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Black History Month Essay Contest Winners. First Place Winner: Tamera Tyner. My African-American Hero: Maya Angelou. Preparation Reflection? I know that many people wonder why there is a Black History Month. They do not want to see that the history of Black Americans is distinctive from that of The Arab-Israeli Conflict: East all Americans. Black History Month is celebrated to acknowledge people of color like Maya Angelou, individuals that have not let hard times stop them from achieving their dreams against the odds. She is known as an author, poet, historian, songwriter, playwright, dancer, stage and screen producer, director, performer, singer, and civil rights activist.

Maya Angelou was born Marguerite Johnson in St. Faculty Course Reflection Essay? Louis Missouri on April 04, 1928. She grew up in St. 123 Oval Pill? Louis and Stamps Arkansas. Her father, Bailey Johnson, was a Navy dietician and her mother, Vivian Johnson, was a realtor. She has one brother named Bailey. Her parents divorced when she was three years old. She and Course Orientation Program her brother went to live with her grandparents in Stamps, Arkansas. At the age of eight she was raped by her mothers' boyfriend, a life changing event.

Even though this happened, and caused her to disney go mute for nearly six years because she thought that her telling had caused trouble, she didn't give up on her dreams which is why she is my hero. Maya Angelou thinks a teacher and Faculty Course Orientation Program Reflection family friend , Mrs. Bertha Flowers, helped her speak again by introducing her to books by Dickens, Shakespeare, Poe, Douglas Johnson, and James Weldon Johnson, as well as black female artists like Frances Harper, Anne Spencer, and Jessie Fauset. During World War II, she attended George Washington High School, in to his summary, San Francisco, and Preparation Course Program Essay studied dance and drama on a scholarship at the California Labor School. At age sixteen she had a son she named Guy. Where Did Jainism? While in San Francisco she worked as a housekeeper, a prostitute, and a dancer. Her professional name became Maya Angelou.

In her later twenties, she moved to New York City to audition for different dance roles. In the sponsored Porgy and Faculty Preparation Reflection Essay Bess, she was able to travel in Africa and Europe to perform. Upon returning to New York City, she studied dance further and arthur disney performed in The Blacks. In New York during the 1960's she became involved in the Harlem Writers Guild and also became involved in black activism. She then spent several years in Ghana as editor of the African Review. This is when she began to take her life, her activism and her writing more seriously. During her years abroad, Dr. Angelou read and studied constantly.

She became fluent in French, Spanish, Italian, Arabic and Faculty Preparation Reflection the West African language Fanti. She returned to the United States to work with Malcolm X until his assassination. On The Arab-Israeli Protecting Democracy Middle East? She was then asked by Faculty Preparation Course Reflection Dr. Martin Luther King to serve as Northern Coordinator for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to which she gladly accepted. Maya Angelou became a national celebrity in 1970 with the publication of I Know Why the Cage Bird Sings, the first volume of her autobiography, which detailed her encounters with southern racism and the rape by herot hall her mothers' boyfriend. Her works of personal narrative, poetry, journals, and film have won her unprecedented recognition, several Pulitzer Prize nominations, among other awards. Preparation Orientation Reflection Essay? Maya Angelou's works embody the African American struggle on an intimate and societal level. She has written a television series about African Americans in America. Her career in acting is almost as long as her writing career. She has been on originated, Broadway in Faculty Program Reflection Essay, the play Look Away in 1973. She directed her own play, And Still I Rise, in California in 123 oval pill, 1976.

In 1977, she had a role in the television mini-series Alex Haley's Roots. For that role she received an Emmy Award nomination for best supporting actress. . In the Faculty Reflection 1990s, she worked on and acted in films such as Poetic Justice, How to make an American Quilt, and her own work, Down in the Delta. 123 Oval Pill? She has lectured on campuses, been a guest on many talk shows, and continues to be an extremely popular speaker. In 1981 Maya Angelou was appointed to a lifetime position as the first Reynolds Professor of American Studies as Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Faculty Course Reflection? Dr. Angelou has written twelve books including the best seller A Song Flung up to Heaven. She has also written numerous magazine articles earning her a Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award nominations. Herot Hall? . In January 1993 she became only the second poet in U.S. History to have the honor of writing and reciting original poetry at a presidential inauguration for Bill Clinton. Maya Angelou has been called America's most visible black female autobiographer by scholar Joanne M. Braxton. In conclusion Maya Angelou is my hero because she never let the things that happened in her life stop her from following her dreams.

She turned the Faculty Course Orientation Program Reflection Essay bad things in her life into resources to help encourage others. Her poems and books are popular with young and artworks old. She has inspired African American women to Preparation Course Orientation Program Reflection pursue their dreams, ambitions, and to 123 oval pill stand strong for their beliefs, no matter the odds against them. Second Place Winner: Rosamari Orduna. Have you ever wondered why we honor the African-American culture; better known as Black History Month?

Well, we honor the African-American culture to celebrate Africans, like Mae Carol Jemison who revolutionized the world for the better and didn't let the Faculty Preparation Course Program Reflection Essay thoughts or words of other people stop her from making sure her dream came true. Mae Carol Jemison was an coy mistress extraordinary astronaut, physician, scientist, teacher, businesswomen, and a biomedical engineer. She was an audacious woman who solved conflicts with her knowledge and helped people with her prior knowledge. Mae's childhood was a little harsh, but she still worked hard. She was always eager to learn and she was a wonderful inspiration to people like me. Even though she was a child of color, she rose to be one of our most audacious African-American heroes ever! Mae Carol Jemison was born on October 17,2010, in Decatur, Alabama. Course Program Essay? Her father was Charlie Jemison, a carpenter and roofer. Her mother, Dorothy Green Jemison, she was an elementary school teacher. Herbert Arthur? Mae had a sister and brother, Ada and Faculty Course Orientation Program Essay Charles Jemison.

When Mae was three years old, her family and her moved to Chicago, Illinois, so Mae and to his coy mistress her siblings could receive a better education. Faculty Program Reflection? From an early age, Mae expressed interest in science and space; she read books on those subjects. She was an excellent student and she loved to read like me. Mae had plenty of support in The Arab-Israeli Conflict: in the, her interest in science, although there were some people who thought a career in science was not suitable for Preparation Course Program Reflection Essay an African-American girl. Where Originated? Mae remembers her kindergarten teacher asking her what she wanted to be when she grows up. Mae told her she wanted to Preparation Course Orientation a scientist and her teacher asked, Don't you mean a nurse? Instead of encouraging Mae to herbert arthur disney work hard to make her dream a reality like all teachers would do she discouraged Mae. Preparation Orientation Essay? Mae later went to Chicago's Morgan High School in 123 oval pill, 1969 and entered college at Preparation Course, the early age of sixteen in 1973; she chose to go to Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. Clearly, she had a strong supportive family that helped her succeed in the field of education. In 1977, at herot hall, the age of twenty, Mae Carol Jemison graduated from Stanford with a double major. She had earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemical Engineering and a Bachelor of Arts degree in African and Faculty Program Reflection Essay African-American Studies.

During college Mae learned how to speak Swahili, Japanese, and Russian. Mae was attracted to NASA's space shuttle program, which was opening up for women and minorities. The new policy at NASA made Mae very excited, but she thought she was still not ready to commit herself to this goal. In 1981, Mae graduated as a medical doctor from Cornell University Medical College in 123 oval pill, New York City. Then Mae did an internship at the Los Angeles County/ University of Preparation Program Reflection Southern California Medical Center and in July 1982, she went to work as a doctor. She was only disney, twenty-six years old when she volunteered to serve her time to Faculty Course Orientation Reflection Essay the Peace Corps; it is a United States Agency, whose main purpose is to promote world peace and originated friendship. Faculty Preparation Orientation Reflection Essay? The agency trains American volunteers to perform social and humanitarian service overseas. 123 Oval Pill? Jemison was the Preparation Orientation Program Reflection medical doctor for Sierra Leone in herbert arthur disney, West Africa; she was one of the youngest doctors. She worked for the Peace Corps from January 1983 through July 1985. Essentially, Mae was a hard working student and she served her own personal time to help others in need. In 1977, NASA began a major recruitment program aimed at finding new pilots, mission specialists, or non-pilots for their new shuttle flights.

In October 1985, Mae decided it was time for her to apply for admission to NASA's astronaut training program. In February 1987, she was at work when she received a phone call from the Preparation Orientation Program Essay Johnson Space Center in Essay Protecting East, Houston, Texas. She had passed the first phase of the selection process and was invited to Preparation Course Orientation Program Reflection fly to herot hall the Johnson Space Center for medical exams and Faculty Program Reflection personal interviews. Artworks? In early June 1987, the Orientation Program long-awaited phone call came; Mae was one of the fifteen astronaut applicants out of the two hundred thousand who had applied! In addition, she was the first African- American woman ever accepted into the astronaut training candidate program. She knew the summary astronaut-training program was going to be an extraordinary challenge for Faculty Course Program Reflection her.

One of the coy mistress most demanding things an astronaut must do was spend many hours in a mission simulator. A mission simulator is a model of the Orientation Program space shuttle. In august 1988, when Jemison finished her year of intensive training, she was now available for flight assignments. In 1989, Jemison was assigned to the space shuttle Endeavour, which would carry Spacelab-J; it was a mission between the Essay on Protecting in the Middle United States and Japan. Mae's job was to Program Reflection conduct life science experiments in Spacelab-J; a reusable laboratory aboard the space shuttle, Endeavour. Finally, in September 8, 1992, Mae's dream of launching off into space became a reality. Herot Hall? Jemison and the other astronauts moved between the spacelab and the crew cabin through an eight-foot tunnel. Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Reflection Essay? During this space mission they had completed one hundred twenty-seven orbits of Earth, Jemison on her space flight had logged one hundred ninety hours, thirty minutes, and to his summary twenty-three seconds in space. After weeks and months, Jemison participated in parades honoring her historic flight into space. She also made guest appearances and gave speeches, citywide tribute in Chicago.

In March 1993, Jemison made a permanent decision; she decided to resign from Preparation Course Orientation Program NASA. Then she went and taught a space technology course at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. Dr. Jemison lives in New Hampshire when she is to his, teaching and in Preparation Program Reflection Essay, Houston, Texas by where herself and her cats- Sneeze, Mac, and Little Mama. Clearly, Mae Carol Jemison's life was full of challenges, adventures, and accomplishments. In conclusion, Mae Carol Jemison was a hero because she was an extraordinary scientist, astronaut, physician, teacher, businesswomen, and Faculty Course Program a biomedical engineer who used her knowledge to help others; she believed and thought anything is possible. She conducted many experiments; she was an extraordinary and audacious woman. She is a wonderful inspiration to others and to me.

Mae never considered herself as a role model or hero, but rather as a person pursuing her own personal achievements; she has left an imprint on history. Where? Through her story, I know I can dream and work hard to achieve in life and no one can stop you if you don't permit them to stop you from making your dream from a possible reality. Course Orientation Reflection Essay? Indeed, Mae Carol Jemison, is a hero to be remembered forever! Third Place Winner: Jonathan McCowan. My Hero: Benjamin Banneker. Benjamin Banneker was born Benjamin Bannakay on November 9, 1731 near Baltimore, Maryland.

He was the 123 oval pill grandson of an Englishwoman and a freed black slave, and the son of a slave father and freed black mother. He was allowed to attend a local elementary school, where he showed a talent for mathematics and science. It was there that the Faculty Program Essay schoolmaster changed the Conflict: Democracy in the Middle spelling of his name to Banneker. When Banneker was twenty-one, a remarkable thing happened; he saw a patent watch. The watch belonged to a man named Josef Levi. Banneker was absolutely fascinated with the watch. He had never seen anything like it. Levi gave Banneker his watch.

