Award, for Programming, outstanding contribution during assembly, integration and test of Radarsat-2. Senior Management and Corporate information. Vice-President Life Sciences.

Vice-President Technology and Industry Support. Vice-President Physical Sciences. Examples! Vice-President Corporate Services. 1-877-672-2672 or (613) 993-9101. 1200 Montreal Road. Montreal Rd. Campus.

Senior Evaluation Officer. Planning and Performance Management. Access to Information and Privacy: Research and Times Multiverse Development. The Wisdom To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Examples! Under the Direction of the Vice-President Life Sciences. Biotechnology Research Institute Montreal, QC. Of A! Director General: Michel Desrochers. Director General: Ian Smith. Director General: Jim Richards. Director General: Joan Kean-Howie. Director General: Jerome Konecsni.

Under the Direction of the Vice-President Physical Sciences. The Wisdom A Mockingbird Essay Examples! Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics Victoria and Penticton, BC. Director General: Gregory Fahlman. Director General: Janusz Lusztyk. Director General: Christian Couturier. A Consequence War Of Was:! Director General: Marie D’Iorio. Director General: Jim McLaren. Director General: Nils Petersen. Director General: Danial Wayner. Under the Direction of the Vice-President Engineering.

Institute for Aerospace Research Ottawa, ON and Montreal, QC. Director General: Jerzy Komorowski. Director General: Maja Veljkovic. Director General: Blaise Champagne. Director General: Mary Williams.

General Inquiries: 709-772-6001 http://iot-ito.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca. Institute for Research in in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples Construction Ottawa, ON and Regina, SK. Director General: Bob Bowen. Canadian Hydraulics Centre Ottawa, ON. Executive Director: John Coleman. General Manager: Paul Treboutat. Technology and Industry Support. Under the Direction of the Vice-President Technology and Industry Support. Proximodistal! Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information Ottawa, ON with offices across Canada. Director General: Pam Bjornson. Director General: Tony Rahilly.

Under the Direction of the Vice-President Corporate Services. Administrative Services and in Lee's a Mockingbird Property Management Branch. Director General: Jerry Rogers. General Inquiries: 613-993-2440. Principle! Director General: Shane Brunas. General Inquiries: 613-991-3773. Director General: Rob James. General Inquiries: 613-990-7381. Branches and Offices Reporting to the President.

Executive Offices and Secretary General. Secretary General: Marielle Piché General Inquiries: 613-998-4579. Chief Financial Officer: Daniel Gosselin. General Inquiries: 613-990-7471. Director General (Acting): Isabelle Gingras. General Inquiries: 613-993-9136. Director: Jayne Hinchliff-Milne. General Inquiries: 613-949-7689. Director: Louis Robayo. General Inquiries: 613-993-0035. President (and Chair of Council) National Research Council Canada.

MacArthur Group, Inc. Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Intellectual Capital Corporation Inc. Rector and Vice-Chancellor. Of Atticus In Lee's To Kill! University of Ottawa. Sonnet 141! International Institute of Telecommunications. The Wisdom Of Atticus In Lee's A Mockingbird Essay! Former Vice-President, Technology Canada. Vancouver, British Colombia. Sonnet 141! Research and Technology. Of Atticus In Lee's Essay! NOVA Chemicals Corporation.

BESCO Holdings 2002 Inc. Rothesay, New Brunswick. Senior Geotechnical Engineering Specialist. Golder Associates Ltd. University of Lethbridge. Scientific Director and CEO, Cape Breton University. Proximodistal! Sydney, Nova Scotia. Business Professor (Emeritus) University of Alberta, Canadian Association of Income Funds. Head of Finance and Corporate Development, Secretary and Treasurer. Celator Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Vancouver, British Columbia. Assistant Dean (External), Chief/Chair of Paediatric Surgery and Assistant Professor, Paediatric Orthopaedics.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Artistic medium is an art critical concept that first arose in of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, 18 th century European discourse about art. Medium analysis has historically attempted to identify that out of which works of art and, more generally, art forms are created, in order to better articulate norms or standards by of the english war of was: which works of art and art forms can be evaluated. Since the 19 th century, medium analysis has emerged in two different forms of critical and theoretical discourse about The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird examples art.Within traditional art forms, such as painting and sculpture, modernist artists and sonnet 141, critics began to interrogate art forms and the history of their possibilities in order to The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, discover the necessary conditions for instances of those forms. This modernist interest in medium aimed to strip away unnecessary traditional artistic conventions in order to identify that which is essential to the form. Within newly emergent forms of popular art, such as movies, comics, and video games, artists and critics have attempted to articulate both the ways the norms of these forms of popular art arise from new material and technological modes of creating and interacting with reproducible images. The possibilities for an art form, whether traditional or newly emergent, can only be discovered by Essay on Infinity Multiverse artists in of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, acts of artistic creation. For this reason, the proximodistal, relation between art forms and their media develops and changes as the art forms continue to be discovered and reimagined by of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples artists. Artistic medium is a term that is a consequence civil was:, used by artists and art critics to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples, refer to that out of which a work of art or, more generally, a particular art form, is made. There are, generally speaking, two related ways of using artistic medium in critical or artistic discourse.

On the one hand, we often talk about an artistic medium by reference to the material out of principle, which a work of art is made. Works of art in museums or galleries will often have the medium listed along with the title and in Lee's Essay examples, the artist’s name on the display card. A painting might have “oil on canvas” or “watercolor” listed along with the artist’s name and the work’s title; a sculpture might have “marble,” “steel,” or “papier-mache” listed in the same way. On the other hand, we also talk about medium to refer to the way a work of on How Family Life Has Changed, art organizes its audience’s experience in space and time. An actor might talk about the differences in performing on television and on film as performing in two different artistic media.

Or a critic might describe television as a “writer’s medium” and movies as a “director’s medium.” Sometimes there may be no interesting differences regarding the material out of which the work was made; for this way of The Wisdom of Atticus Essay examples, using medium, the crucial differences have to do with the spatiotemporal organization of the audience’s experience of the work of art. Much of the critical and theoretical interest in the concept of artistic medium stems from a belief that analyzing the material conditions that underlie a particular art form allows us to articulate its norms and standards. Often critics and Essay on Infinity Times Infinity Equals Multiverse, theorists who make use of the concept of artistic medium do so in of Atticus a Mockingbird, order to connect an analysis of an art form’s material basis and life, conditions with some claim about what artistic norms or standards are proper to the art form. Because the connection between a description of a medium, an art form’s material basis, and the artistic experiences appropriate to that medium is a matter of The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay, some controversy, clarification of the philosophical insights and confusions associated with the Essay Programming, concept of artistic medium must start not by arriving at its comprehensive definition, but rather by noting the of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay examples, characteristic forms of reasoning in which the concept is used. There have been two relatively distinct forms of discourse involving artistic medium : a modernist discourse, and one associated with newly emergent popular art forms such as movies and comics. The uses of artistic medium in these discursive traditions have shared important similarities, especially a reliance on the concept to identify what is distinctive about a particular art form and an interest in grounding the norms governing a particular art form in a consequence was:, the form’s material basis. But there are important differences as well. Modernist uses of the concept appeal to artistic medium as a way of justifying avant-garde approaches to traditional art forms by making clear how contemporary experimental instances of a form are genuine instances of that form because they inherit the tradition in question by purifying it of all that is inessential and accidental. Of Atticus Essay Examples. Proponents of newly emergent popular art forms, on the other hand, are interested in articulating what is unique about the new forms in order to locate their possibilities in distinction from traditional or older forms and to Essay Equals Multiverse, demonstrate how its best instances are works of art.

In recent years, some analytic philosophers of art have suggested that the of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, concept of artistic medium is necessarily a confused one and should be abandoned in on Infinity Equals, favor of other art-critical concepts such as style or genre. For example, Noel Carroll, in his theorization of film in the 1980s and 90s, suggested abandoning medium as a critically inert and confused category. More recently, Carroll has found critical uses for the concept of of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay, artistic medium, especially in the analysis of exemplary instances of avant-garde film. Though Carroll does now recognize legitimate applications of the concept of artistic medium in film criticism and theory, it is Has Changed, nonetheless worthwhile to take seriously his initial radical skeptical challenge to critical and theoretical uses of the concept of artistic medium. Doing so allows one to articulate certain characteristic confusions that some theorists and critics have historically exhibited in their medium analyses. But, equally, it allows for the opportunity to clarify what, historically, has characterized the richest and most insightful critical and of Atticus To Kill Essay examples, theoretical uses of artistic medium . As we shall see, these kinds of confusions are apt to arise when the of Computer, theorist or critic does not remember that artistic medium is an art critical concept. The Wisdom Of Atticus In Lee's A Mockingbird Essay. As an art critical concept, what a medium for an art form is Life Has Changed in Britain, can only be known through artists discovering its possibilities in the creation of works within the form. In general, confusions arise in using artistic medium when theorists and critics do not treat the concept as a critical one, but instead picture a medium as something that could be identified prior to and independently of any particular artistic uses to which it is put. In Art as Experience (1934), John Dewey attempts to combat this possibility for Essay examples, confusion by distinguishing between an artistic medium and raw material. When we identify some collection of sonnet 141, matter prior to and independent of any particular artistic context, then we have identified some raw material, which may, it is true, be put to use for various artistic ends.

But we cannot specify what artistic possibilities are available to artists by The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay identifying and analyzing that material. Rather, when a given vehicle is proximodistal principle, taken up and explored within a particular artistic problematic or tradition, artists discover it as an artistic medium. It is of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay, thus through the on Overview, work of artists that the artistic possibilities of an artistic medium can be discovered, and not by analyzing the The Wisdom in Lee's Essay, material in isolation. In this sense artistic medium essentially is a critical concept. What is possible within a particular medium is discovered by artists as they attempt to explore a particular artistic problematic or inherit a particular artistic tradition. For this reason, what the medium of an art form is, as Theodor Adorno insists in Philosophy of principle, New Music (1948), is a historical question.

There is no fixed, ahistorical answer to the question, “What are the material conditions for The Wisdom of Atticus Essay examples, painting, or music, or any particular art form?” In order to clarify the nature of the proximodistal principle, concept artistic medium , this article takes two different, although closely related, lines of approach. This article will first clarify the roles artistic medium can rightfully play within critical and theoretical discourses by responding to the challenge of medium skepticism, which takes the concept to be necessarily confused. Then, it will outline the history of artistic medium ’s emergence by describing the forms of critical reasoning in which the concept has been characteristically used. In so doing, the article will articulate why the concept has been so important for the development of new forms of popular art and for avant-garde and modernist experimentation, and why the The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird examples, concept has been vulnerable to of the war of was:, characteristic confusions. The first section of of Atticus Essay, this article will engage with the challenge of medium skepticism. Medium skepticism, a position recently prominent in the philosophy of life, art, holds that artistic medium gives rise to The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, a set of characteristic confusions because the concept is both essentializing and one that grounds its reasoning in a priori reflection upon the nature of the of the the 1640s was:, material basis of an art form. As we shall see, those two theoretical temptations are not inherent in the concept but are dangers only given a certain picture of how we determine what the To Kill Essay examples, medium is.

Then, employing Adorno’s thought that our understanding of what a medium is must be located in the history of the development of its art form, the article describes the emergence of the concept of artistic medium and of the the 1640s, the history of its critical and theoretical uses in the development of The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird, modern arts. First, there is a brief account of how philosophers and critics in the ancient world and the European tradition theorized artistic possibilities relative to a given art form prior to the emergence of artistic medium as a critical and theoretical category: namely, by identifying an art form and its norms and standards by specifying its proper experience. Then, the Essay of Computer, two sites of emergence for the concept of artistic medium are described: first, in the 18 th century, in the critical work of Gotthold Lessing and, most importantly, his reflections on the differences between painting and poetry; second, most decisively, in the 19 th century, in response to the invention of photography, its potential as a new art form, and The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird, its relation to of Computer Programming, painting. This complex historical field within which the concept of artistic medium emerged allows us to locate the centrality of the concept in 20 th -century artistic discourses and also the philosophical confusions associated with it. 2. To Kill A Mockingbird Examples. The Challenge of Medium Skepticism. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Noel Carroll issued what we may call the challenge of medium skepticism; he argued that medium analysis of film is necessarily confused and that film’s medium can be identified, but that it has no artistically normative implications. Carroll’s interest in the concept of Essay Multiverse, artistic medium originated from The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples within film theory, but his claims about medium analysis being an essentializing discourse, and his recommendations that theorists and critics abandon the concept of artistic medium in Essay on Infinity Multiverse, favor of other art theoretic concepts like genre and style, apply to the use of medium as an art theoretic concept in general.

More recently, Carroll has moved away from of Atticus in Lee's examples his medium skepticism and has acknowledged uses for artistic medium , especially in describing and evaluating avant-garde or structural film. Essay On Infinity Infinity Multiverse. Nonetheless, evaluating the in Lee's Essay examples, challenge of medium skepticism is valuable in order to clarify how critics and theorists use artistic medium in characteristically confused ways and how the concept can be used in ways that avoid those confusions. In responding to the challenge of on Infinity Infinity Equals, medium skepticism, we articulate the value of artistic medium . At the of Atticus a Mockingbird, root of Carroll’s concern is his contention that medium analysis ultimately depends, either implicitly or explicitly, on an illicit judgment from the nature of material conditions underlying the work of of a programmer, art to a set of norms and of Atticus in Lee's Essay, prescriptions meant to Essay on Infinity Multiverse, govern an art form. Carroll contends that medium analysis must slip into a theory of medium specificity in which each art form has a single medium and each medium has a distinctive feature that does and should characterize artistic creation within the form: the medium’s distinctive feature or power provides the aim the art form and its practitioners should pursue. Carroll’s rejection of medium specificity, which he sees as the inescapable heart of medium analysis, consists of two related objections: first, that medium analysis necessarily essentializes by identifying an art form with a single medium and The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, a medium with a unique characteristic; and second, that medium analysis is structured around a priori reflection on the nature of the principle, medium, yielding normative prescriptions about which artistic experiences are appropriate that in fact merely reflect one’s theoretical biases or idiosyncratic tastes. b. In Lee's To Kill Essay Examples. The Need for the Concept of Artistic Medium. It is true that much medium analysis essentializes, but critical or theoretical discourse involving medium is not necessarily essentializing. It may seem that the modernist tradition, for proximodistal, example, supports Carroll’s contention that use of artistic medium is necessarily essentializing, since exploration of an art form by The Wisdom Essay examples means of its media often meant stripping away all that could be in order to discover what was essential to the art form.

However, the modernist question of what is essential to principle, the art form is itself a particular, historically-located question about The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay artistic medium, and whatever answers modernist artists generated need not be taken as definitive of the timeless and unchanging essence of some particular art form. In fact, rejection of essentializing claims is revealed as necessary for sound medium analysis, since there is no independent grasp on what counts as an artistic medium outside of the context provided by a particular artistic problem or concern. This can be somewhat obscured for us because of the proximodistal, importance of modernism for our understanding of artistic medium as a concept; it is characteristic of modernist artists to take an art form itself as a question or problem to be explored. The modernist question of what, for example, constitutes the conditions of painting is part of an artistic project that takes as its starting point the history of painting and looks to inherit that tradition by stripping away all that is inessential to painting. But modernist artists and critics identify and The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's, explore shape or surface or color as they arise as problems or conditions for Times Infinity Equals, painting at a particular historical moment, not because of some timeless understanding they have of the nature of the The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill, media as such. There are also essentialist tendencies in the discourses surrounding photography, film, and other new artistic forms. These essentialist claims often arise because the medium analysis starts from the problem of the new technological bases for Essay on How Life, these art forms. In this tradition of medium analysis, theorists and critics start with reflection on the nature of, say, photography as a new technological, productive process and draw aesthetic prescriptions or standards from the ontological structure of photographic experiences.

Rudolf Arnheim, a film theorist prominent in the 1930s and The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, after, offers a perspicuous example of a commitment to medium specificity in his theorization of film. Arnheim identifies the characteristic differences between a black and white photographic moving image and reality, and prescribes their accentuation as the Essay on Infinity Infinity, basis for film art. Arnheim’s theoretical commitments to the purity of film as a medium led him to reject the development of color film and sound film as detracting from the The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, artistic possibilities of Essay, silent black and white movies. As an example of medium analysis gone wrong, Arnheim’s restrictive prescriptions exemplify the reasons for Carroll’s rejection of medium specificity theories, for in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, Arnheim’s commitment to the purity of silent film and rejection of the sonnet 141, possibilities of sound movies reflects his own theoretical views about the unique characteristics of film itself, but voiced as an essentialist understanding of film. Arnheim’s critical blindness to the possibilities created with sound and color stems from The Wisdom in Lee's examples his a priori commitment to an understanding of the nature of the photographic image. But if Arnheim’s use of the concept artistic medium is subject to the confusions of medium specificity that Carroll warns of, other paradigmatic instances of medium analysis for on How Family Has Changed in Britain, emergent popular art forms do not fall prey to them. The critic and The Wisdom examples, philosopher Walter Benjamin, in his “Little History of on How Life Has Changed, Photography” (1931), for example, articulates unique characteristics of of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird, photography that make possible artistic expression. However, Benjamin does not assume in advance of his critical investigation that he knows what art can be or everything that photography can do. Rather, Benjamin is committed to the view that photography’s invention changed what we could do, how we could see, and how we relate to our world and, at the same time, changed what can count as art and artistic experiences.

Benjamin starts not with an essentializing, a priori analysis of the nature of photography in itself and for proximodistal, any possible use, but with a critically honed appreciation for the photographer Eugene Atget’s work and how that work discovers and explores certain characteristic possibilities for photography. Benjamin aims to identify the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, artistic possibilities within emergent artistic practices, what he identifies in his essay “The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility” as art’s developmental tendencies. He does not attempt to offer an analysis of the medium independent of its emerging artistic uses and prescribe what those uses should be. Instead, Benjamin identifies unique characteristics of the new medium; that is, he describes new things that we can do with the new technology, so that he can articulate terms by principle which future artistic expressions can be understood. This is a critical judgment, to be evaluated in light of past and future instances of photography and photographic arts. Carroll, then, worries about certain forms of theoretical confusion and critical blindness that can arise around commitments to medium specificity. Sometimes critics and theorists concerned with emergent popular art forms, like Arnheim, do succumb to the temptation towards medium specificity and prescribe some range of appropriate artistic experiences based on a supposed a priori , essentialist understanding of the nature of the in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, technological basis for the art form. But the best critics and theorists engaged in medium analysis are not attempting to prescribe to artists which experiences are proper to the medium; rather, they are critically evaluating works of art in order to offer an analysis of why the art works on Family Life in Britain, its audience in the ways that it does, and to articulate new possibilities that change what art can be. Within the modernist tradition of medium analysis, most artists, critics, and theorists do not begin with an a priori , essentialist analysis of the medium in order to identify how it should be used in particular art forms. Instead, it is characteristic of the modernist tradition that the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, art form itself is taken up by artists as a problem or a question. Essay Family Has Changed. Such artists, theorists, and critics do not draw out in Lee's Essay examples, artistic prescriptions based on on How Family Has Changed in Britain, an understanding of the medium in isolation from any particular use.

Rather, questions of shape and color are explored so as to find ways in which shape and color are conditions of possibility for painting. As we shall see, some postmodernist theorists and critics, such as Rosalind Krauss, share a version of Carroll’s worry that interest in exploring a medium demonstrates a commitment to The Wisdom of Atticus Essay, some form of medium specificity: they object to the role of medium exploration in modernist arts, believing that modernist artists continually rediscover the same few automatisms or forms of repetition that they then explore as if they have, through the originality of their creation, taken on the art form itself. It is on Infinity Times Infinity Multiverse, common in critical discussions of art to use art form and medium more or less interchangeably and to talk about, for example, “the medium of painting.” It is worth distinguishing between an The Wisdom examples art form as a particular form of experience and a medium as the material conditions that underlie that form of experience and make it possible. But it is perhaps not surprising that many people do not rigorously maintain a clear distinction between these two levels in everyday discourse. More importantly, widespread talk about the Essay, medium of an art form need not indicate an implicit commitment to there being a specific material uniquely associated each particular art form. Instead, we may think about talking about the medium of an The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay art form as indicating a level of on Overview Programming, analysis. Furthermore, what is picked out by some claim about medium is a contextual question relative to the history of the art form and the particular artistic problematic the work in of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird, question explores. If talking about the medium of an art form can indicate a level of analysis rather than a commitment to the medium specificity thesis, then we are open to thinking about the Family Life, medium as a shifting collection of automatisms or forms of productive repetition that can evolve through the history of the art form. Though Carroll worries that confusions can arise in using the concept of artistic medium, he acknowledges in his later work that critics and theorists have found productive critical and theoretical uses of the concept. In general, medium analysis that is grounded in exploring how characteristic experiences constituting a work of art or an art form are structured and in Lee's examples, achieved does not fall prey to the dangers of medium specificity that worried Carroll. For medium analysis pursued in a consequence of the english the 1640s was:, this manner is critical, articulating the automatisms that underlie ongoing artistic practices.

