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Multicultural Writers and the Quest for Identity. American literature written by authors from different backgrounds than the standard white majority often revolves around the difficult struggle to solidify and define identity. On Business! Writers such as Amy Tan, Anna Raya, and on Link Boys: Langston Hughes continually explore how complex the search for identity was while they were young and faced with two cultures; that of ethic tradition and that of the Essay and Beyond dominant white American youth culture that they were exposed to. There is a definite sense of isolation and loneliness in Langston Hughes’ “Theme for English B which is both directly stated and implicit. He mentions “I am the only colored student in my class which immediately isolates him but there are also other suggestions of loneliness such as when he follow the above statement with the Injuries details of Essay on Business, a solitary trip back to Essay Sports his room where he writes. One does not get the impression that anyone else is present either at his lodgings or with him on his trip and by Life and Beyond, the time the next stanza begins, “It is reality dangers not easy to Life and Beyond know what is true for you or me the sense of seclusion in solidified in the obscurity of a line about how many people do not know one another. When Langston Hughes states in his poem “Theme for English B that “I guess being colored doesn’t make me NOT like / the same things other folks like who are other races. / So will my page be colored that I write? he hits on an important point that is carried through in all of the works mentioned above: that there is the sense that there is some great divide between people of non-White or non-American that cannot be crossed, that somehow these differences might cause one to on Link Boys: More They question if the author likes different things just because of an ethnic difference or even more importantly, that their difference “taints everything. When Hughes suggests that his paper might “be colored he is making this difference seem even more pronounced. For the Life other authors in this discussion, the same theme is vs krebs cycle continued. Essay On Business! Anna Lisa Raya feels as though everything she does, simply because of Essay, ethnicity might have to smack of “Latin-ness just as Amy Tan in her essay wishes to erase all pf her cultural markers to hide the “taint of her culture that she perceives at Essay, the Christmas dinner.

The fact remains that these are all young people looking to strike a balance between the truths of virtual dangers, their identity against the powerful forces of the dominant white American culture. Since all of these pieces are written in retrospect from childhoods in which the struggle between this cultural and ethnic “truth was constantly battling with notions of what they should be to conform to American society, there is a subtler theme of isolation. None of the authors make reference to other people they interact with meaningfully outside of their own culture and on Business Life and Beyond this suggests that part of the trouble of seeking an identity is based in this feeling of loneliness. Humanus Genus! Isolation because of a difference in cultural identity is also a theme expressed in “It’s Hard Enough Being Me. The very title alone indicates that for anyone—even they are white and American is difficult enough and when she claims that “it’s hard enough to be her, she is stating that throwing the difference in culture into the mix only makes the quest for identity even more difficult. Essay On Business And Beyond! Like the speaker in Hughes’ poem (whom the reader can fairly assume is Hughes himself) Raya is reality isolated and struggling to mediate her cultural differences, or at least what she perceives they should be, and Life her attempts to vs krebs fit into the upper-crust, mostly white and American social structure away from Essay Life, her home and family.

For Anna Lisa Raya, her struggle in searching for trial balance an identity became more complex when she moved away from Essay on Business, her native Los Angeles and came to New York to attend the prestigious Columbia University. Calvin Cycle Vs Krebs! As she began searching for identity it became clear to Essay on Business her that even though she had been labeled a “Latina she couldn’t write or speak Spanish, did not know how to trial accounting salsa dance, nor did she even know anything about Mexican history. While in the end she is on Business able to reconcile her identity crisis by remembering that it is important not to let other’s perceptions of calvin cycle, who she should be not get in her way, she went through a difficult time and felt as though she was a “sell out to her culture. Raya’s essay reveals the pressures put on young people to conform to a cultural ideal and on Business and Beyond although she is able to figure out in virtual reality the end that its important for her to please herself and be happy with being a woman of an interesting heritage and not feeling as though it was necessary for and Beyond her to take on all the trappings of what society feels is the proper way to be “Latina. In order to accounting emphasize her point about the way Americans view Latinos, she makes a point of using the derogatory term “spic to indicate that she has, just by proxy of being surrounded by white American culture, picked up on some of the more negative associations of being Latino. Breaking the unapologetic tone of Hughes’ poem and deviating from the confusion and veiled anger in Raya’s, Amy Tan’s essay “Fish Cheeks takes on the language and tone of a young frustrated teenager who is mortified at her own culture. She relates the story of a Christmas in which they had a white minister over to their house with their blond son whom Amy Tan had a crush on. The awkwardness of her teenage years are made even worse by on Business Life and Beyond, the “embarrassing behavior of her family which makes her want to “disappear which is a significant statement because she not only wants to disappear from Essay Neurological Sports, existence at that moment, she wishes for her whole culture to disappear and meld into that of the white dinner guests. “When I found out that my parents had invited the minister’s family over for Christmas dinner, I cried. Essay And Beyond! What would Robert think of our shabby Chinese Christmas? she laments. The fact that she uses the word “shabby indicates how she views her own culture’s celebrations and when she says they’ll be having “Chinese food it is with distaste and embarrassment. Unlike Hughes, she is not at all proud to state her place and rather wishes to become white herself so she can be more American and not have Robert look at her as though she were so different, so alien.

At the balance beginning of the essay, she claims in one of the important quotes from Essay and Beyond, “Fish Cheeks”, “For Christmas I prayed for autistic this blond-haired boy, Robert, and a slim new American nose which shows that none of her desires for identity were based in her Chinese culture. She is Essay Life and Beyond embarrassed when her father burps to show her enjoyed his meal and cringes as her family eats a whole fish, even with the eyes bulging out, and she notices with horror that her blond guest has a perpetual look of disgust on his face. Vs Krebs! One feels the narrator’s pain as she is humiliated and even the message at the end is positive—that her mother cooked all foods that she liked and tried to teach her a lesson—loses its power because this is Essay a merely an observation in hindsight. Through the pain and easy embarrassment of youth it is difficult for her to see the message and in many ways, this essay is more about the case study problems of identity multicultural children face rather than about a happy and wise message at the end. It is Essay Life and Beyond clear that all of these authors are isolated by autistic study, their culture in one way or another. Anna Lisa Raya is isolated within her culture because she feels there are invisible boundaries set up to confine and define her as “Latina, Langston Hughes is isolated because of his culture, because he feels that the expectations from him are supposed to be different to Life the rest of his white class and teacher, and Tan is Essay Sports Injuries isolated by Essay, her dreams of shedding these cultural bounds and integrating completely into the dominant culture. While all of these works have a somewhat hopeful message at the end—in short, that the authors should not care what anyone thinks and just express themselves unhindered—the fact remains that these is a lasting pain suffered by these writers. American culture, especially in recent decades, has made great efforts to “reach out to what they term, in study politically-correct fashion, “minorities yet even still, one can imagine that the problems associated with identity Tan, Hughes, and Essay on Business and Beyond Raya faced are still common among children today.

In a culture like America’s—one dominated by images and messages attempting to define people, particularly on television, it is always going to be difficult for these young people. Through stories and poems like those mentioned it can only be hoped that we begin to realize that identity is a tough thing to come by for any young person, and is made even more complex by the difference in ethnicity or culture.

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Essay on Business Life and Beyond

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Political Science 601: Political Theory of the on Business Life, American Revolution. Essays Moral, Political and Literary. Nothing appears more surprizing to those, who consider human affairs with a philosophical eye, than the Neurological Sports, easiness with which the many are governed by the few; and Essay on Business Life and Beyond, the implicit submission, with which men resign their own sentiments and passions to case, those of their rulers. When we enquire by what means this wonder is effected, we shall find, that, as Force is always on the side of the Essay on Business Life and Beyond, governed, the governors have nothing to Essay Sports, support them but opinion. And Beyond. It is therefore, on opinion only that government is founded; and this maxim extends to the most despotic and most military governments, as well as to the most free and most popular.

The soldan° of Egypt , or the emperor of autistic case study, Rome , might drive his harmless subjects, like brute beasts, against and Beyond, their sentiments and inclination: But [ 33 ] he must, at least, have led his mamalukes, ° or pr?torian bands, ° like men, by their opinion. Opinion is of two kinds, to wit, opinion of interest , and opinion of right . By opinion of autistic case study, interest, I chiefly understand the sense of the general advantage which is reaped from government; together with the persuasion, that the particular government, which is established, is equally advantageous with any other that could easily be settled. When this opinion prevails among the generality of a state, or among those who have the force in their hands, it gives great security to any government. Right is of two kinds, right to Power and on Business and Beyond, right to Property . What prevalence opinion of the first kind has over mankind, may easily be understood, by observing the attachment which all nations have to their ancient government, and even to those names, which have had the sanction of antiquity. Antiquity always begets the opinion of right; and whatever disadvantageous sentiments we may entertain of mankind, they are always found to be prodigal° both of blood and treasure in the maintenance of public justice.a There is, indeed, no particular, in which, at first sight, there may appear a greater contradiction in the frame of the human mind than the present. When men act in cycle a faction, they are apt, without shame or remorse, to neglect all the ties of Essay on Business and Beyond, honour and morality, in order to serve their party; and yet, when a faction is formed upon a point of case study, right or principle, there is no occasion, where men discover a greater obstinacy, and a more determined sense of justice and equity. The same social disposition of mankind is the cause of these contradictory appearances. It is sufficiently understood, that the Essay on Business and Beyond, opinion of right to property is Essay Neurological Sports of moment in all matters of government. A noted author has made property the foundation of all government;1 [ 34 ] and most of our political writers seem inclined to follow him in that particular. This is and Beyond carrying the trial balance accounting, matter too far; but still it must be owned, that the opinion of right to property has a great influence in this subject. Upon these three opinions, therefore, of public interest, of Life, right to power, and of right to trial balance, property, are all governments founded, and all authority of the few over the many.

There are indeed other principles, which add force to these, and determine, limit, or alter their operation; such as self-interest, fear, and affection: But still we may assert, that these other principles can have no influence alone, but suppose the Essay Life and Beyond, antecedent influence of those opinions above-mentioned. They are, therefore, to be esteemed the secondary, not the original principles of government. For, first, as to self-interest, by calvin cycle vs krebs cycle, which I mean the expectation of particular rewards, distinct from the general protection which we receive from government, it is evident that the magistrate’s authority must be antecedently established, at Life and Beyond least be hoped for, in order to produce this expectation. The prospect of reward may augment his authority with regard to some particular persons; but can never give birth to it, with regard to Essay More They Seem, the public. Men naturally look for the greatest favours from Essay on Business their friends and acquaintance; and therefore, the hopes of any considerable number of the state would never center in any particular set of men, if these men had no other title to magistracy, and had no separate influence over the opinions of mankind.

The same observation may be extended to the other two principles of fear and affection. No man would have any reason to fear the fury of a tyrant, if he had no authority over any but from fear; since, as a single man, his bodily force can reach but a small way, and all the farther power he possesses must be founded either on autistic study, our own opinion, or on the presumed opinion of others. And though affection to wisdom and virtue in a sovereign extends very far, and has great influence; yet he must antecedently be supposed invested with a public character, otherwise the public esteem will serve him in no stead,° nor will his virtue have any influence beyond a narrow sphere. A Government may endure for several ages, though the balance of Essay, power, and the balance of property do not coincide. This chiefly happens, where any rank or order of the state has acquired a large share in vs krebs the property; but from the original constitution of the government, has no share in the power. Under what pretence would any individual of that order assume authority in public affairs? As men are commonly much attached to their ancient government, it is not to be expected, that the public would ever favour such usurpations. But where the original constitution allows any share of power, though small, to an order of men, who possess a large share of the property, it is easy for them gradually to stretch their authority, and bring the on Business, balance of power to coincide with that of property. This has been the case with the house of commons in England . Most writers, that have treated of the British government, have supposed, that, as the lower house represents all the trial balance, commons of Great Britain , its weight in Life and Beyond the scale is proportioned to the property and virtual dangers, power of all whom it represents. But this principle must not be received as absolutely true. For though the people are apt to attach themselves more to the house of commons, than to any other member of the constitution; that house being chosen by them as their representatives, and as the public guardians of their liberty; yet are there instances where the house, even when in opposition to the crown, has not been followed by Essay on Business Life and Beyond, the people; as we may particularly observe of the tory house of commons in the reign of king William .2 Were the members obliged to receive instructions from their constituents, like the Dutch deputies, [ 36 ] this would entirely alter the case; and if such immense power and riches, as those of Sports, all the commons of Great Britain , were brought into the scale, it is not easy to conceive, that the crown could either influence that multitude of Essay, people, or withstand that overbalance of property.

It is humanus genus true, the crown has great influence over the collective body in the elections of members; but were this influence, which at present is only exerted once in seven years, to be employed in bringing over the people to Life, every vote, it would soon be wasted; and no skill, popularity, or revenue, could support it. I must, therefore, be of Neurological, opinion, that an alteration in this particular would introduce a total alteration in our government, and would soon reduce it to a pure republic; and, perhaps, to Essay on Business Life, a republic of no inconvenient form. For though the people, collected in a body like the Roman tribes, be quite unfit for government, yet when dispersed in small bodies, they are more susceptible both of reason and humanus genus, order; the force of popular currents and tides is, in on Business Life a great measure, broken; and the public interest may be pursued with some method and constancy. Essay Boys:. But it is needless to reason any farther concerning a form of government, which is never likely to have place in Great Britain , and which seems not to be the aim of any party amongst us. Let us cherish and and Beyond, improve our ancient government as much as possible, without encouraging a passion for such dangerous novelties.b. ESSAY V: OF THE ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT? Man , born in a family, is compelled to maintain society, from necessity, from natural inclination, and from habit. The same creature, in his farther progress, is engaged to establish political society, in order to administer justice; without which there can be no peace among them, nor safety, nor mutual intercourse. We are, therefore, to look upon all the vast apparatus of our government, as having ultimately no other object or purpose but the distribution of justice, or, in balance accounting other words, the support of the twelve judges.

Kings and parliaments, fleets and armies, officers of the Essay on Business and Beyond, court and cycle cycle, revenue, ambassadors, ministers, and privy-counsellors, are all subordinate in their end to this part of administration. Even the clergy, as their duty leads them to inculcate morality, may [ 38 ] justly be thought, so far as regards this world, to have no other useful object of their institution. All men are sensible of the necessity of Essay on Business and Beyond, justice to case study, maintain peace and order; and Essay on Business Life and Beyond, all men are sensible of the necessity of peace and order for the maintenance of society. Yet, notwithstanding this strong and obvious necessity, such is the frailty or perverseness of our nature! it is impossible to keep men, faithfully and unerringly, in the paths of justice. Some extraordinary circumstances may happen, in which a man finds his interests to calvin cycle, be more promoted by fraud or rapine, than hurt by the breach which his injustice makes in the social union. But much more frequently, he is seduced from Essay on Business his great and important, but distant interests, by the allurement of present, though often very frivolous temptations. This great weakness is incurable in Essay Sports human nature. Men must, therefore, endeavour to palliate° what they cannot cure.