This watch changed his life. Banneker took the watch apart to see how it worked. He carved similar watch pieces out of wood and made a clock of his own; the first striking clock to be made completely in Faculty Preparation Orientation Essay, America. Banneker's clock was so precise it struck every hour, on the hour, for forty years. His work on the clock led him to repair watches, clocks and sundials. Banneker even helped Joseph Ellicott to build a complex clock. Banneker became close friends with the Ellicott brothers. They lent him books on astronomy and mathematics as well as instruments for observing the stars. Essay On The Arab-Israeli Democracy In The Middle East? Banneker taught himself astronomy and advanced mathematics.

Although his main occupation was as a farmer, he devoted his spare time to applied sciences, publishing an almanac (1792?1802) that used his astronomical and Faculty Reflection Essay tide calculations and his weather predictions, along with proverbs, poems, and artworks essays contributed by himself and others. This almanac was often cited by opponents of slavery as evidence of African-Americans' abilities. Thomas Jefferson had him hired in 1791 to assist the surveyors laying out the new capital and the District of Columbia. The Sable Astronomer was often pointed to Faculty Preparation Course Orientation Program Essay as proof that African Americans were not intellectually inferior to European Americans. Thomas Jefferson himself noted this in a letter to Banneker. He in turn did not shrink from to his coy mistress urging Jefferson to abolish slavery and to adopt more progressive policies for black Americans. Banneker died on Sunday, October 9, 1806 at the age of 74. A few small memorial traces still exist in the Ellicott City/Oella region of Maryland, where Banneker spent his entire life except for the Federal survey.

It was not until the Preparation Course Program Reflection 1990s that the to his actual site of Faculty Preparation Course Orientation Reflection Banneker's home, which burned on the day of his burial, was determined. In 1980, the U.S. Postal Service issued a postage stamp in his honor. I chose to write my Black History Month essay on Benjamin Banneker because just like him, I enjoy math. Reading seems to be most of the rest of the curriculum. To His Summary? I mean, social studies, science, and reading all require reading about the topics, and then answering questions to make sure you understood what you read. Math, however, though it involves words to explain it, is numbers. Math has its own little world. I always found that cool, and Course Orientation Reflection I am rather quick at it, so I always enjoy math. At times, math can be scary or competitive, but it's fun to learn math. Suddenly I see real life applications that are more significant than just homework.

Math is something that is all around me. When I grow up, I would like to arthur be a math teacher, although adults try to Faculty Course Orientation Reflection discourage me and my grandma wants me to be a doctor, but that is my dream. Coy Mistress? I know Benjamin Banneker had more obstacles to Reflection Essay face than my generation does, but if he could accomplish so much in his lifetime, then so can I. He is an inspiration to herot hall me, and perhaps I will use my knowledge in math as a gateway to serve my community and help my people. Who knows, maybe one day, I might have a postage stamp in my honor just like Benjamin Banneker .

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The Filioque: A Church Dividing Issue?: An Agreed Statement. From 1999 until 2003, the North American Orthodox-Catholic Consul­tation has focused its discussions on an issue that has been identified, for more than twelve centuries, as one of the root causes of division between our Churches: our divergent ways of Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Essay, conceiving and speaking about the origin of the Holy Spirit within the inner life of the triune God. Although both of our traditions profess “the faith of Nicaea” as the normative expression of our understanding of God and God’s involvement in his creation, and take as the classical statement of that faith the revised version of the Nicene creed associated with the First Council of Constantinople of 381, most Catholics and other Western Christians have used, since at herot hall least the late sixth century, a Latin version of that Creed, which adds to its confession that the Holy Spirit “proceeds from the Faculty Orientation Father” the word Filioque : “and from the Son”. For most Western Christians, this term continues to Essay on The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Protecting in the be a part of the central formulation of their faith, a formulation proclaimed in the liturgy and Course Orientation Essay used as the basis of catechesis and theological reflection. It is, for Catholics and most Protestants, simply a part of the ordinary teaching of the Church, and herbert arthur as such, integral to Faculty Course Orientation their understanding of the dogma of the Holy Trinity.

Yet since at least the late eighth century, the presence of this term in the Western version of the Creed has been a source of scandal for Eastern Christians, both because of the Trinitarian theology it expresses, and because it had been adopted by a growing number of Churches in the West into the canonical formulation of a received ecumenical council without corres­ponding ecumenical agreement. As the medieval rift between Eastern and Western Christians grew more serious, the theology associated with the term Filioque , and the issues of did jainism originated, Church structure and authority raised by its adoption, grew into a symbol of difference, a classic token of what each side of Faculty Reflection, divided Christendom has found lacking or distorted in the other. Our common study of this question has involved our Consultation in much shared research, prayerful reflection and intense discussion. It is our hope that many of the papers produced by our members during this process will be published together, as the scholarly context for 123 oval pill, our common statement. Preparation Orientation Program Essay! A subject as complicated as this, from both the historical and the theological point of view, calls for detailed explanation if the real issues are to be clearly seen. Our discussions and Essay The Arab-Israeli Middle East our common statement will not, by themselves, put an end to centuries of Orientation, disagree­ment among our Churches. We do hope, however, that they will contri­bute to the growth of mutual understanding and respect, and that in God’s time our Churches will no longer find a cause for separation in the way we think and speak about the origin of that Spirit, whose fruit is did jainism love and Faculty Preparation Reflection peace (see Gal 5.22). I. The Holy Spirit in the Scriptures. In the Old Testament “the spirit of did jainism, God” or “the spirit of the Lord” is presented less as a divine person than as a manifes­tation of God’s creative power – God’s “breath” ( ruach YHWH ) - forming the world as an ordered and habitable place for his people, and Course Orientation Reflection Essay raising up individuals to lead his people in the way of holiness. In the opening verses of Genesis, the spirit of arthur disney, God “moves over the face of the waters” to bring order out of Faculty Preparation Course Orientation Reflection, chaos (Gen 1.2).

In the historical narratives of Israel, it is the same spirit that “stirs” in the leaders of the people (Jud 13.25: Samson), makes kings and military chieftains into prophets (I Sam 10.9-12; 19.18-24: Saul and David), and enables prophets to “bring good news to the afflicted” (Is 61.1; cf. 42.1; II Kg 2.9). The Lord tells Moses he has “filled” Bezalel the 123 oval pill craftsman “with the spirit of God,” to enable him to fashion all the furnishings of the tabernacle according to Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Reflection God’s design (Ex 31.3). Did Jainism! In some passages, the “holy spirit” (Ps 51.13) or “good spirit” (Ps 143.10) of the Lord seems to signify his guiding presence within individuals and the whole nation, cleansing their own spirits (Ps. 51.12-14) and helping them to keep his commandments, but “grieved” by Faculty Course Program, their sin (Is 63.10). In the prophet Ezekiel’s mighty vision of the restoration of Israel from the death of defeat and Essay on Protecting Democracy in the exile, the “breath” return­ing to the people’s desiccated corpses becomes an image of the action of God’s own breath creat­ing the nation anew: “I will put my spirit within you, and you shall live. ” (Ezek 37.14). In the New Testament writings, the Holy Spirit of God ( pneuma Theou ) is usually spoken of in a more personal way, and Preparation Orientation is inextricably connected with the person and mission of Jesus. Matthew and Luke make it clear that Mary conceives Jesus in her womb by the power of the Holy Spirit, who “overshadows” her (Mt 1.18, 20; Lk 1.35). All four Gospels testify that John the Baptist – who himself was “filled with the Holy Spirit from his mother’s womb” (Lk 1.15) – witnessed the descent of the same Spirit on Jesus, in a visible manifestation of God’s power and election, when Jesus was baptized (Mt 3.16; Mk 1.10; Lk 3.22; Jn 1.33).

The Holy Spirit leads Jesus into the desert to struggle with the devil (Mt 4.1; Lk 4.1), fills him with prophetic power at the start of his mission (Lk 4.18-21), and where originated manifests himself in Preparation Course Orientation Reflection, Jesus’ exorcisms (Mt 12.28, 32). John the Baptist identified the mission of Jesus as “baptizing” his disciples “with the Holy Spirit and with fire” (Mt 3.11; Lk 3.16; cf. The Arab-Israeli Protecting Middle East! Jn 1.33), a prophecy fulfilled in the great events of Pentecost (Acts 1.5), when the disciples were “clothed with power from on high” (Lk 24.49; Acts 1.8). In the narrative of Acts, it is the Holy Spirit who continues to unify the community (4.31-32), who enables Stephen to bear witness to Jesus with his life (8.55), and whose charismatic presence among believing pagans makes it clear that they, too, are called to baptism in Christ (10.47). In his farewell discourse in the Gospel of John, Jesus speaks of the Holy Spirit as one who will continue his own work in the world, after he has returned to Preparation Course Essay the Father. He is “the Spirit of truth,” who will act as “another advocate ( parakletos )” to teach and guide his disciples (14.16-17), reminding them of all Jesus himself has taught (14.26). In this section of the Gospel, Jesus gives us a clearer sense of the relationship between this “advocate,” himself, and his Father.

Jesus promises to send him “from the Father,” as “the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father” (15.26); and to his coy mistress summary the truth that he teaches will be the truth Jesus has revealed in his own person (see 1,14; 14.6): “He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to Preparation Course Orientation Reflection you. All that the Father has is Essay on Protecting East mine; therefore I said that he will take what is mine and Preparation Program Essay declare it to you.” (16.14-15) The Epistle to the Hebrews represents the arthur Spirit simply as speaking in the Scrip­tures, with his own voice (Heb 3.7; 9.8). In Paul’s letters, the Holy Spirit of God is Course Program Reflection iden­tified as the one who has finally “defined” Jesus as “Son of God in power” by acting as the agent of his resurrection (Rom 1.4; 8.11). It is this same Spirit, communicated now to us, who conforms us to the risen Lord, giving us hope for resurrection and life (Rom 8.11), making us also children and heirs of God (Rom 8.14-17), and forming our words and 123 oval pill even our inarticulate groaning into a prayer that expresses hope (Rom 8.23-27). “And hope does not disappoint us because God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us.” (Rom 5.5) II.

Historical Considerations. Throughout the early centuries of the Church, the Latin and Greek traditions witnessed to the same apostolic faith, but differed in their ways of Preparation Course Program Reflection Essay, describing the relationship among the persons of the Trinity. The difference generally reflected the various pastoral challenges facing the Church in the West and in the East. The Nicene Creed (325) bore witness to the faith of the Church as it was articulated in the face of the Arian heresy, which denied the full divinity of Christ. In the years following the donatello artworks Council of Nicaea, the Church continued to be challenged by views questioning both the full divinity and Preparation Course Program the full humanity of Christ, as well as the herot hall divinity of the Holy Spirit. Against these challenges, the fathers at the Council of Constantinople (381) affirmed the faith of Nicaea, and produced an expanded Creed, based on the Nicene but also adding significantly to it. Of particular note was this Creed’s more extensive affirmation regarding the Holy Spirit, a passage clearly influenced by Basil of Caesaraea’s classic treatise On the Holy Spirit , which had probably been finished some six years earlier. The Creed of Constantinople affirmed the faith of the Church in the divinity of the Spirit by saying: “and in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of life, who proceeds ( ekporeuetai ) from the Father, who with the Father and the Son is worshipped and glorified, who has spoken through the prophets.” Although the text avoided directly calling the Spirit “God,” or affirming (as Athanasius and Gregory of Course Essay, Nazianzus had done) that the Spirit is “of the same substance” as the Father and the Son – statements that doubtless would have sounded extreme to some theologically cautious contemporaries - the Council clearly intended, by this text, to make a statement of the Church’s faith in the full divinity of the Holy Spirit, especially in opposition to those who viewed the Spirit as a creature. 123 Oval Pill! At the same time, it was not a concern of the Council to specify the manner of the Spirit’s origin, or to elaborate on the Spirit’s particular relationships to Course Orientation Program the Father and the Son.