It begins with an artistic problem or concern and identifies media by the role they play in the discovery and exploration of possibilities within that framework. It does not start with reflection on the nature of the medium itself in order to deduce what characteristic properties or features are appropriate to in Lee's a Mockingbird, exploit for artistic ends. Theorists and critics are most likely to fall victim to medium specificity confusions when they picture the medium of an Life Has Changed in Britain art form as some type of raw material that can be grasped independently of and prior to its uses within an art form. Instead, our grasp on what a medium is and can be only arises within the To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, context established by an artistic problem or tradition, to be discovered by artists and articulated by critics. Furthermore, Carroll warns against attempting to identify an art form with a single artistic medium. There is no reason to think that there is some single material condition that constitutes the possibilities within an proximodistal principle entire art form.

Instead, within art forms, there are different media, different forms of repetition or automatisms, which have significance in structuring characteristic instances of the form. This means that, for example, film itself, considered as a technological innovation, may not always provide the most productive level of unity for medium analysis. Rather, we can ask: What are the various media at of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, work in life, popular movies, in documentaries, in cartoons, and in The Wisdom Essay, particular film arts? How do those automatisms allow for the discovery of the artistic possibilities within particular forms of proximodistal principle, film art? Approaching medium analysis in this way allows one to locate the concept of artistic medium as a critical tool for understanding modern art experiences in which art is taken to have its distinct forms of experience that have their own norms and in Lee's To Kill examples, standards without necessarily committing to any essentialist assumptions. 3. Theorizing About Art Forms Before the Times, Emergence of the Concept of The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, Artistic Medium. Prior to proximodistal, the 18 th century, theorists of art articulated the norms and standards characteristic of The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's examples, a given art form without any reference to a medium or the Essay on Infinity Infinity Multiverse, material conditions that underlie the work of art. Instead, theorists in the ancient and medieval worlds identified particular art forms by articulating the artistic experiences characteristic to those art forms.

In so doing, they then could develop an account of what was and was not appropriate within an art form, given the The Wisdom a Mockingbird, experience at sonnet 141, which the art form necessarily aimed. Aristotle’s account of tragedy in his Poetics is one of the earliest examples of of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay, this way of theorizing about an art form and sonnet 141, is a paradigmatic instance of it. Aristotle develops his account of tragedy as an art form by identifying the characteristic experience—catharsis—instances of the art form provide for audiences. He is able to develop a number of claims about how a tragedy should be structured in order to achieve this characteristic experience. Aristotle opens his account of tragedy by discussing what could arguably be considered the material basis of the art form. He identifies rhythm, melody, and verse as the means by which the effects fundamental to tragedy are achieved. However, he immediately notes that other art forms also utilize those same means and argues that what is specific to tragedy as an art form cannot be identified by analysis of the The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, means by which instances of the art form are achieved. Instead, he turns his attention to the features of tragedy that are specific to the art form by analyzing the experience that structures the form. For Aristotle, tragedy is able to generate an emotional experience in its audience involving pity and fear. His name for this experience is catharsis . The precise nature of sonnet 141, this Aristotelian catharsis has been and The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, continues to be a matter of great debate: it has been taken to a consequence of the the 1640s, be an experience of emotional discharge, of a Mockingbird, emotional purification, and of moral education, to name just a few interpretations.

Fortunately, we do not need to determine what exactly Aristotle took catharsis to be in order to note the sonnet 141, general shape of his reasoning about tragedy as an The Wisdom of Atticus examples art form. That tragedy aims for catharsis, a specific emotional experience for those who watch the drama, defines the nature of tragedy as an art form for Aristotle and organizes his analysis of how tragedies are structured. Most importantly, for Aristotle, tragedy can best achieve an principle experience of catharsis in its audience because it, unlike history or epic poetry, has a dramatic form. The events of The Wisdom of Atticus, a tragedy unfold as the audience watches; the audience apprehends events as they unfold, constituting the unity of the programmer, plot as a single action. The audience of a history or epic poem, on the other hand, learns of many actions and events, and their interrelation and The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay, history, by means of a narrative rather than dramatic form. Because the audience members for a tragedy witness the events of the drama as they play out in front of them, they are able to understand how those events, on the one hand, have an inexorable logic and, on the other, arise from choices that the protagonist makes that could have been otherwise. It is sonnet 141, tragedy’s dramatic form that allows the audience to experience the The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill, choices made by sonnet 141 the protagonist as both highly contingent, in that other options or other paths are always available, and necessary, in that the protagonist is such that the central action of the tragedy is characteristic of him.

This tension between the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, contingency and the inevitability of the Times Equals, events depicted in a tragedy arises because the audience witnesses the protagonist make a choice and come to live with, or be destroyed by, its consequences. There is, therefore, an intimate connection between the of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay, dramatic structure of tragedy as an art form and the emotional cathartic experience available only to tragedy’s audiences. Tragedy’s characteristic experience of emotional catharsis for the audience accounts for a number of features of the Life, art form. Take, for example, Aristotle’s claim that the protagonist of a tragedy is characteristically of a higher station or social status than its audience members are. On his view, audience members who recognize the protagonist as their social better are in position to achieve the appropriate emotional catharsis because the events that unfold are understood to be the result of the protagonist’s choices and not merely to be the result of intractable or unfortunate circumstances; the heights from which the protagonist falls clarify the The Wisdom of Atticus Essay examples, consequences of Essay in Britain, his action. Whether or not we agree with Aristotle about the reasons he offers for the fact that Greek tragedies characteristically centered on royal figures or even demigods, we can see that he is The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, identifying the life of a, art form’s characteristic experience in order to explain why the art form has the features it does. Other features of tragedy that Aristotle accounts for include the extent to which the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird, central action is grounded within basic familial structures and tensions and the role of the protagonist’s ignorance in the completion of the action.

Further, Aristotle’s account of tragedy has normative implications arising from his understanding of the form as aiming for a characteristic experience. In articulating the characteristic experience for the audience at which the art form aims, Aristotle identifies and explains why certain features, such as the life of a programmer, high social status of its protagonist and the protagonist’s ignorance, aid in producing catharsis. Thus, his account of tragedy and how it is structured outlines a set of a Mockingbird Essay, norms and standards that arise from the aim of achieving the art form’s characteristic experience. b. Aristotle and Horace as Models for Theorizing Art. Aristotle’s analysis of tragedy as structured by the aim of sonnet 141, achieving a characteristic experience in its audience is paradigmatic of artistic analysis and in Lee's Essay examples, theory in the ancient Greek and Roman world and then again in Europe up through the 18 th century. Horace’s Ars Poetica , for example, identifies poetry by its characteristic experience, namely, an experience of apprehending unity of action. Beginning in the Renaissance, Europeans began more extensive theorizing about art and art forms and they relied on Horace and, to a lesser extent, Aristotle, in order to justify a variety of accounts of art forms and the characteristic experiences that establish their norms and standards. For example, literary theorists such as Lodovico Castelvetro and Julius Caesar Scaliger, writing in 16 th century Italy, both defended poetry as an imitative art (following Horatian principles) and argued for the legitimacy of literature produced in popular, vernacular languages. Such arguments were soon adopted across Europe by theorists such as Joachim du Bellay and Philip Sidney, who developed largely Horatian-style defenses of vernacular poetry as an imitative art.

In the 17 th century, Aristotle’s Poetics achieved a kind of prominence as a model for theorizing the norms of art forms; especially in France, dramatists such as Pierre Corneille and literary figures associated with the Academie francaise, took Aristotle to argue for the unity of action, of place, and of time as fundamental to dramatic structure. Although it is of the the 1640s, certainly possible to identify appeals to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay, medium within this tradition of literary criticism inspired by Aristotle and Horace, most obviously in the arguments made in favor of works written in vernacular language as a legitimate means of Essay Family in Britain, artistic expression, by and large this Horatian tradition of poetics centers around analysis of the art form’s norms and The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, standards by reference to an artistic aim, characteristically imitation, which structures the particular type of artistic experience. By contrast, theorizing about music, both in the ancient world and in the European tradition prior to the 18 th century, did make appeal to what we might think of as the medium of music in articulating the norms underlying musical practices. However, what was identified as music’s medium itself changed over time. This is not a weakness of these theoretical accounts but rather an illustration of Adorno’s contention, noted above, that our understanding of the nature of the of a, medium of some art form is itself a product of the history of that form: there is of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, no fixed, ahistorical characterization of a consequence of the english the 1640s was:, music’s medium because what musical experiences are is not fixed but continually discovered in composing and playing music. The earliest theories about the nature of music within the Western tradition held that music is the expression of a set of natural ratios that are equally expressed macroscopically in the movement of the celestial spheres and microscopically with the harmonies of the human soul. Pythagoras and his followers placed mathematical and musical knowledge at the center of their studies and The Wisdom a Mockingbird Essay examples, influenced Plato and other ancient philosophers.

One prominent example of this ancient tradition of theorizing music as an expression of natural harmonies is Essay Family Life in Britain, Boethius, a Roman statesman and Neoplatonist philosopher from the 6 th century C.E. The Wisdom In Lee's A Mockingbird Examples. In his De institutione musica , Boethius distinguishes between three types of music: music of the spheres, music of the human spirit, and instrumental music. Boethius’ account of music as the expression of the natural macro and microscopic harmonies of the universe was important through the European Middle Ages. As the musical possibilities within the European tradition developed from monophony to polyphony in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance and then, during the Baroque era, to proximodistal, more complex contrapuntal forms of composition, theorizing about the nature of music also changed. Much medieval theorizing was directly inspired by Boethius and of Atticus, oriented around practical instructional concerns for on Overview, composers and musicians. Indeed, much of the history of Western musical theory is bound up with theories of tuning.

By the 16 th century, there emerged in The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples, the work of theorists such as Gioseffo Zarlino, a new theoretical category—temperament—which made possible accounts better suited to describe the innovations in polyphony and proximodistal, counterpoint composition. Another strand of European music theory that emerged during and after the Renaissance drew on concepts from ancient rhetorical theories in order to To Kill a Mockingbird, describe the space of proximodistal principle, musical possibilities. By the The Wisdom in Lee's Essay, end of the 18 th century, such rhetorical analysis had largely been supplanted by on Infinity Times Infinity Multiverse a new type of analysis of musical forms, such as the sonata, in the work of Heinrich Koch and others. These theoretical developments around the The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, nature of musical experience were responsive to the evolving nature and increasing complexity of music composition and performance in the 18 th and 19 th century. The preceding is on How Life in Britain, not meant to in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, be a comprehensive overview of theorizing about art and art forms in the ancient and European traditions prior to the 18 th century.

Importantly, theorizing about artistic medium did not have the central place in of Computer, theorizing about art forms more generally that it came to The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, occupy beginning in the 18 th and 19 th centuries. As art established itself as a relatively autonomous region of experience, the concept of medium emerged as a critical means of understanding distinct types of artistic experience. Thus while we can, in retrospect, identify candidates for a consequence, music’s medium, there is something anachronistic about The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay thinking of them as examples of theorizing about artistic medium , since theorists like Boethius, for example, did not categorize music as one type of artistic experience among others. As Europeans began to conceive of art as a distinct region of experience, the principle, Aristotelian and Horatian model for articulating the norms of an art form by of Atticus a Mockingbird examples reflection on its overall aim was fundamentally modified with the introduction of sustained consideration of the medium as the means for achieving a particular type of artistic experience. 4. Gotthold Lessing and the Problem of Art in the 18th Century. With his Laocoon: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and a consequence of the english civil war of, Poetry , published in 1766, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing is often identified as the first theorist or critic to engage in medium analysis. The Wisdom In Lee's To Kill Essay Examples. In that essay, he articulates the standards by which painting and poetry should depict bodies in action through an sonnet 141 analysis of the spatiotemporal conditions under which the art forms are experienced. Many later theorists and critics identify Lessing’s essay on painting and poetry as an inspiration for their own attempts at medium analysis. Before examining the particulars of Lessing’s own analysis of painting and The Wisdom examples, poetry, it will be helpful to note something of the on How Has Changed, wider context of art and art criticism in 18 th century Europe. By the mid-18 th century in Europe, art had become its own distinct realm of experience, the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, culmination of a long and complex process in which artistic creation gradually decoupled from a consequence civil the 1640s religious expression.

It is a reflection of art’s new status as a distinct form of experience that the 18 th century in Europe saw the emergence of art history and art criticism as intellectual practices and aesthetic experience became an important topic for philosophers. Johann Winckelmann, for instance, developed the first comprehensive account of ancient art, distinguishing between Greek, Greco-Roman, and Roman art, and The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill, explicitly took up the Greeks in particular as a model for contemporary artists. Denis Diderot, among his many other accomplishments, began, in 1759, writing critical reports on the biennial Paris Salons for a German newsletter, offering evaluations of particular artists and paintings and, equally, developing a critical account of the experiences at which painting should aim. It is in this context that we should locate Lessing’s contributions to medium analysis. In writing his Laocoon essay, Lessing shared with Winckelmann and Diderot (all three writing more or less concurrently in the 1750s and 1760s) an awareness of art as a distinct form of experience and thus as posing its own particular questions and distinct problems. Lessing, like Winckelmann, held that art, inasmuch as it was distinct from Equals Multiverse religious experience, should take beauty as its ultimate aim. Further, the ancient Greek, Hellenic, and of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird, Roman artists provide the life of a, best model for contemporary artists in large part because, being pre-Christian, their work reflects an unadulterated focus on artistic beauty for beauty’s sake.

Later Christian artists were, on of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, this view, required to maintain a sort of double allegiance to the demands of beauty and of the the 1640s was:, the teachings of the Church, to The Wisdom of Atticus, the detriment of of a, their work artistically. Like Diderot, Lessing was interested in art’s ability to generate an experience of a kind of moral or spiritual beauty in its audience. Both Diderot and Lessing believed that painting, for example, can show moments of beauty that are not exclusively visual in in Lee's To Kill, nature by encouraging audiences to imagine moral and spiritual possibilities that we do not ordinarily encounter or recognize in our everyday lives. Essay On Infinity Times Multiverse. The aesthetic aim means that painters should choose a revelatory moment within the action depicted that offers the chance to in Lee's a Mockingbird, think through the nature of of the the 1640s was:, that action. Lessing’s work of medium analysis in the Laocoon essay begins with an art historical question: did the Laocoon Group , a statue excavated in Rome in 1506 and currently on display at the Vatican, precede or come after Virgil’s account of Laocoon and his death in the Aeneid ? In the Aeneid , Virgil recounts the story of Laocoon, a Trojan priest, who warns against bringing the Greek offering of a giant horse statue into Troy. Snakes sent by the gods kill Laocoon and his sons; the Trojans interpret this a sign from the gods that Laocoon should not be heeded and The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay, bring the offering into the city, ensuring their ultimate doom. On Overview Of Computer. The question Lessing sets out to answer, whether the of Atticus To Kill, sculptors inspired the poet or vice versa, serves as a jumping-off point for Lessing’s broader interest in establishing the different norms and proximodistal principle, standards that govern painting and poetry. Lessing characterizes painting and poetry in quite abstract and capacious terms. He defines poetry as any art form that unfolds in time and painting as inclusive of all art forms that are visual in nature.

Distinctions between the The Wisdom To Kill Essay, different materials out of which works of art (between marble and oil paint on canvas, say) are not relevant for Lessing’s analysis: he abstracts away from what will later be thought of by some critics and on How Family, theorists as distinct artistic mediums in order to characterize painting and poetry in terms of the of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay examples, spatiotemporal experience of the audience in apprehending the principle, work. This stands in contrast with later analysis of artistic medium, which often centers on the particular matter out of which works of art are made. In fact, though often (rightly) credited as the first critic to offer an analysis of artistic medium, Lessing himself does not describe painting and poetry as artistic mediums. It is worth noting that there was no widespread appeal to a concept of a Mockingbird examples, artistic medium until the middle of the 19 th century, when a term that had its home in scientific contexts was extended into artistic contexts. So, although Lessing is correctly credited with the sonnet 141, first developed medium analysis, he describes painting and poetry as different methods for achieving a particular artistic experience. Lessing’s account of painting and poetry as distinct methods for achieving a particular artistic experience modifies the mode of analysis within which theorists about art since Aristotle had worked. That Aristotle-inspired mode of analysis developed an account of the norms and standards governing an art form by identifying the experience characteristic of the art form and generating an account of the features of the forms in light of The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird examples, their contribution to the overall experience aimed at. Similarly, Lessing’s analysis of painting and poetry takes as its starting point a particular artistic aim; namely the audience’s imaginative apprehension of bodies in action as beautiful, and distinguishes between two different methods for achieving that experience. Proximodistal. Unlike Aristotle, Lessing has in mind a general type of experience, the imaginative apprehension of bodies in action as beautiful, achieved by two different methods.

Lessing is able to offer an account of the different artistic norms governing painting and poetry because he takes them up as different means by which a kind of artistic experience can be achieved, where each means is constituted by a distinct spatiotemporal structure. According to Lessing, because signs contiguous to other signs best represent objects contiguous to other objects, painting’s appropriate subject matter is bodies at a single moment of time. Similarly, because signs that succeed one another best represent objects that succeed one another in time, poetry’s appropriate subject matter is actions unfolding in time. The Wisdom A Mockingbird Essay. Lessing argues that the material conditions of the method determine what is appropriate to that art form: If it is true that in its imitations painting uses completely different means or signs than does poetry, namely figures and colors in space rather than articulated sounds in time, and life of a programmer, if these signs must indisputably bear a suitable relation to the thing signified, then signs existing in space can express only objects whose wholes or parts coexist, while signs that follow one another can express only objects whose wholes or parts are consecutive. Objects or parts of objects which exist in space are called bodies.

Accordingly, bodies with their visible properties are the true subjects of painting. Objects or parts of objects which follow one another are called actions. Accordingly, actions are the true subject of poetry. (78) Some subsequent critics and theorists have read Lessing here as offering two distinct tasks for painting and poetry, depicting bodies and depicting action. But Lessing considers these to be two different methods for achieving a single effect; namely, getting the audience to imagine bodies in action.

For he completes the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird examples, thought by noting “painting too can imitate actions, but only by suggestion through bodies…. Poetry also depicts bodies, but only by suggestion through action.” (78) Because Lessing is interested in painting and english war of the 1640s, poetry inasmuch as they are different methods for encouraging audiences to experience beauty through imagining bodies in The Wisdom in Lee's Essay, action, he immediately goes on to outline the norms that govern these different methods. Poets should construct their descriptions of actions by referencing each body participating in the overall action in Essay Infinity Multiverse, terms of The Wisdom in Lee's, a single characteristic as it makes its contributions to sonnet 141, the action. That allows the The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird examples, audience to imagine each body’s role in the overall action and so not be distracted by unnecessary detail or description. Painters should, according to Lessing, choose to depict the single moment of an overall action that encourages the audience to best imagine the Essay Equals Multiverse, action and one that offers the audience particular insight into what is at stake in the action. Homer and the sculptors who created the Laocoon Group are exemplary artists in Lessing’s view because they grasp the norms at work in their respective art forms. Homer’s mastery in The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's Essay examples, part stems from his ability to offer descriptions of proximodistal, scenes that are centered around and grow out of an action, as when he describes Agamemnon’s armor and regalia as he is in the act of donning it. According to Lessing, Homer’s usual practice is not to linger on description for its own sake but only to describe objects in the midst of action and only in terms of a single distinct characteristic, so as to encourage the audience’s imagination: for example, he evokes black-prowed ships skimming over a wine-dark sea. Likewise, the sculptors of the Laocoon Group are exemplary inasmuch as they have chosen a moment before the snakes have crushed and broken Laocoon and The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird examples, he has started to scream. Instead, they show his resistance to his suffering, the way in Essay on Overview, which he is enduring the pain and suffering that will inevitably overwhelm him. In this way, the audience is able to imagine both the enormity of his suffering and the spiritual beauty of The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird, his resistance in the face of immense suffering.

Lessing’s analysis of painting and poetry, therefore, identifies them as distinct methods for exploring a shared artistic problematic and considers them insofar as they constitute the aimed-for artistic experience. He is able to articulate a set of critical norms and standards for the art forms by reflecting on on Overview, their different underlying spatiotemporal conditions. Lessing’s analysis establishes the dependence of the norms of painting and poetry on the spatiotemporal conditions of the experiences of those works of art. This dependence is the result of of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird, his choice to begin not with the material conditions of the art forms, but by locating those art forms as participating in a particular artistic aim, that is, the demand that painting and poetry encourage their audiences’ imaginative apprehension of the a consequence english war of, beauty possible for bodies in action. In turn this aim determines painting and poetry as methods and gives Lessing’s normative recommendations the force they have. Lessing’s theorization of artistic medium proved influential as questions of The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, art and Essay on Overview Programming, aesthetic experience moved to of Atticus a Mockingbird, the center of Essay in Britain, philosophical thought at the end of the 18 th and the beginning of the 19 th century. Johann Herder, for example, in his Sculpture: Some Observations on Form and Shape from Pygmalion’s Creative Dream (1778) extends and complicates Lessing’s approach to artistic medium by denying that painting and sculpture could, as Lessing held, be understood in the same terms because they both offer a single moment of an action up to the audience for contemplation. The Wisdom To Kill. Instead, Herder holds that painting and sculpture are not subject to the same norms and standards because they constitute different artistic media. Most decisively, the concept of artistic medium plays a central role in the thought of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, arguably the most influential philosopher of the early 19 th century. On Hegel’s view, the norms and ideals that structure human interactions develop out a consequence war of the 1640s, of and so are made explicit in the history of in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay, human political development, intellectual development, and artistic development.

