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Biodegradation and Bioremediation (With Diagram) Read this article to learn about the biodegradation and bioremediation in Word Essay details with diagrams. Biodegradation or biological degradation is the phenomenon of biological transformation of harvard organic compounds by living organisms, particularly the microorganisms. Biodegradation basically involves the conversion of complex organic molecules to simpler (and mostly non-toxic) ones. The term biotransformation is used for incomplete biodegradation of organic compounds involving one or a few reactions. Biotransformation is employed for the synthesis of commercially important products by microorganisms. Bioremediation refers to the process of The Power Word Poetry using microorganisms to remove the Behavior, environmental pollutants i.e. the toxic wastes found in soil, water, air etc.

The microbes serve as scavengers in bioremediation. The removal of organic wastes by microbes for environmental clean-up is the essence of bioremediation. The other names used (by some authors) for bioremediation are bio-treatment, bio-reclamation and bio-restoration. It is The Power of Spoken Poetry Essay rather difficult to show any distinction between biodegradation and bioremediation. Further, in biotechnology, most of the in Developing Nations, reactions of biodegradation/bioremediation involve xenobiotic. Xenobiotic (xenos-foregin) broadly refer to of Spoken Word Poetry Essay the unnatural, foreign and Essay on Organizational, synthetic chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, refrigerants, solvents and other organic compounds. Of Spoken Word Poetry Essay! Microbial degradation of xenobiotic assumes significance, since it provides an effective and economic means of disposing of toxic chemicals, particularly the environmental pollutants. Pseudomonas The Predominant Microorganism For Bioremediation: Members of the Essay on Problem Nations, genus Pseudomonas (a soil microorganism) are the most predominant microorganisms that degrade xenobiotic.

Different strains of of Spoken Word Pseudomonas, that are capable of detoxifying more than 100 organic compounds, have been identified. The examples of organic compounds are several hydrocarbons, phenols, organophosphates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycylic aromatics and naphthalene. About 40-50 microbial strains of microorganisms, capable of degrading xenobiotics have been isolated. Besides Pseudomonas, other good examples are Mycobacterium, Alcaligenes, and Nocardia. A selected list of microorganisms and the xenobiotics degraded is on Organizational Behavior given in Table 59.1. Consortia of microorganisms for The Power of Spoken Word Poetry Essay biodegradation: A particular strain of microorganism may degrade one or more compounds.

Sometimes, for the degradation of a single compound, the synergetic action of and benvolio a few microorganisms (i.e. The Power Of Spoken Poetry Essay! a consortium or cocktail of microbes) may be more efficient. For instance, the insecticide parathion is more efficiently degraded by the combined action of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Psudomonas stulzeri. Co-metabolism in biodegradation: In general, the metabolism (breakdown) of xenobiotics is not associated with any advantage to the microorganism. That is the pollutant chemical cannot serve as a source of carbon or energy for the organism. The term co-metabolism is often used to moral principle indicate the non-beneficial (to the microorganism) biochemical pathways concerned with the biodegradation of xenobiotics. However, co- metabolism depends on the presence of of Spoken Word Poetry Essay a suitable substrate for the microorganism.

Such compounds are referred to co-substrates. Several factors influence biodegradation. Moral Principle! These include the chemical nature of the xenobiotic, the capability of the individual microorganism, nutrient and O 2 supply, temperature, pH and redox potential. Among these, the chemical nature of the substrate that has to be degraded is very important. Some of the relevant features are given hereunder: i. Of Spoken Poetry Essay! In general, aliphatic compounds are more easily degraded than aromatic ones. Harvard Citation! ii. Presence of cyclic ring structures and length chains or branches decrease the efficiency of biodegradation. iii.

Water soluble compounds are more easily degraded. iv. The Power Of Spoken! Molecular orientation of aromatic compounds influences biodegradation i.e. ortho para meta. v. The presence of halogens (in aromatic compounds) inhibits biodegradation. Besides the about vs. Renewable Energy, factors listed above, there are two recent developments to enhance the biodegradation by microorganisms. This is a process by which the microbial activity can be enhanced by increased supply of nutrients or by of Spoken Word, addition of certain stimulating agents (electron acceptors, surfactants). It is possible to increase biodegradation through manipulation of genes. More details on this genetic manipulation i.e. genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs), are described later. Bio-augmentation can also be achieved by employing a consortium of microorganisms. Enzyme Systems for Biodegradation: Several enzyme systems (with independent enzymes that work together) are in existence in the microorganisms for the degradation of xenobiotics. Essay On Organizational Behavior! The genes coding for the enzymes of bio-degradative pathways may be present in of Spoken Essay the chromosomal DNA or more frequently on the plasmids.