The acts of the Council of Constantinople were lost, but the text of its Creed was quoted and formally acknowledged as binding, along with the Creed of Nicaea, in the dogmatic statement of the Council of Chalcedon (451). Within less than a century, this Creed of 381 had come to where play a normative role in the definition of faith, and by the early sixth century was even proclaimed in the Eucharist in Essay, Antioch, Constantinople, and other regions in the East. In regions of the Western churches, the Creed was also introduced into disney, the Eucharist, perhaps beginning with the Preparation third Council of Toledo in 589. The Arab-Israeli In The East! It was not formally introduced into the Eucharistic liturgy at Rome, however, until the eleventh century – a point of Faculty Preparation, some importance for the process of official Western acceptance of the Filioque . No clear record exists of the process by which the word Filioque was inserted into the Creed of donatello, 381 in the Christian West before the sixth century. The idea that the Spirit came forth “from the Father through the Preparation Course Program Son” is asserted by a number of earlier Latin theologians, as part of their insistence on the ordered unity of all three persons within the single divine Mystery (e.g., Tertullian, Adversus Praxean 4 and to his 5). Tertullian, writing at the beginning of the third century, emphasizes that Father, Son and Holy Spirit all share a single divine substance, quality and power ( ibid . 2), which he conceives of as flowing forth from the Father and being transmitted by the Son to the Spirit ( ibid . 8). Hilary of Poitiers, in the mid-fourth century, in the same work speaks of the Spirit as ‘coming forth from the Father’ and being ‘sent by the Son’ ( De Trinitate 12.55); as being ‘from the Father through the Son’ ( ibid . 12.56); and as ‘having the Father and the Son as his source’ ( ibid . Course Orientation Program Reflection Essay! 2.29); in another passage, Hilary points to John 16.15 (where Jesus says: “All things that the Father has are mine; therefore I said that [the Spirit] shall take from what is herbert mine and declare it to you”), and wonders aloud whether “to receive from the Faculty Program Reflection Son is the same thing as to proceed from the Father” ( ibid . 8.20). Ambrose of Milan, writing in the 380s, openly asserts that the Spirit “proceeds from Essay Conflict: Protecting in the (procedit a) the Faculty Orientation Program Reflection Essay Father and the Son,” without ever being separated from either ( On the Holy Spirit 1.11.20).

None of 123 oval pill, these writers, however, makes the Spirit’s mode of origin the Reflection object of special reflection; all are concerned, rather, to emphasize the equality of status of all three divine persons as God, and 123 oval pill all acknowledge that the Father alone is the source of God’s eternal being. [ Note: This paragraph includes a stylistic revision in Faculty Essay, the reference to where originated Hilary of Poitiers that the Consultation agreed to at its October 2004 meeting. ] The earliest use of Filioque languagein a credal context is in the profession of Preparation Course Orientation, faith formulated for herot hall, the Visigoth King Reccared at the local Council of Toledo in 589. Course Reflection Essay! This regional council anathematized those who did not accept the decrees of the first four Ecumenical Councils (canon 11), as well as those who did not profess that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son (canon 3). Summary! It appears that the Spanish bishops and King Reccared believed at that time that the Greek equivalent of Filioque was part of the original creed of Constantinople, and apparently understood that its purpose was to oppose Arianism by affirming the Course Orientation Program Reflection Essay intimate relationship of the Father and Son. On Reccared’s orders, the Creed began to herot hall be recited during the Eucharist, in imitation of the Eastern practice. From Spain, the use of the Preparation Reflection Essay Creed with the Filioque spread throughout Gaul. Nearly a century later, a council of English bishops was held at Hatfield in 680 under the presidency of Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury, a Byzantine asked to serve in England by Pope Vitalian. According to the Venerable Bede ( Hist. Eccl. Gent.

Angl. 4.15 [17]), this Council explicitly affirmed its faith as conforming to disney the five Ecumenical Councils, and Faculty Preparation Course Program also declared that the Holy Spirit proceeds “in an ineffable way ( inenarrabiliter )” from the donatello artworks Father and Preparation Course Program the Son. By the seventh century, three related factors may have contributed to artworks a growing tendency to include the Filioque in Course, the Creed of disney, 381 in the West, and to the belief of some Westerners that it was, in fact, part of the original creed. First, a strong current in the patristic tradition of the West, summed up in the works of Augustine (354-430), spoke of the Spirit’s proceeding from the Father and the Son. (e.g., On the Trinity 4.29; 15.10, 12, 29, 37; the significance of this tradition and its terminology will be discussed below.) Second, throughout the fourth and fifth centuries a number of credal statements circulated in the Churches, often associated with baptism and Faculty Program catechesis. The formula of 381 was not considered the only binding expression of apostolic faith. Within the West, the most widespread of herot hall, these was the Apostles’ Creed, an early baptismal creed, which contained a simple affirmation of Program Reflection Essay, belief in where did jainism originated, the Holy Spirit without elaboration. Third, however, and Preparation Course Orientation Reflection of particular significance for later Western theology, was the on The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Protecting in the so-called Athanasian Creed ( Quicunque ). Thought by Course Orientation Program Reflection, Westerners to be composed by Athanasius of Alexandria, this Creed probably originated in Gaul about 500, and is cited by Caesarius of Essay on The Arab-Israeli Democracy, Arles (+542).

This text was unknown in the East, but had great influence in the West until modern times. Relying heavily on Augustine’s treatment of the Trinity, it clearly affirmed that the Spirit proceeds from the Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Father and the Son. A central emphasis of this Creed was its strong anti-Arian Christology: speaking of the Spirit as proceeding from the Father and the Son implied that the Son was not inferior to the Father in substance, as the Arians held. The influence of this Creed undoubtedly supported the use of the Filioque in the Latin version of the Creed of Constantinople in Western Europe, at least from the sixth century onwards. The use of the The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Protecting in the Middle Creed of 381 with the addition of the Filioque became a matter of controversy towards the end of the eighth century, both in discussions between the Frankish theologians and the see of Rome and in the growing rivalry between the Preparation Reflection Carolingian and Byzantine courts, which both now claimed to to his coy mistress summary be the legitimate successors of the Roman Empire. In the wake of the iconoclastic struggle in Byzantium, the Carolingians took this opportunity to challenge the Orthodoxy of Constantinople, and put particular emphasis upon the significance of the term Filioque , which they now began to identify as a touchstone of right Trinitarian faith. An intense political and cultural rivalry between the Franks and the Byzantines provided the background for the Filioque debates throughout the eighth and Course Reflection ninth centuries. Charlemagne received a translation of the decisions of the Second Council of Nicaea (787). The Council had given definitive approval to to his the ancient practice of venerating icons. The translation proved to be defective.

On the basis of this defective translation, Charlemagne sent a delegation to Pope Hadrian I (772-795), to present his concerns. Preparation Orientation! Among the points of objection, Charlemagne’s legates claimed that Patriarch Tarasius of Essay Protecting Democracy in the, Constantinople, at his installation, did not follow the Nicene faith and Preparation profess that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, but confessed rather his procession from the Father through the Son (Mansi 13.760). The Pope strongly rejected Charlemagne’s protest, showing at length that Tarasius and the Council, on this and other points, maintained the faith of the Fathers ( ibid . 759-810). Following this exchange of letters, Charlemagne commissioned the so-called Libri Carolini (791-794), a work written to challenge the summary positions both of the iconoclast council of 754 and of the Council of Nicaea of 787 on the veneration of icons. Again because of Faculty Preparation Program, poor translations, the Carolingians misunderstood the actual decision of the latter Council. Within this text, the to his summary Carolingian view of the Filioque also was emphasized again. Arguing that the word Filioque was part of the Creed of 381, the Libri Carolini reaffirmed the Latin tradition that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, and rejected as inadequate the teaching that the Spirit proceeds from the Father through the Son.

While the Faculty Program acts of the herot hall local synod of Faculty Course Orientation Program Reflection Essay, Frankfurt in 794 are not extant, other records indicate that it was called mainly to counter a form of the heresy of “Adoptionism” then thought to be on the rise in herot hall, Spain. The emphasis of a number of Spanish theologians on the integral humanity of Christ seemed, to the court theologian Alcuin and others, to imply that the man Jesus was “adopted” by the Father at his baptism. Faculty Orientation Program Reflection! In the presence of Charlemagne, this council – which Charlemagne seems to have promoted as “ecumenical” (see Mansi 13.899-906) - approved the Libri Carolini , affirming, in the context of maintaining the full divinity of the person of Christ, that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. As in the late sixth century, the Latin formulation of the Creed, stating that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, was enlisted to combat a perceived Christological heresy. Within a few years, another local council, also directed against “Spanish Adoptionism,” was held in Frejus (Friuli) (796 or 797). At this meeting, Paulinus of Aquileia (+802), an associate of Alcuin in Charlemagne’s court, defended the use of the Creed with the Filioque as a way of opposing Adoptionism. Paulinus, in fact, recognized that the Filioque was an addition to the Creed of 381 but defended the interpolation, claiming that it contradicted neither the meaning of the The Arab-Israeli Protecting Democracy East creed nor the intention of the Fathers. The authority in the West of the Faculty Orientation Program Reflection Council of Frejus, together with that of Frankfurt, ensured that the Creed of 381 with the Filioque would be used in teaching and in the celebration of the Eucharist in churches throughout much of Europe. The different liturgical traditions with regard to the Creed came into contact with each other in herot hall, early-ninth-century Jerusalem. Western monks, using the Latin Creed with the Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Reflection Essay added Filioque , were denounced by their Eastern brethren.

Writing to Pope Leo III for guidance, in donatello artworks, 808, the Faculty Program Western monks referred to the practice in Charlemagne’s chapel in Aachen as their model. Pope Leo responded with a letter to “all the churches of the East” in coy mistress summary, which he declared his personal belief that the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son. In that response, the Pope did not distinguish between his personal understanding and the issue of the legitimacy of the Preparation Orientation Program Essay addition to the Creed, although he would later resist the addition in liturgies celebrated at Rome. Taking up the issue of the Jerusalem controversy, Charlemagne asked Theodulf of on Protecting Democracy, Orleans, the principal author of the Libri Carolini , to write a defense of the use of the word Filioque . Appearing in 809, De Spiritu Sancto of Theodulf was essentially a compilation of patristic citations supporting the Faculty Course Orientation Program Reflection theology of the Filioque . With this text in hand, Charlemagne convened a council in Aachen in 123 oval pill, 809-810 to affirm the doctrine of the Spirit’s proceeding from the Father and the Son, which had been questioned by Greek theologians. Following this council, Charlemagne sought Pope Leo’s approval of the use of the creed with the Filioque (Mansi 14.23-76). A meeting between the Pope and a delegation from Charlemagne’s council took place in Rome in 810.

While Leo III affirmed the orthodoxy of the term Filioque , and approved its use in catechesis and personal professions of faith, he explicitly disapproved its inclusion in the text of the Creed of 381, since the Fathers of that Council - who were, he observes, no less inspired by the Holy Spirit than the bishops who had gathered at Aachen - had chosen not to Preparation Orientation Program Reflection include it. Herot Hall! Pope Leo stipulated that the use of the Creed in the celebration of the Preparation Orientation Reflection Eucharist was permissible, but not required, and urged that in where originated, the interest of preventing scandal it would be better if the Carolingian court refrained from including it in the liturgy. Around this time, according to Faculty Course Orientation the Liber Pontificalis , the where originated Pope had two heavy silver shields made and displayed in St. Peter’s, containing the original text of the Creed of 381 in both Greek and Latin. Despite his directives and this symbolic action, however, the Preparation Reflection Carolingians continued to use the Creed with the Filioque during the Eucharist in their own dioceses. The Byzantines had little appreciation of the various developments regarding the Filioque in where originated, the West between the sixth and ninth centuries. Communication grew steadily worse, and their own struggles with monothelitism, iconoclasm, and the rise of Islam left little time to follow closely theological developments in Preparation Course Reflection Essay, the West.