They must institute some persons, under the appellation° of magistrates, whose peculiar° office it is, to point out the on Business Life, decrees of equity, to punish transgressors, to correct fraud and violence, and to oblige men, however reluctant, to consult their own real and permanent interests. In a word, Obedience is a new duty which must be invented to support that of Justice ; and the tyes° of equity must be corroborated by those of allegiance. But still, viewing matters in an abstract light, it may be thought, that nothing is gained by humanus genus, this alliance, and that the factitious° duty of on Business Life and Beyond, obedience, from its very nature, lays as feeble a hold of the human mind, as the dangers, primitive and and Beyond, natural duty of justice. Peculiar interests and present temptations may overcome the one as well as the other. They are equally exposed to the same inconvenience. And the man, who is inclined to be a bad neighbour, must be led by the same motives, well or ill understood, to on Link Boys: Important than Seem, be a bad citizen and Essay Life, subject. Not to mention, that the magistrate himself may often be negligent, or partial, or unjust in his administration. Experience, however, proves, that there is a great difference between the autistic, cases. Order in society, we find, is Essay Life much [ 39 ] better maintained by means of government; and our duty to the magistrate is humanus genus more strictly guarded by the principles of human nature, than our duty to our fellow-citizens. The love of Essay and Beyond, dominion is so strong in the breast of man, that many, not only submit to, but court all the dangers, and trial balance accounting, fatigues, and cares of government; and Life, men, once raised to that station, though often led astray by private passions, find, in ordinary cases, a visible interest in balance accounting the impartial administration of justice. The persons, who first attain this distinction by the consent, tacit or express, of the on Business, people, must be endowed with superior personal qualities of valour, force, integrity, or prudence, which command respect and confidence: and autistic case study, after government is established, a regard to birth, rank, and station has a mighty influence over men, and enforces the decrees of the magistrate.

The prince or leader exclaims° against every disorder, which disturbs his society. He summons all his partizans and on Business Life, all men of probity° to aid him in correcting and Neurological Sports Injuries, redressing it: and he is readily followed by all indifferent persons in the execution of his office. He soon acquires the power of rewarding these services; and in the progress of society, he establishes subordinate ministers and often a military force, who find an immediate and a visible interest, in supporting his authority. Habit soon consolidates what other principles of human nature had imperfectly founded; and men, once accustomed to obedience, never think of departing from that path, in which they and their ancestors have constantly trod, and to which they are confined by so many urgent and visible motives. But though this progress of human affairs may appear certain and inevitable, and Essay on Business and Beyond, though the support which allegiance brings to justice, be founded on obvious principles of human nature, it cannot be expected that men should beforehand be able to Essay, discover them, or foresee their operation. Government commences more casually and more imperfectly.

It is probable, that the Life and Beyond, first ascendant° of one man over multitudes begun during a state of war; where the superiority of courage and of genius discovers itself most visibly, where unanimity and concert [ 40 ] are most requisite, and where the pernicious effects of disorder are most sensibly felt. Dangers. The long continuance of that state, an incident common among savage tribes, enured the people to submission; and if the chieftain possessed as much equity as prudence and valour, he became, even during peace, the arbiter of on Business Life and Beyond, all differences, and could gradually, by a mixture of force and on Link More They, consent, establish his authority. The benefit sensibly felt from his influence, made it be cherished by the people, at least by the peaceable and well disposed among them; and if his son enjoyed the Essay and Beyond, same good qualities, government advanced the sooner to maturity and perfection; but was still in a feeble state, till the farther progress of improvement procured the calvin cycle, magistrate a revenue, and enabled him to bestow rewards on the several instruments of his administration, and to inflict punishments on the refractory° and disobedient. Before that period, each exertion of his influence must have been particular, and founded on the peculiar circumstances of the case. After it, submission was no longer a matter of choice in the bulk of the community, but was rigorously exacted by the authority of the on Business, supreme magistrate. In all governments, there is a perpetual intestine° struggle, open or secret, between Authority and Liberty ; and neither of them can ever absolutely prevail in the contest. Neurological Sports Injuries. A great sacrifice of liberty must necessarily be made in every government; yet even the authority, which confines liberty, can never, and perhaps ought never, in any constitution, to become quite entire and uncontroulable.

The sultan is master of the life and fortune of any individual; but will not be permitted to impose new taxes on his subjects: a French monarch can impose taxes at Essay on Business Life pleasure; but would find it dangerous to attempt the lives and fortunes of individuals. Religion also, in most countries, is commonly found to be a very intractable principle; and accounting, other principles or prejudices frequently resist all the authority of the civil magistrate; whose power, being founded on opinion, can never subvert other opinions, equally rooted with that of his title to on Business Life, dominion. Essay Neurological. The government, which, in common appellation, receives the appellation of [ 41 ] free, is that which admits of a partition of power among several members, whose united authority is no less, or is commonly greater than that of any monarch; but who, in the usual course of administration, must act by general and equal laws, that are previously known to all the members and to all their subjects. In this sense, it must be owned,° that liberty is the perfection of civil society; but still authority must be acknowledged essential to on Business Life and Beyond, its very existence: and in those contests, which so often take place between the one and the other, the latter may, on that account, challenge the humanus genus, preference. Unless perhaps one may say (and it may be said with some reason) that a circumstance, which is essential to the existence of civil society, must always support itself, and needs be guarded with less jealousy, than one that contributes only to its perfection, which the indolence of men is so apt to neglect, or their ignorance to overlook. ESSAY VI: OF THE INDEPENDENCY OF PARLIAMENTa? Political writers have established it as a maxim, that, in contriving any system of government, and fixing the several checks and Essay, controuls of the constitution, every man ought to be supposed a knave, and to case, have no other end, in all his actions, than private interest.

By this interest we must govern him, and, by means of it, make him, notwithstanding his insatiable avarice and on Business, ambition, co-operate to public good. On Link Important They Seem. Without this, say they, we shall in vain boast of the advantages of Essay on Business Life, any constitution, and shall find, in the end, that we have no security for our liberties or possessions, except the good-will of our rulers; that is, we shall have no security at all. It is, therefore, a just political maxim, that every man must be supposed a knave: Though at the same time, it appears [ 43 ] somewhat strange, that a maxim should be true in humanus genus politics, which is false in fact. Essay On Business Life And Beyond. But to satisfy us on this head, we may consider, that men are generally more honest in their private than in their public capacity, and Neurological Sports, will go greater lengths to serve a party, than when their own private interest is alone concerned. Honour is a great check upon mankind: But where a considerable body of men act together, this check is, in Essay a great measure, removed; since a man is Essay Sports sure to Essay Life and Beyond, be approved of by his own party, for calvin cycle what promotes the common interest; and he soon learns to despise the clamours of Essay on Business Life, adversaries. To which we may add, that every court or senate is autistic determined by the greater number of voices; so that, if self-interest influences only the majority, (as it will always dob) the whole senate follows the allurements of this separate interest, and acts as if it contained not one member, who had any regard to on Business and Beyond, public interest and virtual, liberty. When there offers, therefore, to our censure and examination, any plan of government, real or imaginary, where the power is distributed among several courts,° and several orders of and Beyond, men, we should always consider the separate interest of each court, and each order; and, if we find that, by the skilful division of power, this interest must necessarily, in its operation, concur with public, we may pronounce that government to be wise and happy. If, on the contrary, separate interest be not checked, and be not directed to the public, we ought to Essay than They Seem, look for nothing but faction, disorder, and tyranny from such a government. In this opinion I am justified by experience, as well as by the authority of all philosophers and politicians, both antient and Essay on Business and Beyond, modern. How much, therefore, would it have surprised such a genius as Cicero , or Tacitus , to autistic study, have been told, that, in a future age, there should arise a very regular system of mixed government, where the authority was so distributed, that one rank, whenever it pleased, might swallow up all the rest, and engross the whole power of the constitution.

Such a government, they would say, will not be a mixed government. Essay Life. For so great is the natural ambition of men, that they are never satisfied [ 44 ] with power; and if one order of men, by pursuing its own interest, can usurp upon every other order, it will certainly do so, and render itself, as far as possible, absolute and uncontroulable. But, in this opinion, experience shews they would have been mistaken. For this is actually the case with the British constitution. The share of power, allotted by our constitution to the house of commons, is calvin cycle vs krebs cycle so great, that it absolutely commands all the other parts of the government. The king’s legislative power is plainly no proper check to it. For though the king has a negative in framing laws; yet this, in fact, is Essay Life and Beyond esteemed of so little moment, that whatever is voted by Sports Injuries, the two houses, is always sure to pass into a law, and on Business, the royal assent is little better than a form.

The principal weight of the crown lies in the executive power. But besides that the executive power in every government is altogether subordinate to humanus genus, the legislative; besides this, I say, the exercise of this power requires an immense expence; and the commons have assumed to themselves the sole right of granting money. Life And Beyond. How easy, therefore, would it be for that house to wrest from the crown all these powers, one after another; by making every grant conditional, and choosing their time so well, that their refusal of supply should only Essay on Link More than Seem distress the government, without giving foreign powers any advantage over us? Did the house of commons depend in the same manner on the king, and had none of the members any property but from his gift, would not he command all their resolutions, and be from that moment absolute? As to the house of lords, they are a very powerful support to the Crown, so long as they are, in their turn, supported by it; but both experience and reason shew, that they have no force or authority sufficient to Essay on Business Life and Beyond, maintain themselves alone, without such support. How, therefore, shall we solve this paradox? And by virtual dangers, what means is this member of our constitution confined within the on Business Life and Beyond, proper limits; since, from our very constitution, it must necessarily have as much power as it demands, and than They Seem, can only be confined by itself? How is this consistent with our experience [ 45 ] of human nature? I answer, that the Life and Beyond, interest of the body is here restrained by that of the individuals, and that the house of commons stretches not its power, because such an usurpation would be contrary to Essay Injuries, the interest of the majority of Life and Beyond, its members. The crown has so many offices at trial balance accounting its disposal, that, when assisted by the honest and disinterested part of the house, it will always command the resolutions of the whole so far, at Essay Life and Beyond least, as to preserve the antient constitution from danger.

We may, therefore, give to this influence what name we please; we may call it by the invidious appellations of corruption and dependence; but some degree and some kind of it are inseparable from the Essay Neurological Sports, very nature of the constitution, and necessary to the preservation of our mixed government. Instead then of asserting1 absolutely, that the dependence of parliament, in on Business Life every degree, is an infringement of British liberty, the balance accounting, country-party should have made some concessions to their adversaries, and have only examined what was the proper degree of this dependence, beyond which it became dangerous to liberty. But such a moderation is Life not to be expected in party-men of any kind. After a concession of this nature, all declamation must be abandoned; and humanus genus, a calm enquiry into the proper degree of court-influence and Life, parliamentary dependence would have been expected by the readers. And though the advantage, in such a controversy, might possibly remain to the country-party; yet the victory would not be so compleat as they wish for, nor would a true patriot have given an entire loose to his zeal, for fear of running matters into balance, a contrary extreme, by diminishing too2 far the influence [ 46 ] of the on Business and Beyond, crown. It was, therefore, thought best to study, deny, that this extreme could ever be dangerous to the constitution, or that the crown could ever have too little influence over members of parliament. All questions concerning the proper medium between extremes are difficult to be decided; both because it is not easy to find words proper to fix this medium, and because the good and ill, in such cases, run so gradually into on Business and Beyond, each other, as even to humanus genus, render our sentiments doubtful and uncertain. But there is a peculiar difficulty in the present case, which would embarrass the most knowing and most impartial examiner. The power of the crown is always lodged in Essay on Business Life a single person, either king or minister; and as this person may have either a greater or less degree of ambition, capacity, courage, popularity, or fortune, the autistic, power, which is too great in one hand, may become too little in another. In pure republics, where the authority is distributed among several assemblies or senates, the checks and controuls are more regular in Essay on Business Life and Beyond their operation; because the autistic case, members of such numerous assemblies may be presumed to on Business Life, be always nearly equal in capacity and virtue; and it is only their number, riches, or authority, which enter into consideration. But a limited monarchy admits not of humanus genus, any such stability; nor is and Beyond it possible to assign to the crown such a determinate degree of power, as will, in every hand, form a proper counterbalance to Neurological Injuries, the other parts of the Essay, constitution.

This is an unavoidable disadvantage, among the many advantages, attending that species of government. ESSAY VII: WHETHER THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT INCLINES MORE TO ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, OR TO A REPUBLIC? It affords a violent° prejudice against almost every science, that no prudent man, however sure of humanus genus, his principles, dares prophesy concerning any event, or foretel the remote consequences of things. A physician will not venture to pronounce concerning the condition of his patient a fortnight or month after: And still less dares a politician foretel the situation of public affairs a few years hence. Harrington thought himself so sure of his general principle, that the balance of power depends on that of property, that he ventured to pronounce it impossible ever to re-establish monarchy in England : But his book was scarcely published when the king was restored; and we see, that monarchy has ever since subsisted upon the [ 48 ] same footing as before.1 Notwithstanding this unlucky example, I will venture to examine an Essay important question, to wit, Whether the British government inclines more to absolute monarchy, or to a republic; and in which of these two species of government it will most probably terminate? As there seems not to be any great danger of a sudden revolution either way, I shall at autistic study least escape the shame attending my temerity,° if I should be found to have been mistaken. Those who assert, that the balance of our government inclines towards absolute monarchy, may support their opinion by the following reasons. Essay On Business And Beyond. That property has a great influence on power cannot possibly be denied; but yet the general maxim, that the balance of one depends on the balance of the other, must be received with several limitations.

It is evident, that much less property in More than They a single hand will be able to counterbalance a greater property in several; not only because it is difficult to make many persons combine in the same views and measures; but because property, when united, causes much greater dependence, than the same property, when dispersed. A hundred persons, of 1000 l. a year a-piece, can consume all their income, and no body shall ever be the better for them, except their servants and tradesmen, who justly regard their profits as the product of their own labour. But a man possessed of 100,000 l. a year, if he has either any generosity or any cunning, may create a great dependence by obligations, and still a greater by expectations. Hence we may observe, that, in all free governments, any subject exorbitantly rich has always created jealousy, even though his riches bore no proportion to [ 49 ] those of the state. Crassus’s fortune,2 if I remember well, amounted only to about two millions and a half of Essay, our money;a , b yet we find, that, though his genius was nothing extraordinary, he was able, by means of his riches alone, to study, counterbalance, during his lifetime, the power of Pompey as well as that of C?sar , who afterwards became master of the world. The wealth of the on Business and Beyond, Medici made them masters of Florence ;3 though, it is probable, it was not considerable, compared to the united property of vs krebs, that opulent republic. These considerations are apt to make one entertain a magnificent idea of the British spirit and love of Essay on Business Life and Beyond, liberty; since we could maintain our free government, during so many centuries, against our sovereigns, who, besides the power and dignity and majesty of the crown, have always been possessed of calvin vs krebs cycle, much more property than any subject has ever enjoyed in any commonwealth. But it may be said, that this spirit, however great, will never be able to support itself against that immense property, which is now lodged in the king, and which is still encreasing.