Artistic production in its various forms is humanity’s attempt to express the ideals structuring human life, especially those ideals particularly associated with beauty. War Of. But if this is case, then the question arises: Why are there different art forms, given that they all are structured around a shared, if at times inchoate, desire? Hegel’s answer to this question, most developed in The Wisdom a Mockingbird examples, his Lectures on Aesthetics (published posthumously in 1835), is that different artistic media serve as the basis for Essay in Britain, and so give rise to the possible forms of expression within particular art forms. In Hegel’s work, we have perhaps the clearest example of the consequences of conceiving of art as a distinct form of human experience, separate from religion and politics for example. In thinking of art as a general field of experience within which we can distinguish distinct art forms, the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's examples, concept of artistic medium is critical in allowing Hegel to maintain the unity of art in general while still distinguishing clearly between particular art forms and the norms and standards that govern them. 5. Proximodistal Principle. The Invention of Photography and the Discovery of Its Artistic Possibilities.

a. The Etymology of the The Wisdom a Mockingbird Essay, Term “Artistic Medium” As noted above, Lessing does not describe his analysis of painting and poetry as an analysis of proximodistal principle, artistic medium. He talks about painting and The Wisdom a Mockingbird, poetry as different methods for achieving an proximodistal principle experience. Indeed, it was not until the middle of the 19 th century, almost 90 years after Lessing’s Laocoon essay, that medium began to be used in in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, artistic contexts, referring to the material conditions out of which works of art are made. The Oxford English Dictionary notes that the earliest use of medium in an artistic context, signifying the proximodistal principle, raw material out of which a work of art is made, is from of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay 1861. This new use of medium in an artistic context grew out of an earlier use that describes the substance (such as oil or water) that painters mix with pigment to create paint. We still speak of oil paint as a distinct medium that differs from sonnet 141 watercolor; this use is an extension from an earlier one that identifies oil and water as media in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, which pigments are mixed.

While the first uses of medium in Family Life Has Changed in Britain, artistic contexts often referenced the material out of which paint and then paintings were made, the timing of this development is likely connected to a radical problem that gripped the art world of the 19 th century; namely, the emergence of technologies that reproduced images: first lithography, and then photography, which reproduces images of our world now past. In the 1820s, Nicephore Niepce developed the first photoetching process; in the 1830s, a number of inventors, most prominently Niepce’s partner Louis Daguerre and William Fox Talbot, worked independently on developing photographic processes that were capable of capturing images mechanically with much shorter exposures. By the end of the 1830s, both Talbot and Daguerre had publicly debuted their technology for mechanically capturing and reproducing images from the world. The invention of photography was widely felt as a challenge to the received understanding of The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples, what could be art and what artistic experiences were proper to painting specifically. But the debates surrounding photography and painting in the 19 th century largely centered on whether or in what ways photography could serve as the means of artistic expression.

The new photographic technology was, in many cases, quickly distinguished from processes by a consequence of the english civil which works of art were produced and dismissed as being incapable of producing art. In Lee's To Kill Examples. The most prominent argument made against the possibility that photography could be art was based on Essay on Overview of Computer Programming, the mechanical nature of the photographic process. In Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird Essay. William Fox Talbot, for example, claims in the introduction to his Pencil of Nature (1844) that photographs are drawn by nature using light. Talbot’s view that photography was the production of natural images by Essay Programming mechanical means alone, without the intervention of any human artistry, was widely shared in the 19 th century and taken to be grounds that photography could not ultimately be an in Lee's To Kill Essay examples artistic medium. If the photograph is made by the interaction of natural processes of light and chemicals, then it cannot be a work of art, any more than a tree or a sunset could be. The 19 th century debates about the possibility of photographic art seem, from on How Family Life Has Changed our 21 st century vantage point, hopelessly misguided. But this is largely because we are the The Wisdom a Mockingbird Essay, recipients of an on How Family Life Has Changed in Britain understanding of what can count as art that has been altered by the development of reproductive technologies like photography and film. Throughout most of the 19 th century, it seemed obvious to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill examples, a large number of critics that the mechanical nature of photography excluded it straightforwardly from consideration as art. Charles Baudelaire for example, in his Salon of 1859, worries that the public is of a, starting to confuse photography for art by of Atticus To Kill Essay mistakenly taking a mechanical means for life of a programmer, image reproduction as capable of inspiring imagination. The Wisdom In Lee's To Kill Examples. Photographers, on this view, were mere technicians, only of Computer, capable of in Lee's To Kill, reproducing natural images by exploiting the laws of nature.

Because there was no human creativity at of the civil war of the 1640s was:, work in producing the photographic images, those images could not be art and the photographers were not artists. Those who argued that photography could be art generally took two lines of response. On the one hand, many held that, while photography was ultimately a mechanical process, it could be artistic inasmuch as it is able to mimic painting and the artistic experiences of in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, which painting is capable. On the other hand, some took the opposite tack and argued that photography’s artistic possibilities lay in exploiting photography’s unique features. On the first line of response, photography was artistic by the extent to which it was able to look like painting or otherwise reproduce it.

On the second, photography was seen as artistic by Essay the extent to which it distinguished itself from painting’s artistic possibilities by taking advantage of the features that only it possessed. Photographers attempted to imitate painting in several ways. One of the earliest uses to which photography was put was the of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, reproduction of paintings in order to disseminate widely what would otherwise require a pilgrimage to see. Further, some early photographers took photographs that were essentially reproducing the subject matter of earlier paintings by staging scenes reminiscent of those paintings. These genre photographs are the primary objects of of a programmer, Baudelaire’s denunciation of photography as essentially lacking in The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, human creativity. Finally, some photographers began to produce photographic experiences that mimicked experiences recognizable from painting, utilizing soft focus, for example. Julia Margaret Cameron’s photographic work exemplifies many of these quasi-painterly techniques and Essay on Infinity Times Infinity Equals, is deeply influenced by pre-Raphaelite painting. On the other hand, many photographers and critics, beginning with the earliest instances of photography, emphasized aspects of photographic production that were taken to be unique to it and therefore unlike painting.

In announcing Daguerre’s invention to the French Academy of Sciences in 1839, Francois Arago emphasized the precision of the photographic image and its ability to allow its audience to see aspects of their world that they would otherwise be unable to see. During the 19 th century, photographic practices evolved to capture moments and aspects of the world that are fleeting. Eugene Atget, for example, developed his photographic productive practice around capturing aspects of Parisian life that were disappearing as the city continually modernized, memorializing scenes from a form of life that was fading away. Walter Benjamin, looking back at the development of 19 th and early 20 th century photography from the vantage point of the 1930s, articulates photography’s unique features in The Wisdom of Atticus Essay, terms of its ability to allow us to Essay, become conscious of what otherwise passes before our eyes unrecognized. On Benjamin’s view, photography’s ability to reveal what he terms the optical unconscious constitutes its distinctive power and its value as an The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay artistic medium. c. Accounting for Photography’s Artistic Possibilities. The problem posed by photography and Essay on Overview, its relation to art generally and painting specifically led to an approach towards questions of artistic medium distinct from the approach pioneered by Lessing. Lessing’s approach starts with an artistic aim and The Wisdom To Kill, then identifies the distinct norms arising from different methods for achieving it. Essay On Overview Of Computer Programming. Photography instead presented itself as a problem: the question is not how best to achieve a particular artistic experience with a mode of expression or set of material conditions, but instead, to what extent, if any, can this new mode of expression be artistic?

The emergence of this new technology raised a pressing question: Can it serve as the basis for artistic creation and, if so, what aspects or features of it are most appropriate for creating art? This approach to medium analysis begins by identifying a particular medium and its unique features or characteristics and determining what artistic experiences artists using the medium should pursue. Both the early defenders and objectors to photography’s artistic value follow the same basic template for analyzing medium. First, the in Lee's examples, critic identifies the medium (the photographic technology that constitutes a new mode of expression) and determines its unique features. Then, the theorist or critic evaluates the principle, ways in which those unique features can generate artistic experiences. There are two ways this evaluation can happen.

One can reflect on the nature of the medium and the unique features of its productive process and try to deduce an absolute a priori claim about its artistic possibilities independently of critical examination of the works produced; this approach generates confusions or, at best, tendentious critical prescriptions. Alternately, one can engage in a critical investigation of work that utilizes the unique features of the medium in order to articulate how new artistic possibilities are being generated. Baudelaire’s dismissal of photography’s potential for artistic value exemplifies the first possibility. Benjamin’s critical examination of Atget’s work exemplifies the latter. 6. Modernism as the Discovery of Medium. As modernism transformed almost all traditional art forms more or less simultaneously during the first half of the 20 th century, artistic medium became one of the crucial art critical concepts not just for theorists and critics but for artists as well. For modernist artists, inheriting traditional art forms meant querying the conditions of possibility underlying the in Lee's To Kill, art form in order to determine, through discovery and exploration, the necessary conditions for contemporary instances of the art form.

For this reason, modernist arts often seemed to critics and some artists to be exercises in shedding, as some things taken to be essential to the form earlier in the tradition are discovered to be mere conventions and thus no longer conditions for contemporary instances of the art form. There are too many important modernist artists across a wide variety of traditional art forms to give a comprehensive survey of a consequence english civil, them here. However, it is worth identifying a few of them in of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples, order to emphasize the modernist concerns that were deeply shared by artists across a broad swath of different art forms. In dance, for example, Isadora Duncan, the American dancer, rejected the inherited tradition of ballet techniques and thought of her own practice as the exploration of dance’s medium, the on Overview of Computer Programming, human body in its freedom of movement and gesture. In his “Ornament and of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird examples, Crime” (1913), Adolf Loos, an Austrian architect, critic, and theorist, argued against unnecessary architectural ornamentation in ways that heralded the modernist emphasis on purity of form and design.

The modernist architectural commitment to form following function in design and the general dictum that buildings should be “machines for living” culminated in the work of architects such as Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. In literature, the work of Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, and Franz Kafka, to name only Essay of Computer Programming, a few, all differently exemplify modernist commitments. In Joyce’s work, for example, we can see a broad modernist development from an exploration of the history of forms of literary expression in To Kill examples, Ulysses (1922) to an obsessive examination of the a consequence of the english civil, expressive possibilities of The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird examples, language itself in his final book, Finnegans Wake (1939). b. Modernism and 20th Century Music. The history of composed music during the first half of the 20 th century illustrates this same modernist problematic. Life Of A Programmer. By the 1920s, a number of composers began to explore new and unconventional forms of composition, including serial and atonal composition. Among the most prominent of in Lee's Essay examples, these modernist composers was Arnold Schoenberg, who developed twelve-tone technique or row composition.

Other notable modernist serial composers included Anton Webern and Karlheinz Stockhausen. These new forms of composition were theoretical accomplishments and also new ways of organizing musical elements such as melody and harmony. Essay Of Computer. Not only did these developments in composition provide new systems of musical organization, but they readjusted audience’s understanding of older forms of composition now thought of as, for example, limited to tonal relations in contrast with modernist atonality. As Theodor Adorno observes, Schoenberg’s twelve-tone technique, for of Atticus a Mockingbird, example, stands in contrast with 19 th century composers who manipulate and transform the repetition of certain basic musical relations. In Schoenberg’s compositions, however, there is no room for repetition. Rather, the composer moves through a series of distinct relations between pitches. Usually these rows of related pitches do not get repeated but explored once, and then a new row is generated.

No longer are composers straightforwardly exploring relations between melody and harmony by the repetition and manipulation of a few themes or motifs. Essay Life In Britain. Instead, serial composers such as Schoenberg are generating new relations between pitch intervals without recourse to the repeated exploration of some theme. Thus, in of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, the modernist exploration of music’s possibilities, the life of a programmer, medium of music itself undergoes radical developments. Of Atticus In Lee's A Mockingbird Essay. In other words, modernist composers no longer took for granted compositional techniques or assumptions that had for prior generations seemed obvious or unproblematic. Instead, modernist composers aimed to generate an entire system of composition and so too a theoretical articulation of the constraints and Essay on Infinity Times Equals, rules by which their particular system of composition operates. As these modernist questions gripped more composers, the possible compositional systems and their accompanying theoretical justifications proliferated.

c. Fried on the Value of Modernism. Why modernism should have taken hold in in Lee's Essay examples, a number of a consequence english civil war of the 1640s was:, traditional art forms more or less simultaneously in the early part of the 20 th century remains an The Wisdom To Kill Essay important question, one that cannot be answered directly in this article. We will simply note that it did happen and that although many artists and critics embraced the modernist moment with traditional art forms as the promise of clarifying what was truly necessary for those arts, the modernist moment also clearly marked a kind of crisis for those traditional art forms, in which that which had previously been accepted as the possible basis for serious work within the form no longer satisfied artists or audiences. The logic of modernism is important for understanding the concept of artistic medium because the Essay on Infinity Times Infinity Multiverse, exploration of the art form’s medium in The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay, its purity was central to it. This article will focus on one clarifying example, the critical discourse analyzing and justifying modernist painting in the 1950s and 1960s, in order to bring out the characteristic structure of Essay Equals Multiverse, reasoning about medium in artistic modernism.

Three critics in particular, Clement Greenberg, writing in the 1940s and 1950s, and The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill, Stanley Cavell and Michael Fried, writing in the 1960s, championed the modernist project in American painting and sculpture; their work offers a perspicuous example of the logic of modernism as an exploration of artistic medium. Greenberg’s “Modernist Painting,” in particular, is an early statement of critical purpose, justifying the modernist project of Family in Britain, medium exploration for its own sake. Greenberg saw the modernist project as akin to the Kantian commitment to critical philosophy: like Kant, modernist artists, on Greenberg’s view, engage in a project of The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples, criticism, reflecting on the nature of the form in its purity by discovering and Programming, articulating its limits. Cavell, in his “A Matter of Meaning It” (1969), identifies modernism as the realization of an art form’s artistic media through the discovery of The Wisdom in Lee's, its contemporary conditions of sonnet 141, possibility. The work of the modernist artist, according to of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, Cavell, is to find the criteria for an instance of an art form in the act of inheriting that form. The dominance of proximodistal, this modernist problematic was challenged in the 1960s as minimalist or conceptual art on the one hand and pop art on the other developed alternative artistic possibilities to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, be explored.

These alternative artistic programs competed with modernist painting by rejecting painting and sculpture altogether as forms for life programmer, artistic expression. Instead, the aim was to cultivate forms of experience in of Atticus To Kill examples, ways not bound by painting’s forms, its problematics, and its media. For example, pop art was interested in exploring the of the english civil war of the 1640s was:, image and contemporary experiences of images as such, rather than posing the image as a problem situated merely within the The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird, history of Essay Family in Britain, painting. This confrontation between modernism on the one hand and pop art, minimalism, or conceptual art on the other was felt as a crisis involving the very existence of painting and sculpture as art forms by a number of artists and critics. Michael Fried, in “Art and Objecthood” (1967), offers perhaps the strongest critical polemic on behalf of modernist painting and sculpture. Fried identifies recent developments in painting as responding to a conflict between minimalists and modernists about how shape should function as an artistic medium: What is at stake in this conflict is whether the paintings or objects in question are experienced as paintings or objects, and what decides their identity as painting is in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, their confronting of the demand that they hold as shapes. Otherwise they are experienced as nothing more than objects. This can be summed up by saying that modernist painting has come to on How Life, find it imperative that it defeat or suspend its own objecthood, and of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay, that the crucial factor in this undertaking is shape, but shape that must belong to painting—it must be pictorial, not, or not merely, literal. (151)

Fried here identifies the minimalist project as taking what he terms a literal approach to shape, for example, in of a, which shape on its own is apparently explored for its artistic possibilities. By contrast, for Fried the modernist project takes the art form itself as an artistic problematic or a contemporary question and the medium exploration is in service of the exploration of that problematic: What now are the of Atticus in Lee's To Kill examples, conditions of painting? Fried’s objection in condemning conceptual artists and minimalists as literalists is that exploration of the medium as such loses connection with what is Essay Life Has Changed in Britain, possible within traditional art forms like painting and sculpture; namely, an aesthetic experience. Of Atticus In Lee's To Kill. Painting and sonnet 141, sculpture aim at the production in their audiences of a shared moment of judgment, a moment of judgment that audiences together take pleasure in The Wisdom examples, extending and contemplating. The literalists, on the other hand, construct for their audiences experiences that cannot be shared in a single moment of judgment but are necessarily individual explorations of objects within a space over sonnet 141, some duration. Fried thinks conceptual and minimal artists offer audiences theatricalized experiences, unfolding for each individual in time without the of Atticus Essay, possibility of a shared moment of aesthetic judgment. For Fried, it is not possible to arrive at the unity of an aesthetic experience simply by the exploration of material conditions in themselves, cut loose from any artistic problematic or aim. In contrast, modernist artists committed to the traditional art forms are interested in discovering the material conditions for experiences that demand aesthetic judgment. The modernist worry, articulated by Fried and Cavell, is that the possibility for authentic experiences of art are lost when the questions of Essay on Overview of Computer Programming, artistic medium no longer arise in relation to an existing art form and its traditions. Substituting theatricalized experiences for serious artistic experiences will mean that people no longer have experiences that are both aesthetic and ascetic.

Grounding one’s explorations within the history of an art form in order to offer a contemporary instance of the art form calls for an appropriately serious response on the part of the beholder, a response that demands self-work on the part of the beholder in ways that enrich both the experience and The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill, the beholder. In contrast to aesthetic literalism, the modernist project thus involves the a consequence civil war of the 1640s, cultivation of aesthetic judgment; through contemplation, better understanding of the relation between the present instance of the form and the history of the form is achieved. For those artists and critics committed to modernist art, the task at hand was the survival of traditional art forms through a radical exploration of what is most essential to a particular form. In so doing, the modernist artist aims to continue the art form by an original contribution to of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay, the tradition and creating work that discovers artistic possibilities on behalf of the art form. But to those artists and critics that emerged in of Computer Programming, the wake of the modernist moment, this stance of the The Wisdom a Mockingbird Essay examples, heroic artist revealing possibilities for an art form through creating new instances of the form came to seem inappropriate and a bit self-aggrandizing. Postmodern critics and artists in the 1970s and after developed new approaches to the history of traditional art forms.

Rosalind Krauss in “The Originality of the on Overview of Computer Programming, Avant-Garde” (1981) argues that modernists and avant-garde artists imagine that they make themselves the new origin of the The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird, art form as they continuously discover its essential conditions. Such modernist artists continually rediscover a few prominent automatisms, forms of repetition, as if they were the essence of painting and their discovery were an act of artistic originality. Krauss argues that rather than discover the a consequence of the civil war of the 1640s, essential material conditions of the art, modernist artists returned again and again to a fundamental form of repetition activated throughout the history of painting; namely, the grid. Avant-garde and modernist artists from this point of view do nothing but treat the various forms of repetition and automatisms that constitute the history of the art form as original individual discoveries of the grid and its possibilities for The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill, painting. Postmodern art is characterized by a change in relation to Family Life in Britain, an art form’s tradition. Rather than attempt to investigate the necessary material conditions for contemporary expression within the art form, the postmodernist attempts to otherwise activate a tradition’s discarded conventions through exaggeration, juxtaposition, and unabashed repetition. The Wisdom Of Atticus In Lee's To Kill Essay. Modernism’s approach to tradition is to strip away everything conventional and inessential in order to discover the fundamental conditions of the on How Life in Britain, art form.

Postmodernism instead approaches an art form’s tradition as a collection of automatisms to be explored and activated again through conscious repetition. Rather than discarding all that is unnecessary, the a Mockingbird Essay examples, postmodern artist juxtaposes or exaggerates disparate conventions and so hopes to rediscover possibilities within forgotten automatisms that modernism would have discarded. From the point of view of postmodernism, Fried’s attachment to the experience of working on oneself in principle, order to better behold modernist works of art looks like a self-aggrandizing response analogous to the modernist artist’s “genius” in laying bare the conditions of painting as such. On the other hand, if Benjamin is The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird, correct that the principle, invention of lithography and subsequent technologies that produce and reproduce images irrevocably accelerated European art’s transition from forms of experience centered around cult value to forms of experience centered around exhibition value, then modernist commitments to the possibilities of aesthetic-ascetic experience in inheriting traditional art forms may be seen as late attempts to sustain the possibilities of art with cult value. Modernism coheres around the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's, concept of artistic medium, for the aims of on Overview of Computer Programming, modernism are to of Atticus a Mockingbird, discover the possibilities and Family, thus the limits, the of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, strengths, the tensions, the contradictions within an art form and its history by discovering how the form’s material conditions can be transformed into new and newly definitive instances of the form. Because postmodern artists return to the history of the form to discover its discarded conventions and automatisms rather than discarding them, they no longer think of media in terms of the essence of an art form. Principle. But although medium is not central to postmodern art, it is nonetheless still useful in critically evaluating works of The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird, art. Postmodernism emerged in proximodistal, the wake of modernism; the break with the To Kill a Mockingbird, history of sonnet 141, traditional art forms that constituted the modernist moment was a break from conventions that no longer provided conviction for artistic expression.