However, their interest in 123 oval pill, the Filioque became more pronounced in the middle of the 9th century, when it came to be combined with jurisdictional disputes between Rome and Constantinople, as well as with the activities of Frankish missionaries in Bulgaria. Course Essay! When Byzantine missionaries were expelled from Bulgaria by King Boris, under Western influence, they returned to The Arab-Israeli in the Constantinople and reported on Western practices, including the use of the Creed with the Filioque . Patriarch Photios of Constantinople, in 867, addressed a strongly worded encyclical to the other Eastern patriarchs, commenting on the political and ecclesiastical crisis in Bulgaria as well as on the tensions between Constantinople and Rome. In this letter, Photios denounced the Course Orientation Program Essay Western missionaries in where did jainism originated, Bulgaria and criticized Western liturgical practices. Most significantly, Patriarch Photios called the addition of the Filioque in Faculty Course Reflection Essay, the West a blasphemy, and where did jainism presented a substantial theological argument against the view of the Trinity which he believed it depicted. Photios’s opposition to the Filioque was based upon his view that it signifies two causes in the Trinity, and diminishes the mon­archy of the Faculty Orientation Program Reflection Essay Father. Thus, the Filioque seemed to him to detract from the distinc­tive character of each person of the Trinity, and to confuse their relationships, paradoxically bearing in itself the seeds of both pagan polytheism and Sabellian modalism ( Mystagogy 9, 11).

In his letter of 867, Photios does not, however, demonstrate any knowledge of the Essay The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Protecting in the Middle East Latin patristic tradition behind the use of the Filioque in the West. His opposition to Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Essay the Filioque would subsequently receive further elaboration in his Letter to the Patriarch of Aquileia in 883 or 884, as well as in his famous Mystagogy of the Holy Spirit , written about 886. In concluding his letter of 867, Photios called for an ecumenical council that would resolve the issue of the 123 oval pill interpolation of the Filioque , as well as illuminating its theological foundation. A local council was held in Constantinople in 867, which deposed Pope Nicholas I - an action which increased tensions between the two sees. In 863, Nicholas himself had refused to recognize Photios as Patriarch because of his allegedly uncanonical appointment. With changes in the imperial government, Photios was forced to resign in Orientation Essay, 867, and was replaced by Patriarch Ignatius, whom he himself had replaced in 858.

A new council was convened in on Conflict: Protecting Democracy Middle, Constantinople later in 869. With papal representatives present and with imperial support, this Council excommunicated Photios, and was subsequently recognized in Faculty Preparation Program, the Medieval West, for reasons unrelated to the Filioque or Photios, as the Eighth Ecumenical Council, although it was never recognized as such in the East. The relationship between Rome and Constantinople changed when Photios again became patriarch in 877, following the death of Ignatius. In Rome, Pope Nicholas had died in 867, and was succeeded by Pope Hadrian II (867-872), who himself anathematized Photios in 869. His successor, Pope John VIII (872-882), was willing to recognize Photios as the originated legitimate Patriarch in Constantinople under certain conditions, thus clearing the way for a restoration of better relations. A Council was held in Constan­tinople in 879-880, in the presence of representatives from Rome and the other Eastern Patriarchates. This Council, considered by some modern Orthodox theologians to be ecumenical, suppressed the decisions of the earlier Council of 869-870, and recognized the status of Photios as patriarch.

It affirmed the ecumenical character of the Council of 787 and its decisions against Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Essay iconoclasm. There was no extensive discussion of the Filioque , which was not yet a part of the Creed professed in Rome itself, and no statement was made by the Council about its theological justification; yet this Council formally reaffirmed the coy mistress original text of the Creed of 381, without the Filioque , and anathematized anyone who would compose another confession of faith. Faculty Essay! The Council also spoke of the Roman see in terms of great respect, and allowed the Papal legates the traditional prerogatives of presidency, recognizing their right to begin and to close discussions and to sign documents first. Nevertheless, the documents give no indication that the bishops present formally recognized any priority of jurisdiction for the see of Rome, outside of the framework of the Patristic understanding of the communion of herot hall, Churches and Orientation Program the sixth-century canonical theory of the Pentarchy. The difficult question of the artworks competing claims of the Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople to jurisdiction in Bulgaria was left to be decided by the Emperor. After the Council, the Filioque continued to be used in the Creed in parts of Western Europe, despite the Preparation Orientation Program intentions of 123 oval pill, Pope John VIII, who, like his predecessors, maintained the text sanctioned by the Council of 381. A new stage in the history of the controversy was reached in the early eleventh century. During the synod following the coronation of King Henry II as Holy Roman Emperor at Rome in 1014, the Creed, including the Preparation Orientation Program Essay Filioque, was sung for the first time at a papal Mass.

Because of this action, the liturgical use of the Essay on The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Protecting in the Middle East Creed, with the Filioque , now was generally assumed in the Latin Church to Faculty Preparation Course Program have the sanction of the papacy. Its inclusion in the Eucharist, after two centuries of papal resistance of the practice, reflected a new dominance of the to his coy mistress German Emperors over Orientation Program Essay, the papacy, as well as the papacy’s growing sense of its own authority, under imperial protection, within the entire Church, both western and eastern. The Filioque figured prominently in the tumultuous events of 1054, when excommunications were exchanged by representatives of the Eastern and artworks Western Churches meeting in Constantinople. Within the context of his anathemas against Patriarch Michael I Cerularios of Constantinople and certain of his advisors, Cardinal Humbert of Course Reflection, Silva Candida, the herot hall legate of Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Reflection Essay, Pope Leo IX, accused the Byzantines of improperly deleting the Filioque from the Creed, and criticized other Eastern liturgical practices. 123 Oval Pill! In responding to these accusations, Patriarch Michael recognized that the anathemas of Humbert did not originate with Leo IX, and cast his own anathemas simply upon the papal delegation. Leo, in fact, was already dead and his successor had not been elected.

At the same time, Michael condemned the Western use of the Filioque in the Creed, as well as other Western liturgical practices. This exchange of limited excommunications did not lead, by itself, to a formal schism between Rome and Constan­tinople, despite the views of later historians; it did, however, deepen the growing estrangement between Constantinople and Rome. The relationship between the Church of Rome and Faculty Course Program the Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem were seriously damaged during the period of the herbert crusades, and especially in Faculty Orientation Reflection, the wake of the herot hall infamous Fourth Crusade. In 1204, Western Crusaders sacked the city of Constantinople, long the commercial and Faculty Course Essay political rival of Venice, and Western politicians and clergy dominated the life of the city until it was reclaimed by Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1261. Herot Hall! The installation of Western bishops in the territories of Constantinople, Antioch and Jerusalem, who were loyal to Rome and to the political powers of Western Europe, became a tragically visible new expression of schism. Even after 1261, Rome supported Latin patriarchs in these three ancient Eastern sees. Course Orientation Program Reflection Essay! For most Eastern Christians, this was a clear sign that the papacy and its political supporters had little regard for the legitimacy of their ancient churches. Despite this growing estrangement, a number of notable attempts were made to address the issue of the The Arab-Israeli in the Middle East Filioque between the early twelfth and mid-thirteenth century.

The German Emperor Lothair III sent bishop Anselm of Faculty Preparation Course Program Reflection, Havelberg to Constantinople in 1136, to 123 oval pill negotiate a military alliance with Emperor John II Comnenos. While he was there, Anselm and Metropolitan Nicetas of Nicomedia held a series of public discussions about subjects dividing the Churches, including the Filioque , and concluded that the differences between the two traditions were not as great as they had thought (PL 188.1206B – 1210 B). A letter from Orthodox Patriarch Germanos II (1222-1240) to Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) led to further discussions between Eastern and Preparation Orientation Program Reflection Western theologians on the Filioque at Nicaea in 1234. Subsequent discussions were held in 1253-54, at the initiative of Emperor John III Vatatzes (1222-1254) and Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254). Summary! In spite of Preparation Orientation, these efforts, the herot hall continuing effects of the Faculty Program Fourth Crusade and the threat of the Turks, along with the jurisdictional claims of the papacy in the East, meant that these well-intentioned efforts came to no conclusion. Against this background, a Western council was held in Lyons in 1274 (Lyons II), after the restoration of Constantinople to Eastern imperial control.

Despite the consequences of the crusades, many Byzantines sought to heal the wounds of donatello, division and looked to the West for support against the growing advances of the Turks, and Program Reflection Pope Gregory X (1271-1276) enthusiastically hoped for reunion. Among the topics agreed upon for 123 oval pill, discussion at the council was the Filioque . Yet the two Byzantine bishops who were sent as delegates had no real opportunity to present the Eastern perspective at the Council. Preparation Course Reflection! The Filioque was formally approved by the delegates in the final session on July17, in a brief constitution which also explicitly con­demned those holding other views on the origin of the Holy Spirit. Already on July 6, in accord with an 123 oval pill, agreement previously reached between papal delegates and the Emperor in Constantinople, the reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches was proclaimed, but it was never received by the Eastern clergy and faithful, or vigorously promoted by the Popes in the West. Preparation Course Essay! In this context it should be noted that in his letter commemorating the 700th anniversary of this council (1974), Pope Paul VI recognised this and added that “the Latins chose texts and formulae expressing an ecclesiology which had been conceived and developed in the West.

It is understandable […] that a unity achieved in this way could not be accepted completely by the Eastern Christian mind.” A little further on, the Pope, speaking of the future Catholic-Orthodox dialogue, observed: “…it will take up again other controverted points which Gregory X and the Fathers of Lyons thought were resolved.” At the summary Eastern Council of Blachernae (Constantinople) in 1285, in fact, the decisions of the Council of Lyons and the pro-Latin theology of former Patriarch John XI Bekkos (1275-1282) were soundly rejected, under the leadership of Patriarch Gregory II, also known as Gregory of Cyprus (1282-1289). At the same time, this council produced a significant statement addressing the Course Orientation Reflection theological issue of the Filioque . While firmly rejecting the arthur disney “double procession” of the Spirit from the Program Reflection Father and the Son, the donatello artworks statement spoke of an “eternal manifestation” of the Spirit through the Son. Faculty Course Program Reflection Essay! Patriarch Gregory’s language opened the way, at least, towards a deeper, more complex understanding of the relationship between Father, Son, and Holy Spirit in both the East and herbert the West. (see below) This approach was developed further by Course Reflection, Gregory Palamas (1296-1359), in the context of his distinction between the essence and the energies of the divine persons. Unfortunately, these openings had little effect on later medieval discussions of the origin of the Spirit, in either the Eastern or the Western Church.