In certain microorganisms, the genes of both chromosome and plasmid contribute for the enzymes of biodegradation. The microorganism Pseudomonas occupies a special place in biodegradation. A selected list of nursing xenobiotics and the plasmids containing the Poetry Essay, genes for their degradation is given in Table 59.2. There are certain compounds that do not easily undergo biodegradation and therefore persist in the environment for romeo and benvolio a long period (sometimes in years). They are labeled as recalcitrant. There may be several reasons for the resistance of xenobiotics to microbial degradation: i. They may chemically and biologically inert (highly stable). ii. Lack of enzyme system in the microorganisms for biodegradation. iii. Of Spoken Word Poetry Essay! They cannot enter the microorganisms being large molecules or lack of transport systems. iv.

The compounds may be highly toxic or result in the formation highly toxic products that kill microorganisms. There are a large number of racalcitrant xenobiotic compounds e.g. chloroform, freons, insecticides (DDT, lindane), herbicides (dalapon) and synthetic polymers (plastics e.g. polystyrene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chlorine). It takes about 4-5 years for on Problem Nations the degradation of DDT (75-100%) in the soil. The Power Of Spoken Poetry! A group of microorganisms (Aspergillus flavus, Mucor aternans, Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma viride) are associated with the slow biodegradation of DDT. The phenomenon of progressive increase in the concentration of a xenobiotic compound, as the substance is passed through the food chain is referred to as bio-magnification or bioaccumulation. For instance, the insecticide DDT is absorbed repeatedly by plants and microorganism. When they are eaten by fish and birds, this pesticide being recalcitrant, accumulates, and enters the food chain. Thus, DDT may find its entry into various animals, including man. DDT affects the nervous systems, and it has been banned in some countries. The most important aspect of nonmaleficence environmental biotechnology is the effective management of hazardous and toxic pollutants (xenobiotics) by The Power Poetry Essay, bioremediation.

The environmental clean-up process through bioremediation can be achieved in moral principle two waysin situ and ex situ bioremediation. In situ bioremediation involves a direct approach for the microbial degradation of The Power of Spoken Word Poetry xenobiotics at the sites of pollution (soil, ground water). Addition of adequate quantities of nutrients at Essay the sites promotes microbial growth. When these microorganisms are exposed to xenobiotics (pollutants), they develop metabolic ability to of Spoken Essay degrade them. The growth of the microorganisms and Essay of Obesity Nations, their ability to bring out biodegradation are dependent on the supply of essential nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus etc.). The Power Word Poetry! In situ bioremediation has been successfully applied for clean-up of oil spillages, beaches etc. There are two types of in situ bioremediation-intrinsic and engineered. The inherent metabolic ability of the microorganisms to degrade certain pollutants is the intrinsic bioremediation.

In fact, the microorganisms can be tested in the laboratory for their natural capability of biodegradation and appropriately utilized. Engineered in situ bioremediation: The inherent ability of the microorganisms for bioremediation is generally slow and limited. However, by using suitable physicochemical means (good nutrient and O 2 supply, addition of electron acceptors, optimal temperature), the bioremediation process can be engineered for more efficient degradation of pollutants. Advantages of in situ bioremediation: 1. Cost-effective, with minimal exposure to public or site personnel. 2. Sites of bioremediation remain minimally disrupted. About! Disadvantages of in situ bioremediation: 1. Very time consuming process. 2. Sites are directly exposed to environmental factors (temperature, O 2 supply etc.). 3. Microbial degrading ability varies seasonally. The waste or toxic materials can be collected from the polluted sites and the bioremediation with the The Power of Spoken Essay, requisite microorganisms (frequently a consortium of organisms) can be carried out at designed places.

This process is certainly an improvement over in situ bioremediation, and has been successfully used at some places. Advantages of ex situ bioremediation: 1. Better controlled and more efficient process. 2. Process can be improved by enrichment with desired microorganisms. And Benvolio! 3. Time required in short. Disadvantages of ex situ bioremediation: 1. Very costly process. The Power Of Spoken Poetry Essay! 2. Non-Renewable Vs. Renewable Energy! Sites of pollution are highly disturbed. 3. There may be disposal problem after the process is complete. Metabolic Effects of Microorganisms on Xenobiotics : Although it is the intention of the biotechnologist to degrade the xenobiotics by microorganisms to the advantage of environment and ecosystem, it is not always possible. This is evident from the different types of metabolic effects as shown below. This process involves the microbial conversion of toxic compound to a nontoxic one.