Upon a moderate computation, there are near three millions a year at the disposal of the Essay Life, crown. The civil list amounts to near a million; the collection of calvin vs krebs, all taxes to another; and the employments in the army and navy, together with ecclesiastical preferments,° to Essay Life, above a third million: An enormous sum, and virtual reality, what may fairly be computed to Essay on Business and Beyond, be more than a thirtieth part of the whole income and Neurological Injuries, labour of the kingdom. When we add to this great property, the Essay Life, encreasing luxury of the nation, our proneness to corruption, together with the great power and prerogatives of the humanus genus, crown, and the [ 50 ] command of military force, there is no one but must despair of being able, without extraordinary efforts, to support our free government much longer under these disadvantages. On the other hand, those who maintain, that the byass° of the British government leans towards a republic, may support their opinion by specious° arguments. It may be said, that, though this immense property in the crown, be joined to the dignity of first magistrate, and to Essay Life and Beyond, many other legal powers and prerogatives, which should naturally give it greater influence; yet it really becomes less dangerous to liberty upon cycle vs krebs that very account. Were England a republic, and Essay Life, were any private man possessed of a revenue, a third, or even a tenth part as large as that of the crown, he would very justly excite jealousy; because he would infallibly have great authority, in Essay Neurological Sports the government: And such an irregular authority, not avowed by the laws, is always more dangerous than a much greater authority, derived from them. A man, possessed of usurped power, can set no bounds to his pretensions:c His partizans have liberty to hope for every thing in his favour: His enemies provoke his ambition, with his fears, by on Business and Beyond, the violence of their opposition: And the government being thrown into a ferment, every corrupted humour in the state naturally gathers to him.

On the contrary, a legal authority, though great, has always some bounds, which terminate both the hopes and pretensions of the person possessed of it: The laws must have provided a remedy against its excesses: Such an Essay on Link Boys: More than They Seem eminent magistrate has much to fear, and little to Essay, hope from his usurpations: And as his legal authority is quietly submitted to, he has small temptation and small opportunity of extending it farther. Besides, it happens, with regard to ambitious aims and virtual reality, projects, what may be observed with regard to sects of on Business Life and Beyond, philosophy and cycle cycle, religion. A new sect excites such a ferment, and is both opposed and Essay on Business Life, defended with such vehemence, that it always spreads faster, and reality dangers, multiplies its partizans with greater rapidity, than any old established opinion, recommended by on Business Life and Beyond, the sanction of the laws and of antiquity. Such is the nature of novelty, that, where any thing pleases, it becomes [ 51 ] doubly agreeable, if new; but if it displeases, it is doubly displeasing, upon that very account. And, in virtual most cases, the violence of enemies is favourable to ambitious projects, as well as the zeal of partizans. It may farther be said, that, though men be much governed by interest; yet even interest itself, and all human affairs, are entirely governed by opinion. Now, there has been a sudden and Life, sensible change in the opinions of men within these last fifty years, by the progress of learning and of liberty. Most people, in this island, have divested themselves of all superstitious reverence to names and authority: The clergy have much lostd their credit: Their pretensions and doctrines have been ridiculed; and even religion can scarcely support itself in trial balance accounting the world. The mere name of king commands little respect; and to talk of a king as GOD’s vicegerent° on earth, or to give him any of those magnificent titles, which formerly dazzled mankind, would but excite laughter in every one.

Though the crown, by means of its large revenue, may maintain its authority in times of Life, tranquillity, upon private interest and influence; yet, as the Boys: Important than Seem, least shock or convulsion must break all these interests to pieces, the royal power, being no longer supported by the settled principles and opinions of men, will immediately dissolve. Had men been in the same disposition at the revolution, as they are at present, monarchy would have run a great risque° of being entirely lost in this island. Durst I° venture to deliver my own sentiments amidst these opposite arguments, I would assert, that, unless there happen some extraordinary convulsion, the power of the crown, by means of its large revenue, is rather upon and Beyond the encrease; though, at the same time I own, that its progress seems very slow, and almost insensible. The tide has run long, and autistic case study, with some rapidity, to the side of Essay Life, popular government, and is just beginning to turn towards monarchy. It is well known, that every government must come to a period,° and that death is unavoidable to reality, the political as well as to the animal body. But, as one kind of death may be preferable to another, it may be enquired, whether it be more [ 52 ] desirable for the British constitution to terminate in a popular government, or in absolute monarchy? Here I would frankly declare, that, though liberty be preferable to slavery, in almost every case; yet I should rather wish to see an absolute monarch than a republic in this island.

For, let us consider, what kind of republic we have reason to expect. The question is not concerning any fine imaginary republic, of which a man may form a plan in his closet.° There is no doubt, but a popular government may be imagined more perfect than absolute monarchy, or even than our present constitution. But what reason have we to expect that any such government will ever be established in Great Britain , upon the dissolution of our monarchy? If any single person acquire power enough to take our constitution to pieces, and and Beyond, put it up a-new, he is really an absolute monarch; and reality dangers, we have already had an instance of this kind, sufficient to convince us, that such a person will never resign his power, or establish any free government.4 Matters, therefore, must be trusted to their natural progress and operation; and the house of commons, according to its present constitution, must be the only legislature in such a popular government. The inconveniencies attending such a situation of affairs, present themselves by thousands. If the house of commons, in such a case, ever dissolve itself, which is not to be expected, we may look for a civil war every election. If it continue itself, we shall suffer all the tyranny of a faction, subdivided into new factions.

And, as such a violent government cannot long subsist, [ 53 ] we shall, at Essay on Business Life and Beyond last, after many convulsions, and civil wars, find repose in absolute monarchy, which it would have been happier for us to have established peaceably from the beginning. Absolute monarchy, therefore, is the easiest death, the true Euthanasia ° of the British constitution. Thus, if we have reason to calvin cycle, be more jealous of monarchy, because the danger is more imminent from Essay that quarter; we have also reason to be more jealous of popular government, because that danger is more terrible. This may teach us a lesson of moderation in all our political controversies. Of all men, that distinguish themselves by accounting, memorable achievements, the first place of Life, honour seems due to Legislators and founders of states, who transmit a system of cycle, laws and institutions to Essay on Business Life, secure the peace, happiness, and liberty of future generations. The influence of useful inventions in the arts and sciences may, perhaps, extend farther than that of wise laws, whose effects are limited both in time and trial balance, place; but the benefit arising from the former, is on Business Life not so sensible as that which results from the Essay More than They, latter. Speculative sciences do, indeed, improve the mind; but this advantage reaches only to a few persons, who have leisure to apply themselves to them. And as to practical arts, which encrease the commodities and on Business Life, enjoyments of life, it is well known, that [ 55 ] men’s happiness consists not so much in an abundance of these, as in the peace and Neurological Sports Injuries, security with which they possess them; and Essay, those blessings can only be derived from good government. Not to mention, that general virtue and good morals in a state, which are so requisite to happiness, can never arise from the most refined precepts of philosophy, or even the severest injunctions of religion; but must proceed entirely from the virtuous education of youth, the effect of wise laws and institutions. I must, therefore, presume to differ from Lord Bacon in this particular, and must regard antiquity as somewhat unjust in its distribution of honours, when it made gods of all the inventors of useful arts, such as Ceres , Bacchus , ?sculapius ; and dignify legislators, such as Romulus and accounting, Theseus , only with the appellation of demigods and heroes.1.

As much as legislators and founders of states ought to be honoured and respected among men, as much ought the founders of sects and factions to be detested and hated; because the influence of faction is directly contrary to that of laws. Factions subvert government, render laws impotent, and beget the fiercest animosities among men of the same nation, who ought to give mutual assistance and Essay on Business and Beyond, protection to each other. And what should render the founders of on Link Boys: Important than They Seem, parties more odious is, the difficulty of extirpating° these weeds, when once they have taken root in Essay Life and Beyond any state. They naturally propagate themselves for many centuries, and seldom end but by the total dissolution of that government, in humanus genus which they are sown. They are, besides, plants which grow most plentifully in the richest soil; and Life and Beyond, though absolute governments be not wholly free from them, it must be confessed, that they rise more easily, and propagate themselves faster in free governments, [ 56 ] where they always infect the legislature itself, which alone could be able, by on Link Boys: Important, the steady application of rewards and punishments, to Essay on Business Life and Beyond, eradicate them.

Factions may be divided into Personal and Real ; that is, into factions, founded on humanus genus, personal friendship or animosity among such as compose the contending parties, and into those founded on some real difference of sentiment or interest. Essay Life. The reason of this distinction is obvious; though I must acknowledge, that parties are seldom found pure and unmixed, either of the one kind or the cycle cycle, other. Essay On Business Life. It is not often seen, that a government divides into factions, where there is no difference in the views of the constituent members, either real or apparent, trivial or material: And in Neurological Sports Injuries those factions, which are founded on the most real and most material difference, there is always observed a great deal of personal animosity or affection. But notwithstanding this mixture, a party may be denominated either personal or real, according to that principle which is on Business Life and Beyond predominant, and is found to have the greatest influence. Personal factions arise most easily in small republics. Every domestic quarrel, there, becomes an affair of state. Love, vanity, emulation, any passion, as well as ambition and resentment, begets public division.

The Neri and Bianchi of Florence , the Neurological Sports Injuries, Fregosi and Adorni of Genoa , the Colonesi and Orsini of Life, modern Rome , were parties of this kind.2. Men have such a propensity to divide into personal factions, that the smallest appearance of real difference will produce [ 57 ] them. Humanus Genus. What can be imagined more trivial than the difference between one colour of livery and another in horse races? Yet this difference begat two most inveterate factions in the Greek empire, the Prasini and on Business, Veneti , who never suspended their animosities, till they ruined that unhappy government.3. We find in case study the Roman history a remarkable dissension between two tribes, the Pollia and Papiria , which continued for the space of near three hundred years, and discovered itself in their suffrages at every election of magistrates.4 [ 58 ] This faction was the more remarkable, as it could continue for so long a tract of time; even though it did not spread itself, nor draw any of the other tribes into a share of the quarrel.

If mankind had not a strong propensity to Essay, such divisions, the indifference of the rest of the community must have suppressed this foolish animosity, that had not any aliment° of new benefits and injuries, of general sympathy and humanus genus, antipathy, which never fail to take place, when the whole state is rent into two equal factions.a. Nothing is more usual than to see parties, which have begun upon Life a real difference, continue even after that difference is lost. When men are once inlisted on opposite sides, they contract an affection to the persons with whom they are united, and an animosity against their antagonists: And these passions they often transmit to their posterity. The real difference between Guelf and Ghibbelline was long lost in Italy , before these factions were extinguished. Study. The Guelfs adhered to the pope, the Ghibbellines to the emperor; yet the family of Sforza , who were in on Business and Beyond alliance with the emperor, though they were Guelfs , being expelled Milan by the king5 of France , assisted by Jacomo Trivulzio and trial accounting, the Ghibbellines , the pope concurred with the latter, and they formed leagues with the pope against and Beyond, the emperor.6.

The civil wars which arose some few years ago in Morocco , between the blacks and whites, merely on account of their complexion, are founded on a pleasant difference.7 We laugh at them; but I believe, were things rightly examined, we afford much more occasion of ridicule to the Moors . For, what are all the wars of religion, which have prevailed in this polite and knowing part of the world? They are certainly more absurd than the Moorish civil wars. The difference of complexion is a sensible and a real difference: But the controversy about an article of faith, which is utterly absurd and humanus genus, unintelligible, is not a difference in sentiment, but in a few phrases and expressions, which one party accepts of, without understanding them; and the other refuses in the same manner.c. Real factions may be divided into those from interest, from principle, and from affection. Of all factions, the first are the most reasonable, and the most excusable. Where two orders of Essay and Beyond, men, such as the nobles and people, have a distinct authority in a government, not very accurately balanced and modelled, they naturally follow a distinct interest; nor can we reasonably expect a different conduct, considering that degree of selfishness implanted in human nature. It requires great skill in trial balance a legislator to prevent such parties; and many philosophers are of opinion, that this secret, like the grand elixir, or perpetual motion, may amuse men in theory, but can never possibly be reduced to practice.8 In despotic governments, indeed, factions [ 60 ] often do not appear; but they are not the less real; or rather, they are more real and more pernicious, upon that very account. The distinct orders of Essay on Business Life, men, nobles and people, soldiers and merchants, have all a distinct interest; but the more powerful oppresses the weaker with impunity, and without resistance; which begets a seeming tranquillity in such governments.d. There has been an attempt in England to divide the landed and trading part of the nation; but without success.

The interests of Essay Injuries, these two bodies are not really distinct, and never will be so, till our public debts encrease to such a degree, as to become altogether oppressive and intolerable. Parties from principle, especially abstract speculative principle, are known only to modern times, and are, perhaps, the most extraordinary and unaccountable ph?nomenon, that has yet appeared in human affairs. Where different principles beget a contrariety° of conduct, which is the case with all different political principles, the matter may be more easily explained. On Business Life. A man, who esteems the true right of government to dangers, lie in one man, or one family, cannot easily agree with his fellow-citizen, who thinks that another man or family is possessed of this right. Each naturally wishes that right may take place, according to Essay on Business Life, his own notions of it.

But where the balance accounting, difference of principle is attended with no contrariety of action, but every one may follow his own way, without interfering with his neighbour, as happens in all religious controversies; what madness, what fury can beget such unhappy and such fatal divisions? Two men travelling on the highway, the one east, the other west, can easily pass each other, if the Essay, way be broad enough: But two men, reasoning upon cycle cycle opposite principles of religion, cannot so easily pass, without shocking; though one should think, that the way were also, in that case, sufficiently broad, and that each might proceed, without interruption, in his own course. But such is the nature of the human mind, that it always lays hold on and Beyond, every mind that approaches it; and as it is wonderfully fortified by an unanimity of humanus genus, sentiments, so is [ 61 ] it shocked and disturbed by any contrariety. Hence the Life, eagerness, which most people discover° in a dispute; and hence their impatience of opposition, even in case the most speculative and indifferent opinions. This principle, however frivolous it may appear, seems to have been the Life and Beyond, origin of Essay Neurological Sports, all religious wars and divisions.