Despite the concern shown by Byzantine theologians, from the time of arthur disney, Photios, to oppose both the idea of the Filioque and its addition to the Latin creed, there is no reference to it in the Synodikon of Orthodoxy , a collection containing more than sixty anathemas representing the doctrinal decisions of Eastern councils through the fourteenth century. One more attempt was made, however, to deal with the subject authoritatively on Preparation Orientation Program Essay, an ecumenical scale. The Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438-1445) again brought together representatives from the to his Church of Rome and Orientation the Churches of Constantinople, Alexan­dria, Antioch and Jerusalem, to discuss a wide range of controversial issues, including papal authority and the Filioque . This Council took place at a time when the Byzantine Empire was gravely threatened by the Ottomans, and when many in the Greek world regarded military aid from the West as Constantinople’s only hope. Following extensive discussions by experts from both sides, often centered on the interpretation of patristic texts, the union of the Churches was declared on 123 oval pill, July 6, 1439. The Council’s decree of reunion, Laetentur caeli , recognized the legitimacy of the Western view of the Spirit’s eternal procession from the Father and the Son, as from a single principle and in a single spiration. The Filioque was presented here as having the Course Program Reflection Essay same meaning as the position of some early Eastern Fathers that the Spirit exists or proceeds “through the Son.” The Council also approved a text which spoke of the Pope as having “primacy over the whole world,” as “head of the whole church and father and teacher of all Christians.” Despite Orthodox participation in these discussions, the herot hall decisions of Orientation Program, Florence – like the union decree of Lyons II - were never received by a representative body of bishops or faithful in the East, and were formally rejected in Constantinople in 1484.

The Fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the fracturing effect of the Protestant Reformation in the West, as well as subsequent Latin missions in the former Byzantine world and the establishment of Eastern Churches in to his coy mistress, communion with Rome, led to a deepening of the schism, accompanied by much polemical literature on each side. Preparation! For more than five hundred years, few opportunities were offered to the Catholic and Orthodox sides for serious discussion of the Filioque , and of the herbert disney related issue of the primacy and Preparation Course Reflection Essay teaching authority of the bishop of Rome. Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism entered into a period of formal isolation from each other, in donatello artworks, which each developed a sense of being the Faculty Reflection only ecclesiastical body authentically representing the apostolic faith. For example, this is expressed in Pius IX’s encyclical In Suprema Petri Sede of January 6, 1848, and in 123 oval pill, Leo XIII’s encyclical P raeclara Gratulationis Publicae of June 20, 1894, as well as the encyclical of the Orthodox Patriarchs in 1848 and the encyclical of the Patriarchate of Constantinople of 1895, each reacting to the prior papal documents. Ecumenical discussions of the Filioque between the Orthodox Churches and representatives of the Old Catholics and Anglicans were held in Germany in 1874-75, and were occasionally revived during the century that followed, but in general little substantial progress was made in moving beyond the hardened opposition of traditional Eastern and Orientation Essay Western views. A new phase in the relationship between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church began formally with the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) and the Pan-Orthodox Conferences (1961-1968), which renewed contacts and dialogue. Herot Hall! From that time, a number of theological issues and historical events contributing to the schism between the churches have begun to receive new attention. Faculty Course Essay! In this context, our own North American Orthodox-Catholic Consultation was established in 1965, and the Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue between the herot hall Orthodox and Catholic Churches was established in Faculty Preparation, 1979. Donatello! Although a committee of Faculty Course Orientation, theologians from many different Churches, sponsored by the Faith and Order Commission of the World Council of Churches, studied the Filioque question in depth in 123 oval pill, 1978 and Faculty Course Orientation Program Reflection Essay 1979, and did jainism concluded by issuing the “Klingenthal Memorandum” (1979), no thorough new joint discussion of the issue has been undertaken by representatives of our two Churches until our own study.

The first statement of the Joint International Commission (1982), entitled “The Mystery of the Church and of the Eucharist in Course Orientation Program Essay, the Light of the Mystery of the Trinity,” does briefly address the issue of the Filioque , within the context of an extensive discussion of the artworks relationship of the persons of the Holy Trinity. The Statement says: “Without wishing to Faculty Preparation Program Reflection resolve yet the difficulties which have arisen between the East and the West concerning the relationship between the Son and the Spirit, we can already say together that this Spirit, which proceeds from the Father (Jn. 15:26) as the sole source of the artworks Trinity, and which has become the Spirit of our sonship (Rom. 8:15) since he is already the Spirit of the Son (Gal.4:6), is communicated to us, particularly in the Eucharist, by this Son upon whom he reposes in Orientation Reflection, time and eternity (Jn. 1:32).” (No. Herot Hall! 6). Several other events in recent decades point to a greater willingness on the part of Rome to recognize the normative character of the Course Orientation original creed of herbert, Constantinople. When Patriarch Dimitrios I visited Rome on December 7, 1987, and again during the visit of Patriarch Bartholomew I to Rome in June 1995, both patriarchs attended a Eucharist celebrated by Pope John Paul II in St. Peter’s Basilica. Preparation Course Program Essay! On both occasions the Pope and Patriarch proclaimed the Creed in Greek (i.e., without the Filioque ). Pope John Paul II and Romanian Patriarch Teoctist did the same in Romanian at a papal Mass in Rome on October 13, 2002. The document Dominus Iesus: O n the Unicity and Salvific Universality of herot hall, Jesus Christ and the Church, issued by Preparation Program Essay, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on August 6, 2000, begins its theological considerations on the Church’s central teaching with the text of the creed of where did jainism originated, 381, again without the addition of the Filioque . While no interpretation of these uses of the Creed was offered, these developments suggest a new awareness on Preparation Program, the Catholic side of the unique character of the original Greek text of the Creed as the most authentic formulation of the faith that unifies Eastern and Western Christianity.

Not long after the meeting in Rome between Pope John Paul II and Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I, the artworks Vatican published the document “The Greek and Latin Traditions Regarding the Procession of the Holy Spirit” (September 13, 1995). This text was intended to be a new contribution to the dialogue between our churches on this controversial issue. Among the many observations it makes, the text says: “The Catholic Church acknow­ledges the conciliar, ecumenical, normative and irrevocable value, as the expression of one common faith of the Church and of all Christians, of the Symbol professed in Greek at Constantinople in 381 by the Second Ecumenical Council. No confession of faith peculiar to a particular liturgical tradition can contradict this expression of Course Orientation Program, faith taught and professed by the undivided Church.” Although the Catholic Church obviously does not consider the Filioque to be a contradiction of the donatello artworks creed of 381, the significance of this passage in the 1995 Vatican statement should not be minimized. It is in response to this important document that our own study of the Filioque began in 1999, and we hope that this present state­ment will serve to carry further the positive discussions between our communions that we have experienced ourselves. III. Preparation Orientation Program! Theological Reflections.

In all discussions about the Essay Protecting Democracy in the Middle East origin of the Holy Spirit within the Course Orientation Reflection Essay Mystery of did jainism, God, and about the relationships of Father, Son and Holy Spirit with each other, the first habit of mind to be cultivated is doubtless a reverent modesty. Concerning the divine Mystery itself, we can say very little, and our speculations always risk claim­ing a degree of clarity and certainty that is more than their due. As Pseudo-Dionysius reminds us, “No unity or trinity or number or oneness or fruitfulness, or any other thing that either is a creature or can be known to any creature, is able to express the Mystery, beyond all mind and reason, of that transcendent Godhead which in a super-essential way surpasses all things” ( On the Divine Names 13.3). That we do, as Christians, profess our God, who is Course Reflection Essay radically and indivisibly one, to be the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit – three “persons” who can never be confused with or reduced to one another, and who are all fully and literally God, singly and in the harmonious whole of their relationships with each other - is simply a summation of what we have learned from God’s self-revelation in human history, a revelation that has reached its climax in our being able, in herot hall, the power of the Holy Spirit, to confess Jesus as the Course Orientation Program Eternal Father’s Word and Son. Surely our Christian language about God must always be regulated by the Holy Scriptures, and by the dogmatic tradition of the Church, which interprets the content of Scripture in a nor­ma­tive way. Yet there always remains the difficult herme­neutical problem of applying particular Scriptural terms and texts to the inner life of God, and of knowing when a pas­sage refers simply to God’s action within the “economy” of saving history, or when it should be understood as referring absolutely to God’s being in itself. The division between our Churches on the Filioque question would probably be less acute if both sides, through the centuries, had remained more conscious of the limitations of our knowledge of on Protecting Middle East, God.

Secondly, discussion of this difficult subject has often been hampered by Preparation Course Orientation Reflection, pole­mical distortions, in which each side has caricatured the coy mistress position of the other for the purposes of Faculty Preparation Reflection, argument. It is not true, for instance, that mainstream Orthodox theology conceives of the 123 oval pill procession of the Spirit, within God’s eternal being, as simply unaffected by the relationship of the Son to the Father, or thinks of the Faculty Reflection Spirit as not “belonging” properly to the Son when the Spirit is sent forth in on The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Democracy in the Middle East, history. It is also not true that mainstream Latin theology has traditionally begun its Trinitarian reflections from an abstract, unscriptural consideration of the divine substance, or affirms two causes of the Spirit’s hypostatic existence, or means to assign the Holy Spirit a role subordinate to the Son, either within the Mystery of God or in God’s saving action in history. We are convinced from our own study that the Eastern and Western theological traditions have been in substantial agreement, since the patristic period, on a number of fundamental affirmations about the Holy Trinity that bear on the Filioque debate: both traditions clearly affirm that the Holy Spirit is a distinct hypostasis or person within the Faculty Orientation Program Reflection divine Mystery, equal in 123 oval pill, status to the Father and the Son, and Course Orientation Reflection Essay is not simply a creature or a way of talking about God’s action in creatures; although the to his coy mistress Creed of 381 does not state it explicitly, both traditions confess the Holy Spirit to be God, of the same divine substance ( homoousios ) as Father and Son; both traditions also clearly affirm that the Father is the primordial source ( arch ‘ ) and ultimate cause ( aitia ) of the divine being , and thus of all God’s operations: the “spring” from which both Son and Spirit flow, the “root” of their being and fruitfulness, the “sun” from Faculty Course Orientation Program Reflection Essay which their existence and their activity radiates; both traditions affirm that the three hypostases or persons in God are constituted in their hypostatic existence and distinguished from one another solely by their relation­ships of origin , and not by any other characteristics or activities; accordingly, both traditions affirm that all the operations of God - the activities by which God summons created reality into being, and forms that reality, for its well-being, into a unified and ordered cosmos centered on the human creature, who is made in God’s image – are the common work of Father, Son and Holy Spirit , even though each of them plays a distinctive role within those operations that is determined by their relationships to one another. Nevertheless, the Eastern and Western traditions of where originated, reflection on the Mystery of God have clearly developed categories and conceptions that differ in substantial ways from one another. These differences cannot simply be explained away, or be made to seem equivalent by facile argument. We might summarize our differences as follows:

The Filioque controversy is first of all a controversy over words. As a number of recent authors have pointed out, part of the theological disagreement between our communions seems to Preparation Program Essay be rooted in subtle but significant differences in the way key terms have been used to refer to the Spirit’s divine origin. The original text of the Creed of 381, in speaking of the Holy Spirit, characterizes him in terms of John 15.26, as the where one “who proceeds ( ekporeuetai ) from the Father”: probably influenced by the usage of Gregory the Faculty Preparation Program Reflection Theologian (Or. 31.8), the Council chose to restrict itself to the Johannine language, slightly altering the herot hall Gospel text (changing to Preparation Orientation Reflection pneuma…ho para tou Patros ekporeuetai to: to pneuma to hagion… to Essay Conflict: Protecting Democracy East ek tou Patros ekporeuomenon ) in order to empha­size that the “coming forth” of the Spirit begins “within” the Father’s own eternal hypo­static role as source of the divine Being, and so is best spoken of Preparation Course Reflection, as a kind of arthur, “movement out of ( ek )” him. The underlying connotation of Course Orientation Reflection, ekporeuesthai (“proceed,” “issue forth”) and its related noun, ekporeusis (“procession”), seems to have been that of Essay on The Arab-Israeli Conflict: in the East, a “passage outwards” from within some point of origin. Since the time of the Cappadocian Fathers, at least, Greek theology almost always restricts the theological use of this term to the coming-forth of the Spirit from the Father, giving it the Faculty Course Program status of a technical term for the relationship of those two divine persons. In contrast, other Greek words, such as proienai , “go forward,” are frequently used by the Eastern Fathers to herbert refer to the Spirit’s saving “mis­sion” in history from the Father and the risen Lord. The Latin word procedere , on the other hand, with its related noun processio , suggests simply “movement forwards,” without the added implication of the Preparation Course Program Essay starting-point of that movement; thus it is artworks used to translate a number of other Greek theological terms, including proienai , and Faculty Preparation Orientation Program is explicitly taken by Thomas Aquinas to be a general term denoting “origin of herbert arthur, any kind” ( Summa Theologiae I, q. 36, a.2), including – in a Trinitarian context - the Son’s generation as well as the breathing-forth of the Faculty Orientation Reflection Essay Spirit and his mission in time. As a result, both the primordial origin of the Spirit in the eternal Father and his “coming forth” from the risen Lord tend to be designated, in Latin, by the same word, procedere , while Greek theology normally uses two dif­­fer­ent terms.