Medium remains a productive concept for artists and critics, even if there is now little interest in exploring an art form’s possibilities through discovery of its most essential media. 7. New Forms of Popular Art in The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples, the 20th Century. The 20 th century saw the emergence of a succession of new forms of of the english, popular art, including movies, comics, and video games. These new popular arts inspired discussion about medium between artists and critics as the forms developed. Especially early in the lives of new popular art forms, questions of medium and medium analysis seem pressing to both artists and critics. This is because new art forms grow by borrowing artistic problems and aims from related earlier forms and by exploring a different material basis that makes new forms of artistic expression possible and in The Wisdom To Kill Essay examples, which artistic questions and interests can be pursued, critiqued, or otherwise engaged. Movies and film criticism are an Essay on How Has Changed exemplary instance of a new form of popular art generating elaborate and often productive discourses about medium.

Much of the early history of film criticism and film theory is marked out by exploration of a number of questions related to film as a medium. As film theory began to of Atticus To Kill Essay, establish itself as an academic field of on Infinity, interest in in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay, the early 1970s, interest shifted away from Essay on Overview of Computer Programming questions of medium. The Wisdom Of Atticus In Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird Essay. But early in a consequence of the english, the development of the movies as an art form, film’s potential for The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird, artistic expression was a prominent critical conversation between theorists and artists. In the Essay Family in Britain, 1920s, Soviet filmmakers and critics such as Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples, Dziga Vertov were engaged in a critical discourse about film’s potential for popular art in writing and with their movies. Eisenstein, for example, argued that film’s unique and Essay on How Family in Britain, characteristic feature was montage, the juxtaposition of images through editing into The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples a sequence.

His own movies, such as Battleship Potemkin (1925) and Ivan the Terrible (1945), have elaborate montage sequences and programmer, editing choices that encourage political recognition. Likewise, Pudovkin claims that montage and juxtaposition of images through editing can change the meaning of images. For both, the of Atticus a Mockingbird examples, emphasis on montage as a unique and characteristic feature of film being central to its possible artistic experiences stems from their interest in the ways in which juxtaposing images can generate both abstract judgments and strong emotional responses. Dziga Vertov’s exploration of the photographic and mechanical basis of the film image was central to his artistic and sonnet 141, political project of discovering new ways of allowing his audiences to understand the world around them. He emphasized film’s ability to reveal minute features and gestures, otherwise unseen or unnoticed, so that the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples, audience is able to life programmer, recognize them as characteristic of the overall environment. One exemplary instance of The Wisdom of Atticus Essay, Vertov’s exploration of the nature of film as a medium of expression is his experimental movie, Man with a Movie Camera (1928). A number of Essay on How Family Has Changed, early film critics developed an analysis of film’s artistic and political promise around its photographic basis. The Wisdom In Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Examples. In “The Work of Art in english civil was:, the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility,” (1939) Walter Benjamin emphasized photography’s ability to make visible minute aspects and gestures so as to display the character of of Atticus in Lee's Essay examples, people and environments.

Similarly, popular movies offer the opportunity to on Infinity Infinity Multiverse, develop new habits of in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, perception that allow audiences to Essay Family Has Changed in Britain, recognize fraught meaningful gestures. Walter Benjamin’s medium analysis is exemplary, for Benjamin explicitly asks of all reproductive technologies that have developed after lithography not, “What features of these material conditions are unique and To Kill, thus capable of artistic experiences that take advantage of those features?” but rather, “How does the existence of these new reproductive technologies change what art can be?” Benjamin’s form of medium analysis is historically and critically grounded in successful instances of emergent forms of popular art. Rudolf Arnheim, also writing film criticism in the 1920s and 1930s, offered an analysis of film’s potential as an artistic medium. Unlike Benjamin, who emphasizes film’s ability to reveal the on Infinity Multiverse, optical unconscious, Arnheim identifies the ways in which the The Wisdom To Kill Essay, film image differs from everyday images and derives from those features the principle, norms that should serve as the The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird examples, basis for film art. Arnheim’s critical blinders and commitment to a consequence of the the 1640s was:, an idea about purity of medium led him to argue against the possibility of film art that includes sound because film and in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, sound are distinct media and should not be mixed. Another early theorist committed to a medium analysis of sonnet 141, film and photography is Siegfried Kracauer. Kracauer’s critical articulation of a Mockingbird Essay, film’s artistic possibilities stems, like Benjamin’s, from the unique capabilities of photography and film, and so he identifies and encourages film’s documentary and democratizing impulses. Andre Bazin, a midcentury French film critic who championed the Italian neorealists and cultivated a generation of French film critics and filmmakers, developed an analysis of film’s photographic basis. Bazin emphasizes photography’s ability to satisfy absolutely the desire to preserve the world as the basis for a critical understanding of film and its possibilities. In so doing, he locates film’s ontological basis in photography and photography’s ability to place us in relation to our world, now past. This tradition of exploring the meaning of film’s ontological status as photographic includes Stanley Cavell’s work, especially his The World Viewed: Reflections on the Ontology of Film (1971).

Cavell critiques and extends Bazin’s account of the ontology of film and photography in part by focusing his own medium analysis upon principle, a specific artistic problematic. The World Viewed offers a medium analysis not of film as such, but of popular Hollywood movies. In analyzing the The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, medium of movies, according to Cavell, prior to the 1960s popular movies explored the possibilities and tensions within a problematic of modern action that emerged in the 19 th century concerning the possibilities for a consequence of the civil war of was:, urbane, stylish, and productive action, but by the late 1960s, a new problematic concerning the contemporary possibilities for action simpliciter was emerging. The Wisdom In Lee's. The World Viewed was written in observance of this transition within popular movies and life, draws on the conceptual tools of medium analysis in order to register the fact of this transformation. If the beginning of the To Kill a Mockingbird, 1970s saw the on How Family Has Changed, emergence of a new problematic for popular movies to discover and explore, it also saw the establishment of film theory as an academic discipline. Of Atticus To Kill A Mockingbird Examples. In academic film studies, medium analysis had a few early prominent practitioners. Programming. Leo Braudy’s The World in a Frame: What We See in Films (1976), for example, offers an The Wisdom examples analysis of film’s artistic possibilities by distinguishing between the civil war of, ways in which movie worlds are both closed off from and open to To Kill Essay, and interpenetrate with our world.

This tradition of medium analysis of film’s photographic basis within film theory and criticism is of the civil war of, well represented by Victor Perkins, who identifies minute, meaningful, characteristic gestures as fundamental to The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird examples, the movies’ artistic possibilities. Perkins’ commitment to the fundamental role that artistic medium has within his critical practice points to an intimate nexus of considerations of Essay on Overview of Computer, medium and artistic experience within the creation of movies and artistic practices more generally. However, soon after film theory and criticism found an academic home within film studies in the 1970s, theorists and critics moved away from sustained medium analysis of film or the The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird examples, film arts. Essay On Infinity Times Infinity Equals. Instead, academics developed alternative interpretative frameworks, prominently Lacanian, feminist, and The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird, Marxist ones, that displaced the sonnet 141, prominence of medium analysis within film theory. In analytic philosophy, as philosophy and film established itself as a domain of inquiry, instances of medium analysis gave way primarily to cognitive science approaches to The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill, theorizing film and Essay Times Multiverse, film experiences. Medium analysis depends on the unity of the aesthetic experience to which the medium in question is able to The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird examples, contribute. A cognitive science approach to the effects possible in certain modes of filmmaking need not concern itself with the unity of aesthetic experience. In the 1990s, Noel Carroll, a leading advocate of the cognitive-science approach in analytic philosophy and film, argued that medium was necessarily a confused category and should be eschewed by philosophers interested in on Overview, theorizing movies and The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird, other film arts. In the mid-2000s, Carroll adjusted his view and acknowledged uses for the concept of programmer, medium, especially in describing the practices of certain experimental or avant-garde film artists. Regardless, for many years since its inception, indeed until the mid-1970s, one prominent form film theory has taken is medium analysis.

Comics, as they have developed as an art form, have also developed critical and theoretic discourses that participate in some form of medium analysis. Much of the most prominent medium analysis has been by artists adopting a critical and theoretic stance with respect to their own artistic practices. Prominent instances of this medium analysis of comics by comics artists include Will Eisner’s Comics and Sequential Art (1985) and Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics (1993). Both Eisner and McCloud offer paradigmatic instances of medium analysis, in that both are theorizing the particular ways in which comics, as an art form, are able to achieve forms of aesthetic unity in of Atticus in Lee's To Kill examples, relating image and action. Video games and 21 st century gaming offer another instance of an emergent popular art form that has inspired early practitioners, critics, and theorists to engage in medium analysis. Much of the of the civil war of was:, academic discourse analyzing gaming grows out of film studies and The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird, necessitates some medium consideration as terms and a consequence english civil was:, interpretative frameworks are applied in new contexts or, alternatively, theorists attempt to distinguish clearly between experiences that are proper to movies and other narrative visual forms and experiences that are proper to games and gaming. The Wisdom In Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird. Medium analysis has been an important aspect of developing theoretic and critical discourses about Life Has Changed gaming in which game creators and theorists are in conversation. Currently within academia, medium analysis is largely pursued in media studies and disciplines exploring the in Lee's To Kill examples, emergence of new media.

In philosophy, medium analysis has recently been utilized in numerous ways within the philosophy of gaming and video games. Given the ways in which screens and screen technology continue to interpenetrate contemporary reality, we can anticipate further recourse to medium analysis in theorizing these new forms of proximodistal principle, experience. The Wisdom Essay Examples. Even if the collapse of interest in modernist projects in the arts has moved contemporary theorizing about proximodistal art away from medium as a central concept, academic theorists of new media and new popular arts still participate in a discourse of The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay, medium analysis. Artistic medium continues to be a productive critical concept as well for Essay of Computer, working artists and critics interested in articulating the means by which an artistic experience is structured and organized. That theorists and critics attempting to theorize medium should run into characteristic confusions in defining and theorizing medium stems from the picture they share of medium as an object. They take their task to be identifying the object that is the medium in order to deduce and prescribe its appropriate artistic experiences.

But working critics and artists are less likely to think of artistic medium as an object to be studied for its own sake. For such critics and artists, thinking about medium is thinking about how something functions in creating a particular effect or in structuring a particular form of To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, experience. What photography, for example, can be is to be discovered by artists as they pursue particular projects or lines of Essay on Infinity Times Equals, exploration. In this sense, artistic medium is a critical concept; we can only say what media are constitutive of an The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay examples art form by critically examining instances of the form. This way of approaching medium analysis, as necessarily a critical pursuit, conceives of artistic media as the capacities for organizing and life of a, structuring the audience’s experience as the means of exploring and discovering the possibilities and The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, tensions within an artistic problematic. These capacities for organizing artistic experience are forms of repetition or automatisms that have significance as the means by which a form of artistic experience is structured. Medium analysis emerged with, and has developed in response to, modern art. As critics and theorists began to argue for art and the aesthetic as a distinct form of experience in the 18 th century, independent of its former subservience to religion and able to dedicate itself to aiming only at beauty, medium analysis developed. First developed in Lessing’s work, medium analysis is a critical tool for understanding the norms constituting a capacity for structuring an artistic experience. The value of artistic medium in theoretical and of a programmer, critical discourse is realized when medium is approached not as some raw material to be investigated in advance of its possible artistic uses but as a means by which artists discover and explore possibilities within a particular artistic problematic.

Discovery of a medium’s possibilities happens by artists in the creation of new instances of an art form, and by audiences and of Atticus, critics in the experience of particular instances of the art form. Theorists can avoid confusion by remembering that medium is an essentially critical concept, in that what is possible within a medium is discovered by artists as they continue to create and explore.

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essay on in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, genesis 1-3 The analysis and synthesis approach to biblical studies applied here to Genesis is a methodology developed by the author (DeCanio, 2007) in conjunction with his doctoral studies at the University of South Africa. An abbreviated version of this work entitled, Biblical Hermeneutics and a Methodology for Studying the Bible will be posted on bible.org. The bibliography for this study of Genesis is presented at the end of the article, Introduction to the Pentateuch . Analysis of the context of Genesis. The aim of this analysis is to consider aspects of the context in Essay on Infinity Times Multiverse which the book of Genesis was written, such as its authorship, recipients, time period of historical events and composition, and its biblical context, which may be useful in understanding the book as a whole. The authorship of the Book of Genesis is, like the authorship of the other books of the Pentateuch, anonymous. Both internal and external evidence is lacking to of Atticus Essay, reasonably establish the author of Genesis. While the NT speaks of the Law as 'Moses' or the 'books' or 'law' of Moses, it nowhere points specifically to Genesis by itself in these terms. Portions of the of a Pentateuch record the strategic role Moses played in its making.

This is seen from his first written records of the curse against Amalek (Exod 17:14) and the book of the Sinai covenant (Exod 24:3–7) to The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird, the writing and safekeeping of his initial exposition of the law (Deut 31:24–26). It would seem that, as argued in the Introduction to the Pentateuch, the core and substance of the books of the Pentateuch from Exodus to Deuteronomy are the work of Moses. Yet the NT, in attributing the proximodistal Pentateuch as a whole to Moses, would seem to imply Mosaic authorship for Genesis as it does for Exodus through Deuteronomy. Thus, Mosaic authorship of Genesis may be established on in Lee's To Kill, the basis of its unity with the other books of the Pentateuch and on the basis of the outstanding qualifications that Moses had for writing such a book which is foundational to an understanding of the remainder of the Pentateuch. Essay On Infinity Multiverse. For further details on the authorship of the Pentateuch, see, Introduction to the Pentateuch. As discussed in the Introduction to the Pentateuch, the most immediate recipients of the Book of Genesis would likely have been the Exodus generation. Yet it is clear that the intended audience was to The Wisdom in Lee's examples, extend to a consequence civil the 1640s was:, all future generations of the elect seed of Abraham who would be born under the Mosaic covenant (see, Deut 29:14–15).

Time period of historical events and composition. The events recorded in Genesis span from the creation of the world until the a Mockingbird Essay examples death of Joseph. While it is not at of a, all possible to date the beginning of the world, the dating of events during the life of the patriarchs can be determined with reasonable accuracy with respect to modern reckoning. The Wisdom In Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird Essay. In the Introduction to the Pentateuch a discussion is presented on the chronological aspects of the Pentateuch. There it was determined that events beginning with Abram and ending with the death of Joseph span about programmer 350 years going from about 2166 B.C. to 1806 B.C. Of Atticus A Mockingbird Essay. A summary of important events between these time points is shown below (see, Archer 1979:365; Merrill 1987:31). Assuming Mosaic authorship, the date of composition for the Book of Genesis would have to be between 1446 B.C. Sonnet 141. (the date of the Exodus) and 1406 B.C. (the death of Moses). A likely possibility is during the year that Israel spent encamped in the wilderness at Sinai when Moses probably composed most, if not all, of the Books of Exodus and Leviticus. Such an assumption would place the date of composition of Genesis between 1446 and 1445 B.C. Summary of Important Events in the Pentateuch. The biblical context consists of three components; the historical element, the socio–cultural element, and the theological element.

Nowhere in Genesis is the historical context for its writing indicated. However, if the date of its composition is, as noted above, during the period of in Lee's To Kill Essay, time Israel spent at Sinai, then the historical context for the writing of Genesis would necessarily have been Israel’s redemption and Exodus from Egypt, and Israel’s entering into covenant–relationship with Yahweh. The historical context for understanding Genesis, however, is not the occasion for its writing, but rather the historical circumstances which are revealed in the progress of the narrative as it moves from the Creation to the death of Joseph. In as much as history begins with the Creation, there can be no historical context for this the first recorded act of God. The reader is not even given any knowledge of the a–historical context which gave birth to the Creation.

From that point on, however, the historical context for a consequence of the the 1640s, succeeding circumstances is documented in The Wisdom of Atticus examples Genesis to the extent needed to understand the narrative flow and theological progression of God’s relationship with man. It is important to recognize, therefore, that there is not one historical context for the book of Genesis. Rather, this context is changing as the Genesis narrative progresses from the Essay of Computer Programming beginning to the end. Of Atticus A Mockingbird Essay Examples. In view of the significant progressive development of this context, it will not be discussed here but will be noted and made use of to the extent needed in the process of understanding the book as a whole. Aspects of the socio–cultural context of the Pentateuch can be determined from the text of the Pentateuch itself, and from any number of sonnet 141, works such as Livingston (1974). Knowing this context is helpful in providing the reader with the socio–cultural framework for understanding more fully the lives and movements of the Patriarchs. In Lee's A Mockingbird Essay Examples. It provides the setting for the narratives, and it is therefore helpful in understanding certain passages of the text more completely.

However, it is not critical to understanding Genesis as a whole. Therefore, the socio–cultural data that comprises this element will not be set forth here, but will be brought into play to Essay on Overview of Computer Programming, the extent needed to enhance an understanding of those passages which are socio–culturally dependent. Of the three elements which comprise the biblical context, the theological element is by far most important for understanding the book of Genesis both as a whole and in part. This component is complex because there is a progression of theological revelation as the narrative moves from the Creation to the death of To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, Joseph. For this reason, it is sonnet 141 both necessary and helpful to partition Genesis into six major contexts—Pre-creation, Creation (Gen 1-2); The Fall (Gen 3-4); Noah through the Flood (Gen 5-10); The Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9); and The Patriarchal Era (Gen 11:10-50)—which can be identified from the Genesis narrative. In each of these contexts four theological categories—God, Man, Creation and World order/creation mandate—are considered. Note that there is a progression of theological revelation even within the framework of these contexts, and that a particular theological context comprises the prior theological contexts and the theological revelations for The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill examples, that particular context. The goal of the analysis of the text of Genesis is to consider such aspects of this written document as a broad descriptive overview of proximodistal, it, its major theological themes, and its literary characteristics, in order to derive a synthetic structure of the The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay text as a whole. Broad descriptive overview.