But as this principle is universal in human nature, its effects would not have been confined to one age, and to one sect of religion, did it not there concur with other more accidental causes, which raise it to such a height, as to produce the greatest misery and and Beyond, devastation. Most religions of the humanus genus, ancient world arose in Essay on Business and Beyond the unknown ages of government, when men were as yet barbarous and uninstructed, and the prince, as well as peasant, was disposed to receive, with implicit faith, every pious tale or fiction, which was offered him. Trial. The magistrate embraced the religion of the people, and entering cordially into the care of sacred matters, naturally acquired an authority in them, and united the ecclesiastical with the Essay on Business Life, civil power. But the Christian religion arising, while principles directly opposite to it were firmly established in the polite part of the reality, world, who despised the nation that first broached this novelty; no wonder, that, in such circumstances, it was but little countenanced by the civil magistrate, and that the priesthood was allowed to engross all the authority in the new sect. So bad a use did they make of this power, even in those early times, that the Essay on Business, primitive persecutions may, perhaps, in part, 9 be [ 62 ] ascribed to the violence instilled by them into their followers. And the same principles of priestly government continuing, after Christianity became the established religion, they have engendered a spirit of case, persecution, which has ever since been the poison of human society, and the source of the Essay Life, most inveterate factions in every government. Such divisions, therefore, on the part of the Essay on Link Important They Seem, people, may justly be esteemed factions of principle; but, on the part of the priests, who are the prime movers, they are really factions of interest. There is on Business Life and Beyond another cause (beside the authority of the on Link Boys: More Important than They Seem, priests, and on Business and Beyond, the separation of the ecclesiastical and civil powers) which has contributed to render Christendom ° the scene of religious wars and divisions.

Religions, that arise in ages totally ignorant and Essay Injuries, barbarous, consist mostly of traditional tales and fictions, which may be different in every sect, without being contrary to Life, each other; and even when they are contrary, every one adheres to the tradition of his own sect, without much reasoning or disputation. Reality Dangers. But as philosophy was widely spread over the world, at the time when Christianity arose, the teachers of the new sect were obliged to form a system of speculative opinions; to divide, with some accuracy, their articles of faith; and to explain, comment, confute, and on Business Life and Beyond, defend with all the subtilty of trial accounting, argument and science. Hence naturally arose keenness in on Business dispute, when the Christian religion came to be [ 63 ] split into new divisions and heresies: And this keenness assisted the priests in humanus genus their policy, of begetting a mutual hatred and antipathy among their deluded followers. Sects of philosophy, in the ancient world, were more zealous than parties of religion; but in Essay on Business Life and Beyond modern times, parties of religion are more furious and enraged than the most cruel factions that ever arose from interest and trial accounting, ambition. I have mentioned parties from Life affection as a kind of real parties, beside those from interest and principle. By parties from affection, I understand those which are founded on the different attachments of men towards particular families and Essay Neurological Sports Injuries, persons, whom they desire to rule over them. These factions are often very violent; though, I must own, it may seem unaccountable, that men should attach themselves so strongly to persons, with whom they are no wise acquainted, whom perhaps they never saw, and from whom they never received, nor can ever hope for Essay on Business and Beyond any favour. Yet this we often find to balance accounting, be the case, and even with men, who, on Essay on Business Life, other occasions, discover no great generosity of trial accounting, spirit, nor are found to be easily transported by friendship beyond their own interest. We are apt to think the relation between us and our sovereign very close and intimate. The splendour of Essay on Business, majesty and power bestows an importance on the fortunes even of a single person. And when a man’s good-nature does not give him this imaginary interest, his ill-nature will, from spite and opposition to persons whose sentiments are different from his own.

ESSAY IX: OF THE PARTIES OF GREAT BRITAIN? Were the British government proposed as a subject of speculation, one would immediately perceive in on Link More Important They it a source of division and on Business Life and Beyond, party, which it would be almost impossible for it, under any administration, to avoid. The just balance between the Neurological Sports Injuries, republican and monarchical part of our constitution is really, in itself, so extremely delicate and uncertain, that, when joined to men’s passions and prejudices, it is impossible but different opinions must arise concerning it, even among persons of the best understanding. Those of Life, mild tempers, who love peace and order, and detest sedition and civil wars, will always entertain more favourable sentiments of monarchy, than men of bold and balance accounting, generous° spirits, who are passionate lovers of liberty, and Essay and Beyond, think no evil comparable to on Link Boys: More than Seem, [ 65 ] subjection and slavery. And though all reasonable men agree in general to preserve our mixed government; yet, when they come to particulars, some will incline to trust greater powers to Essay on Business, the crown, to bestow on it more influence, and to guard against humanus genus, its encroachments with less caution, than others who are terrified at the most distant approaches of tyranny and despotic power. Thus are there parties of Principle involved in on Business the very nature of our constitution, which may properly enough be denominated those of Court and Country .a The strength and violence of each of these parties will much depend upon the particular administration. An administration may be so bad, as to virtual reality, throw a great majority into the opposition; as a good administration will reconcile to Essay on Business and Beyond, the court many of the most passionate lovers of liberty. But however the nation may fluctuate between them, the parties themselves will always subsist, so long as we are governed by a limited monarchy. But, besides this difference of Principle, those parties are very much fomented by a difference of Essay on Link Boys: than Seem, Interest , without which they could scarcely ever be dangerous or violent. The crown will naturally bestow all trust and power upon those, whose principles, real or pretended, are most favourable to monarchical government; and this temptation will naturally engage them to go greater lengths than their principles would otherwise carry them.

Their antagonists, who are disappointed in their ambitious aims, throw themselves into the party whose sentiments incline them to be most jealous of royal power, and Essay Life and Beyond, naturally carry those sentiments to virtual dangers, a greater height than sound politics will justify. On Business. Thus Court and Country, which are the genuine offspring of the British government, are a kind of mixed parties, and are influenced both by principle and by vs krebs, interest. The heads of the factions are commonly most governed by the latter motive; the inferior members of Essay on Business Life and Beyond, them by balance, the former.b. As to ecclesiastical parties; we may observe, that, in all ages of the world, priests have been enemies to liberty;c and on Business, it is Neurological Sports Injuries certain, that this steady conduct of Essay Life and Beyond, theirs must have been founded on fixed reasons of interest and ambition. Liberty of [ 66 ] thinking, and of expressing our thoughts, is always fatal to priestly power, and to Essay Injuries, those pious frauds, on and Beyond, which it is commonly founded; and, by an infallible connexion, which prevails among all kinds of liberty, this privilege can never be enjoyed, at least has never yet been enjoyed, but in a free government. Hence it must happen, in such a constitution as that of Great Britain , that the established clergy, while things are in their natural situation, will always be of the Court -party; as, on the contrary, dissenters of all kinds will be of the calvin vs krebs, Country -party; since they can never hope for Life and Beyond that toleration, which they stand in need of, but by means of our free government. All princes, that have aimed at humanus genus despotic power, have known of what importance it was to gain the established clergy: As the clergy, on their part, have shewn a great facility in entering into the views of such princes.1 Gustavus Vaza was, perhaps, the only ambitious monarch, that ever depressed the Essay on Business and Beyond, church, at the same time that he discouraged liberty. But the exorbitant power of the bishops in Sweden , who, at that time, overtopped the crown itself, together with their attachment to a foreign family, was the reality, reason of on Business Life and Beyond, his embracing such an unusual system of accounting, politics.2. This observation, concerning the Essay Life, propensity of priests to the government of a single person, is not true with regard to one sect only.

The Presbyterian and Calvinistic clergy in Holland were professed friends to the family of Orange ; as the trial accounting, Arminians, who were esteemed heretics, were of the Louvestein faction, and Essay on Business and Beyond, zealous for liberty.3 But if a prince have the choice of both, it is easy to see, that he will prefer the virtual reality dangers, episcopal to the presbyterian form of government, both because of the greater affinity between monarchy and episcopacy, and because of the facility, which he will find, in such a government, of ruling the clergy, by Essay, means of their ecclesiastical superiors.4. If we consider the first rise of parties in England , during the great rebellion,5 we shall observe, that it was conformable to balance accounting, this general theory, and Life, that the cycle, species of government gave birth to them, by a regular and infallible operation. The English constitution, before that period, had lain in a kind of confusion; yet so, as that the subjects possessed many noble privileges, which, though not exactly bounded and secured by [ 68 ] law, were universally deemed, from long possession, to belong to them as their birth-right. An ambitious, or rather a misguided, prince arose, who deemed all these privileges to on Business and Beyond, be concessions of his predecessors, revokeable at pleasure; and, in prosecution of this principle, he openly acted in trial accounting violation of liberty, during the course of several years. Necessity, at last, constrained him to call a parliament: The spirit of liberty arose and spread itself: The prince, being without any support, was obliged to grant every thing required of him: And his enemies, jealous and implacable, set no bounds to their pretensions.6 Here then began those contests, in which it was no wonder, that men of Essay on Business Life, that age were divided into calvin cycle vs krebs, different parties; since, even at this day, the impartial are at a loss to decide concerning the justice of the quarrel. The pretensions of the parliament, if yielded to, broke the balance of the on Business Life, constitution, by rendering the government almost entirely republican. If not yielded to, the nation was, perhaps, still in danger of absolute power, from the settled principles and calvin cycle vs krebs, inveterate habits of the king, which had plainly appeared in every concession that he had been constrained to on Business Life and Beyond, make to his people. In this question, so delicate and uncertain, men naturally fell to the side which was most conformable to their usual principles; and the more passionate favourers of monarchy declared for the king, as the zealous friends of liberty sided with the trial accounting, parliament. The hopes of success being nearly equal on both sides, interest had no general influence in this contest: So that Round-head and Cavalier were merely parties of principle;7 neither of and Beyond, [ 69 ] which disowned either monarchy or liberty; but the humanus genus, former party inclined most to the republican part of our government, the latter to the monarchical. In this respect, they may be considered as court and country-party, enflamed into a civil war, by an unhappy concurrence of circumstances, and by the turbulent spirit of the age. The commonwealth’s men, and the partizans of absolute power, lay concealed in Essay on Business Life both parties, and formed but an inconsiderable part of Essay Important Seem, them.

The clergy had concurred with the king’s arbitrary designs; and, in return, were allowed to persecute their adversaries, whom they called heretics and schismatics. The established clergy were episcopal; the non-conformists presbyterian: So that all things concurred to Essay, throw the former, without reserve, into the king’s party; and the latter into that of the parliament.f. Every one knows the event of this quarrel; fatal to the king first, to the parliament afterwards. Essay On Link More Important. After many confusions and revolutions, the on Business, royal family was at last restored, and the ancient government re-established.8 Charles II. was not made wiser by the example of his father; but prosecuted the same measures, though at first, with more secrecy and caution. New parties arose, under the appellation of Whig and Tory, which have continued ever since to Seem, confound and distract our government.9 To determine the nature of these parties is, perhaps, one of the most difficult problems, that can be met with, and is a proof that history may contain questions, as uncertain as any to be found in Essay on Business Life and Beyond the most abstract sciences. Essay Injuries. We have seen the Essay, conduct of the two parties, during the humanus genus, course of seventy [ 70 ] years, in on Business a vast variety of Neurological, circumstances, possessed of Essay on Business, power, and deprived of it, during peace, and during war: Persons, who profess themselves of one side or other, we meet with every hour, in company, in humanus genus our pleasures, in our serious occupations: We ourselves are constrained, in a manner, to take party; and living in a country of the on Business and Beyond, highest liberty, every one may openly declare all his sentiments and opinions: Yet are we at virtual a loss to tell the nature, pretensions, and principles of the different factions.g. When we compare the parties of Whig and Tory with those of Round-head and Cavalier , the most obvious difference, that appears between them, consists in the principles of on Business Life and Beyond, passive obedience, and indefeasible right, which were but little heard of reality dangers, among the Cavaliers , but became the universal doctrine, and were esteemed the true characteristic of Essay on Business and Beyond, a Tory . Were these principles pushed into their most obvious consequences, they imply a formal renunciation of all our liberties, and an avowal of absolute monarchy; since nothing can be a greater absurdity than a limited power, which must not be resisted, even when it exceeds its limitations. But as the most rational principles are often but a weak counterpoise° to passion; it is no wonder that these absurd principlesh were found too weak for that effect. The Tories , as men, were enemies to oppression; and also as Englishmen , they were enemies to virtual reality dangers, arbitrary power.

Their zeal for Essay on Business Life liberty, was, perhaps, less fervent than that of their antagonists; but was sufficient to make them forget all their general principles, when they saw themselves openly threatened with a subversion of the ancient government. From these sentiments arose the revolution; 10 an event of mighty consequence, and the firmest foundation of British liberty. The conduct of the Tories , during that event, and after it, will afford us a true insight into the nature of that party. In the first place, they appear to trial balance, have had the genuine sentiments of on Business and Beyond, Britons in their affection for cycle cycle liberty, and in [ 71 ] their determined resolution not to on Business and Beyond, sacrifice it to any abstract principle whatsoever, or to any imaginary rights of autistic case, princes. This part of their character might justly have been doubted of before the revolution, from the Essay on Business, obvious tendency of their avowed principles, and from theiri compliances with a court, which seemed to make little secret of autistic case, its arbitrary designs.

The revolution shewed them to have been, in this respect, nothing, but a genuine court-party, such as might be expected in a British government: That is, Lovers of liberty, but greater lovers of monarchy. It must, however, be confessed, that they carried their monarchical principles farther, even in practice, but more so in theory, than was, in Essay on Business Life and Beyond any degree, consistent with a limited government. Secondly, Neither their principles nor affections concurred, entirely or heartily, with the settlement made at the revolution, or with that which has since taken place. This part of trial balance, their character may seem opposite to the former; since any other settlement, in those circumstances of the nation, must probably have been dangerous, if not fatal to liberty. But the Essay and Beyond, heart of man is vs krebs made to reconcile contradictions; and this contradiction is not greater than that between passive obedience, and the resistance employed at the revolution. A Tory , therefore, since the revolution, may be defined in a few words, to be a lover of monarchy, though without abandoning liberty; and a partizan of the family of Stuart . As a Whig may be defined to Essay, be a lover of liberty though without renouncing monarchy; and autistic, a friend to the settlement in the Protestant line. j. These different views, with regard to Essay on Business Life and Beyond, the settlement of the crown, were accidental, but natural additions to the principles of the court and country parties, which are the genuine divisions in the British government.

A passionate lover of monarchy is apt to be displeased at any change of the succession; as savouring too much of a commonwealth: A passionate lover of liberty is apt to think that every part of the government ought to be subordinate to Neurological Injuries, the interests of liberty. Some, who will not venture to assert, that the real difference between Whig and Tory was lost at the revolution, [ 72 ] seem inclined to Essay on Business and Beyond, think, that the difference is now abolished, and that affairs are so far returned to their natural state, that there are at autistic study present no other parties among us but court and country; that is, men, who, by interest or principle, are attached either to monarchy or liberty. The Tories have been so long obliged to talk in the republican stile, that they seem to have made converts of themselves by on Business Life, their hypocrisy, and to have embraced the sentiments, as well as language of their adversaries. There are, however, very considerable remains of that party in England , with all their old prejudices; and a proof that court and country are not our only parties, is, that almost all the Neurological Sports Injuries, dissenters side with the court, and the lower clergy, at Essay on Business least, of the church of England , with the opposition. This may convince us, that some biass still hangs upon our constitution, some extrinsic weight, which turns it from its natural course, and causes a confusion in our parties.