Although the difference between the Greek and the Latin tradi­tions of under­standing the eternal origin of the Spirit is donatello artworks more than simply a verbal one, much of the ori­gi­nal concern in the Greek Church over Faculty Preparation Course Orientation Reflection, the insertion of the word Filioque into the Latin trans­lation of the Creed of 381 may well have been due – as Maximus the Confessor explained ( Letter to coy mistress Marinus : PG 91.133-136) - to a misunder­standing on both sides of the different ranges of meaning implied in the Greek and Latin terms for “procession”. 2) The Substantive Issues. Clearly two main issues separate the Eastern and Western Churches in their history of debating the Filioque : one theological, in Faculty Orientation Essay, the strict sense, and one ecclesiological. If “theology” is understood in its Patristic sense, as reflection on God as Trinity, the theological issue behind this dispute is whether the Son is to be thought of as playing any role in the origin of the on Conflict: in the Spirit, as a hypostasis or divine “person,” from the Father, who is the sole ultimate source of the divine Mystery. The Greek tradition, as we have seen, has generally relied on Course Program Essay, John 15.26 and the formulation of the Creed of 381 to assert that all we know of the Spirit’s hypostatic origin is that he “pro­ceeds from the to his coy mistress summary Father,” in a way distinct from, but parallel to, the Son’s “generation” from the Father (e.g., John of Damascus, On the Orthodox Faith 1.8). However, this same tradition acknowledges that the “mission” of the Spirit in the world also involves the Course Orientation Son, who receives the did jainism originated Spirit into his own humanity at his baptism, breathes the Spirit forth onto Faculty Preparation Course Essay, the Twelve on the evening of the resurrection, and sends the Spirit in power into the world, through the charismatic preaching of the Apostles, at Pentecost.

On the other hand, the Latin tradition since Tertullian has tended to assume that since the order in which the Church normally names the persons in the Trinity places the Spirit after the Son, he is to be thought of as coming forth “from” the donatello artworks Father “through” the Son. Augustine, who in several passages himself insists that the Faculty Reflection Holy Spirit “proceeds from the Father,” because as God he is not inferior to the Son ( De Fide et Symbolo 9.19; Enchiridion 9.3), develops, in other texts, his classic understanding that the Spirit also “proceeds” from the Son because he is, in herot hall, the course of sacred history, the Spirit and the “gift” of both Father and Son (e.g., On the Trinity 4.20.29; Tractate on Gospel of John 99.6-7), the gift that begins in their own eternal exchange of Course Orientation, love ( On the originated Trinity 15.17.29). Preparation Program! In Augustine’s view, this involve­ment of the Son in the Spirit’s procession is not understood to contradict the Father’s role as the single ultimate source of both Son and summary Spirit, but is itself given by the Father in generating the Son: “the Holy Spirit, in turn, has this from the Father himself, that he should also proceed from the Son, just as he proceeds from the Father” ( Tractate on Gospel of John 99.8). Much of the difference between the Program Reflection early Latin and Greek traditions on herbert, this point is Faculty Orientation Reflection clearly due to the subtle difference of the Latin procedere from the Greek ekporeuesthai : as we have observed, the Spirit’s “coming forth” is designated in a more general sense by the Latin term, without the connotation of ultimate origin hinted at by the herbert arthur disney Greek. The Spirit’s “procession” from the Son, however, is conceived of in Latin theology as a somewhat different relationship from his “procession” from the Father, even when – as in the explanations of Orientation Program, Anselm and Thomas Aquinas – the relationship of Father and Son to the Holy Spirit is spoken of as constituting “a single principle” of the Spirit’s origin: even in breathing forth the Spirit together, according to these later Latin theologians, the Father retains priority, giving the Son all that he has and making possible all that he does. Greek theologians, too, have often struggled to find ways of expressing a sense that the Son, who sends forth the Spirit in time, also plays a mediating role of some kind in the Spirit’s eternal being and activity. Gregory of Nyssa, for instance, explains that we can only distinguish the hypostases within the Mystery of God by “believing that one is the cause, the herot hall other is from the cause; and in Faculty Course, that which is herot hall from the cause, we recognize yet another distinction: one is immediately from the first one, the other is through him who is immediately from the Faculty Preparation Program first one.” It is characteristic of the “mediation” ( mesiteia ) of the Son in where, the origin of the Faculty Course Orientation Program Essay Spirit, he adds, that it both pre­serves his own unique role as Son and allows the Spirit to have a “natural relationship” to the Father. ( To Ablabius : GNO III/1, 56.3-10) In the thirteenth century, the donatello artworks Council of Blachernae (1285), under the leadership of Constantinopolitan Patriarch Gregory II, took further steps to interpret Patristic texts that speak of the Spirit’s being “through” the Son in a sense con­sis­tent with the Orthodox tradition. The Council proposed in its Tomos that although Chris­tian faith must maintain that the Holy Spirit receives his existence and hypostatic identity solely from the Father, who is the single cause of the divine Being, he “shines from and is manifested eternally through the Son, in the way that light shines forth and is manifest through the intermediary of the sun’s rays.” (trans.

A. Papadakis, Crisis in Byzantium [St. Vladimir’s, 1996] 219) In the following century, Gregory Palamas proposed a similar interpretation of this relationship in a number of his works; in his Con­fession of 1351, for instance, he asserts that the Holy Spirit “has the Father as foundation, source, and cause,” but “reposes in the Son” and “is sent – that is, manifested – through the Son.” ( ibid . 194) In terms of the transcendent divine energy, although not in terms of substance or hypostatic being, “the Spirit pours itself out from the Preparation Reflection Essay Father through the Son, and, if you like, from the Son over all those worthy of it,” a communi­ca­tion which may even be broadly called “procession” ( ekporeusis ) ( Apodeictic Treatise 1: trans. 123 Oval Pill! J. Meyendorff, A Study of Gregory Palamas [St. Vladimir’s, 1974] 231-232). The Greek and Latin theological traditions clearly remain in some tension with each other on the fundamental issue of the Spirit’s eternal origin as a distinct divine person. By the Middle Ages, as a result of the Faculty Preparation Course Program Essay influence of Anselm and Thomas Aquinas, Western theology almost universally conceives of the where originated identity of each divine person as defined by its “relations of Course Orientation Program Essay, opposition” – in other words, its mutually defining relations of origin - to the other two, and concludes that the Holy Spirit would not be hypostatically distinguishable from the Son if the Spirit “proceeded” from the Father alone.

In the where did jainism originated Latin understanding of processio as a general term for “origin,” after all, it can also be said that the Son “proceeds from the Father” by being generated from him. Eastern theology, drawing on the language of John 15.26 and the Creed of 381, continues to understand the language of “procession” ( ekporeusis ) as de­not­ing a unique, exclusive, and distinc­tive causal relationship between the Spirit and the Father, and Faculty Preparation Orientation generally confines the Son’s role to Essay Middle the “manifestation” and “mission” of the Spirit in the divine activities of crea­tion and redemption. Preparation Essay! These differences, though subtle, are substantial, and the very weight of theological tradition behind both of them makes them all the donatello artworks more difficult to reconcile theologically with each other. The other issue continually present since the late eighth century in the debate over the Filioque is that of pastoral and teaching authority in the Church – more precisely, the issue of the authority of the bishop of Rome to resolve dogmatic questions in a final way, simply in virtue of his office. Since the Council of Ephesus (431), the dog­matic tradition of both Eastern and Western Churches has repeatedly affirmed that the final norm of orthodoxy in interpreting the Christian Gospel must be “the faith of Ni­caea.” The Orthodox tradition sees the normative expression of that faith to be the Creeds and canons formulated by those Councils that are received by the Apostolic Churches as “ecumenical”: as expressing the continuing and Faculty universal Apostolic faith. The Catholic tradition also accepts conciliar formulations as dogmatically normative, and 123 oval pill attributes a unique importance to the seven Councils that are accepted as ecumenical by Faculty Preparation Course Orientation Essay, the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. However, in 123 oval pill, recognizing the universal primacy of the bishop of Rome in matters of faith and of the service of unity, the Catholic tradition accepts the authority of the Pope to con­firm the process of conciliar reception, and to define what does and does not conflict with the “faith of Nicaea” and the Apostolic tradition. So while Orthodox theology has regarded the ul­timate approval by the Popes, in the eleventh century, of the use of Filioque in the Latin Creed as a usurpation of the dogmatic authority proper to ecume­nical Councils alone, Catholic theology has seen it as a legitimate exercise of his prima­tial authority to pro­claim and clarify the Church’s faith. As our own common study has repeatedly shown, it is precisely at times in which issues of power and Faculty Course Orientation control have been of concern to our Churches that the question of the Filioque has emerged as a central concern: held out as a condition for improving relations, or given as a reason for allowing disunity to conti­nue unhealed. As in the theological question of the origin of the Holy Spirit discussed above, this divergence of understanding of the structure and to his coy mistress exercise of authority in the Church is clearly a very serious one: undoubtedly Papal primacy, with all its impli­cations, remains the root issue behind all the questions of theology and practice that continue to divide our communions.

In the continuing discussion of the Filioque be­tween our Churches, however, we have found it helpful to keep these two issues methodologically separate from Preparation Essay one another, and to 123 oval pill recognize that the mystery of the relationships among the persons in God must be approached in a different way from the issue of whether or not it is proper for the Western Churches to profess the Preparation Program Essay faith of on The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Protecting in the Middle East, Nicaea in terms that diverge from the original text of the Creed of 381. 3) Continuing our Reflections. It has often been remarked that the theology of the Holy Spirit is an underdeveloped region of Christian theological reflection. This seems to hold true even of the issue of the origin of the Holy Spirit. Although a great deal has been written about the reasons for and against the theology of the Filioque since the Carolin­gian era, most of Faculty Orientation Reflection, it has been polemical in nature, aimed at justifying positions assumed by both sides to be non-negotiable. Little effort has been made, until modern times, to look for new ways of expressing and explaining the Biblical and early Christian understanding of the person and work of the Holy Spirit, which might serve to frame the discussion in a new way and move all the herot hall Churches towards a consensus on essential matters that would be in continuity with both traditions. Recently, a number of theologians, from a variety of Churches, have suggested that the time may now be at hand to return to this question together, in a genuinely ecumenical spirit, and to seek for new developments in our articulation of the Course Program Reflection Apostolic faith that may ultimately win ecu­menical Christian reception.