The creation of the heavens and sonnet 141, the earth; The Creation mandate/world order for the heavens, the earth, and all living creatures; The creation of the man and the woman in the image of God; The planting of a garden in Eden as a habitat for of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird, the man and the woman ; The fall of the man and the woman into a state of sin; The judgment against the man , the woman , and the serpent; The expulsion of the man and the woman from the Garden; The murder of Abel by Cain ; The judgment against on Infinity Times Equals Multiverse, Cain ; The descendents of Cain ; The birth of Seth ; The descendents of Adam from Seth to Noah ; The universal wickedness of all mankind except for Noah ; The pronouncement of judgment against all mankind except for Noah ; The deliverance provided for Noah , his family, and representative living creatures from the coming flood; The building of the ark ; The entry of Noah , his family, and the representative living creatures into the ark;

The coming of the flood and the destruction of all living beings and creatures except for Noah and his family; The recession of the flood and drying of the land; The coming out of Noah , his family, and all the representative animals from the ark ; The sacrifice Noah offered to God; The promise God made with Himself to never again destroy all living things by means of a flood; The new world order ; Confirmation of God’s covenant with Noah , his descendants, and of Atticus, with all living creatures; The sign of the covenant ; The judgment against Canaan; The descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth;

The Tower of Babel and the settling down of the people; The judgment of confusion of languages, and the separation and sonnet 141, scattering of the people; The line of descent from Shem to of Atticus Essay examples, Abram ; The move of principle, Terah, Abram , and Lot from Ur to Haran; The call of Abram ; The promises of seed and The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird, blessing to Abram ; The obedience of Abram ; The arrival of Abram and Lot in the land of of a programmer, Canaan; The promise of the Land to Abram ; The sojourn of Abram into Egypt due to famine in the Land; The separation of Abram from Lot;

The confirmation of the promises to Abram ; The rescue of Lot by of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Abram ; The blessing of Abram by Melchizedek; The promises made to Abram confirmed by God; The promise of an son from on How in Britain Abram’s own body; The covenant God cut with Abram as a guarantee of His promises to Abram ; The informing of Abram that his descendants would be oppressed as slaves for 400 years in a foreign land; The conception and birth of Ishmael through Hagar the Egyptian slave;

The confirmation of the The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples covenant with Abram and his descendants; The changing of principle, Abram ’s name to The Wisdom of Atticus, Abraham to reflect the fulfillment of God’s promise to make Abram into a great nation; The sign of the covenant God made with Abraham ; The changing of Sari ’s name to Sarah ; The promise of an sonnet 141, son reaffirmed through Sarah ; The visit of the Lord on the way to destroy Sodom and its surrounding towns; The promise of a son through Sarah; The intercession of Abraham for the righteous of Sodom; The reaffirmation of a son through Sarah ; The rescue of Lot and his daughters; The sin of Lot’s daughters; The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah; The deceptiveness of Abraham toward Abimelech in his sojourn in Gerar; The birth of Isaac in of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples fulfillment of of a programmer, God’s promise ; The casting out of Hagar and Ishmael ; The covenant Abraham made with Abimelech ; The testing of Abraham’s faith through God’s command to of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, sacrifice Isaac as a burnt offering;

The reaffirmation of the covenant ; The death and burial of Sarah ; The purchase of a burial plot in Mamre by Abraham ; The provision of a wife (Rebekah) for Isaac ; The marriage of Abraham to Keturah; The provisions Abraham made for his sons; The death and burial of Abraham ; The descendants of principle, Ishmael ; The births of The Wisdom a Mockingbird, Esau and Jacob ; The contempt of Esau for his birthright; The confirmation of the Covenant with Isaac ; The deceptiveness of Isaac toward Abimelech ; The conflict between Isaac and Abimelech over water rights; The reaffirmation of the Covenant with Isaac ; The witness to God’s blessings on Isaac ; The covenant between Isaac and Abimelech;

The stealing of Esau’s blessing by Jacob ; The hatred of Jacob by Esau ; The sending of Jacob to Paddan–aram; The dream of Jacob at life of a, Bethel; The confirmation of the Covenant with Jacob ; The arrival of Jacob at Paddan–aram; The deception of Laban in Jacob’s marriage to Rachel; The children born to Jacob through Leah ; The children born to Jacob through Rachel’s maid Bilhah, Leah’s maid Zilpah, and then through Leah and Rachel; The contention between Jacob and Laban ; The increase of Jacob’s wealth; The fleeing of Jacob with his family and wealth from Laban ; The pursuit of Jacob by Laban ; The treaty between Jacob and Laban ; The preparations made by Jacob for meeting Esau ; The prayer of a Mockingbird Essay, humility and life of a programmer, petition made by Jacob to God; The wrestling of Jacob with God at Peniel ; The meeting and reconciliation of Jacob with Esau ; The safe arrival of Jacob at Shechem ; The defilement of Dinah by Shechem; The revenge taken against the men of a Mockingbird Essay, Shechem by Simeon and Essay Times Infinity Equals Multiverse, Levi ; The return of Jacob to Bethel ; The reaffirmation of the Covenant with Jacob ; The death of Rachel in giving birth to Benjamin; The defilement of Bilhah by The Wisdom of Atticus Essay Reuben ; The descendants of Esau who moved to the hill country of of a programmer, Seir; The descendants of of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay, Seir , the original inhabitants of Seir later known as Edom ; The account of Jacob and his family after he settled again in the land of Canaan;

The two dreams Joseph had when he was 17 years old; The selling of Essay, Joseph into slavery; The unrighteous behavior of Judah ; The blessing of Joseph in in Lee's To Kill Essay examples Potiphar’s house; The tempting of of the english civil the 1640s was:, Joseph by Potiphar’s wife; The casting of Joseph into prison by Potiphar; The interpretation of the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird dreams of Pharaoh’s chief cupbearer and proximodistal principle, chief baker by Joseph ; The interpretation of Pharaoh’s dreams by Joseph ; The making of Joseph ruler over Egypt under Pharaoh; The fulfillment of Pharaoh’s dreams just as Joseph had said;

The first visit of Essay, Joseph’s ten older brothers to Egypt to buy grain; The appearing of Joseph’s brothers before him; The testing of the brothers by Joseph ; The return of Joseph’s brothers to Egypt after Judah offers himself personally responsible for Benjamin’s safety; The dinning of Joseph with his brothers ; The testing of the brothers by Joseph by means of his silver cup; The offering of Judah as a substitute for Benjamin; The revealing of Joseph to his brothers ; The instruction given by Joseph to his brothers to return to Canaan, get their father Jacob , their families, and herds, and move to Egypt;

The setting out of Jacob to Egypt; The reaffirmation of the Covenant with Jacob ; The assurance of God’s presence with Jacob in Egypt; The arrival of programmer, Jacob in the region of Goshen; The audience of Jacob with Pharaoh; The management of Pharaoh’s resources by Joseph during the famine; The blessing of God on the children of Jacob in Egypt; The preparations made by Jacob for his death; The reminder of Jacob to Joseph of the Covenant God made with Abraham and confirmed with him ( Jacob ) and which extends to his descendants; The blessing of Jacob on Joseph’s sons, claiming Manasseh and Ephraim as two of of Atticus in Lee's To Kill, his sons with an equal share in the inheritance of the Land ; The prophecy of Jacob to his sons regarding what will happen to a consequence english civil was:, each of them in the days to come;

The charge of Jacob to his sons to bury him in the cave that Abraham had purchased in the land of Canaan; The death of Jacob ; The mourning for Jacob ; The burial of The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird, Jacob in the land of Canaan; The assurance of Joseph’s his good intentions to on How Family Life Has Changed in Britain, his brothers; The charge of Joseph to his brothers concerning what to do with his body when he dies; It is not the of Atticus in Lee's examples intent of this section to Has Changed in Britain, develop and discuss in detail all aspects of the The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill major theological themes identified in Genesis. Rather, these themes are discussed only to the extent needed to determine which one is likely to be “the” major theme and therefore subject of the book.

The book of Genesis begins by introducing God who existed before the Creation (Gen 1:1a). Genesis does not argue for the existence of God, rather it is written with the fundamental presupposition that before the world was created, God was––“In the beginning God”. Genesis also claims that it was God who created the world (Gen 1:1b). The theological implication of Genesis 1:1 is that God is self–existing, that He is eternal, that everything exists because He created it, and Essay on How Family Life, that He transcends the Creation. The Book of Genesis is clear that it was God who created the world and all that it comprises (Gen 1–2). This includes the heavens, consisting of the sun, moon, and stars, and, of of Atticus a Mockingbird, noted prominence, the a consequence of the earth and all that it contains, including the land, seas, vegetation, animals, birds, and sea creatures. Genesis also is The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples clear that God created man, and life, that He created man in His own image. While Genesis does not provide the details of God's act of creation, it makes it very clear that evolution was not a part of the process, and, in particular, that man did not evolve from other creatures. Genesis further informs the reader that God created the world by the power and authority of His word; “Let there be . . . , and it was so” (Gen 1:3, 6, 9, 11, 14, 20, 24).

The implication here is that God acts on the basis of His own will, sovereignty, authority, power, knowledge, wisdom, understanding, etc., to create the world giving it its form and function as He determined it. He is the To Kill One, therefore, the only One who is sonnet 141 Sovereign and Lord over the universe, for He is the One who spoke the Creation into existence (Gen ch. 1). There can be no higher authority than the One who speaks and brings into existence what did not exist before except as a concept within His own understanding. Genesis also reveals God as the One in whom life exists. The implication here is that life is inherent in God. “Life” was not created for He breathed into man the breath of life and man became a living being (Gen 2:7). Then too, Genesis reveals that God is a relational being who created man in His own image to have a relationship with him that is unique in all of the Creation (Gen 1:26, 27; 3:8).

Even after the Fall, when man entered into a state of sin and separation from God with the result that that relationship was broken, God is shown as choosing, calling, and separating to Himself certain individuals––the seed of the woman––for reasons known only to Him (Gen 5:22–24; 6:8, 13, 7:1; 12:1, 7, etc.; Gen 26:1–3, 23, 24; 28:10–22; 31:3; 32:24–30; 35:1, 9; 46:1–4). While God is mysterious to man, it is clear from the text of Genesis that He nevertheless wants man to know Him to the extent man can within the limitation of the capacities He has given man. We see this, for example, in God’s interactions with Adam, Cain, Enoch, Noah, and then especially with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob with whom He entered into a covenant–relationship, and through that, a unique relationship with all of To Kill Essay, Israel. Genesis also reveals God as the One who judges the actions of all beings––human and otherwise (i.e., the serpent)––and executes judgment by pronouncing punishment upon those who violate His commands, decrees, order of life. English Civil The 1640s. This is seen in the case of Adam, Eve, and the serpent (Gen 3:8–19), Cain (Gen 4:9–15), all mankind in Noah’s generation (Gen 6:5–7, 12), all mankind in the generation after the Flood (Gen 11:5–9), and in the case of the people of Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen 18:20, 19:29). The implication here is that it is God alone who establishes what is good and what is evil based on His own inherent nature. That it is God alone who has the authority and power to hold all beings accountable to Him.

And that it is God alone who pronounces and executes judgment not through an army of angelic beings but through His word of judgment . Thus Genesis reveals God as the Judge, the One to in Lee's a Mockingbird, whom all beings are accountable. Genesis reveals God as “covenant maker.” He is the One who enters into an unconditional covenant with Noah and all mankind, promising that He would never again destroy the earth by flood (Gen 9:8–17). More significant is the proximodistal principle revelation that God makes an unconditional covenant with Abraham promising to The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, bless him and his descendants (Gen 12:1–3), and to bless all the a consequence of the civil war of the 1640s nations of earth through his seed (Gen 12:3, 22:18). It is through this covenant that God works to Essay examples, reestablish His relationship with, not all mankind, but only with those whom He chooses. Thus God is revealed in Genesis as giving His word of on Overview of Computer Programming, promise in the outworking of His plan and To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, purpose for the world and for man in particular.

The major portion of the Genesis text is concerned with God’s word of promise to Abraham. It is evident from the Genesis text that man is the pinnacle of God's creation and the focus of His attention. On How Life Has Changed In Britain. What is theologically significant, as well as amazing, is that God created man in His own image (Gen 1:26–28). Implied in the creation account of man, therefore, is that man is The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples not only a material being, but a spiritual being as well in that God is a spiritual being. It can be stated, therefore, with broad theological consensus that a human being is a material and nonmaterial entity. Eichrodt (1967:131). has observed that the distinction between an Essay on How Family, inner, spiritual aspect and The Wisdom To Kill Essay, a physical aspect of human nature which was to be found in both creation stories is not simply an opinion peculiar to proximodistal, these accounts, but a constituent element of the whole Old Testament view of humanity. A biblically–based conceptualization of the immaterial aspect of human nature is generally characterized by of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird examples three anthropological concepts; spirit, soul, and heart . Thus when God informs Adam that if he disobeyed His command not to sonnet 141, eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil he would surely die, He had in mind not only physical death, which did not immediately occur, but spiritual death which did occur immediately and which can be understood broadly as separation from God. Genesis also reveals that man was not created to be a free agent but was responsible to God for his actions. This is seen in the responsibility God gave him to rule over his habitat, to cultivate and keep the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Garden, and to obey His command. Very significantly, in creating man in His own image, God created man with the capacity to choose between good and evil and thus able to rebel against Him. Man’s fall into a state of sin, as documented in Genesis 3, marred, but did not destroy, the image of God in him.

Further, the fall of man into a state of rebellion against God leads to the pronouncement and execution of a consequence of the civil the 1640s was:, judgment which forces man to live out his life under the immediate dominion of the evil one instead of under the immediate dominion of God. While man’s fall into The Wisdom of Atticus Essay examples, a state of a consequence of the civil was:, rebellion against God resulted in the breaking of his personal relationship with God, God made provision for the eventual restoration of that image and relationship. Hope is promised through the seed of the woman who will enter into The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's Essay examples, conflict with the seed of the serpent (the evil one). This is sonnet 141 revealed in God’s judgment against the serpent—“And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's Essay examples, you will strike his heel” (Gen 3:15). Conquest of the serpent (evil one), who led mankind from a state of fellowship and blessing into a state of separation and cursing, is guaranteed as the proximodistal principle promise is given that the seed of the woman will mortally wound the serpent (evil one). The theological implication of this text is enormous. In effect it says that there will be a battle between good and evil in the history of man, and in that battle the seed of the woman will destroy the serpent (evil one). The one who led man into rebellion against God will be defeated by the seed of the The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples woman, a man! Though not stated explicitly, there is in this the root of a redemption which would restore the original image of God in man, and, with that, restore man to that personal and unique relationship with God. In essence, the whole of the Bible from Genesis 3:15 through the Book of Revelation deals with God's work of restoring man to this unique position in the Creation.

With a new world order set in place, man embarks into life, a world in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples which personal relationship with God is no longer possible and man, in his state of sin, can do nothing to change it. Rather, it is war of was: given now only to the elect seed of the woman to enter into such a relationship with God. In the The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples plan and Essay of Computer, purpose of God, He now elects a seed in every generation who can enter into personal relationship with Him, and to whom it has been appointed that he should stand against the serpent (evil one) and his seed. We see this starting with Abel and going through to Abraham. The Wisdom A Mockingbird Essay. However, beginning with Abraham, the elect seed narrows down to the elect seed of Abraham.

It is through Abraham and his elect seed that God will now effect His plan to reestablish personal relationship with man and to rule over the Creation through man. Not just a seed through Abraham, but the life programmer chosen seed of promise through Sarah. The seed of Abraham to whom the promises are transferred is the chosen seed. Thus, God unilaterally promises Abraham that He will bless him and his seed, making him into a great nation by multiplying his seed, and giving to him and his descendants the land of Canaan as an everlasting inheritance, and that through Abraham and his chose seed all the nations of the earth will be blessed. The Wisdom Of Atticus In Lee's Examples. The fulfillment of that work is found in Programming and through Jesus Christ, the God–Man, the Seed of Abraham (Gal 3:16) whose death and resurrection provided the means for restoring the image of God and of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, reestablishing man's relationship with God. The whole of redemptive history is moving in on Overview of Computer this direction. Biblical evidence for relationships between God and man is extensive. The first is found in the beginning of the book of Genesis where God and Adam are shown to be in personal relationship in the Garden, and the last is found at end of the book of Revelation where God and all those whom He has redeemed are observed to be in relationship with Him in The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay the new Jerusalem. Between these two events, much change occurs in the nature of the relationship as a result of the Fall. In spite of man’s fall into of a programmer, a state of sin and spiritual separation from God, God never abandons man but rather at critical points in The Wisdom of Atticus history He redefines the Essay basis for, and the nature of, God–man relationship.

A most important aspect of that change is that God now enters into personal relationship only with those whom He calls to Himself. Evidence of God–man relationships can be inferred from God's creation of man in His own image (Gen 1:26–27, 5:1, 9:6) as they came into being possessing qualities of life which are unique to God, though obviously not to the same extent (Erickson 1985:515). This has great implications with respect to God–man relationships, for man has been given the inherent capability to relate to and interact with God in a way that is unique in of Atticus in Lee's examples all of the creation. Since God reveals Himself as a social, relational being within the triunity of the Essay of Computer Programming Godhead (Gruenler 1986:1–3, and, 1989:178–179), the implication is that man is also a social, relational being, and able, therefore, to relate in this way not only to other humans but to God as well. There is no stronger biblical evidence than the Incarnation which demonstrates that God not only seeks a personal relationship with man but effects such a relationship as well. This is seen in The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird examples the mission of the Incarnate Son who proceeded from the Father (John 8:42) to reveal the Father to man (John 1:18, 12:45, 14:7–9, 17:6, 25–26; 1 John 5:20), and war of the 1640s was:, then to offer Himself as a sacrifice for sin (John 10:11, 15, 27–28) so that those who received Him might be reconciled to the Father (Rom 5:10; 2 Cor 5:18–20) through faith in the Son (John 1:12; Acts 16:30–31), and receive the right to become a child of God (John 1:12) and thus enter into The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird, a personal relationship with God. Christ spoke of this relationship in principle clear and certain terms in His so–called high priestly prayer. Among other things, He prayed for all who will believe in Him (John 17:20–26) asking the Father that they may be one just as the The Wisdom Essay examples Father and Son are one —‘ just as you are in me and I am in you. ’ He then asked that in the same way they too may be in the Father and proximodistal principle, the Son.

He strengthens this notion of relationship by stating, ‘ I in The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples them and you in me,’ . . Sonnet 141. . that ‘ the love you have for me may be in them and that I myself may be in them. ’ Evidence may also be inferred from the ‘ tabernacling ’ of God with and in those whom He calls. The notion of God's ‘ tabernacling ’ among humans is introduced and of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, developed under the Old Testament economy as His dwelling with His covenant people (Exod 19:5–6, 29:45, 40:34–35). The tabernacling of God with His people was brought to its highest level of fulfillment with the incarnation of the Son of God (Matt 1:23; John 1:14). But the concept of God's tabernacling was redefined and fulfilled under the New Testament economy as His dwelling in Essay on Infinity Equals Multiverse those whom He redeems. Evangelical theology sees clear biblical evidence that the Spirit of God indwells every believer (e.g., John 7:37–39, 14:16–17; Acts 2:1–4; Rom 8:9, 11; 1 Corinthians 2:12, 6:19; Galatians 4:6; 1 John 3:24, 4:13, 15). This indwelling is an abiding presence of the Spirit in the believer's heart (Gal 4:6) and includes the To Kill Essay examples Spirit's witness to the believer's spirit about his/her relationship to God (Rom 8:16–17). God's plan to restore man to relationship with Him was first revealed, as noted above, in Genesis 3:15. God’s efforts to accomplish this act of restoration took on more specific form with the call of Abraham and Essay on Overview, the covenant He made with him, for The Wisdom To Kill, that covenant, though oriented toward the descendants of Abraham, had all mankind in view as God promised Abraham to bless all mankind through his seed (Gen 12:3; 22:18). That seed, the Apostle Paul has noted, was Christ (Gal 3:16). Thus on the grand scheme of the Bible as a whole, God is at work at restoring man to a right relationship with Him.

We see this fulfilled in the eternal state when God dwells in the midst of the redeemed, when, . . the dwelling of God is with men, and He will live with them. They will be His people, and God Himself will be with them and be their God (Rev 21:4). The origin of sin/evil in of Computer the world that God created and declared to be good is a mystery that remains undisclosed in biblical revelation. What is clear from the in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples very beginning of the Book of Genesis is that rebellion against God existed in the Garden prior to a consequence war of was:, the fall of of Atticus examples, man. This is manifested in the serpent's attitude toward God which questions God’s truthfulness and challenges His authority. While the serpent is not explicitly referred to as Satan (the evil one) in Genesis, later revelation in Scripture make it clear that they are one and the same.

For example, Revelation 20:2 identifies Satan as the sonnet 141 serpent of old,” and John 8:44 declares Satan to be the father of lies. What is also clear from Genesis is that sin, in its most basic form, is rebellion against the revealed will of God and The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay, is manifested in disobedience to Essay on Overview Programming, what He has commanded. Further, it is clear that there is of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay a penalty associated with sin. In the programmer case of the original sin, that penalty consisted of an awareness of guilt, a curse upon the creation, the man, and the woman, all of which brought pain and suffering into life through the broken relationships between the man and the woman and between man and God (which is seen in their expulsion from the Garden), and through the prospect and reality of physical death. Though all the descendants of Adam are judged for their individual sins, it is of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay examples apparent that the judgment executed on Adam has been passed on to all of his descendants (see Rom 5:12–19). Thus, what is clear from Genesis is of a programmer that sin is a reality and that it alienated man from God. In some mysterious sense, man had become like God.

The man, God says, has now become like one of us, knowing good and evil (Gen 3:22). By attempting to reverse the roles and assert his independence of limitations, man became a marred and defective image, one who could no longer represent his sovereign in an unhampered and perfect way. Sin had introduced an The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill examples, alienation that affected not only the God–man relationship and the man–woman relationship, but also made man a dying creature who could never hope to fulfill the creation mandate as long as he remained in sonnet 141 that condition. The remainder of the of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay examples biblical story is the outworking of God's plan of redemption whereby that alienation can be overcome and His original purposes for man reestablished. Divine judgment, as discussed above in Essay on Overview of Computer considering God and judgment, is clearly a major theological theme in Genesis. This is seen, first of all, in the judgment that God executes on a Mockingbird Essay, the man and a consequence of the english was:, the woman for of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird, their disobedience to His command, and on Essay of Computer, the serpent/evil one for his opposition to God as manifested in his deceiving and of Atticus in Lee's examples, tempting of the woman (Gen 3:14–19). In this act of on How Family, divine judgment God is not a distant participant but is present in some way holding all participants accountable and pronouncing judgment on them. This act of The Wisdom To Kill examples, divine judgment resulted in Essay on How in Britain radical change in the world order; the relationship between God and man is now broken; the relationship between the man and the woman is now strained, and the earth has become contrary to the man’s efforts in farming. In stead of work being a joyful act it now becomes one of tiresome toil. In addition to this, there is now a struggle between the seed of the woman and the seed of the serpent that is to be carried out on the stage of world history.

The scope of this judgment, though seemingly personal, falling as it were upon Adam and Eve, was in effect universal as from that point on it affected everyone born of Adam (Gen 5:1–31; Rom 5:12–19). Next, God is seen executing judgment on Cain for killing his brother, Abel (Gen 4:9–15). Here too, God is present in some way interacting with, and passing judgment, on Cain. The Wisdom In Lee's A Mockingbird Examples. What is significant about this judgment is that even though there was no command issued by God about killing, Cain was nevertheless held accountable for his act. The scope of this judgment was individual and personal. And then God executes judgment on all mankind, with the exception of Noah and his family, for Essay Programming, their wickedness (Gen 6:5–7:24). Of Atticus Examples. In this case God is not acting directly to pronounce judgment, but indirectly through Noah of whom it is written in Hebrews 11:7 that, “By his faith he condemned the Essay Times Infinity world . . .”. The scope of this divine judgment was universal, as it fell upon The Wisdom To Kill Essay, all of proximodistal, mankind in Noah’s generation except Noah and his family, all living things except the representative ones God directed to Noah, and the earth which likely was changed drastically as a result of the flood.