ESSAY XVI: IDEA OF A PERFECT COMMONWEALTH? It is not with forms of on Link Boys: Important They, government, as with other artificial contrivances; where an old engine may be rejected, if we can discover another more accurate and commodious, or where trials may safely be made, even though the success be doubtful. An established government has an infinite advantage, by Essay on Business and Beyond, that very circumstance of Neurological Sports Injuries, its being established; the bulk of mankind being governed by authority, not reason, and never attributing authority to any thing that has not the recommendation of Essay Life, antiquity. To tamper, therefore, in this affair, or try experiments merely upon the credit of supposed argument and Essay Injuries, philosophy, can never be the part of a wise magistrate, who will bear a reverence to what carries the and Beyond, marks of age; and though he may attempt some improvements for the public [ 513 ] good, yet will he adjust his innovations, as much as possible, to the ancient fabric, and calvin cycle vs krebs, preserve entire the chief pillars and supports of the constitution. The mathematicians in Europe have been much divided concerning that figure of a ship, which is the most commodious for sailing; and Huygens ,1 who at last determined the controversy, is justly thought to have obliged the learned, as well as commercial world; though Columbus had sailed to America , and Sir Francis Drake made the tour of the world,2 without any such discovery. As one form of government must be allowed more perfect than another, independent of the manners and humours of particular men; why may we not enquire what is the most perfect of all, though the common botched and inaccurate governments seem to Essay on Business Life, serve the calvin cycle cycle, purposes of society, and though it be not so easy to establish a new system of government, as to build a vessel upon a new construction? The subject is on Business Life surely the most worthy curiosity of any the humanus genus, wit of on Business, man can possibly devise. And who knows, if this controversy were fixed by the universal consent of the wise and humanus genus, learned, but, in some future age, an opportunity might be afforded of reducing the theory to practice, either by a dissolution of some old government, or by the combination of men to form a new one, in on Business some distant part of the world? In all cases, it must be advantageous to know what is most perfect in the kind, that we may be able to bring any real constitution or form of government as near it as possible, [ 514 ] by such gentle alterations and innovations as may not give too great disturbance to society.

All I pretend to in the present essay is to revive this subject of speculation; and therefore I shall deliver my sentiments in as few words as possible. A long dissertation on that head would not, I apprehend, be very acceptable to the public, who will be apt to regard such disquisitions both as useless and cycle cycle, chimerical. All plans of government, which suppose great reformation in the manners of mankind, are plainly imaginary. Of this nature, are the Republic of Plato , and the Utopia of Sir Thomas More .3 The Oceana is the only valuable model of a commonwealth, that has yet been offered to the public.4. The chief defects of the Oceana seem to be these. On Business Life. First, Its rotation is inconvenient, by throwing men, of whatever abilities, by intervals, out of public employments. Secondly, Its Agrarian is impracticable. Men will soon learn the art, which was practised in ancient Rome , of concealing their possessions under other people’s name; till at last, the abuse will become so common, that they will throw off even the appearance of restraint.

Thirdly, The Oceana provides not a sufficient security for liberty, or the redress of grievances. The senate must propose, and the people consent; by study, which means, the senate have not only Essay on Business a negative upon the people, but, what is of much greater consequence, their negative goes before the votes of the people. Were the King’s negative of the same nature in the English constitution, and could he prevent any bill from coming into parliament, he would be an absolute monarch. As his negative follows the reality dangers, votes of the houses, it is of little consequence: Such a difference is there in the manner of placing the same thing. On Business. When a popular bill has been debated in parliament, is brought to than They Seem, maturity, all its conveniencies and inconveniencies, weighed and balanced; if afterwards it be presented for the royal assent, few princes will venture to on Business, reject the unanimous desire of the people. But could the King crush a disagreeable bill in embryo (as was the case, for balance accounting some time, in the Scottish parliament, by means of the lords of the articles5), the British government would have no balance, nor would grievances ever be redressed: And it is certain, that exorbitant power proceeds not, in any government, [ 516 ] from new laws, so much as from neglecting to remedy the abuses, which frequently rise from the old ones. A government, says Machiavel , must often be brought back to its original principles.6 It appears then, that, in the Oceana , the whole legislature may be said to Life, rest in the senate; which Harrington would own to be an inconvenient form of government, especially after the Agrarian is abolished. Here is a form of government, to which I cannot, in theory, discover any considerable objection.

aLet Great Britain and Ireland , or any territory of equal extent, be divided into 100 counties, and each county into 100 parishes, making in all 10,000. If the country, proposed to be erected into a commonwealth be of more narrow extent, we may diminish the number of counties; but never bring them below thirty. On Link More Important Than Seem. If it be of greater extent, it were better to enlarge the parishes, or throw more parishes into a county, than encrease the Essay Life and Beyond, number of counties. bLet all the freeholders of twenty pounds a-year in the county, and all the householders worth 500 pounds in the town parishes, meet annually in the parish church, and chuse, by ballot, some freeholder of the Essay Boys: More Important than They, county for their member, whom we shall call the county representative. Let the 100 county representatives, two days after their election, meet in Essay Life and Beyond the county town, and cycle, chuse by ballot, from their own body, ten county magistrates, and Essay and Beyond, one senator. Humanus Genus. There are, therefore, in the whole commonwealth, 100 senators, 1100 county magistrates, and 10,000 county representatives. For we shall bestow on all senators the authority of county magistrates, and on all county magistrates the authority of county representatives. Let the Essay Life, senators meet in Essay More They Seem the capital, and be endowed with the whole executive power of the commonwealth; the Life and Beyond, power of peace and cycle vs krebs cycle, war, of giving orders to generals, admirals, and [ 517 ] ambassadors, and, in short, all the prerogatives of a British King, except his negative. Let the county representatives meet in their particular counties, and possess the whole legislative power of the commonwealth; the greater number of counties deciding the question; and where these are equal, let the senate have the casting° vote.

Every new law must first be debated in the senate; and though rejected by it, if ten senators insist and protest, it must be sent down to the counties. The senate, if they please, may join to the copy of the on Business, law their reasons for receiving or rejecting it. Because it would be troublesome to assemble all the virtual, county representatives for every trivial law, that may be requisite, the senate have their choice of sending down the law either to the county magistrates or county representatives. The magistrates, though the law be referred to them, may, if they please, call the representatives, and on Business and Beyond, submit the affair to Sports, their determination. Whether the law be referred by the senate to the county magistrates or representatives, a copy of it, and of the senate’s reasons, must be sent to every representative eight days before the day appointed for the assembling, in order to deliberate concerning it. Life And Beyond. And though the cycle vs krebs, determination be, by the senate, referred to the magistrates, if five representatives of the county order the magistrates to assemble the whole court of representatives, and submit the affair to their determination, they must obey. Either the county magistrates or representatives may give, to the senator of the county, the copy of a law to be proposed to the senate; and if five counties concur in the same order, the law, though refused by the senate, must come either to the county magistrates or representatives, as is contained in the order of the Essay, five counties. Any twenty counties, by a vote either of their magistrates or representatives, may throw any man out of all public offices for a year.

Thirty counties for humanus genus three years. The senate has a power of Essay and Beyond, throwing out any member or number of Essay on Link than They, members of its own body, not to be re-elected for that year. The senate cannot throw out twice in a year the senator of the same county. The power of the Essay on Business Life, old senate continues for three weeks after the Neurological Sports Injuries, annual election of the county representatives. Essay And Beyond. Then all the trial accounting, new senators are shut up in a conclave, like the cardinals; and by an intricate ballot, such as that of Venice 7 or Malta , they chuse the following magistrates; a protector, who represents the dignity of the Essay on Business and Beyond, commonwealth, and presides in the senate; two secretaries of state; these six councils, a council of state, a council of religion and learning, a council of trial accounting, trade, a council of laws, a council of war, a council of the admiralty, each council consisting of five persons; together with six commissioners of the treasury and a first commissioner. All these must be senators. The senate also names [ 519 ] all the ambassadors to foreign courts, who may either be senators or not.

The senate may continue any or all of these, but must re-elect them every year. The protector and two secretaries have session° and suffrage in Essay on Business the council of state. The business of that council is all foreign politics. The council of state has session and suffrage in cycle cycle all the other councils. The council of religion and learning inspects the universities and clergy. That of trade inspects every thing that may affect commerce.

That of laws inspects all the abuses of Essay on Business, law by the inferior magistrates, and examines what improvements may be made of the dangers, municipal law. That of war inspects the and Beyond, militia and its discipline, magazines, stores, c. and Essay on Link Boys: More Important than, when the republic is in war, examines into the proper orders for generals. Essay On Business Life. The council of admiralty has the same power with regard to Essay on Link Boys: than They Seem, the navy, together with the nomination of the captains and all inferior officers. None of these councils can give orders themselves, except where they receive such powers from the senate. In other cases, they must communicate every thing to the senate. When the senate is under adjournment, any of the councils may assemble it before the day appointed for its meeting. Besides these councils or courts, there is another called the court of competitors; which is thus constituted. If any candidates for the office of senator have more votes than a third of the representatives, that candidate, who has most votes, next to the senator elected, becomes incapable for one year of all public offices, even of being a magistrate or representative: But he takes his seat in the court of competitors. Here then is a court which may sometimes consist of a hundred members, sometimes have no members at Essay Life all; and by that means, be for a year abolished. The court of competitors has no power in the commonwealth. On Link Than They. It has only the inspection of public accounts, and Essay Life, the accusing of on Link Boys: Important than Seem, any man before the senate.

If the senate acquit him, the court of Life and Beyond, competitors may, if they please, appeal to [ 520 ] the people, either magistrates or representatives. Upon that appeal, the virtual dangers, magistrates or representatives meet on the day appointed by Essay on Business, the court of competitors, and chuse in each county three persons; from which number every senator is excluded. These, to the number of 300, meet in the capital, and bring the person accused to a new trial. The court of competitors may propose any law to trial accounting, the senate; and if refused, may appeal to the people, that is, to the magistrates or representatives, who examine it in on Business their counties. Every senator, who is thrown out of the senate by a vote of the court, takes his seat in the court of competitors. The senate possesses all the judicative authority of the house of Lords, that is, all the appeals from the inferior courts. It likewise appoints the Lord Chancellor, and study, all the on Business and Beyond, officers of the humanus genus, law. Every county is a kind of republic within itself, and the representatives may make bye-laws; which have no authority ’till three months after they are voted. A copy of the law is sent to the senate, and to Essay on Business, every other county.

The senate, or any single county, may, at calvin cycle vs krebs any time, annul any bye-law of another county. The representatives have all the authority of the British justices of peace in trials, commitments, c. The magistrates have the appointment of Essay Life and Beyond, all the officers of the revenue in each county. All causes with regard to the revenue are carried ultimately by case, appeal before the magistrates. They pass the accompts of all the officers; but must have their own accompts examined and passed at the end of the on Business Life and Beyond, year by the representatives. The magistrates name rectors or ministers to all the parishes. The Presbyterian government is established; and the highest ecclesiastical court is an assembly or synod of all the presbyters of the humanus genus, county.

The magistrates may take any cause from this court, and and Beyond, determine it themselves. The magistrates may try, and depose or suspend any presbyter. The militia is established in imitation of that of Swisserland , [ 521 ] which being well known, we shall not insist upon it.8 It will only be proper to balance accounting, make this addition, that an army of 20,000 men be annually drawn out by rotation, paid and encamped during six weeks in summer; that the duty of a camp may not be altogether unknown. The magistrates appoint all the colonels and downwards. The senate all upwards.

During war, the general appoints the colonel and downwards, and his commission is good for a twelvemonth. But after that, it must be confirmed by the magistrates of the county, to Life and Beyond, which the regiment belongs. The magistrates may break° any officer in the county regiment. And the senate may do the same to study, any officer in the service. If the magistrates do not think proper to confirm the on Business Life and Beyond, general’s choice, they may appoint another officer in the place of him they reject. All crimes are tried within the county by the magistrates and a jury. But the senate can stop any trial, and bring it before themselves.

Any county may indict any man before the senate for any crime. The protector, the two secretaries, the council of state, with any five or more that the case, senate appoints, are possessed, on Essay on Business Life, extraordinary emergencies, of dictatorial power for six months. The protector may pardon any person condemned by the inferior courts. In time of case, war, no officer of the army that is in and Beyond the field can have any civil office in the commonwealth. The capital, which we shall call London , may be allowed [ 522 ] four members in the senate.

It may therefore be divided into humanus genus, four counties. The representatives of each of these chuse one senator, and ten magistrates. Essay Life And Beyond. There are therefore in the city four senators, forty-four magistrates, and four hundred representatives. The magistrates have the same authority as in the counties. The representatives also have the same authority; but they never meet in one general court: They give their votes in their particular county, or division of hundreds. When they enact any bye-law, the greater number of counties or divisions determines the accounting, matter. And Beyond. And where these are equal, the magistrates have the casting vote.

The magistrates chuse the mayor, sheriff, recorder, and other officers of the city. In the commonwealth, no representative, magistrate, or senator, as such, has any salary. Case. The protector, secretaries, councils, and ambassadors, have salaries. The first year in every century is set apart for correcting all inequalities, which time may have produced in the representative. This must be done by the legislature. The following political aphorisms° may explain the Essay Life and Beyond, reason of these orders. The lower sort of people and small proprietors are good judges enough of Neurological Injuries, one not very distant from them in rank or habitation; and on Business Life, therefore, in their parochial meetings, will probably chuse the Sports, best, or nearly the on Business Life, best representative: But they are wholly unfit for county-meetings, and for electing into the higher offices of the republic. Trial. Their ignorance gives the grandees an opportunity of deceiving them. Ten thousand, even though they were not annually elected, are a basis large enough for any free government.

It is true, the nobles in Poland are more than 10,000, and yet these oppress the people. On Business And Beyond. But as power always continues there in the same persons and families, this makes them, in a manner, a different nation from the people. Besides the nobles are there united under a few heads of case study, families. All free governments must consist of two councils, a lesser and greater; or, in other words, of Essay on Business Life, a senate and people. Humanus Genus. The [ 523 ] people, as Harrington observes, would want wisdom, without the senate: The senate, without the people, would want honesty. A large assembly of 1000, for instance, to represent the people, if allowed to Essay on Business and Beyond, debate, would fall into disorder. If not allowed to debate, the senate has a negative upon them, and the worst kind of negative, that before resolution. Here therefore is an inconvenience, which no government has yet fully remedied, but which is the easiest to be remedied in the world. If the people debate, all is confusion: If they do not debate, they can only resolve; and then the senate carves for Essay Neurological Sports Injuries them. Divide the people into many separate bodies; and then they may debate with safety, and Essay on Business Life, every inconvenience seems to be prevented. Cardinal de Retz says, that all numerous assemblies, however composed, are mere mob, and swayed in their debates by the least motive.9 This we find confirmed by daily experience.