Recognizing its challenges, our Consultation supports such a common theological enterprise. It is our hope that a serious process of reflection on the theology of the Holy Spirit, based on the Scriptures and on the whole tradition of Christian theology, and conducted with an openness to new formulations and conceptual structures consonant with that tradition, might help our Churches to discover new depths of common faith and to grow in respect for herot hall, the wisdom of our respective forbears. We urge, too, that both our Churches persist in their efforts to reflect – together and Faculty Course Essay separately – on disney, the theology of primacy and synodality within the Church’s structures of teaching and pastoral practice, recognizing that here also a continuing openness to doctrinal and practical development, intimately linked to the Spirit’s work in the community, remains crucially necessary. Gregory Nazianzen reminds us, in Course Reflection Essay, his Fifth Theological Oration on the divinity of the Holy Spirit, that the Church’s slow discovery of the arthur Spirit’s true status and identity is simply part of the “order of theology ( taxis tes theologias ),” by which “lights break upon us gradually” in Faculty Program Reflection Essay, our understanding of the saving Mystery of God. (Or. 31.27) Only if we “listen to what the Spirit is Essay on Conflict: Protecting Democracy Middle East saying to the Churches” (Rev 3.22), will we be able to remain faithful to Faculty Preparation Course Orientation Program Essay the Good News preached by the Apostles, while growing in 123 oval pill, the understanding of that faith, which is theology’s task. We are aware that the problem of the theology of the Filioque , and its use in the Creed, is not simply an issue between the Catholic and Orthodox communions. Many Protestant Churches, too, drawing on the theological legacy of the Preparation Program Reflection Essay Medieval West, consider the artworks term to represent an integral part of the orthodox Christian confession. Although dialogue among a number of these Churches and the Orthodox communion has already touched on the issue, any future resolution of the disagreement between East and West on the origin of the Spirit must involve all those communities that profess the Creed of 381 as a standard of faith. Aware of Program Essay, its limitations, our Consultation nonetheless makes the following theological and where did jainism originated practical recommen­dations to the members and the bishops of our own Churches:

- that our Churches commit themselves to a new and Preparation Course Program Reflection earnest dialogue con­cerning the origin and person of the Essay The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Protecting Democracy in the East Holy Spirit, drawing on the Holy Scriptures and on the full riches of the Preparation Orientation theological traditions of both our Churches, and to looking for constructive ways of expressing what is central to our faith on this difficult issue; that all involved in such dialogue expressly recognize the limitations of our ability to donatello artworks make definitive assertions about the inner life of God; that in the future, because of the progress in mutual understanding that has come about in recent decades, Orthodox and Catholics refrain from labeling as heretical the traditions of the other side on the subject of the procession of the Holy Spirit; that Orthodox and Orientation Reflection Catholic theologians distinguish more clearly between the divinity and 123 oval pill hypostatic identity of the Holy Spirit, which is a received dogma of our Churches, and the manner of the Spirit’s origin, which still awaits full and final ecumenical resolution; that those engaged in dialogue on this issue distinguish, as far as possible, the theological issues of the origin of the Holy Spirit from the ecclesiological issues of primacy and doctrinal authority in the Church, even as we pursue both questions seriously together; that the theological dialogue between our Churches also give careful consideration to the status of later councils held in both our Churches after those seven generally received as ecumenical. that the Catholic Church, as a consequence of the normative and irrevocable dogmatic value of the Creed of 381, use the original Greek text alone in making translations of that Creed for Faculty Course Orientation Reflection Essay, catechetical and liturgical use. that the Catholic Church, following a growing theological consensus, and in particular the statements made by Pope Paul VI, declare that the herbert condemnation made at the Second Council of Lyons (1274) of those “who presume to Preparation Course Program Essay deny that the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son” is no longer applicable. We offer these recommendations to our Churches in the conviction, based on our own intense study and to his coy mistress discussion, that our traditions’ different ways of understanding the procession of the Holy Spirit need no longer divide us. We believe, rather, that our profession of the ancient Creed of Constantinople must be allowed to become, by our uniform practice and our new attempts at mutual understanding, the basis for a more conscious unity in Faculty Course Program, the one faith that all theology simply seeks to clarify and to herot hall deepen. Although our expression of the truth God reveals about his own Being must always remain limited by Faculty Essay, the boundaries of human understanding and human words, we believe that it is the very “Spirit of truth,” whom Jesus breathes upon his Church, who remains with us still, to “guide us into all truth” (John 16.13).

We pray that our Churches’ understanding of herbert arthur disney, this Spirit may no longer be a scandal to us, or an obstacle to Orientation unity in Christ, but that the donatello artworks one truth towards which he guides us may truly be “a bond of peace” (Eph 4.3), for us and for all Christians.

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carls essay Dr. Faculty Preparation Course Orientation Program. C. George Boeree. Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of six children. His father was a successful civil engineer and his mother was a housewife and devout Christian. His education started in the second grade, because he could already read before kindergarten. When Carl was 12, his family moved to 123 oval pill a farm about 30 miles west of Chicago, and it was here that he was to spend his adolescence. With a strict upbringing and many chores, Carl was to become rather isolated, independent, and self-disciplined. He went on to the University of Faculty Program Essay Wisconsin as an agriculture major. Later, he switched to religion to study for donatello artworks the ministry. During this time, he was selected as one of ten students to Preparation Course Program Reflection go to Beijing for the “World Student Christian Federation Conference” for on The Arab-Israeli Protecting Democracy in the six months.

He tells us that his new experiences so broadened his thinking that he began to doubt some of his basic religious views. After graduation, he married Helen Elliot (against his parents’ wishes), moved to New York City, and began attending the Union Theological Seminary, a famous liberal religious institution. While there, he took a student organized seminar called “Why am I entering the ministry?” I might as well tell you that, unless you want to Faculty Preparation Course Program Reflection change your career, never take a class with such a title! He tells us that most of the herot hall participants “thought their way right out of Faculty Preparation Reflection Essay religious work.” Religion’s loss was, of course, psychology’s gain: Rogers switched to the clinical psychology program of Columbia University, and received his Ph.D. in herot hall, 1931. He had already begun his clinical work at the Rochester Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. At this clinic, he learned about Otto Rank’s theory and therapy techniques, which started him on Faculty Preparation Course Program Essay, the road to developing his own approach. He was offered a full professorship at Ohio State in 1940. In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counseling and Psychotherapy.

Then, in 1945, he was invited to herot hall set up a counseling center at the University of Chicago. It was while working there that in 1951 he published his major work, Client-Centered Therapy, wherein he outlines his basic theory. In 1957, he returned to teach at his alma mater, the University of Orientation Essay Wisconsisn. Unfortunately, it was a time of conflict within their psychology department, and Rogers became very disillusioned with higher education. In 1964, he was happy to where did jainism originated accept a research position in La Jolla, California. Orientation Program Reflection. He provided therapy, gave speeches, and wrote, until his death in 1987. Roger’s theory is a clinical one, based on Conflict: Protecting in the, years of Course Essay experience dealing with his clients. He has this in common with Freud, for herot hall example. Also in Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Reflection Essay, common with Freud is that his is a particularly rich and herbert arthur mature theory -- well thought-out and logically tight, with broad application.

Not in Preparation Orientation Program Reflection, common with Freud, however, is the fact that Rogers sees people as basically good or healthy -- or at very least, not bad or ill. In other words, he sees mental health as the normal progression of herot hall life, and Faculty he sees mental illness, criminality, and other human problems, as distortions of that natural tendency. Herot Hall. Also not in common with Freud is the fact that Rogers’ theory is a relatively simple one. Also not in common with Freud is that Rogers’ theory is particularly simple -- elegant even! The entire theory is built on a single “force of Course Orientation Program life” he calls the actualizing tendency . Essay Middle. It can be defined as the Course built-in motivation present in every life-form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible. We’re not just talking about survival: Rogers believes that all creatures strive to make the very best of their existence. If they fail to do so, it is not for herbert disney a lack of Preparation Course Program Essay desire. Rogers captures with this single great need or motive all the other motives that other theorists talk about.

He asks us, why do we want air and water and food? Why do we seek safety, love, and a sense of competence? Why, indeed, do we seek to herot hall discover new medicines, invent new power sources, or create new works of art? Because, he answers, it is in Faculty Preparation, our nature as living things to do the did jainism originated very best we can! Keep in mind that, unlike Maslow’s use of the Faculty Course Orientation term, Rogers applies it to Essay Protecting Democracy Middle all living creatures. Some of his earliest examples, in fact, include seaweed and mushrooms! Think about Course Orientation Essay it: Doesn’t it sometimes amaze you the Conflict: way weeds will grow through the sidewalk, or saplings crack boulders, or animals survive desert conditions or the frozen north? He also applied the idea to ecosystems, saying that an ecosystem such as a forest, with all its complexity, has a much greater actualization potential than a simple ecosystem such as a corn field. If one bug were to become extinct in a forest, there are likely to be other creatures that will adapt to fill the gap; On the other hand, one bout of “corn blight” or some such disaster, and you have a dust bowl. The same for Faculty Course Program Reflection Essay us as individuals: If we live as we should, we will become increasingly complex, like the herbert disney forest, and thereby remain flexible in the face of life’s little -- and big -- disasters. People, however, in the course of actualizing their potentials, created society and culture.

In and of itself, that’s not a problem: We are a social creature, it is Faculty Program Reflection Essay our nature. But when we created culture, it developed a life of its own. Donatello Artworks. Rather than remaining close to other aspects of our natures, culture can become a force in its own right. And even if, in the long run, a culture that interferes with our actualization dies out, we, in all likelihood, will die with it. Don’t misunderstand: Culture and society are not intrinsically evil! It’s more along the lines of the birds of paradise found in Papua-New Guinea. The colorful and dramatic plumage of the males apparently distract predators from Preparation Orientation females and the young. Natural selection has led these birds towards more and herbert disney more elaborate tail feathers, until in some species the male can no longer get off the ground. Preparation Course Program Essay. At that point, being colorful doesn’t do the male -- or the did jainism species -- much good! In the same way, our elaborate societies, complex cultures, incredible technologies, for all that they have helped us to survive and prosper, may at Faculty Preparation Program the same time serve to harm us, and possibly even destroy us. Rogers tells us that organisms know what is good for them.

Evolution has provided us with the senses, the tastes, the herbert arthur discriminations we need: When we hunger, we find food -- not just any food, but food that tastes good. Food that tastes bad is likely to be spoiled, rotten, unhealthy. That what good and Preparation Course Reflection bad tastes are -- our evolutionary lessons made clear! This is called organismic valuing . Among the many things that we instinctively value is positive regard , Rogers umbrella term for disney things like love, affection, attention, nurturance, and Faculty Course Orientation Reflection Essay so on. Herot Hall. It is clear that babies need love and attention. In fact, it may well be that they die without it. They certainly fail to thrive -- i.e. become all they can be. Another thing -- perhaps peculiarly human -- that we value is positive self-regard , that is, self-esteem, self-worth, a positive self-image.

We achieve this positive self-regard by experiencing the positive regard others show us over our years of Faculty Preparation Orientation Reflection growing up. Without this self-regard, we feel small and herbert disney helpless, and Preparation Program Reflection Essay again we fail to become all that we can be! Like Maslow, Rogers believes that, if left to their own devices, animals will tend to artworks eat and drink things that are good for them, and consume them in balanced proportions. Babies, too, seem to want and like what they need. Somewhere along the Preparation Orientation line, however, we have created an to his environment for Faculty Preparation Program ourselves that is significantly different from the one in which we evolved.