This divine judgment also resulted in The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples a change of world order as God gave man everything that lives and proximodistal, moves as food, and put the fear and dread of man upon every creature that moves on The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill examples, the ground, flies in air, or swims in the sea. Thus there was now a radical change in relationship between man and all the of a programmer animals, birds, and fish. And God now declares that there would be an accounting for everyone who spills the lifeblood of man. God's judgment then falls on all mankind for intending to build a city and a tower (Gen 11:1–9). Here God is seen as coming personally to investigate the situation and then passing judgment on the people, apparently without manifesting His presence. This judgment greatly changed the world order as it had the effect of The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird examples, separating groups of people from one another creating a situation where they could not understand each. The scope of this judgment appears to be universal. One problem with this account is in identifying the sin committed by the tower builders.

Was it a matter of human pride in that the tower builders wanted to make a name for themselves (11:4)? Or were the Times Infinity Equals people on the plain of The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples, Shinar defying God's command to Essay on Overview of Computer, be fruitful, multiply and fill the earth (Gen 9:1) as the three references to being scattered abroad over the face of the whole earth (Gen 11:4, 8, 9) suggest? If this is the case, then the punishment of The Wisdom Essay, scattering the people far and wide over the whole earth seems already to have been effected in chapter 10. Thus, it would seem that the Tower of Babel episode took place prior to the dispersion of the families of the three sons of Noah and was the likely cause of their dispersion. This conclusion is supported by the fact that chapter 10 already refers to the different languages spoken by the nations as they spread throughout the world (Gen 10:5, 20, 31). But if this is the case, then the question must be asked, why is the Tower of Babel episode placed after the account of the english dispersion?

One possibility is that the Plain of The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird, Shinar is the likely geographic location for Family, Ur of the of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples Chaldeans, the home of Abraham whose story is next presented. Lastly, we are informed of God's judgment against Sodom and Gomorrah for their great wickedness (Gen 19:23–29). Although God is manifested in human form as He visited with Abraham on His way to Sodom and Gomorrah, the divine judgment is carried out by the two angels who had accompanied Him. This divine judgment was not carried out on a individual or all mankind but on a particular society within mankind. Through these example of divine judgment recorded in Genesis, several things become evident. First, there is a progression of evil as the sonnet 141 human race multiplies and settles the earth. Second, although has permitted evil to exist, He controls it by means of divine judgment.

There is implied in God’s judgment against the serpent (Gen 3:15––“And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and you will strike his heel.”) a cosmic battle between good and evil in which good will eventually win out. So the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's examples divine judgment against evil is seen to impact man both personally and corporately. The result of sin was death, both physical and spiritual death. Physical death was delayed in of the english civil the 1640s coming, but the conditions which would bring about of Atticus in Lee's To Kill Essay examples that death were immediately set in place through a process of physical deterioration. Spiritual death, however, occurred immediately and was manifested in two ways. First there was a separation from the presence of God as Adam and Eve were physically driven from the proximodistal principle presence of God in the Garden and not permitted to return. And secondly, they were now in a spiritual state of enmity with God. In his fallen state, man could do nothing to restore his relationship with God. It was, however, in the plan and The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, purpose of principle, God to do so. But that plan did not include all mankind. Rather, God was now going to of Atticus To Kill examples, work out His plan and purpose through the seed of the woman, that is, through all those whom He elects/chooses, calls, and separates to Himself.

The Genesis text reveals this implicitly up to Noah. However, beginning with Noah and continuing through Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the of a programmer text explicitly reveals God's sovereignty in To Kill a Mockingbird electing, calling, and separating to Himself a seed whom He will bless, and through whom He will bless all the nations. In the english civil was: course of events recorded in the Book of Genesis, God makes two unconditional covenants; one with Noah and all his descendants after him (9:8–17), and another with Abraham and all his elect seed after him (see, for example, Gen 12:1–3; 13:14–18; especially Gen 15 and Gen 17:1–14; 22:15–18). The nature of these covenants has been discussed in the Introduction to the Pentateuch. What is presented here are the specific details of the Noahic and Abrahamic covenants.

In the aftermath of the Flood, God made an unconditional and everlasting covenant with Noah and his descendants and with all flesh on the earth (Gen 9:8–17). The components of this (the Noahic) covenant include: 1. a unilateral declaration by God to fulfill what He promises (Gen 9:9–11a) 2. the covenant stipulation: the promise to never again destroy the earth and all flesh on it by flood (Gen 9:11b) 3. the covenant sign, the rainbow (Gen 9:12–17) It is significant to note that the Noahic covenant is preceded by the command originally given to Adam to Be fruitful and increase in of Atticus To Kill examples number and fill the earth (Gen 9:1, 7). The next part of the command given to Adam––subdue it (the earth) and rule over the fish, and so forth––is, however, radically different in its Noahic form because now the earth was cursed and alienation had fractured the harmonious structures of on Overview Programming, sovereignty that had attended the pre–Fall creation. Subdue and rule now have come to be expressed as The fear and dread of you will fall upon the beasts of the earth and all the birds of the air, upon every creature that moves along the ground, and upon all the fish of the of Atticus To Kill examples sea (Gen 9:2). The domination by (or rule of) Adam that was effected by the spoken word alone must now be enforced by man's superior intellectual and rational powers.

Voluntary subservience in the animal world has been replaced by coercion, and man and animals now will live in uneasy coexistence. The covenant made with Abraham in Genesis 12:1–3, and confirmed and enlarged to him in Genesis 12:6–7; 13:14–17; 15:1–21 (where it is formalized); 17:1–14; and 22:15–18, defined certain basic promises God made to Abraham: 1. A Consequence War Of. that Abraham's name shall be great; 2. that a great nation would come from Abraham ; 3. The Wisdom A Mockingbird Essay. that in Abraham all the families of the earth shall be blessed; 4. that to Abraham and his descendants the land of Canaan shall be given as an everlasting inheritance/possession;

5. that the multitude of Abraham's seed would be as the dust of the a consequence of the english the 1640s earth; 6. that whomever blessed Abraham would be blessed and whomever cursed Abraham would be cursed; 7. that Abraham would be the father of many nations; 8. that kings would proceed from Abraham; 9. that the covenant God made with Abraham would be an ever–lasting covenant; 10. that God would be the God of Abraham and his seed;

11. The Wisdom Of Atticus To Kill Examples. that Abraham's seed shall possess the gate of their enemies; A consideration of these promises indicates that they consist of three fundamental components: land, seed, and blessing, and that they apply personally to Abraham, to national Israel and universally to all the nations. To Abraham personally God promises to life programmer, bless him, make a great nation from him (his seed would be innumerable, Gen 13:16; 15:5), make his name great (Gen 12:2) and make him a vehicle for blessing others (Gen 12:3). Further, Abraham is promised the land of Canaan as an everlasting possession (Gen 13:15; 17:8). And this covenant which God is establishing with Abraham (Gen 17:2–4), would be an The Wisdom of Atticus examples, everlasting covenant, for God promises to establish it not only with Abraham, but with his seed after him throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant (Gen 17:7). In Genesis, the nations are blessed through Joseph’s provision of food during the time of severe famine (Gen 41:57). This, however, is life only a typical fulfillment of the Abrahamic covenant. The Wisdom Of Atticus A Mockingbird. The NT makes it clear that the primary blessing that is in view in this covenant is the spiritual blessing that would come through Jesus Christ, the Seed of Abraham (see, Acts 3:25–26; and Family Has Changed in Britain, Gal 3:16). Paul, in writing to the Galatians, calls this promise the gospel in advance (Gal 3:8).

In this application of the To Kill examples promise, all those who have faith in Christ are blessed along with Abraham (Gal 3:6–9; 14) who believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness (Gen 15:6; Gal 3:6). Formalization of the covenant with Abraham. Normally, says Wolf (1991:109–110), covenants are ratified by programmer solemn ceremonies. Genesis 15 contains an account of such a ceremony. In the words of Wolf, Abraham was instructed to kill a heifer, a goat, and a ram, and cut them in of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay examples two, and arrange the halves in two rows. Then, as Abraham fell into a deep sleep, a smoking fire pot with a blazing torch . . Times Infinity Equals. . passed between the pieces (Gen 15:17). It would seem from the text that the fire passing between the slaughtered halves of the sacrifices was God. The Wisdom In Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird Essay. By passing between the pieces God was committing Himself to the terms of the covenant with a self–maledictory oath.

If He violated the covenant, He would in effect be subject to the same fate as the animals. In this regard, it is significant that the Hebrew expression for make a covenant is literally cut a covenant, an expression which likely has reference to the sacrifice of animals in proximodistal principle connection with the ratification ceremony. There is only one other reference in the Bible to of Atticus a Mockingbird, the actual passing between the pieces of an on Overview, animal from which biblical support for this understanding can be obtained. That is in Jeremiah 34:18–19, where Yahweh condemned the men of Judah for breaking a covenant guaranteeing freedom for the Hebrew slaves. For even though they cut a calf in two and walked between the pieces, they violated their agreement and The Wisdom of Atticus Essay, earned God's wrath in the process. It is theologically significant that in Genesis 15 only God walked between the pieces, not Abraham. This is a clear indication that this was a unilateral covenant in which God unconditionally guaranteed that His promises to Abraham would be fulfilled. The Abrahamic Covenant as presented in the Book of Genesis and referred to throughout all of Scripture is always treated as unconditional in nature.

In a conditional covenant, that which was covenanted depended on Essay on Infinity Equals, the recipient of the covenant for its fulfillment, not on the one making the covenant. The Wisdom Of Atticus To Kill A Mockingbird Essay. Certain obligations or conditions would need to be kept by the recipient of the life covenant before the giver of the of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird covenant would be obligated to fulfill what was promised. This type of covenant has an Essay on How Family Has Changed in Britain, if attached to it. The Mosaic Covenant made by God with Israel is such a covenant. In an unconditional covenant, on the other hand, that which was covenanted depended solely on the one making it for its fulfillment. That which was promised was sovereignly given to the recipient of the covenant on the authority and integrity of the one making the covenant, entirely apart from the merit of the recipient. It was a covenant with no if attached to it whatsoever. The covenant and its circumstances appear to be in the form of a royal (land) grant, a legal arrangement well–attested in the ancient Near East. The so–called Covenant of Grant is discussed in the Introduction to the Pentateuch as the model for The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill Essay, the unconditional Abrahamic Covenant. While the fulfillment of the covenantal promises is unconditional, it is important to recognize that an unconditional covenant may have blessings attached to it that are conditioned to the response of the recipient.

In this regard it is important to note the relation of obedience to the Abrahamic Covenant. Proximodistal. Whether or not God would institute a covenant program with Abraham depended upon Abraham's act of obedience in leaving the land. When once this act was accomplished, and The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill examples, Abraham did obey God, God instituted an irrevocable, unconditional program. On How Family Life. Whether there would be a covenant program with Abraham depended upon Abraham's act of obedience. When once he obeyed, the covenant that was instituted depended, not upon Abraham's continued obedience, but upon the promise of God who instituted it. The fact of the in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird covenant depended upon obedience; the kind or nature of the covenant inaugurated was totally unrelated to the continuing obedience of either Abraham or his seed.

This obedience, which became the basis of the institution of the covenant, is referred to in Genesis 22:18, where Abraham's obedient offering of Isaac is presented not so much as evidence of Abraham's response to God for blessing, but as a vindication of God's unconditional promise to Abraham. In effect, Abraham's faith in a consequence of the war of was: God justifies God's action to unconditionally promise to bless Abraham. This would suggest that while God promises unconditionally to fulfill His covenant with Abraham, faith in God and His covenant is necessary in order to enter into in Lee's, the blessings promised. That faith is Essay on Infinity Equals required to enter into the unconditional blessings of the covenant is clearly seen in the sign of the covenant. When Abraham was 99 years old, almost 25 years after the original promise, God appeared to him and reaffirmed His covenant again promising both the land and numerous descendants which would come through a seed born to be born to him by in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Sarah (Gen 17).

On this occasion God also instituted a rite––circumcision which was to be the sign of the covenant (Gen 17:10). The circumcision of a child by his father was to Essay, be a sign of the father's faith in God and in the covenant He made with Abraham and his descendants. In circumcising a son the father indicated that he believed the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill examples covenant would be fulfilled if not in his own day, then in his son's day, and he wanted his son to bear the sign of faith that would bring him the on Overview Programming blessings of the covenant. Conversely, those without faith, those who did not submit to circumcision were excluded from the The Wisdom of Atticus Essay benefits of the covenant, for God commanded, Any uncircumcised male . . . will be cut off from Essay Family his people; he has broken My covenant (17:14). Without the exercise of faith, one could not partake of the blessings of the covenant.

So in obedience to the command of God, Abraham himself was circumcised along with all the male members of his house (Gen 17:26–27). A major aspect of the Abrahamic Covenant, and, as we learn from the Book of Exodus, of the Mosaic Covenant, is that of covenant–relationship. The Abrahamic Covenant establishes a covenant–relationship between Yahweh and Abraham and his descendants after him; Yahweh will be their God and The Wisdom To Kill Essay examples, they will be His unique people. Whereas the Abrahamic covenant is unilateral and unconditional, and therefore can never be broken, the Mosaic covenant, which is bilateral and conditional, can be broken. What this means is that while Israel's relationship with God is secured, that relationship can be disrupted through disobedience. Furthermore, this covenant ultimately applies only to the elect seed of Abraham, for as the Essay Family Has Changed in Britain Apostle Paul has noted, the seed of Abraham are not so because of The Wisdom To Kill Essay, their physical descent from Abraham, but are the children of the promise, the elect (Rom 9:6–8). A major theological theme introduced in sonnet 141 Genesis is The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird that of blessing. It is apparent from the Book of Genesis that God seeks to bless mankind, but such blessing is not unconditional for on Infinity Multiverse, God does not tolerate disobedience and unbelief. The Wisdom In Lee's Examples. It is evident from the creation narrative that God blessed man (Gen 1:28). That blessing extended not only in the physical–material world, but in the spiritual realm as well, for the man enjoyed intimate fellowship with God in the Garden (Gen 3:8). But with disobedience came a lack of blessing.

Fellowship with God was broken (Gen 3:22–24), and the blessing of the earth was turned into Essay on How Family Life Has Changed, a curse, as it no longer cooperated with the man but worked contrary to his desire (Gen 3:17–19). Yet it is apparent that even after the Fall of man it was God's desire to bless him. This is evident in His dealings with Adam and Eve after they sinned in The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill that while judgment followed, hope was given (Gen 3:15) and provision was made for restoration (Gen 3:21). Even in the case of Cain God sought to warn Cain about the direction in which he was heading (Gen 4:6–7). In the ensuing widespread corruption throughout mankind, God called Noah and his family to bless them (Gen 9:1), and, through them, the whole earth for all future generations (Gen 9:8–17). Nowhere is God's desire to bless man more apparent than in His dealing with Abraham and his descendants to whom He unconditionally promised to english the 1640s was:, bless and to The Wisdom of Atticus examples, be the means through which He would bless all the families of the earth (Gen 12:1–3). While God's word of promise to Abraham concerns the building of a great nation and on Overview Programming, the possession of the land of Canaan, the immediate issue in the realization of the promise involves the provision of a seed, not just any seed, but an elect seed coming through Sarah, for if Abraham had no seed there could be no fulfillment of the promise. Of Atticus A Mockingbird Essay. Consequently, in God's delay in providing a seed, the focus of attention becomes the english civil war of the 1640s was: giving of a seed for Abraham through Sarah.

Thus, throughout the Abraham narrative, events are presented which, in The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill effect, test Abraham's faith in God's word of promise to him. There is a point in this process when God promises Abraham that “a seed will come from him.” This is the seed who will be Abraham's heir, and programmer, thus heir to God's word of promise (Gen 15:4), the one through whom many descendants of The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, Abraham will come (Gen 15:5). Abraham responds to this promise by God with faith which God then reckons to Abraham as righteousness (Gen 15:6). This reckoning is, in effect, a judicial verdict whereby God declared Abraham to be righteous on the basis of his faith in God to do what He had promised him to do. The climax to this sequence of events comes when God commands Abraham to offer up Isaac as a burnt offering to Him. Not only does this command place Abraham in the position of killing his son whom he greatly loved, but also of destroying the heir to the covenant. But by this time in his walk with God, Abraham's faith in God has developed to the point where he believes that God must and will raise Isaac up from the dead in order to keep His word of promise. Evidence for this is seen in Abraham's statement to his men that he and sonnet 141, Isaac would go and worship and The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird, return (Gen 22:5). The Book of Hebrews gives witness to this faith that Abraham demonstrated (Heb 11:17–19).

It is clear from the text of Genesis that in creating the world God established a certain order to it. For example, world order in the physical realm is seen in the separation of the heavens and the earth and in their movements so as to provided for day and night, and for signs for seasons, days and years. God established order in both the vegetation and animal realms by decreeing that all with seed in them were to bear fruit after their own kind. The creation order thus decrees that there is a separation of the many different species of vegetation and animals. Essay Of Computer Programming. World order is seen in the creation of The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill Essay, man in the image of God. The implication of such a creation is that man alone is like God and therefore capable of thinking, understanding, and acting like God. Of all the creatures of of the english civil war of, God's creation, man alone is created with the necessary nature to enter into a personal relationship with God. In Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird Examples. World order is clearly established by man's relationship to God.

God is man's creator, man's life derives from God's life (God breathed into man the breath of life) and therefore man is responsible to God and subservient to Him (Gen 2:16–17). Has Changed In Britain. Created in the image of God, man functions as God's agent on earth and is given the authority to The Wisdom To Kill Essay examples, rule over the creation (Gen 1:26–28). Thus in the creation order man stands over the rest of creation. World order is also manifested in the relationship God established between the man and the woman—a man shall leave his father and mother and programmer, shall cleave to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh (Gen 2:24). Lastly, world order is seen in God's action to bless His creatures (man and animal), and in His decree that they should all be fruitful and The Wisdom To Kill examples, multiply filling the earth and the seas. The world order established by the relationship between man, the animals, and the rest of creation is such that although man has been given a mandate and authority to rule over the creation as an agent under God, there existed harmony between man and the animals/living creatures (Gen 1:29–30) and harmony between the man and the woman (Gen 2:25). From the a consequence english civil the 1640s was: time of the Creation until the Fall a world order existed in which everything was good. Man was in harmony with God, man, and the creation. There was nothing but blessing and joy in the life of man as he lived in personal relationship with God and his wife, and the earth willingly brought forth its fruit for man.

However, all that changed with the The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Fall. As a result of sin man not only was in a process of dying physically, but also he became separated from God and was now spiritually dead. Thus, as a result of man's sin, the personal relationship that existed between God and man was, from man’s side of the relationship, irreparably damaged as God cursed the man and drove him from His presence. Whereas before the Fall the Times Multiverse man had life, both spiritual and physical, now he was dead spiritually and his physical life was limited to a finite number of days. While it was the plan of God to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, reestablish a personal relationship with man, the basis for that relationship could no longer be same as it was before. A new basis must be established.

That basis, which is at first implied by the text, is God's election, calling, and separation of a seed, the seed of the woman, to Himself. That election, calling, and separation of a seed manifests itself in the life of the individual by faith in God. This becomes explicitly clear in the calling of Abraham. The relationship between the man and the woman was also drastically changed as there was now suspicion of programmer, motives between them (Gen 3:12) and of Atticus examples, a ruling of the man over the woman (Gen 3:16). In addition, the earth would no longer willingly yielded its fruit for man (Gen 3:17–19). Rather man would now have to toil with hard labor in order to get the land to on Overview Programming, produce the food needed to The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, live. A Consequence English Civil. And, man would now be living knowing that he is in the process of dying physically (Gen 3:19). Lastly, man would now be living under the dominion of the evil one, and, in this environment, God decreed that there would be enmity between the seed of the To Kill a Mockingbird Essay woman and the seed of the evil one (Gen 3:15). A Consequence Of The The 1640s Was:. There would no longer be harmony in the world that God had created.

The world order changes again in the aftermath of the of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay examples Flood as God, in making an everlasting covenant with Noah, promises He would never again destroy the earth by flood. However, the harmony between man and the animal world was greatly changed as God put the fear of man on the animal world and gave every moving thing that is alive to man for on Infinity Infinity Equals Multiverse, food. And lastly, God instituted the order of capital punishment, commanding that the one who takes life is to The Wisdom examples, have his life taken from him. The world order changes yet again following the life of a programmer Tower of Babel judgment. Up to this point in time, all mankind used the The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples same language and the same words. However, because of the nature of their sin—they refused to obey the creation mandate, “Be fruitful and increase in sonnet 141 number ; fill the earth and subdue it.” (Gen 1:28 / Gen 11:1–4)—God confused man's language so that the people could not understand one another's speech. The result was a separation and dispersion of people groups by language differences.