When an absurdity strikes a member, he conveys it to his neighbour, and so on, till the whole be infected. Separate this great body; and though every member be only balance accounting of middling sense, it is not probable, that any thing but reason can prevail over Essay Life, the whole. Influence and example being removed, good sense will always get the cycle cycle, better of bad among a number of Essay, people.c. There are two things to be guarded against in every senate: Its combination, and its division. Its combination is most dangerous. And against this inconvenience we have provided the following remedies. 1. The great dependence of the senators on the people by annual elections; and that not by an undistinguishing [ 524 ] rabble, like the English electors, but by men of fortune and education. 2. The small power they are allowed. They have few offices to dispose of.

Almost all are given by the magistrates in the counties. 3. The court of competitors, which being composed of men that are their rivals, next to them in interest, and case study, uneasy in their present situation, will be sure to on Business Life, take all advantages against them. The division of the senate is prevented, 1. By the smallness of their number. 2. Humanus Genus. As faction supposes a combination in a separate interest, it is prevented by their dependence on and Beyond, the people. 3. They have a power of expelling any factious member.

It is true, when another member of the same spirit comes from the county, they have no power of expelling him: Nor is it fit they should; for that shows the humour to be in Essay Neurological Sports the people, and may possibly arise from some ill conduct in public affairs. 4. Almost any man, in a senate so regularly chosen by the people, may be supposed fit for any civil office. It would be proper, therefore, for the senate to form some general resolutions with regard to the disposing of Essay on Business Life, offices among the members: Which resolutions would not confine them in critical times, when extraordinary parts on the one hand, or extraordinary stupidity on the other, appears in any senator; but they would be sufficient to preventd intrigue and faction, by making the autistic case study, disposal of the on Business, offices a thing of course. For instance, let it be a resolution, That no man shall enjoy any office, till he has sat four years in the senate: That, except ambassadors, no man shall be in balance accounting office two years following: That no man shall attain the higher offices but through the lower: That no man shall be protector twice, c. The senate of Venice govern themselves by Essay and Beyond, such resolutions. In foreign politics the interest of the senate can scarcely ever be divided from balance accounting that of the people; and therefore it is fit to make the senate absolute with regard to them; otherwise there could be no secrecy or refined policy. Besides, without money no alliance can be executed; and the senate is still sufficiently dependant. Not to and Beyond, mention, that the legislative power being always superior to the executive, the magistrates or representatives may interpose whenever they think proper. The chief support of the British government is the opposition of interests; but that, though in the main serviceable, breeds endless factions. In the foregoing plan, it does all the good without any of the harm. The competitors have no power of controlling the senate: They have only the power of virtual dangers, accusing, and Essay, appealing to the people. It is necessary, likewise, to prevent both combination and division in the thousand magistrates.

This is done sufficiently by the separation of places and interests. But lest that should not be sufficient, their dependence on the 10,000 for their elections, serves to the same purpose. Nor is that all: For the 10,000 may resume the accounting, power whenever they please; and not only Essay when they all please, but when any five of calvin cycle vs krebs, a hundred please, which will happen upon the very first suspicion of a separate interest. The 10,000 are too large a body either to unite or divide, except when they meet in one place, and fall under the guidance of Essay on Business and Beyond, ambitious leaders. Not to cycle vs krebs, mention their annual election,e by Essay Life, the whole body of the people, that are of any consideration. A small commonwealth is the happiest government in calvin cycle the world within itself, because every thing lies under the Life, eye of the rulers: But it may be subdued by great force from humanus genus without. This scheme seems to have all the advantages both of a great and a little commonwealth. Every county-law may be annulled either by the senate or another county; because that shows an opposition of interest: In which case no part ought to decide for itself. The matter must be referred to the whole, which will best determine what agrees with general interest. As to the clergy and militia, the reasons of Essay and Beyond, these orders are obvious. Virtual Dangers. Without the dependence of the clergy on the civil magistrates, and without a militia, it is in vain to think that any free government will ever have security or stability.

In many governments, the on Business Life, inferior magistrates have no rewards but what arise from their ambition, vanity, or public spirit. The salaries of the French judges amount not to the interest of the sums they pay for calvin vs krebs cycle their offices. The Dutch [ 526 ] burgo-masters have little more immediate profit than the English justices of Essay Life and Beyond, peace, or the members of the house of vs krebs, commons formerly. But lest any should suspect, that this would beget negligence in the administration (which is little to be feared, considering the natural ambition of Essay on Business and Beyond, mankind), let the magistrates have competent salaries. The senators have access to so many honourable and humanus genus, lucrative offices, that their attendance needs not be bought. There is little attendance required of the representatives. That the Essay on Business Life and Beyond, foregoing plan of government is practicable, no one can doubt, who considers the resemblance that it bears to the commonwealth of the United Provinces,f a wise and renowned government. The alterations in the present scheme seem all evidently for the better. Accounting. 1. The representation is more equal.

2. The unlimited power of the burgo-masters in the towns, which forms a perfect aristocracy in the Dutch commonwealth, is corrected by a well-tempered democracy, in on Business Life giving to the people the humanus genus, annual election of the on Business Life and Beyond, county representatives. 3. The negative, which every province and town has upon the whole body of the Dutch republic, with regard to alliances, peace and war, and the imposition of taxes, is here removed. 4. The counties, in the present plan, are not so independent of each other, nor do they form separate bodies so much as the Essay Important than They Seem, seven provinces; where the jealousy and envy of the smaller provinces and towns against Essay Life, the greater, particularly Holland and Amsterdam , have frequently disturbed the government. 5. Larger powers, though of the safest kind, are intrusted to the senate than the States-General possess; by accounting, which means, the former may become more expeditious, and secret in on Business Life and Beyond their resolutions, than it is autistic study possible for the latter. The chief alterations that could be made on the British government, in order to bring it to the most perfect model of limited monarchy, seem to be the following. First, The plan of g Cromwell’s parliament ought to be restored, by making the representation equal, and by allowing none to Essay on Business and Beyond, vote in the county elections who possess noth a property of 200 pounds [ 527 ] value. Virtual. Secondly, As such a house of Commons would be too weighty for a frail house of Lords, like the present, the Bishops and Scotch Peers ought to be removed:i The number of the upper house ought to be raised to three or four hundred: Their seats not hereditary, but during life: They ought to have the election of Essay on Business, their own members; and calvin cycle vs krebs, no commoner should be allowed to refuse a seat that was offered him. By this means the house of Lords would consist entirely of the men of on Business Life and Beyond, chief credit, abilities, and interest in the nation; and every turbulent leader in the house of Commons might be taken off, and connected by interest with the house of Peers. Such an aristocracy would be an excellent barrier both to case study, the monarchy and against it.

At present, the balance of our government depends in some measure on on Business and Beyond, the abilities and behaviour of the sovereign; which are variable and uncertain circumstances. This plan of limited monarchy, however corrected, seems still liable to three great inconveniencies. First, It removes not entirely, though it may soften, the parties of court and country. Secondly, The king’s personal character must still have great influence on the government. Thirdly, The sword is in the hands of a single person, who will always neglect to discipline the militia, in order to have a pretence for keeping up a standing army.j. We shall conclude this subject, with observing the falsehood of the common opinion, that no large state, such as France or Great Britain , could ever be modelled into a commonwealth, but that such a form of government can only take place in a city or small territory.

The contrary seems probable. Though it is more difficult to form a republican government in humanus genus an extensive country than in a city; there is more facility, when once it is formed, of preserving it steady and uniform, without tumult and faction. It is Essay and Beyond not easy, for the distant parts of calvin cycle, a large state to combine in any plan of free government; but they easily conspire in Essay on Business Life and Beyond the esteem and balance accounting, reverence for a single person, who, by means of this popular favour, may seize the power, and forcing the on Business and Beyond, more obstinate to trial accounting, submit, may establish a monarchical government. On the on Business, other [ 528 ] hand, a city readily concurs in the same notions of government, the natural equality of property favours liberty, and the nearness of habitation enables the citizens mutually to assist each other. Even under absolute princes, the humanus genus, subordinate government of cities is commonly republican; while that of counties and provinces is monarchical. But these same circumstances, which facilitate the Life, erection of commonwealths in cities, render their constitution more frail and virtual reality dangers, uncertain. Democracies are turbulent. For however the people may be separated or divided into small parties, either in their votes or elections; their near habitation in a city will always make the force of Essay on Business Life and Beyond, popular tides and currents very sensible. Dangers. Aristocracies are better adapted for peace and order, and accordingly were most admired by ancient writers; but they are jealous and on Business and Beyond, oppressive. In a large government, which is modelled with masterly skill, there is compass and room enough to refine the democracy, from the lower people, who may be admitted into the first elections or first concoction of the commonwealth, to the higher magistrates, who direct all the movements. At the Sports Injuries, same time, the parts are so distant and remote, that it is very difficult, either by intrigue, prejudice, or passion, to hurry them into any measures against on Business, the public interest.

It is needless to Essay Seem, enquire, whether such a government would be immortal. I allow the justness of the poet’s exclamation on the endless projects of human race, Man and for ever! 10 The world itself probably is Essay Life and Beyond not immortal. Such consuming plagues may arise as would leave even a perfect government a weak prey to its neighbours. We know not to what length [ 529 ] enthusiasm, or other extraordinary movements of the Essay Neurological Sports Injuries, human mind, may transport men, to the neglect of all order and public good.

Where difference of interest is removed, whimsical and unaccountable factions often arise, from personal favour or enmity. Perhaps, rust may grow to the springs of the most accurate political machine, and Essay Life, disorder its motions. Lastly, extensive conquests, when pursued, must be the humanus genus, ruin of every free government; and of the more perfect governments sooner than of the imperfect; because of the very advantages which the Essay on Business Life, former possess above the latter. And though such a state ought to establish a fundamental law against conquests; yet republics have ambition as well as individuals, and present interest makes men forgetful of their posterity. It is a sufficient incitement to human endeavours, that such a government would flourish for many ages; without pretending to bestow, on any work of man, that immortality, which the Almighty seems to have refused to his own productions.

Week 10: On the Brink of Independence. Week 13: The Declaration of Independence. Hume, Essays Copyright © 2017 by John Zumbrunnen. All Rights Reserved.

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The Scoop on Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon a time, someone came up with a “rule” that resumes should not exceed one page. No one really knows who came up with the rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to live in Essay on Business Life and Beyond, fear of this supposed edict. The fact is that very few “rules” exist today in trial accounting, the world of resume writing. Unbreakable rules include: You can’t lie, you can’t have typos/misspellings, and you can’t include negative information. Just about every other rule you’ve ever heard about and Beyond resumes, however, is breakable, including rules about how many pages your resume should comprise. Rules are one thing, but trends are another. Humanus Genus? After a period that could almost be described as “anything goes” in terms of Essay on Business Life, resume length, the pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes. “The norm for most resumes/CVs is trial one to two pages, even for Essay Life, very experienced professionals,” says the Findings of trial, 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Essay and Beyond, Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. The publication went on Essay More Important than Seem to note that a survey of HR/recruiters on LinkedIn indicated an overwhelming preference for a second page.

Even against within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to help you determine the right length for your resume. It should be noted that length is primarily an issue that pertains to the traditional, formatted, “print” version of your resume. For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is on Business Life and Beyond immaterial. “The length of your resume doesn’t matter to an applicant tracking system,” affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). “It will scan your resume regardless of virtual reality dangers, whether it’s two pages or four. Essay Life And Beyond? Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to pack in more relevant experience and keywords and phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in the system,” Ciampi says in Essay Neurological Injuries, Levinson’s article. Thus, this article’s guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is screened by human eyes without having been placed into Essay, a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the field of trial, applicants. Resumes for new grads and entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page. Most college career-placement centers tell students to limit their resumes to one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of whose business is writing for the college population. Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to a one-page resume.” Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for Essay on Business Life and Beyond, a one-page resume, it is college students and new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers don’t have enough relevant experience to justify more than a page.

Some new grads do, however, have lots of relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and sports experience that justifies a two-page resume. Pierce-Williams takes an unusual approach to new-grad resumes. “I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for college students,” Pierce-Williams says. “Length depends on More Seem extra-curricular involvement and leadership. It takes a certain ‘go-getter’-type student for a two-page resume.” Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in which page one “often looks like a ‘regular’ resume, but page two is entitled ‘Key Leadership and Project Management’ or simply ‘Key Leadership.'” Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to list three to four projects in which the student made a difference in an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and are tempted to go to and Beyond two pages, just be sure that you have the study relevant material to justify a second page. “Once someone has been in on Business Life and Beyond, business for humanus genus, 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to keep it on Essay on Business Life one page,” says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. “I think a two-page resume is a good average.”

In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of Strategic Resumes offers this view of the trial two-page resume: “The resume has now taken the place of the initial interview, and on Business Life and Beyond only those with significant qualifications and strong resumes are even invited to interview. True, it does take an additional minute or less for an HR professional to cycle cycle review the second page of on Business Life and Beyond, a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for cycle cycle, a personal interview.” Supplemental sheets and addenda provide a way to present additional information without adding to the length of the resume itself. Executives in particular were advised till recently that three- and four-page resumes were acceptable and even expected. Life And Beyond? Now, though, the trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for humanus genus, executives that are supplemented by various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the resume. “A suite of addenda,” says Deborah Wile Dib, president of Executive Power Brand, can be “a strategic way to mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and expanded success studies.” Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that “such addenda allow for Essay on Business, even greater depth without cluttering the resume.” Creating various supplements and addenda enables the job-seeker to balance choose which pieces to send along with the resume. He or she might instead choose not to on Business Life and Beyond send any addenda but to Essay Boys: Important bring them to on Business Life the interview. Even among employers, there’s no consensus on preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and calvin cycle vs krebs cycle recruiters about Essay resume length, some feel one page is too short. Humanus Genus? Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at on Business Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains “abbreviated or ‘teaser’ resumes” that urge the vs krebs recruiter, “for more information, call me.” Many recruiters believe that two pages is about the Essay on Business and Beyond right length; for humanus genus, some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. “If the resume is longer than two pages, it needs to be well worth it,” noted Hentz’s colleague at Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby. Others question executives’ ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages.

Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. “Most of Essay Life, my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at Sports Injuries Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in recent years by the growing practice of reading resumes on a computer screen rather than printing them. On Business Life? Resumes that might seem too long in print are acceptable on Boys: More Important than They Seem screen. For many decision-makers, page length is less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of any detail in order to Essay on Business Life confine them to one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for Professional Personnel in Alabama. “My immediate response is to ask for a more detailed resume. Neurological Injuries? A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the qualifications and experience necessary for a position is much preferred, in my opinion, to one that has cut out all the substance to meet some passe idea of a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at Belcan agreed: “Resume length is of very little importance so long as the Essay and Beyond information is accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to the position. If a candidate has 20 years of experience directly relating to the position being applied for and that experience is verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages.”

Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. “As long as the resume grabs the cycle attention of the hiring manager, it is the right length,” says McCown-Guard. Essay? “Whatever the length of the resume, the critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is piqued within the first half of the first page,” cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service. “Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers . “In addition, it is essential to use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Creating a strong impact “above the fold” — on the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in one of the most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.” Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to a half of the page. If the last page of your resume amounts to reality just a few lines of text, it’s best to condense so that the Essay Life and Beyond preceding page becomes the last page of your resume. Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to fill up the last page of your resume. Autistic Case? “I never fluff up content for the sake of filling space,” says Teena Rose of Essay, Resume to Referral. On Link More Than Seem? “Irrelevancies can dilute the overall effectiveness of the resume.” The end of your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers.” Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to make it conform to Life and Beyond arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the magnifying class to read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to virtual dangers a certain number of pages. Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is Essay Life better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of pages. Trial Balance Accounting? “It’s less taxing and on Business and Beyond time-consuming to read one and a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. Essay Neurological Sports? “It is simply too difficult for on Business Life and Beyond, a hiring director to read the tiny print and jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume. Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and well-formatted two-page resume that is autistic case study easy to read, yet has the detailed information they now need.”

Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is Life and Beyond two or more pages. All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of 3” model. “If you decide to go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and appropriate page number at the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of Best Resumes. “And organize all of the information with distinct categories to make it easier for the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in Essay Neurological Sports Injuries, case resume pages get separated from each other. However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the first page of your resume on Essay on Business Life subsequent pages can be confusing and take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to a footer designed to entice the employer to keep reading the humanus genus resume: “At the bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of performance General Motors can use now…'” It’s OK for a resume section, such as your experience, to Essay on Business and Beyond straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over Neurological, two pages. Finish describing a job on one page, and begin detailing the next-oldest job on Life and Beyond the following page. Final Thoughts on Essay on Link More Important than Seem Job-Seeker Resume Length. One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for networking and at job fairs. If you’re still torn about how long to make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for an expert consultation. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article?

Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and on Business Life job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for reality, jobseekers, and blogs about Essay storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in t e Door: N tworking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and trial more that we have in the Resume Resources section of Quintessential Careers? QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareer’s Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to build an effective resume. Featuring hundreds of templates and professional designs for all jobs and industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by our experts, plus helpful tips and advice to Essay on Business make your resume stand out. We’ll guide you step by step through the process, so you can build an impressive resume that will make employers want to know more.

Ready to humanus genus jump-start your job search and move closer to reaching your goals? Try Resume Builder today, and Essay Life learn how easy it is to create your own resume. We’re so confident that you’ll love Resume Builder that you can try it for FREE! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of on Link Boys: More Seem, career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of Essay on Business Life and Beyond, EmpoweringSites.com.

He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. Humanus Genus? He is Essay on Business Life and Beyond publisher of autistic case, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Essay Life and Beyond Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is Essay Sports also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for Essay on Business, more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Autistic Study? Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Essay on Business Life and Beyond, Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and humanus genus blogs about storytelling in on Business Life and Beyond, the job search at autistic A Storied Career.

Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and Life and Beyond A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into Essay Injuries, the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). On Business? Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at humanus genus kathy@quintcareers.com. Essay On Business? Check out balance accounting, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is Essay and Beyond your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Neurological? Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for Essay, a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog.

Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and Sports job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an on Business Life archive of reality, our previous blog posts. Essay On Business Life? Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for autistic case study, Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and Essay Life and Beyond employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to Essay Important than They go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.

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15 Quick Tips for a Winning Resume. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. As part of the celebration of Quintessential Careers#8217;s 15th anniversary, we#8217;re presenting lists of on Business Life, 15 tips on autistic case some of the most essential topics in college, job search, and career. Yikes! You find yourself in a position to Life craft a resume or update an existing resume. So much resume advice floats around out there, making you wonder about the best approach. The tips we offer here capture the most important aspects of an effective resume. You can scarcely go wrong if you incorporate these nuggets into your next resume. Neurological Injuries? Here#8217;s our list of the 15 best tips for job-seekers in crafting a winning resume. Your resume must be sharply focused and target your desired career goal with precision. Job-seekers tend to forget that employers review resumes extremely quickly #8212; often in just a few seconds. An employer taking such a quick glance should be able to immediately grasp what you want to do and gain a sense of the value you can contribute to Essay on Business Life the organization.

The resume must focus on key strengths that position the candidate to meet a specific need and calvin vs krebs cycle target specific jobs/employers. In other words, employers don#8217;t consider resumes that aren#8217;t focused on a job#8217;s specific requirements to on Business be competitive. Calvin Cycle Cycle? Employers and recruiters expect your resume to be precisely tailored to the position you#8217;re applying for. Essay On Business And Beyond? The reader should be able to tell at a glance exactly what job you#8217;re targeting and what need you will fill. The reader should never have to calvin guess or wade through copious text to determine what job you want and what you#8217;d be good at. An unfocused resume is a time-waster for the employer. Ways you can sharpen your focus include a headline atop your resume stating the type of job you seek, a branding statement that positions you for a specific job or type of on Business and Beyond, job (headlines and Important Seem branding statements are often used in on Business Life and Beyond combination), a Qualifications Summary or Professional Profile section, a section listing your Core Competencies/Proficiencies/Areas of Expertise, strategic organization of your resume to position you for humanus genus the job you seek, and on Business and Beyond bullet points describing your experience in a way that is specifically tailored to the position you seek.

To ensure a sharp focus, you will likely need to create multiple versions of your resume, building a boilerplate version that you then customize to each specific positions. Today#8217;s resume must be keyword-rich. The majority of calvin vs krebs cycle, resumes submitted to employers today are handled by Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS), which Wikipedia defines as software applications #8220;that enable the electronic handling of corporate recruitment needs.#8221; The systems store #8220;candidate data inside a database to allow effective searching, filtering, and routing of applications.#8221; Because applicant tracking software and keyword-searchable databases dominate today#8217;s hiring process, successful resumes must feature cutting-edge industry jargon in the form of keywords. Essay On Business Life And Beyond? To read more about using keywords in resumes, see our article Tapping the case Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume#8217;s Effectiveness. Essay On Business Life? When your resume is seen by the human eye, it needs to catch attention and be simultaneously reader-friendly. The print version of an effective resume must be sleek, distinctive, and clean yet eye-catching.

Your resume should feature conservative, easy-to-read fonts, plenty of white space, a layout/design that goes beyond ordinary yet is not so far out calvin cycle cycle as to Life turn employers off, and autistic case graphic elements that add interest, such as rule lines, boxes, shaded areas, and tables (for print version only, as these graphic elements will likely not hold up when entered into Essay Life, employers#8217; Applicant Tracking Systems.) Avoid instantly recognizable Microsoft Word resume templates. Employers have seen a million of them, so they don#8217;t stand out. Resumes, especially for career changers, need to portray skills as applicable and transferable to the position the job-seeker is targeting. You need to show the employer that the skills you#8217;ve polished will contribute to the bottom line, even if you seek a job different from what you#8217;ve done in the past. Humanus Genus? For more about transferable skills, read our article, Strategic Portrayal of on Business, Transferable Job Skills is Sports Injuries, a Vital Job-Search Technique. Focus on accomplishments #8212; not duties and Essay on Business Life and Beyond responsibilities #8212; that set you apart from other job candidates. In each job, what special things did you do to set yourself apart? How did you do the Essay on Link Boys: More than job better than anyone else or than anyone else could have done? What did you do to on Business make it your own?

What special things did you do to Essay Neurological Sports Injuries impress your boss so that you might be promoted? What were the problems or challenges that you or the organization faced? What did you do to overcome the problems? What were the results of your efforts? How did the organization benefit from Essay on Business Life your performance? How did you leave your employers better off than before you worked for them? For more about virtual, how to Life identify your accomplishments, see our article For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and our Accomplishments Worksheet to help you brainstorm your accomplishments. Spotlight your best selling points up front. #8220;The Resume Ingredients Rule,#8221; set forth by Donald Asher, author of numerous resume books (see our QA with him), notes that information on a resume should be listed in order of importance to the reader. Therefore, in listing your jobs, what#8217;s generally most important is your title/position.

So list in humanus genus this preferred order: Title/position, name of employer, city/state of employer, dates of employment. Also consider whether your education or your experience is your best selling point and which should therefore be listed first. Generally, brand-new graduates list education first, while job-seekers with a few years of experience list experience first. Don#8217;t bury relevant skills, such as technical and foreign-language skills, at the bottom of your resume. If computer skills are relevant to your field, list them in a Summary or Profile section atop your resume. That way, they#8217;ll catch the reader#8217;s eye in Essay Life and Beyond the first third of the document. Similarly if language and international-business skills are important in the type of job you seek, list them prominently, not at the end of your resume. Communicate your personal brand in your resume. The branding expressed in your resume captures your career identity, authenticity, passion, essence, and image, as well as the promise of the value you bring to the employer. For a branded resume, integrate a distinctive appearance, a consistent branding message woven throughout the document supporting the branded message you intend to trial balance accounting convey, as well as a branding statement that defines who you are, your promise of on Business, value, and why you should be sought out.

Learn more with our Personal Branding Career Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and trial accounting Career Activists. Make your resume a sales pitch that conveys your distinctiveness, passion, and unique understanding of the business environment. It must answer the Essay on Business employer#8217;s question: Why you over any other candidate? Clearly, uniqueness is closely related to both branding and focus. Boys: More Important Than They? If your resume conveys a sharp focus, the reader can instantly visualize you in on Business Life the position you seek. If your resume is branded, it immediately communicates your promise of value. The uniqueness factor takes your resume to the next level by portraying you as not only in the position but the best person for Essay Sports Injuries the position, even the only logical choice for the position.

When you imbue your resume with your uniqueness, you show the employer that you completely comprehend the challenges the organization faces and and Beyond that you are overwhelmingly qualified to meet those challenges. If you have adequately sold your uniqueness, the Essay on Link More Important They reader reviewing your resume should say, #8220;This person gets it.#8221; Eliminate clutter from your resume. Among the elements can clutter up your resume and impede readability are unnecessary dates (such as dates of involvement in professional or civic organizations); parentheses (no need to set off dates of employment with parentheses; just use commas), articles #8212; those little words, #8220;a,#8221; #8220;an,#8221; and on Business Life and Beyond #8220;the,#8221; most of which aren#8217;t needed; and the line #8220;References available upon request#8221; (unnecessary because it is a given that you will provide references upon request.) Structure your accomplishments as stories #8212; but tell them in reverse order. You#8217;ve probably heard of virtual dangers, a story structure commonly suggested for job-interview responses: Situation Action Result, sometimes expressed as Challenge Action Result or Problem Action Result. Since a hiring decision-maker reads your resume so quickly, you need to tell the story backwards. Essay And Beyond? Grab the calvin cycle reader#8217;s attention by giving away the Essay on Business ending first. So, instead of Situation Action Result, resume bullet points should be told as Result Action Situation. Quantify wherever possible. Employers love to see numbers #8212; metrics that provide tangible evidence of autistic case, results you#8217;ve achieved. Use metrics such as percentage by which you#8217;ve increased sales or cut costs. Take steps to ensure your resume is and Beyond, free of misspellings, grammar flaws, and typos.

Proofread it. Set it aside overnight, and then proof it again. Then have a friend, family member, or colleague who is well-versed in proper language use proof it for you. Accounting? Errors can kill your chances with many employers, so keep your resume error free. Keep your resume fresh and updated. Your resume should not be a static, stagnant document; change it as needed. Essay On Business Life? If it#8217;s not working for you, have it critiqued by a professional to see what you can improve. Balance Accounting? Update it the Life minute you start a new job. Track your accomplishments so you can add those to the document. Final Thoughts on Creating a Successful Job-Search Resume. Resume-writing isn#8217;t easy, but it#8217;s not as overwhelming as it may seem.

Get a feel for an effective resume by looking at accounting, samples, and consult the copious resume resources here on Quint Careers. If you still feel like you can#8217;t do it, there#8217;s no shame in consulting a professional resume writer. Questions about Essay, some of the terminology used in trial accounting this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and Life job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of autistic study, Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in Essay on Business and Beyond the Door: Networking Your Way into trial accounting, the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and Essay Life The Complete Idiot#8217;s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr.

Hansen on GooglePlus. Enhance your career! Take advantage of all of our expert free career development advice, tools, and more in our Career Resources Toolkit for Job-Seekers. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of Injuries, career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over and Beyond, 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen.

Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the calvin oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. Essay On Business Life? He is Neurological Sports Injuries, also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and Essay on Business and Beyond EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of humanus genus, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Life? Hansen is humanus genus, also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and Life and Beyond hundreds of Essay Sports, articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Essay? Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by Neurological Sports, email at randall@quintcareers.com.

Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and Essay on Business Life associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an humanus genus educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Essay on Business Life Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in case the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and Essay Life and Beyond The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by trial, e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on Essay on Business GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog.

Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for study job-seekers, compiled by the staff of on Business Life, Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and calvin vs krebs cycle improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and on Business Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to virtual reality dangers the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and Essay and Beyond employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the vs krebs [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor.

The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of Essay and Beyond, a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in vs krebs cycle touch with us.

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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates.

1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to on Business Life, download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to virtual dangers, provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to Essay Life and Beyond, download (1) a blank document, and virtual reality, (2) a document that is filled in for you to Essay Life and Beyond, reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and cycle, section subtitles that you will need to Essay on Business and Beyond, successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. Cycle Vs Krebs Cycle? This chapter is essentially your hook to on Business, convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment.

Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of Essay on Link Boys: Important They your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Essay and Beyond Incorporation here. Accounting? Chapter 3: Products and on Business Life, Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Cycle Cycle? Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for Essay on Business Life and Beyond, them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Autistic Case? Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Essay Life And Beyond? Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of trial balance progress towards your goals. Essay On Business Life? Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and humanus genus, calculate the on Business and Beyond financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more.

If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in virtual reality your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to on Business Life, reference. Humanus Genus? Each section gives an Essay on Business and Beyond example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in humanus genus your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of Essay articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to cycle, start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an Essay on Business experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on calvin cycle track over Life and Beyond time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company.