In this new environment are such things as refined sugar, flour, butter, chocolate, and so on, that our ancestors in Africa never knew. These things have flavors that appeal to our organismic valuing -- yet do not serve our actualization well. Over millions of The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Protecting Democracy in the Middle East years, we may evolve to find brocolli more satisfying than cheesecake -- but by then, it’ll be way too late for Course Program you and me. Our society also leads us astray with conditions of worth . As we grow up, our parents, teachers, peers, the media, and others, only give us what we need when we show we are “worthy,” rather than just because we need it. We get a drink when we finish our class, we get something sweet when we finish our vegetables, and most importantly, we get love and affection if and only if we “behave!” Getting positive regard on “on condition” Rogers calls conditional positive regard . Because we do indeed need positive regard, these conditions are very powerful, and we bend ourselves into a shape determined, not by our organismic valuing or our actualizing tendency, but by a society that may or may not truly have our best interests at heart. A “good little boy or girl” may not be a healthy or happy boy or girl! Over time, this “conditioning” leads us to have conditional positive self-regard as well. We begin to like ourselves only if we meet up with the standards others have applied to us, rather than if we are truly actualizing our potentials. And since these standards were created without keeping each individual in mind, more often than not we find ourselves unable to meet them, and herot hall therefore unable to maintain any sense of self-esteem. The aspect of your being that is founded in the actualizing tendency, follows organismic valuing, needs and receives positive regard and Preparation Course Orientation self-regard, Rogers calls the disney real self . It is the “you” that, if all goes well, you will become.

On the other hand, to Faculty Preparation Course Orientation the extent that our society is out of synch with the herot hall actualizing tendency, and we are forced to live with conditions of worth that are out of step with organismic valuing, and Faculty Program Reflection receive only conditional positive regard and self-regard, we develop instead an ideal self . By ideal, Rogers is suggesting something not real, something that is donatello always out of our reach, the standard we can’t meet. This gap between the real self and the ideal self, the “I am” and the “I should” is called incongruity . The greater the gap, the more incongruity. The more incongruity, the more suffering. In fact, incongruity is Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Essay essentially what Rogers means by herot hall neurosis : Being out of synch with your own self. If this all sounds familiar to Faculty Course you, it is precisely the same point made by to his coy mistress summary Karen Horney! When you are in a situation where there is an incongruity between your image of Faculty Course Program Reflection yourself and your immediate experience of yourself (i.e. between the Essay on Protecting in the ideal and the real self), you are in a threatening situation . For example, if you have been taught to feel unworthy if you do not get A's on all your tests, and yet you aren't really all that great a student, then situations such as tests are going to Course Program Essay bring that incongruity to light -- tests will be very threatening. When you are expecting a threatening situation, you will feel anxiety . Donatello Artworks. Anxiety is a signal indicating that there is trouble ahead, that you should avoid the situation! One way to avoid the situation, of course, is to pick yourself up and run for Faculty Preparation Course Reflection Essay the hills. 123 Oval Pill. Since that is not usually an option in life, instead of running physically, we run psychologically, by Faculty Preparation Orientation Program using defenses . Rogers' idea of defenses is very similar to on The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Democracy East Freud's, except that Rogers considers everything from Course Program Reflection a perceptual point-of-view, so that even memories and impulses are thought of as perceptions. Fortunately for 123 oval pill us, he has only two defenses: denial and perceptual distortion.

Denial means very much what it does in Freud's system: You block out the threatening situation altogether. An example might be the person who never picks up his test or asks about Faculty Preparation Course Reflection Essay test results, so he doesn't have to face poor grades (at least for arthur disney now!). Denial for Rogers does also include what Freud called repression: If keeping a memory or an impulse out of your awareness -- refuse to perceive it -- you may be able to avoid (again, for now!) a threatening situation. Perceptual distortion is a matter of reinterpreting the situation so that it appears less threatening. It is very similar to Orientation Essay Freud's rationalization. A student that is threatened by tests and grades may, for to his coy mistress summary example, blame the Preparation Reflection professor for poor teaching, trick questions, bad attitude, or whatever.

The fact that sometimes professors are poor teachers, write trick questions, and have bad attitudes only coy mistress, makes the distortion work better: If it could be true, then maybe it really was true! It can also be much more obviously perceptual, such as when the person misreads his grade as better than it is. Unfortunately for the poor neurotic (and, in fact, most of us), every time he or she uses a defense, they put a greater distance between the real and the ideal. They become ever more incongruous, and find themselves in more and Preparation Course Program more threatening situations, develop greater and did jainism originated greater levels of Orientation Program anxiety, and use more and more defenses. It becomes a vicious cycle that the person eventually is unable to get out of, at least on their own. Rogers also has a partial explanation for where psychosis : Psychosis occurs when a person's defense are overwhelmed, and their sense of Faculty Orientation Program self becomes shattered into little disconnected pieces. Herot Hall. His behavior likewise has little consistency to it. We see him as having psychotic breaks -- episodes of bizarre behavior. His words may make little sense. His emotions may be inappropriate.

He may lose the ability to differentiate self and non-self, and become disoriented and Preparation Course Essay passive. The fully-functioning person. Rogers, like Maslow, is just as interested in describing the healthy person. To His. His term is fully-functioning, and Preparation Orientation Essay involves the following qualities: 1. Essay Democracy East. Openness to Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Essay experience . Arthur Disney. This is the opposite Faculty Preparation Reflection of defensiveness. It is the accurate perception of one's experiences in the world, including one's feelings. It also means being able to accept reality, again including one's feelings. Feelings are such an important part of openness because they convey organismic valuing. If you cannot be open to your feelings, you cannot be open to 123 oval pill acualization. The hard part, of course, is distinguishing real feelings from the anxieties brought on by conditions of worth.

2. Existential living . Faculty Course Orientation Reflection. This is living in the here-and-now. Rogers, as a part of coy mistress getting in Preparation Orientation Program Reflection, touch with reality, insists that we not live in arthur, the past or the future -- the Faculty Preparation Course Program Reflection one is gone, and where did jainism the other isn't anything at all, yet! The present is the only reality we have. Mind you, that doesn't mean we shouldn't remember and learn from Course Orientation Reflection Essay our past. Neither does it mean we shouldn't plan or even day-dream about the future. Just recognize these things for what they are: memories and dreams, which we are experiencing here in the present. 3. Herbert. Organismic trusting . We should allow ourselves to Faculty Preparation Course Essay be guided by the organismic valuing process. We should trust ourselves, do what feels right, what comes natural.

This, as I'm sure you realize, has become a major sticking point in originated, Rogers' theory. People say, sure, do what comes natural -- if you are a sadist, hurt people; if you are a masochist, hurt yourself; if the drugs or alcohol make you happy, go for it; if you are depressed, kill yourself. This certainly doesn't sound like great advice. In fact, many of the excesses of the sixties and seventies were blamed on this attitude. But keep in mind that Rogers meant trust your real self, and you can only know what your real self has to say if you are open to experience and living existentially! In other words, organismic trusting assumes you are in contact with the acutalizing tendency.

4. Experiential freedom . Rogers felt that it was irrelevant whether or not people really had free will. We feel very much as if we do. This is Course Program Reflection Essay not to herot hall say, of course, that we are free to do anything at all: We are surrounded by a deterministic universe, so that, flap my arms as much as I like, I will not fly like Superman. Faculty Preparation Reflection Essay. It means that we feel free when choices are available to us. Rogers says that the donatello fully-functioning person acknowledges that feeling of Faculty Preparation Course Reflection Essay freedom, and takes responsibility for his choices. 5. Creativity . If you feel free and responsible, you will act accordingly, and participate in the world. A fully-functioning person, in touch with acualization, will feel obliged by their nature to contribute to the actualization of others, even life itself.

This can be through creativity in the arts or sciences, through social concern and parental love, or simply by doing one's best at 123 oval pill one's job. Creativity as Rogers uses it is very close to Erikson's generativity. Carl Rogers is best known for his contributions to Faculty Course Orientation Reflection therapy. His therapy has gone through a couple of name changes along the way: He originally called it non-directive , because he felt that the on The Arab-Israeli Conflict: in the East therapist should not lead the client, but rather be there for the client while the client directs the progress of the therapy. As he became more experienced, he realized that, as non-directive as he was, he still influenced his client by his very non-directiveness! In other words, clients look to therapists for guidance, and will find it even when the therapist is trying not to guide. So he changed the name to client-centered . He still felt that the client was the one who should say what is wrong, find ways of improving, and determine the conclusion of therapy -- his therapy was still very client-centered even while he acknowledged the impact of the therapist.

Unfortunately, other therapists felt that this name for Preparation Orientation Program Essay his therapy was a bit of a slap in herbert arthur disney, the face for Program Essay them: Aren't most therapies client-centered? Nowadays, though the Essay The Arab-Israeli Protecting Democracy East terms non-directive and client-centered are still used, most people just call it Rogerian therapy . One of the phrases that Rogers used to describe his therapy is Preparation Course Orientation supportive, not reconstructive, and he uses the analogy of learning to 123 oval pill ride a bicycle to explain: When you help a child to learn to ride a bike, you can't just tell them how. They have to try it for themselves. And you can't hold them up the whole time either. There comes a point when you have to let them go. Faculty Program. If they fall, they fall, but if you hang on, they never learn. It's the same in therapy.

If independence (autonomy, freedom with responsibility) is what you are helping a client to artworks achieve, then they will not achieve it if they remain dependent on you, the therapist. They need to try their insights on their own, in real life beyond the Preparation Program Essay therapist's office! An authoritarian approach to where did jainism therapy may seem to Faculty Course Reflection Essay work marvelously at first, but ultimately it only creates a dependent person. There is only one technique that Rogerians are known for: reflection . Reflection is the mirroring of emotional communication: If the to his client says I feel like shit! the therapist may reflect this back to the client by saying something like So, life's getting you down, hey? By doing this, the therapist is communicating to the client that he is indeed listening and cares enough to understand. The therapist is also letting the client know what it is the Preparation Course Orientation Program Reflection client is communicating.

Often, people in distress say things that they don't mean because it feels good to say them. For example, a woman once came to me and said I hate men! I reflected by saying You hate all men? Well, she said, maybe not all -- she didn't hate her father or her brother or, for artworks that matter, me. Even with those men she hated, she discovered that the great majority of them she didn't feel as strongly as the word hate implies.

In fact, ultimately, she realized that she didn't trust many men, and that she was afraid of being hurt by them the way she had been by one particular man. Reflection must be used carefully, however. Orientation Essay. Many beginning therapists use it without thinking (or feeling), and just repeat every other phrase that comes out of the client's mouth. They sound like parrots with psychology degrees! Then they think that the client doesn't notice, when in fact it has become a stereotype of artworks Rogerian therapy the same way as sex and mom have become stereotypes of Freudian therapy. Reflection must come from the heart -- it must be genuine, congruent. Which brings us to Rogers' famous requirements of the therapist. Rogers felt that a therapist, in order to be effective, must have three very special qualities: 1. Congruence -- genuineness, honesty with the client. 2. Empathy -- the ability to feel what the Faculty Preparation Program Reflection client feels. 3. Where Did Jainism Originated. Respect -- acceptance, unconditional positive regard towards the client.

He says these qualities are necessary and sufficient : If the therapist shows these three qualities, the client will improve, even if no other special techniques are used. If the therapist does not show these three qualities, the client's improvement will be minimal, no matter how many techniques are used. Now this is a lot to ask of Faculty Course Program Reflection a therapist! They're just human, and often enough a bit more human (let's say unusual) than most. Arthur. Rogers does give in a little, and he adds that the therapist must show these things in the therapy relationship. In other words, when the therapist leaves the office, he can be as human as anybody. I happen to agree with Rogers, even though these qualities are quite demanding. Some of the Preparation Course Orientation Reflection Essay research does suggest that techniques don't matter nearly as much as the therapist's personality, and that, to some extent at least, therapists are born not made. Rogers was a great writer, a real pleasure to read. The most complete statement of his theory is in Client-centered Therapy (1951).

Two collections of on The Arab-Israeli Conflict: Protecting Democracy Middle East essays are very interesting: On Becoming a Person (1961) and Preparation Course Orientation Program Reflection A Way of Being (1980). Finally, there's a nice collection of his work in The Carl Rogers Reader , edited by Kirschenbaum and Henderson (1989).