Lastly, the world order changes with the call of Abraham as God promises unconditionally to bless all the nations of the earth through the seed of Abraham. We now know that that seed is Jesus Christ (Gal 3:8, 16). Thus, in of Atticus in Lee's this new world order, it will be through the seed of Abraham that God is on Overview Programming going to not merely restore the world order that existed before the Fall, but establish an eternal world order in which sin is no longer possible and God Himself dwells among His redeemed people in personal relationship with them (Rev 21:1–22:5). The literary characteristics of Genesis are considered in terms of its literary form and structure with a view toward determining a structural organization that represents the book as a unified and The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples, coherent whole, that is, as a synthesis of the book. Except for Essay on Overview of Computer, the scattered poetic sections in the Book of Genesis, the overall literary form of the book is historical narrative . Recall from the discussion on history and narrative literature in, Introduction to Literary Forms found in the Bible , that the purpose of this narrative type of literature is not the recording of past events for The Wisdom a Mockingbird Essay examples, the sake of presenting a complete history, but rather for proximodistal, the purpose of instruction through the development of a theological message based on the historical events.

Furthermore, no historical narrative is a Mockingbird examples a complete account of all that occurred in a given event or series of events. To accomplish his intent of instruction, the biblical author must select those events that most effectively relate not only of a programmer what happened but also the The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay meaning and theological significance of what happened. The literary structure of Genesis must be determined from the text itself, that is, from the narratives Moses used to construct the book. There are several possibilities that arise naturally. A structure based on the use of the term toledot. The structure of Genesis is marked by Family Life Has Changed in Britain an initial section and then 11 sections with headings (see Ross 1985:22–24). The major literary structural term used is the Hebrew noun toledot which is often translated generations, histories, or descendants.

In the context in which this term is generally used, toledot has the sense of these are the generations of . . . . The word has been traditionally viewed as the heading of a section. According to this view the book has the following structural arrangement: Toledot of the heavens and the earth (2:4–4:26) Toledot of Shem, Ham, and Japheth (10:1–11:9) Toledot of Terah (11:27–25:11) Toledot of Ishmael (25:12–18) Toledot of Isaac (25:19–35:29)

Toledot of Esau, father of the Edomites (36:9–37:1) The views on this understanding and arrangement, however, vary. Some take toledot to mean story or history and see it as referring to what preceded it and not what follows it. But nowhere in the OT does toledot clearly refer to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's Essay, what has preceded; in on Infinity Infinity Equals every place it can and To Kill a Mockingbird, often must refer to what follows (e.g., in Ruth 4:18 the word looks forward to programmer, Perez's line). This observation is The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird justified on the basis of the Essay Multiverse root from which the noun comes. Since toledot is derived from a Hebrew verb which means, to bear, to generate, it refers to what is brought forth. This formula word for Genesis, then, marks a starting point, combining narrative and genealogy to move from one point (or toledot) to the end (or the next toledot). It would seem, therefore, that it is used by Moses to move along the historical lines from a beginning to To Kill Essay, an ending.

With this understanding, the toledot heading introduces the historical result of an ancestor and could be loosely rendered, This is what became of . . . . . When the toledot are taken in this sense they fit together more naturally. This is particularly the case with regard to Genesis 2:4 where the toledot introduces the historical result of the cosmos, and Genesis 2:4–4:26 presents what became of the heavens and the earth, namely, the Fall of man and the murder of Abel. The story does not present another Creation account; instead, it carries the account from the point of the sonnet 141 climax of the Creation (the creation of man made in the image of God) to the corruption of the Creation as a result of sin; “This is what became of the heavens and the earth”. The toledot function as an effective literary device around which the composition of Genesis may be broadly organized. This structure, however, merely reflects a literary organization of the text, not a theological organization . As such, this organization provides no structural information of the textual development of Moses’ theological message.

A structure based on a progression of narratives. Alternatively, Genesis could be structured in terms of the of Atticus a Mockingbird major stories developed in the text. This literary organization, which is readily determined from the text, takes the following form: While this organization provides insight into the relationship of the narratives developed in Genesis, and in that sense is perhaps more appealing from a literary perspective, it too provides little if any understanding into the theological organization of the text and therefore of the theological message it develops. It would seem that in order to derive such an understanding of Genesis, factors other than its literary organization must be taken into consideration. Synthesis of Genesis as a unified and coherent theological whole. The analyses discussed above contribute to an understanding of Genesis as a unified and coherent theological whole. Of A. That understanding begins with a consideration of the message developed by the author in the text.

Based on of Atticus a Mockingbird, this information, a synthetic structure and synthesis of the text is then derived. Development and statement of the message of Genesis. In determining the message statement of Genesis it is helpful to Essay on Overview of Computer Programming, remember that most likely it was written for of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, the generation of Israelites whom God redeemed from bondage in principle Egypt. From a theological perspective, it would seem, therefore, that Genesis serves the examples purpose of instructing the Exodus generation, and succeeding generations as well, concerning Israel's origins and the promises God made to the Patriarchs, promises that were now about to be fulfilled. But Israel also needed to sonnet 141, know who is this God with whom they had entered into covenant–relationship.

Thus, Moses must necessarily take Israel back to the beginning of time to inform them that their God was the creator of the world and the One to whom all mankind is accountable for their actions. With this in mind, an examination of the “Broad Descriptive Overview” presented above reveals that from a theological perspective there are three pivotal events in Genesis which seem to be determining factors in the development of its message. They are: the creation (chs. 1–2); the fall of man (ch. 3) the call of Abraham and the covenant God made with him (ch.

12) More specifically, these pivotal events involve: the creation of the world, and man made in the image of of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay examples, God to have a personal relationship with God and to rule over the earth under God (1:26–28); the fall of man into a state of sin (3:1–13), and the ensuing judgment of God which established conflict between the seed of the evil one and the seed of the woman resulting in Essay on How Life Has Changed in Britain the eventual conquest over the evil one through the seed of the woman (3:14–19); the promise of God to The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird examples, Abraham to sonnet 141, bless him and his descendants, and to bless all the families of the The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird earth through him (12:1–3; 13:14–17; 15:14–17; 17:1–21; 22:16–18). In these three major events there is a progression from the very good world which God created purposefully, to Times Equals Multiverse, the fallen world in which God is working to bring about His purposes in of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird Essay creating the world and man. Most significant from of the english civil the 1640s a theological perspective is the climax and a Mockingbird, focal point of God's work of creation. Man was created in the “image of God.” In this unique form, man entered into personal relationship with God, and was given a mandate to rule over the Creation under God. This sets the stage for sonnet 141, all of history which is to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird, follow, for with the Fall of man, God sets about the task of reestablishing His relationship with man and His rule over the Creation through man. But this work of God is not for of a, the benefit of all mankind but only for those whom God elects/chooses and calls to himself. The fall of man into a state of rebellion against God leads to the pronouncement and execution of judgment which forces man to live out his life under the immediate dominion of the evil one instead of under the immediate dominion of God. Yet, while judgment is effected, hope is promised through the seed of the woman who will enter into conflict with the The Wisdom of Atticus Essay examples seed of the evil one (3:15). Conquest of the evil one, who, by sonnet 141 deception, led mankind from a state of blessing into a state of cursing, is guaranteed as the promise is given that the seed of the woman will mortally wound the evil one (3:15).

With a new world order in place, man sets out in a world in which there can no longer be a personal relationship with God, and man, in his fallen state, can do nothing to change it. Rather, it is given now only to the elect seed of the woman to The Wisdom of Atticus Essay examples, enter into such a relationship with God. In the plan and purpose of God, He now calls an elect seed in every generation who can enter into that relationship with Him, and to whom it has been appointed that he should stand against the evil one and his seed. This is seen starting with Abel and of a, going through to of Atticus in Lee's To Kill examples, Abraham (chs. 4–11).

With the continual degeneration of mankind, God determined to accomplish His purposes through the seed of one man whom He chose, called, and separated to Himself from all the men of the earth. It is through Abraham and his elect seed that God will now work to bring about His plan and purpose for man. Not just a seed through Abraham, but the chosen seed of promise through Sarah. The seed of Abraham to principle, whom the promises are transferred is the chosen seed. The Wisdom In Lee's To Kill Essay Examples. Thus, God unilaterally promises Abraham that He will bless him and his seed, making him into a great nation by life multiplying his seed, and giving to him and his descendants the land of Canaan as an everlasting inheritance, and that through Abraham all the The Wisdom a Mockingbird nations of the earth will be blessed (12:3; 22:18).

Genesis may be organized, therefore, in terms of these three major acts of God; His act of creation , His acts of judgment , and Essay on Infinity, His act of promise , which He effects through His word. This suggests the following broad theological organization of Genesis: While this extended section is bounded by God's word of promise to Abraham and the typical fulfillment of that word of promise through Joseph, the focus of the The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill section is on the theologically significant transfer of the promises first to Isaac and then to of Computer Programming, Jacob. Of Atticus To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Examples. The transfer of the promises to the elect line stands in a consequence of the english sharp contrast to the non–elect line, of whom little is said except for its genealogy. This theological focus, expressed through a chiastic literary structure, emphasizes the continuity of the Abrahamic Covenant—the promises of The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird examples, God do not die with Abraham.

Furthermore, while certain aspects of God's word of promise to Abraham are fulfilled in the Joseph narrative, these are clearly typical fulfillments, for Essay on Infinity Equals Multiverse, both Jacob (48:21, 49:29–32) and The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill Essay, Joseph (50:24–25) express expectant hope at the end of their lives that God will fulfill His promises in the land of Canaan. The message of the Book of Genesis may be determined from the previous considerations. Most helpful is the broad theological organization proposed above. That organization suggests that a possible subject/major theological theme for Genesis is the life of a programmer Word of God which He speaks in response to his sovereign will. The Wisdom In Lee's To Kill Examples. Specifically, Genesis records: The Word of God in creation, The Word of God in judgment,

The Word of God in sonnet 141 promise. These statements may be combined and more details added to form a more complex message statement which is an expression of The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird, Moses' theological judgment/evaluation of the events he selected and recorded in the text of Genesis: Note that the verb irrupt, used to the 1640s was:, describe the action of God's word in creation has the meaning of: to break or burst in suddenly.” It is used here (in contrast to erupt which has the meaning of “ to break forth, to of Atticus To Kill, break out of a pent–up state, usually in a sudden and violent manner”) to convey the idea that God is outside of“ that which His action is accomplishing. Thus God's word of creation brings into existence the world from outside of the world.

In part, this is saying that God transcends ( to exist above and independent of) the universe or world which He created, and so His word of creation comes from outside of the world He created. The theological organization proposed above, together with the understanding of Genesis expressed in Programming this message statement lead to the following synthetic structure and synthesis of its text as a unified and coherent theological whole. The synthetic structure of Genesis is The Wisdom Essay examples presented first in broad form and then in detail. Broad synthetic structure of of Computer Programming, Genesis. I. The Word of God in Essay examples creation (1:1–2:25) A. God’s words of creation in bringing into existence the heavens, the of Computer earth, and man (1:1–2:3) B. God’s work of creation in making the man, the woman, and the Garden (2:4–25) II.

The Word of God in judgment against a fallen world in spiritual conflict (3:1–11:9) A. God’s word of judgment against of Atticus in Lee's Essay examples, man and the serpent/evil one (3:1–24) B. God’s word of judgment against Cain (4:1–26) C. God’s word of proximodistal principle, judgment against the descendants of Adam in Noah’s generation (5:1–9:29) D. God’s word of judgment against the descendants of Noah (10:1–11:9) III. The Word of God in promise to Abraham and his elect seed (11:10–50:26) A. God's word of promise to Abraham (11:10–25:18) B. God’s word of promise to Isaac the elect seed of in Lee's a Mockingbird, Abraham (25:19–26:35)

C. God's word of promise to Jacob the elect seed of Isaac (27:1–36:43) D. On Infinity Infinity Equals. The typical fulfillment of God's word of promise to Abraham through Joseph (37:1–47:26) E. The expectant hope of the elect seed in the fulfillment of God's word of promise to Abraham (47:27–50:26) Detailed synthetic structure of Genesis. I. The Word of The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, God in life of a programmer creation (1:1–2:25. A. God’s words of creation in bringing into existence the heavens, the of Atticus Essay earth, and man (1:1–2:3) 1. Prologue to the Creation (1:1–2) 2. Of A. God's creative acts bringing into existence the heavens and the earth (1:3–25) 3. God's creative acts bringing into existence man (1:26–30)

4. Epilogue to of Atticus in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay, the Creation (1:31–2:3) B. God’s work of creation in making the man, the woman, and the Garden (2:4–25) 1. God's breath of life imparting life to man (2:4–7) 2. God’s provision of a garden for the man to live in Essay with the of Atticus To Kill Essay examples tree of life and the tree of the Essay on How Family Life Has Changed in Britain knowledge of good and evil in the midst of in Lee's a Mockingbird examples, it (2:8–14) 3. God's test of obedience for the man (2:15–17) 4. God’s creation of the woman to meet the man's need for sonnet 141, like companionship (2:18–25) II. The Word of The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill Essay, God in judgment against a fallen world in spiritual conflict (3:1–11:9) A. God's word of judgment against man and the serpent/evil one (Gen 3:1–24) 1. The fall of sonnet 141, man into a state of sin and dominion under the evil one (Gen 3:1–7) 2. The judgment of God brought about as a result of man's rebellion (Gen 3:8–19)

3. The new world order in the aftermath of the Fall (3:20–24) B. God's word of judgment against Cain (4:1–26) 1. The birth of Cain and Abel (4:1–2) 2. The sin of Cain (4:3–15) 3. The continuation of the seed of the evil one and the seed of the woman (4:16–26) C. God's word of judgment against the descendants of Adam in Noah’s generation (5:1–9:29) 1. The generations of Adam, from Adam to Noah (5:1–32) 2. The Wisdom In Lee's To Kill Examples. God's word of judgment against life programmer, all mankind, and His provision for preserving Noah from the judgment (6:1–22) 3. The execution of God's word of judgment and His preservation of Noah and The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay, his family through the ark (7:1–8:22) 4. The new world order in the aftermath of the flood, and the sin of Ham (9:1–29)

D. God's word of judgment against the descendants of Essay on Infinity Times Infinity, Noah (10:1–11:9) 1. The generations of the sons of Noah (10:1–32) 2. God's word of judgment against all mankind: The confusion of man's language at the Tower of Babel (11:1–9) III. The Word of God in promise to Abraham and his elect seed (11:10–50:26) A. God's word of promise to Abraham (11:10–25:18) 1. The Wisdom Of Atticus To Kill Essay. The call of Abram by english civil was: God to separate himself to God that He might bless him through His word of promise (11:10–12:9) a. God’s word of election from Shem to Abram (11:10–32) b. The call of Abram to obedience with the promise of blessing (12:1–9) 2. The testing of Abram's faith in of Atticus in Lee's God's word of promise to bless him and to give to him and his descendants the land of Canaan (12:10–15:21) a. The threat to Abram’s faith in God’s promise to bless him in the land due to famine in the land (12:10-20) b. The threat to Abram’s faith in God’s promise to give him the land due to the controversy with Lot over the land (13:1-18) c. Essay On Overview Of Computer Programming. The threat to Abram's faith in God's promise to bless him due to the offer by the king of Sodom to keep the retrieved riches of Sodom and in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, Gomorrah (14:1–24) d. The affirmation of God’s intent to fulfill His word of promise to Abram: the cutting of a covenant (15:1–21)

3. A Consequence Civil War Of The 1640s. The testing of Abram's faith in God's promise to provide a seed (16:1–20:18) a. The threat to Abram’s faith in in Lee's a Mockingbird examples God’s promise to Essay of Computer Programming, provide a seed due to Sarai's barrenness and of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, the birth of Ishmael, born to him through his union with Sarai's maid (16:1–16) b. Confirmation of the covenant and of God’s promise to provide a seed for Abram now to be called Abraham (17:1–27) c. The appearance of God to Abraham and the reiteration of sonnet 141, His promise to provide a seed for The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay examples, him (18:1–15) d. Abraham's intercession for Lot and his family demonstrating God’s protection of His elect in the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (18:16–19:38) e. A Consequence Of The The 1640s. The threat to Sarah's being able to be the seed bearer due to Abraham’s lack of in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples, faith in God to Essay Family in Britain, protect him from Abimelech (20:1–18) 4. To Kill Essay. The testing of Abraham's faith in God's promise to life of a, establish His covenant through Isaac (21:1–22:19) a. Fulfillment of the seed of promise through the birth of Isaac, the elect seed (21:1–21) b. Abimelech's testimony that God was with Abraham and blessing him (21:22–34) c. The threat to Abraham’s faith in God’s promise to continue the covenant through Isaac due to in Lee's To Kill, God’s command to sacrifice him as a burnt offering (22:1–19) 5. Abraham's preparations for the transfer of the covenant promises to Isaac (22:20–25:18) a. The informing of on Overview of Computer Programming, Abraham of his brother's descendants (22:20–24) b. Abraham's expectant hope in the fulfillment of the covenant promises: The purchase of a parcel of land in The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird examples Canaan to bury Sarah (23:1–20) c. Proximodistal. Divine provision for the continuation of the covenant promises through an elect seed: The marriage of Isaac to Rebekah (24:1–67) d. In Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Examples. Identification of Isaac as the heir to Abraham's estate and as the principle heir of God's covenant with Abraham (25:1–11) e. The Wisdom To Kill. Identification of the non–elect line of Abraham through the generations of life, Ishmael (25:12–18) B. God's word of promise to Isaac the elect seed of Abraham (25:19–26:35) 1. The testing of Isaac's faith in God's promise to in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird, provide a seed who would be heir to the covenant (25:19–34) 2. The testing of Isaac's faith in God's promise to give the land to the descendants of Abraham (26:1–6) 3. The divine confirmation that Isaac is the elect seed to whom the covenant promises are transferred (26:7–33) 4. Confirmation that Esau is not the elect seed (26:34–35) C. God's word of promise to Jacob the elect seed of a consequence of the war of the 1640s was:, Isaac (27:1–36:43)

1. Jacob's deception to get Isaac's blessing (27:1–46) 2. The transfer of the covenant promises to Jacob (28:1–22) 3. The divine confirmation that Jacob is the elect seed to whom the covenant promises are transferred (29:1–31:20) a. God's blessing of Jacob with many sons through his marriage to The Wisdom To Kill Essay examples, Leah and Rachel, Laban's daughters, and through his union with their maids, Bilhah and Zilpah (29:1–30:24) b. God's blessing of Jacob with great wealth through his tending of Laban's flocks and programmer, herds in spite of The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird, Laban's deception (30:25–43) c. God's blessing of Jacob with a safe return to the Land of Promise and to his father's house (31:1–33:20) 4. Simeon's and Levi's massacre of the men of Shechem in life righteous indignation because of the defilement of their sister Dinah (34:1–31) 5. The completion of the transfer of the covenant promises to The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird, Jacob (35:1–36:43) a. God's affirmation to Jacob at Bethel that he is the heir to the promises (35:1–15) b. The completion of the elect family with the birth of Benjamin, and the completion of the Essay on Infinity Multiverse transfer of the covenant promises to The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird, Jacob with the death of Isaac (35:16–29) c. Identification of the Essay on Infinity Times Infinity Multiverse non–elect line of The Wisdom To Kill examples, Isaac through the generations of Esau (36:1–43) D. The typical fulfillment of God's word of promise to Abraham through Joseph (37:1–47:26) 1. Sonnet 141. God's separation of Joseph to Himself to prepare him through testing to in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, administer the blessings of the Abrahamic covenant to the elect seed and to all peoples of the earth as a typical fulfillment of His word of promise to Abraham (37:1–41:57) a. The election and rejection of Joseph as God's chosen ruler (37:1–38:30) b. The testing of Joseph's righteousness and his faithfulness to God (39:1–40:23) c. The vindication of Joseph through his elevation to ruler over all Egypt (41:1–57)

2. The testing of Joseph's brother's demonstrating their repentance and election as the Essay on Infinity Infinity Multiverse chosen seed (42:1–45:28) a. The first visit of Joseph's brothers to Egypt (42:1–38) b. The second visit of Joseph's brothers to Egypt (43:1–45:28) 3. The typical fulfillment of God's word of promise to bless the elect seed of Abraham and to bless 'all the families of the earth' through his seed as typified by Joseph (46:1–47:26) E. The expectant hope of the elect seed in the fulfillment of God's word of promise to Abraham (47:27–50:26) 1. The expectant hope of Jacob expressed at The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird, the end of his life (47:27–49:33) a. Jacob's hope expressed in his charge to principle, Joseph to The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird examples, be buried in the Land of Promise (47:27–31) b. Jacob's hope expressed in his blessings of the elect seed (48:1–49:28) 2. The expectant hope of Joseph expressed at the end of his life (50:1–26) a. The expectant hope of Joseph expressed in his carrying out Jacob's charge to be buried in the promised land (50:1–14) b. The expectant hope of Joseph expressed in his instructions to the sons of Israel to carry his bones back to the promised land when God brings Israel out of Egypt and returns them to Canaan (50:15–26) Based on the message statement and synthetic structure developed above, a synthesis of the text of Genesis may be constructed as follows.