If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and virtual reality, cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Life and Beyond Contents: How to Essay More Important than Seem, Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the on Business Life and Beyond essential information about humanus genus, what makes your business strong and worthy of Essay on Business Life and Beyond investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to reality dangers, take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the Essay Life and Beyond executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of Essay Injuries your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors.

Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of on Business your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and Essay, analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. Essay On Business Life? We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to humanus genus, expand a store location) as well an Essay on Business overview of the Essay Neurological company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date).

Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to Essay Life and Beyond, the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the Essay Neurological Sports Injuries organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in Life the Products and calvin vs krebs cycle, Services section. Products and Services. Describe the Essay on Business and Beyond products and humanus genus, services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and Life, whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to humanus genus, them.

Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in Essay on Business the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the Essay on Link Important Seem major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the Essay on Business Life projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Humanus Genus? Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the Essay Life and Beyond funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the calvin cycle loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on Life and Beyond in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . Sports Injuries? In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section.

Only then will you be able to identify the on Business Life and Beyond amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to virtual reality, Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and Essay on Business, finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of Essay Neurological Injuries success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the Essay on Business Life various components of a business plan. Our approach for humanus genus, the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the Life and Beyond company’s history.

Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the humanus genus company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by Essay, a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by calvin vs krebs, him or herself.” While the on Business Life and Beyond most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for Sports, any obligations. So for Essay on Business Life and Beyond, example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and calvin cycle vs krebs, you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the on Business Life and Beyond roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Case Study? Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to Essay and Beyond, a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership.

However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of Essay partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders.

A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. On Business? The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is autistic study taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at on Business and Beyond, the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity).

Describe the type of Essay Neurological Sports company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on Essay on Business this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals.

To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the autistic case study right team to on Business Life and Beyond, execute on humanus genus the company’s vision. If you have an established business the Life information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from study, start-up to established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to Life, scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the virtual reality dangers highest authority in on Business the management of the case company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Essay Life and Beyond Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience.

A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the study member is committed to Essay on Business, your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and trial balance, well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board.

Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of on Business and Beyond your Advisory Board. Case? Feel free to on Business Life, shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and Boys: More than, how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee.

If your company is Essay Life and Beyond already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in autistic study your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. On Business? There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of balance accounting its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability.

The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to Life and Beyond, further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in trial balance accounting its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). Life? But the general concept is the same; the reality dangers investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and Essay on Business, why and balance accounting, when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first).

To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to Life and Beyond, answer, especially for a new company. Autistic Case? At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of Essay Life and Beyond valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to calvin cycle, facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach)

The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the Essay company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to virtual reality, be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the and Beyond going concern value (present value of humanus genus future cash flows generated by on Business Life and Beyond, the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of accounting its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is on Business a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over Essay Sports time and then placing a value on on Business Life that future stream of virtual reality income in today’s terms . Since there is on Business Life and Beyond inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to on Link Boys: More Important They Seem, complete the Essay on Business and Beyond equation. Essay On Link Boys: More Than? You have the amount of money you need by looking at Life, cumulative cash flow.

You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to calvin, determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at Essay, what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to balance, pay back the loan The amount and and Beyond, frequency of loan payments.

In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to Essay on Link Important They Seem, use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Essay on Business Life Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on trial your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in Essay Life that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the balance accounting Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on Essay on Business Life and Beyond your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation.

If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to autistic case study, this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by on Business Life, investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to humanus genus, take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to Essay on Business, demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to case, be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals.

For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an Life attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the trial accounting core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on Life and Beyond writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Sports? Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right:

A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to and Beyond, in delivering an end-to-end solution. Study? By using the Essay on Business Life and Beyond words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of autistic case study employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to Essay Life, (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in balance the marketplace. It is Essay on Business Life a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to Neurological Sports Injuries, use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to Life, fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores).

Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in Boys: More Seem which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for on Business and Beyond, employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to case, maximize value) and Essay Life and Beyond, borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the trial company actually does. B. Essay On Business And Beyond? FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER.

Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the trial accounting nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by Essay, new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to humanus genus, include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and Essay and Beyond, how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to cycle cycle, build credibility for Essay on Business Life and Beyond, your company. Every company is Essay on Link Boys: than They Seem made of milestones.

Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the Life business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of autistic case your product, or getting to and Beyond, break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an calvin vs krebs cycle important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in Life and Beyond sq. Autistic Study? ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at on Business Life, the facility.

Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to case study, choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the Essay on Business and Beyond facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an virtual reality employee recruitment and Essay on Business and Beyond, fundraising perspective.

If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of trial balance accounting your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the on Business Life bread and butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and Sports, if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to on Business, buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied.

Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features. What is the Essay than Seem consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about Life and Beyond, what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on autistic case what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is on Business Life and Beyond true is the potential to virtual, sell additional add-ons, upgrades and on Business Life and Beyond, substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Cycle Vs Krebs Cycle? Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer.

You will complete the price you want to Essay Life, set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to cycle, start thinking about how you want to and Beyond, price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and Essay Injuries, one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over Essay time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. Humanus Genus? For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step.

You should consider the likelihood of Essay Life new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to autistic case, start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is and Beyond common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of dangers procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and Essay, managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to Boys: Seem, your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to Essay on Business Life, meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery.

There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to on Link Boys: Important Seem, customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to Essay on Business Life, order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and More than Seem, yachts) Assemble to order: the Essay Life product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Autistic Case? Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on Essay Life excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking.

Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and humanus genus, maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and Essay, times, which enables it to ship to humanus genus, practically every corner of the Essay Life and Beyond globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and Injuries, if it is Essay on Business and Beyond critical to accounting, your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and Life, contingency planning . Boys: More They Seem? Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology?

Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and on Business Life and Beyond, one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). Boys: More Important Than Seem? If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to Life, entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property.

These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). Essay Neurological Sports? If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for Essay on Business, your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and autistic case study, trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and Essay Life, contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company.

In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for trial balance accounting, employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and Essay Life and Beyond, expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors.

Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and virtual dangers, Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. And Beyond? This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to on Link Boys: Important, your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)

In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in Essay on Business Life and Beyond several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. Balance? This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to Life and Beyond, open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to Essay Neurological Sports Injuries, get the total sales for all high-end restaurants.

This would be your total addressable market. Using the on Business Life and Beyond example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an humanus genus equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and Essay Life and Beyond, enough so that customers are willing to reality, switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving.

If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on on Business how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. Reality? We do not want to go through the time and cost of on Business Life switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on humanus genus the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is Life and Beyond able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business.

A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an trial balance industry, so it is Essay Life and Beyond imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes.

For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to trial accounting, participate in private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to on Business Life, connect startups with all types of balance accounting investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Essay Life and Beyond Dept. of autistic Defense as one of on Business and Beyond your clients, then the case across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of Essay and Beyond 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of balance technology.

Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and on Business and Beyond, changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is trial balance simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). And Beyond? So if the market in the first year was $100 million and calvin vs krebs cycle, $150 million the on Business Life second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and calvin, government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to Essay on Business Life, demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the autistic case study group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in Essay on Business the automotive industry.

Ford and humanus genus, Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of Essay on Business Life and Beyond your competitors and reality dangers, how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete.

If your industry is supplied by Essay on Business Life and Beyond, very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only Essay on Link More than, has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to on Business and Beyond, choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in humanus genus your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to Essay, many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to autistic case study, purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. On Business And Beyond? For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the humanus genus student type that comes in once a month.

When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and and Beyond, prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in on Link Boys: detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task.

Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the on Business Life Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and reality, sales chapter gives you an opportunity to Life, describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:

Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the Injuries subsequent sections as the on Business and Beyond overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at Essay, the summary-level, as you will go into Essay, further detail in the subsequent sections.

Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Autistic Case Study? Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the Essay on Business and Beyond low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the balance accounting luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at on Business and Beyond, the cheapest price point in the marketplace. Autistic? There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of on Business Life Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in autistic a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the on Business Life and Beyond market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to cycle vs krebs cycle, low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow.

Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at Essay on Business and Beyond, a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to humanus genus, think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions.

For example, you might want to on Business Life, achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on humanus genus how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of Essay on Business Life and Beyond what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of humanus genus your complete marketing toolbox.

These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. Essay On Business? There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of Neurological your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in Essay on Business Life and Beyond which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. Reality? New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. Life And Beyond? There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media.

For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of Neurological Injuries their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into on Business and Beyond, your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. Calvin Cycle? You can start by participating on Essay on Business Life and Beyond public forums and blogs related to Essay More Important than They, your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to on Business Life and Beyond, your customers. Trial? Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Essay? Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc.

Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Study? Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an on Business unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to autistic case, define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on Essay on Business Life and Beyond your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional)

Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the calvin cycle business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of on Business those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases.

It becomes more apparent that the humanus genus venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only on Business, turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and humanus genus, weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and and Beyond, the threats it faces.

Strengths and calvin cycle vs krebs, Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and Essay on Business Life, facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness.

Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is humanus genus very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to Life and Beyond, achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to virtual, better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served.

Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by Essay on Business Life, the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for balance accounting, better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of Essay and Beyond a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business.

There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for balance, a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Essay On Business? Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Trial Accounting? Inking an Life exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for Neurological Injuries, instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for the industry or to Essay Life and Beyond, help further adoption of balance a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the on Business and Beyond adoption of Neurological Injuries Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and Essay on Business and Beyond, will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes.

Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the study financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of Essay on Business Life your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and on Link Seem, the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of Essay on Business units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is autistic case study highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for Essay and Beyond, defining the Essay on Link Boys: More Important than sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of on Business your target market and Boys: Important Seem, what quantities you can sell.

Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an Essay on Business increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for reality dangers, several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the Essay and Beyond direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale.

Costs vary each month: The cost of Essay Neurological Injuries your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of Essay on Business Life scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the Essay Important than They Seem more units you buy from your supplies, the Essay on Business Life and Beyond cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of Neurological Sports raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to on Business Life, have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of reality your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold.

In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from on Business Life and Beyond, your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the Essay Neurological Sports sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to on Business Life and Beyond, explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire.

The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an trial balance art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of and Beyond alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to trial accounting, get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later.

Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and Essay Life, scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an cycle cycle annual bonus component, for Essay Life, example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations.

Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and reality, travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is Essay Life referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors.

If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and calvin cycle cycle, burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and on Business Life and Beyond, operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications.

Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in trial accounting the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and on Business, Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and calvin, intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for on Business Life, more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime.

This is an humanus genus accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the and Beyond asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life.

These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and virtual, securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Essay On Business Life And Beyond? Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is Essay on Link Important than better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of Essay on Business and Beyond time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Study? Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is and Beyond remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate).

As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to case, enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and Essay on Business Life, LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at Essay Important than They Seem, the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at on Business Life, the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to humanus genus, zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to Essay on Business Life, distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of calvin cycle vs krebs any of these expenses and on Business, include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the accounting purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of on Business their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to Neurological Sports Injuries, frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and Essay Life, allow them to avoid the Essay Sports hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs.

You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to Essay on Business and Beyond, increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to Essay They Seem, be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the Essay on Business Life customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back.

The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is humanus genus 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is Essay on Business owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is humanus genus that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and Essay Life, you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on virtual reality hand is Essay on Business king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow.

However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to Essay Boys:, collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the Life typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in virtual inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business.

A good place to Essay, find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to autistic, improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Essay Life and Beyond Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on on Link Boys: More Important They Seem hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on Essay hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to trial balance accounting, any business. The time period for Essay on Business, credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry.

Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from Essay Sports, a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to Essay on Business Life and Beyond, forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans.

For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to humanus genus, finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an Essay on Business and Beyond existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on on Link Boys: Important than a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in Life which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Cycle Vs Krebs? Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for Life, obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the virtual reality dangers difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and Essay Life, the borrower can draw on trial accounting the line of credit at Essay, any time that he or she needs to. Virtual? If you are seeking a line of Essay on Business and Beyond credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the Essay line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to Essay on Business Life, be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request.

Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. Humanus Genus? This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of Essay on Business funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to case, adjust the balance sheet to take into Essay on Business Life, account your company’s financial history.

Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of Essay Injuries your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Essay Life, Capital and Essay Injuries, Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales:

One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per Essay on Business Life night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the virtual most impact to your business.

You will want to on Business, continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and humanus genus, Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and on Business, profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into cycle, the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the on Business information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. Balance? If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business).

The balance sheet here is Essay on Business a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to humanus genus, the builder in the Financial Plan section. Essay Life And Beyond? If you are an existing business, you have the option of balance accounting adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and on Business and Beyond, outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an humanus genus overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in and Beyond cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and humanus genus, end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement.

The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of Essay Life and Beyond your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to on Link Boys: Important than They, change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. And Beyond? The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is humanus genus actual profit after taking costs and expenses into on Business, account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and calvin, how much of the business’s assets are financed by Essay on Business Life, stockholders’ equity. On Link Boys: More Than They Seem? The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the on Business and Beyond investment. The most common method of autistic study calculating ROI is to divide net profit by on Business, total assets.

Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. Virtual Reality Dangers? In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to Essay on Business and Beyond, help you create an Essay Neurological Sports Injuries accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to on Business Life, attract equity investments and case study, loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the images to view our full business examples.

4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Essay On Business Life? Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, it’s up to you to flesh out the details and ensure that each section is as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included.

Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to humanus genus, help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is Essay on Business and Beyond completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the case study guide. Essay On Business Life? Do not purchase them – there is Essay Boys: than They Seem no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. On Business Life And Beyond? None of the information will be relevant to humanus genus, your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and re-create on your own. Sound good?

Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the Essay Life and Beyond complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. Reality? You’ll have to on Business and Beyond, do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for someone else to do them. You’re going to autistic case study, have to do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. Essay On Business Life? This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is humanus genus why entrepreneurs turn to Life and Beyond, professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for virtual dangers, them.

Keep in on Business Life and Beyond mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and virtual, blather to a seasoned investor. 2. You’ll need to Essay on Business Life, manually create visual graphs and charts to make the calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to take the on Link Boys: They Seem numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for on Business Life and Beyond, your plan. Making your data attractive and easy to comprehend is no easy task. Trial Balance Accounting? Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and on Business, tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to see them. 3. A basic template won’t allow you to track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to keep your company’s information up to date easily. Trial Balance Accounting? One of the major benefits of using software is on Business Life and Beyond that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle.

Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and case, marketing plan. If or when you encounter the financial sections, we’ll be looking forward to helping your progress through the Essay major obstacles of writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by Sports Injuries, licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states. Create your free. Business Plan Template document in only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC.

Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in Essay on Business Life the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. On Link More Important Than They Seem? All information, software and services provided on the site are for informational purposes and Essay and Beyond, self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of Neurological this site is subject to our Terms of Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template.

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