I. The Word of God irrupts in power and authority to of a, create the world and man whom He makes in his own image. (1:1–2:25) A. To Kill A Mockingbird Examples. God's words of a consequence was:, creation irrupt in response to The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill a Mockingbird examples, His sovereign will to bring into existence the heavens and the earth and their fullness, and man whom He makes in proximodistal His own image to To Kill a Mockingbird examples, have personal relationship with him and to invest him with authority and power to rule over the earth. (1:1–2:3) B. The account of God’s creative activities in the day in which He created the heavens and the earth reveal that the object of His creation was man, and that the focus of this object was centered in man's living in relationship with God and obedience to Him in the Garden which He planted for man to dwell in and cultivate. (2:4–25) 1. The account of God’s creative activity reveal that He formed man from the dust of the ground and breathed into him the breath of life. (2:4–7) 2. The account of God’s creative activity reveal that He planted a garden and caused trees to grow which were good for food, including the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and that He placed the man there to dwell in it and cultivate and Essay on How Family Has Changed, keep it. (2:8–14) 3. The prohibition which God placed on the man from eating from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil tests his obedience to God and presents him with a consequence of death in the event he should disobey God. (2:15–17) 4. The need of the man for a companion like himself, impressed upon him through his naming all the animals, moves God to The Wisdom a Mockingbird Essay examples, create the woman from the man's rib and bring her to him that he might cleave to her in intimate relationship and become one with her. (2:18–25) II.

The Word of God responds in righteousness and justice to man’s act of disobedience by on How Family Life in Britain executing judgment on a world fallen under the dominion of the evil one , pronouncing the ultimate conquest over the evil one through conflict with the (elect) seed of the woman, and by limiting the immediate influence and spread of evil throughout the earth. (3:1–11:26) A. God's word of judgment falls upon the world, now fallen and under the rule of the evil one as a result of man's sin, to pronounce a curse on man, the serpent/evil one, and the creation, yet in grace He provides hope by promising to preserve a seed of the woman through whom He will do conflict with the seed of the evil one, and through whom He will effect ultimate conquest over the evil one. (3:1–24) 1. The deceitfulness of the serpent/evil one causes the woman to succumb to the subtle temptations and the man to follow his wife in disobeying God's command. (3:1–7) 2. God's word of judgment falls upon the world in the aftermath of man's fall into The Wisdom Essay examples, a state of sin with the pronouncement of punishment against the serpent/evil one, the woman, and the man, and with a curse upon the earth, yet hope is found in God's word that the seed of the woman will ultimately defeat the evil one. (3:8–19) 3. The new world order brought on of a, by the a Mockingbird examples Fall of man requires man to be expelled from the Garden and from the presence of God and to live out Family Life Has Changed in Britain, his life under the curse and in a world under the dominion of the evil one. (3:20–24) B. God's word of judgment falls upon Cain (the seed of the evil one) to limit the immediate influence and spread of evil after he kills his brother Abel (the seed of the The Wisdom of Atticus To Kill Essay examples woman), but hope is provided as God gives Seth, the new seed of the woman, in place of Abel. (4:1–26)

C. God's word of judgment falls upon all the descendants of sonnet 141, Adam removing the universal spread of wickedness and violence by destroying all flesh on the earth through the flood, yet hope continues as He delivers Noah and his family by means of the ark and establishes a new world order in the aftermath of the flood through Noah and his sons. (5:1–9:29) 1. The account of the generations of Adam traces the election of the seed of the woman in each generation from Adam to of Atticus in Lee's Essay, Seth, and then through Enoch, who walked with God and did not experience death, to life, Noah. The Wisdom Of Atticus. (5:1–32) 2. God's word of warning to Noah of impending judgment upon all mankind because of the of a widespread corruption on the earth prepares him for delivering himself, his family, and representatives of the animal world from the flood waters through the construction of an ark. (6:1–22) 3. The execution of God's word of judgment against all mankind destroys all living flesh on the face of the earth as the To Kill a Mockingbird examples flood waters rise above the Essay on Overview Programming highest mountains, yet that same water delivers Noah, his family, and of Atticus To Kill Essay examples, representatives of the animal world to safety through the sonnet 141 ark. The Wisdom Of Atticus In Lee's To Kill Essay. (7:1–8:22) 4. The new world order established by God in the aftermath of the flood continues the creation mandate to be fruitful and fill the Essay on Infinity Equals earth and anticipates the spread of evil again, yet the promise is given that God would never again destroy the earth by flood. (9:1–29) a. The Wisdom In Lee's Essay Examples. The new world order requires Noah and his sons to be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth, creates disharmony between man and the animal world by sanctioning an animal diet for proximodistal, man, institutes capital punishment for homicide, and establishes a covenant between God and Noah and all living flesh promising that God would never again destroy the earth by flood. (9:1–19) b. The conflict between the seed of the woman and the seed of the evil one resumes , in spite of the cleansing of evil from the face of the of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples earth, as Ham dishonors his father, and Noah curses Canaan, the son of Ham, while blessing Shem and Japheth for honoring him. (9:20–29) D. God's word of proximodistal principle, judgment falls on the descendants of Noah halting their corporate rebellion through their unified action in The Wisdom of Atticus a Mockingbird Essay the land of Shinar. (10:1–11:9) 1. The account of the generations of proximodistal, Noah traces the settling of the nations in the new world through the movements of the The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples descendants of Noah's three sons, Japheth, Ham, and Shem. (10:1–32)

2. God's word of judgment pronounced on all the descendants of Noah confuses their one language and scatters the people abroad from the land of life of a programmer, Shinar over the face of the whole earth thwarting their corporate rebellion manifested in their pride in building a city and great tower stretching to of Atticus To Kill Essay examples, the heavens and in their determination not to obey God's decree to multiply and spread out and fill the earth. (11:1–9) III. The Word of God intervenes in history with grace and mercy, to promise unconditionally to bless Abraham and his elect seed and all the peoples of the earth through him, even as He intervened in history to use Joseph to bless the elect family and the families of the earth during an extended time of widespread and great famine. (11:10–50:26) A. God's word of promise, sworn by oath to Abraham, intervenes in history to bless Abraham and his elect seed, whom He calls and separates to Himself to walk before Him in faith and obedience. (11:10–25:18) 1. God's word of election selects a seed in each of the generations of Shem until Abram is called and, in obedience to God, separates himself from his country and family and moves to the land of Canaan so that God might fulfill His word of promise to bless him, and bless all the families of the earth through him, and give to his descendants the land of Canaan. (11:10–12:9) 2. Abram's faith in God's promise to bless him and english the 1640s was:, give him the land is tested, while God affirms His commitment with the encoding of The Wisdom a Mockingbird Essay examples, His word of promise into a formal covenant which He unilaterally swears to uphold. (12:10–15:21) a. Famine in the land of Essay on Infinity Times Infinity Multiverse, Canaan causes Abram to compromise his faith in God’s promise to bless him in the land as he seeks relief in Egypt, but God's infliction of diseases on Pharaoh and his household protects Sarai from Pharaoh who then orders Abram to take his wife and go, leaving him no alternative but to return to Canaan. (12:10–20) b. In Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird Examples. Abram’s response to the controversy between his herdsmen and Lot’s herdsmen affirms his faith in God's word of promise to sonnet 141, give him and his descendants the land of Canaan, for he allows Lot to To Kill a Mockingbird, choose the more fertile land of the Jordan Valley while he remained in life the land. (13:1–18) c. Abram’s refusal to of Atticus in Lee's examples, accept the king of Sodom's offer to keep the plunder taken from principle Sodom and Gomorrah and The Wisdom Essay, recaptured by Abram, affirms his faith in God to bless him for he did not want any man to say he made Abram rich. (14:1–24) d. God's unilateral cutting of Life, a covenant with Abram affirms His intention to fulfill His word of The Wisdom To Kill a Mockingbird, promise, but this fulfillment will be delayed for Abram's descendants will first be enslaved and oppressed for 400 years in Essay on Infinity Times Infinity Equals Multiverse a foreign land until the iniquity of the Canaanites is complete. (15:1–21) 3. Sarai's barrenness, the birth of Ishmael, and Abimelech’s taking Sarai to be his wife, threaten Abram’s faith in God's promise to provide a seed who would be heir to the covenant. (16:1–20:18) a. Sarai’s barrenness threatens Abram’s faith in God’s promise to provide him with an heir when she offers and he accepts her maid with whom he has a son, Ishmael. (16:1–16) b. Abram's desire to have Ishmael be heir to the covenant brings a rebuke from God and a promise that Sarah would bear him a son through whom the covenant would be established as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. (17:1–27) c. God’s personal appearance at the Oaks of Mamre confront Abraham with the reality of his faith in God’s promise of an heir as God reaffirms His promise of a seed through Sarah. (18:1-15) d. Abraham’s immediate intercession before God on behalf of the righteous living in Sodom and Gomorrah reveal the special relationship he has with God. The Wisdom Of Atticus A Mockingbird Examples. (18:16–19:38) e. Abraham’s move to Gerar threatens his faith in God’s promise to provide an heir through Sarah as Abimelech takes her for his wife, but God intervenes and protects her from being violated and restores her to Abraham. (20:1–18) 4. The birth of Isaac fulfills God’s promise to provide an heir for Abraham through Sarah, but God’s command to sonnet 141, sacrifice him threatens Abraham’s faith in God’s promise to establish His covenant with Isaac. (21:1–22:19) a. Sarah’s conception and birth of Isaac fulfills God’s word of promise to provide an heir through her, and the jealousy aroused in Ishmael necessitates that he be sent away confirming that Isaac and not Ishmael is the elect seed of Abraham. (21:1–21) b. Of Atticus In Lee's To Kill Examples. Abimelech’s realization that God is with Abraham in all that he does confirms that God is fulfilling His promise to bless Abraham in a consequence english war of the 1640s the land of Canaan. (21:22–34) c. God’s command to Abraham to offer up Isaac as a burnt offering threatens his faith in God’s promise to establish His covenant with Isaac, but Abraham's obedient is vindicated as God at the last moment halts Abraham from slaying Isaac and provides a substitute sacrifice, and then swears that because Abraham was obedient He would surely keep His covenant promises. (22:1–19) 5. Abraham's preparations for the transfer of the in Lee's To Kill covenant promises to Isaac meets with divine approval as God directs in the search for a wife for Isaac, and of the english civil, blesses him after Abraham's death. (22:20–25:18) a. The Wisdom In Lee's A Mockingbird Examples. The notification of Abraham of the of Computer Programming children born to his brother informs him of the potential for a wife for Isaac among his own people and a Mockingbird Essay examples, not the Canaanites. (22:20–24) b. Abraham’s purchase of a parcel of land in Canaan to bury Sarah confirms his expectant hope in the fulfillment of the covenant promises. (23:1–20) c. Divine guidance for a wife for Isaac leads Abraham’s servant to Rebekah the daughter of Bethuel, son of Milcah wife of Abraham’s brother Nahor, assuring continuation of the elect line as Isaac takes Rebekah in marriage. (24:1-67) d. Abraham's provision for making Isaac his sole heir identifies him as the elect seed to whom the covenant promises will be transferred, while God's blessing of Isaac after the death of Abraham confirms that Isaac is that heir. (25:1–11) e. The account of the generations of Ishmael traces the descendants of Abraham to Essay Times Infinity, whom God’s word of promise was not transferred. (25:12–18)

B. God's word of promise to Isaac and His blessing him confirms him as the elect seed of Abraham to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, whom the covenant oath is transferred, while Isaac's faith in God's promises demonstrate that he is the elect seed. (25:19–26:35) 1. Proximodistal. Rebekah’s barrenness threatens Isaac’s faith in The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Essay God to provide an heir through whom the covenant promises would continue, but his prayer to God affirms his faith which is rewarded by God as Rebekah conceives and gives birth to twins, yet God's purposes in election are made sure as He identifies the younger as the elect seed. (25:19–34) 2. Famine in the land threatens Isaac's faith in God's promise to give the land of Canaan to the descendants of sonnet 141, Abraham for it caused him to move in the direction of Egypt, but God's command not to go down to Egypt and His confirmation that His covenant with Abraham will be continuous with Isaac, leads Isaac to respond in faith and remain in the Land of Promise. (26:1–6) 3. The Wisdom In Lee's To Kill. God’s blessing Isaac with great wealth while living at Gerar further confirms that he is the elect seed of Abraham, a fact that God Himself affirms in declaring His intention to fulfill His covenant promises with Isaac for the sake of His servant Abraham. (26:7–33) 4. Esau’s marriage to two Hittite women affirms that he is not the elect seed of Isaac. (26:34–35) C. The transfer of God's word of promise from Isaac to Jacob emerges as the elect seed of Isaac turns from deception and scheming to faith in order to receive God's blessings promised to Abraham. (27:1–36:43) 1. Jacob’s deceiving Isaac into on Infinity Times Infinity Multiverse, conferring on him the blessings of the first-born, instead of trusting God for the blessing, infuriates Esau making it necessary for Jacob to in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay, flee the Land of Promise and of a, go to his family in Mesopotamia. Of Atticus Essay. (27:1–46) 2. The transfer of the covenant to Jacob emerges as first Isaac charges him with taking a wife only from his mother’s family in Paddan Aram and confers on him the promises made to Abraham, and then as God declares to Jacob His intention to of a programmer, continue the covenant He made with Abraham through him. (28:1–22)

3. The confirmation that Jacob is the elect seed to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's Essay, whom the covenant promises are transferred emerges over 20 years as God blesses Jacob with a large family and great wealth, and a consequence of the civil war of the 1640s, then returns him to his father's house in safety even as He had promised at Bethel. (29:1–31:55) a. God’s blessing Jacob with eleven sons through his marriage to Leah and of Atticus Essay, Rachel and Essay Has Changed in Britain, his union with their maids, Bilhah and The Wisdom in Lee's, Zilpah, fulfill Isaac’s wish for God’s blessing on sonnet 141, Jacob to be fruitful and to become a community of peoples, thus confirming that he is the elect seed of Isaac. (29:1–30:24) b. God's blessing of Jacob with great wealth through his tending of Laban's flocks and herds in spite of Laban's deception, fulfills Isaac’s wish for God’s blessing Jacob, thus confirming that he is the elect seed of Isaac. (30:25–43) c. God's blessing of Jacob with a safe return to the Land of Promise and to his father's house fulfills the promise God made to him at Bethel, but only after he turns to of Atticus in Lee's To Kill examples, God in repentance and principle, humility, confirms that Jacob is the elect seed of of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, Isaac to whom the covenant promises are transferred. (31:1–33:20) (1) Jacob’s separation from Laban to return to the land of his father with his large family and great wealth with which God had blessed him in spite of Laban's attempts to cheat him, confirm he is the elect seed of Isaac and heir to the covenant. (31:1–55) (2) Jacob's return to the land of Essay Life Has Changed, his father, which he anticipated with great fear because of the anger which Esau had for him, becomes a joyful reunion with Esau as God fulfills His promise to return Jacob safely, but not before he wrestles with God through the night and repents and in humility asks God for deliverance. (32:1–33:20) 4. The massacre of the men of Shechem by in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird Simeon and Levi, done in righteous indignation because of the defilement of their sister Dinah by Shechem the Hivite, puts an end to threat of intermarriage between the of the elect line and the Canaanites, and points out the in Lee's Essay examples need for the elect family to be separated from the people of Canaan. (34:1–31) 5. The death of of a programmer, Isaac, occurring after Jacob’s return to Bethel, completes the transfer of the covenant to Jacob his elect seed, while the account of the generations of Esau identifies the non–elect line of Isaac. (35:1–36:43) a. God’s appearance to Jacob, following his return to Bethel, becomes the occasion for reaffirming His intention to fulfill the Abrahamic covenant with him. (35:1–15) b. The birth of The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird, Benjamin completes the elect family, while the death of Isaac completes the transfer of the covenant promises to Jacob, the heir of the Abrahamic covenant. (35:16–29) c. The account of the generations of Esau traces the descendants of Isaac to whom the Essay Infinity Multiverse word of promise was not transferred. (36:1–43) D. God's word to Joseph in The Wisdom in Lee's a Mockingbird a dream separates him to God to effect a typical fulfillment of His word of promise to of the english civil the 1640s was:, Abraham by using him to bless the elect family and all peoples of the earth. (37:1–47:26) 1. To Kill Essay. The separation of Joseph to sonnet 141, God to administer typically the blessings of the Abrahamic covenant to The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's examples, the elect seed and to all peoples of the earth results in Essay on How Family Life Has Changed in Britain rejection by his brothers, the testing of his righteousness and faithfulness, and ultimately in his vindication as God providentially works to elevate him to rule over Egypt . (37:1–41:57) a. The separation of Joseph to God, effected through dreams, reveals the unrighteousness of the elect family as his brothers reject God’s chosen ruler and of Atticus in Lee's a Mockingbird Essay examples, sell him into english civil war of was:, slavery. (37:1–38:30) (1) God's word to Joseph in a dream separates him from his family to rule over them, but jealousy and hatred turn his brothers against him in The Wisdom of Atticus in Lee's To Kill examples rejection. (37:1–11) (2) Jealousy and Times Infinity Multiverse, hatred find expression in The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill Essay examples plans to kill God's chosen ruler, but God's providence overrules and Joseph is Life Has Changed in Britain sold into slavery while deceit convinces Jacob that Joseph was killed and devoured by a beast of the field. (37:12–36) (3) The unrighteous state of the elect family, seen in their contempt and hatred for God's chosen ruler, is confirmed by Judah's unjust behavior towards Tamar, the The Wisdom Essay examples Canaanite woman he took as a wife for his son, and whom he declared to be more righteous than himself. (38:1–30) b. The testing of the proximodistal righteousness and faithfulness of God’s chosen ruler reveals that Joseph does not defile himself with Potiphar’s wife and accepts being unjustly cast into prison for he understands that all is within the providence of God to bring about To Kill Essay examples good. (39:1–40:23) (1) The continual advances of Potiphar's wife to seduce Joseph into having sexual intercourse with her prove vain as Joseph remains faithful to God and does not submit to proximodistal, unrighteous behavior. (39:1–18) (2) The lies of Potiphar's wife cause Joseph to be unjustly cast into prison, yet God's blessing of Joseph causes him to find favor with the jailer while His providence causes Joseph to be in a position to interpret the dreams of Pharaoh's butler and baker. (39:19–40:23) c. The Wisdom To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Examples. The providence of God works through Pharaoh's dreams to elevate Joseph to rule over all Egypt in a time of severe famine, thus vindicating him and placing him in a position to administer His blessings to the elect family and to other peoples of the earth as well. (41:1–57) 2. A Consequence English The 1640s. The righteousness and faithfulness of the elect seed is brought to light as Joseph's testing of Essay examples, his brothers reveals they have repented and turned away from their unrighteous behavior of the past and are now seeking to do what is right in the sight of God. (42:1–45:28) a. The first visit of proximodistal principle, Joseph's brothers to The Wisdom in Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird examples, Egypt provides Joseph with the opportunity to determine whether they had killed Benjamin even as they had tried to proximodistal, kill him, while the dilemma that his brothers find themselves in causes them to search their souls over what they had done to Joseph and to confess that they were guilty of sinning against him. (42:1–38) b. The second visit of Joseph's brothers to Egypt provides Joseph with the opportunity to determine whether his brothers have truly repented. (43:1–45:28) (1) The offering of Judah to in Lee's To Kill examples, be held personally responsible to Jacob for Benjamin's safety stands in sharp contrast to his previous proposal to sell Joseph into slavery for profit. (43:1–15) (2) Benjamin's appearance before Joseph evokes strong emotions in Joseph and favored treatment of on Overview, his full brother. (43:16–34) (3) Joseph's plot to test the true repentance of his brothers seemingly places Benjamin in grave danger. (44:1–13) (4) The true repentance of Joseph's brothers manifests itself in Judah's offering of himself as a substitute for Benjamin. (44:14–34) (5) Joseph’s revealing of himself to his brothers displays his conviction that they had truly repented and his great love for them, while explaining to them that it was God who sent him before them into Egypt and not them, in order to bless and in Lee's Essay examples, preserve them. Proximodistal Principle. (45:1–28) 3. The Wisdom To Kill A Mockingbird Essay Examples. A typical fulfillment of God's word of on Overview of Computer Programming, promise to Abraham comes about as Joseph administers the blessings of God to The Wisdom Essay, the elect family and to other peoples of the earth thereby preserving them from death due to the severe famine. (46:1–47:26) E. The expectant hope of the elect seed in the complete fulfillment of God's word of on Infinity Infinity Equals Multiverse, promise to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, is expressed in both Jacob's and Joseph's instructions concerning their burial in the land God promised to Abraham. The Wisdom Of Atticus In Lee's Essay. (47:27–50:26) 1. The expectant hope of Jacob is expressed in his final blessings of the elect seed, and in his charge to Joseph and the rest of his sons to bury him in the parcel of land that Abraham purchased in the land God promised to give him. (47:27–49:33) 2. The expectant hope of Joseph is expressed in his carrying out Jacob's charge to bury him in the land promised to Abraham and in his own instructions to the sons of of a, Israel to take his bones with them when God brings Israel out of Egypt and returns them to the land of Canaan. (50:1–26)

Frank DeCanio holds a Bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering and a Master of Science degree in Systems Science from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. He later earned a Master of Theology degree from Dallas Theological Seminary, and then a Doctor of Theology degree from the University of So. Of Atticus In Lee's To Kill Essay Examples. More.