Biodegradation involving detoxification is highly advantageous to the environment and of Spoken Essay, population. Certain xenobiotics which are not toxic or less toxic may be converted to toxic or more toxic products. This is dangerous. The complex compounds are degraded to simpler products which are generally harmless. The process of conjugation may involve the conversion of xenobiotics to more complex compounds. This is however, not very common. Types of Reactions in Bioremediation : Microbial degradation of organic compounds primarily involves aerobic, anaerobic and sequential degradation. Aerobic biodegradation involves the utilization of O 2 for moral principle the oxidation of organic compounds. These compounds may serve as substrates for the supply of carbon and energy to the microorganisms. Two types of enzymes namely mono-oxygenases and- di-oxygenases are involved in aerobic biodegradation.

Mono-oxygenases can act on both aliphatic and aromatic compounds while di-oxygenases oxidize aliphatic compounds. Anaerobic biodegradation does not require O 2 supply. The growth of anaerobic microorganisms (mostly found in solids and Word Essay, sediments), and consequently the degradation processes are slow. However, anaerobic biodegradation is cost- effective, since the need for continuous O 2 supply is not there. Moral Principle! Some of the important anaerobic reactions and examples of organic compounds degraded are listed below. Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation benzoate, phenol, catechol. Dehaiogenation Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated ethylene#8217;s. The term de-chlorination is frequently used for dehaiogenation of chlorinated compounds. Carboxylation and decarboxylation toluene, cresol and of Spoken Essay, benzoate. In the degradation of several xenobiotics, both aerobic and anaerobic processes are involved.

This is often an effective way of reducing the toxicity of a pollutant. For instance, tetra chloromethane and tetrachloroethane undergo sequential degradation. Hydrocarbon are mainly the pollutants from oil refineries and oil spills. These pollutants can be degraded by a consortium or cocktail of microorganisms e.g. Pseudomonas, Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium and Nocardia. Biodegradation of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons : The uptake of aliphatic hydrocarbons is harvard machine a slow process due to The Power of Spoken Poetry their low solubility in moral principle aqueous medium.

Both aerobic and Word Essay, anaerobic processes are operative for the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons. For instance, unsaturated hydrocarbons are degraded in both anaerobic and aerobic environments, while saturated ones are degraded by aerobic process. Some aliphatic hydrocarbons which are reclacitrant to aerobic process are effectively degraded in anaerobic environment e.g. chlorinated aliphatic compounds (carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloride, vinyl chloride). Biodegradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons : Microbial degradation of romeo and benvolio aromatic hydrocarbons occurs through aerobic and anaerobic processes. Of Spoken Word! The most important microorganism that participates in these processes is moral principle Pseudomonas. The biodegradation of aromatic compounds basically involves the The Power Word, following sequence of reactions: 1. Essay About Non-Renewable Energy! Removal of the side chains. 2. Opening of the The Power, benzene ring.

Most of the nonmaleficence, non-halogenated aromatic compounds undergo a series of reactions to produce catechol or protocatechuate. The bioremediation of toluene, L-mandelate, benzoate, benzene, phenol, anthracene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and salicylate to produce catechol is shown in Fig. Word! 59.1. Likewise, Fig. 59.2, depicts the bioremediation of quinate, p-hydroxymandelate, p-hydroxybenzoyl formate, p-toluate, benzoate and vanillate to produce protocatechuate. Catechol and protocatechuate can undergo oxidative cleavage pathways. In ortho-cleavage pathway, catechol and protocatechuate form acetyl CoA (Fig.

59.3), while in meta-cleavage pathway (Fig. 59.4), they are converted to pyruvate and acetaldehyde. Nonmaleficence Nursing! The degraded products of catechol and protocatechuate are readily metabolised by almost all the organisms. Biodegradation of Pesticides and Herbicides : Pesticides and herbicides are regularly used to The Power of Spoken Word contain various plant diseases and improve the crop yield. In fact, they are a part of the modern agriculture, and have significantly contributed to green revolution.

The common herbicides and pesticides are propanil (anilide), propham (carbamate), atrazine (triazine), picloram (pyridine), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) monochloroacetate (MCA), monochloropropionate (MCPA) and glyphosate (organophosphate). Most of the pesticides and herbicides are toxic and are recalcitrant (resistant to biodegradation). Some of them are surfactants (active on the surface) and retained on nursing, the surface of leaves. Biodegradation of Halogenated Aromatic Compounds : Most commonly used herbicides and pesticides are aromatic halogenated (predominantly chlorinated) compounds. The bio-degradative pathways of The Power of Spoken halogenated compounds are comparable with that described for the degradation of non-halogenated aromatic compounds (Figs. Essay On Problem Of Obesity Nations! 59.1, 59.2, 59.3 and 59.4). The rate of degradation of halogenated compounds is inversely related to the number of halogen atoms that are originally present on the target molecule i.e. compounds with higher number of halogens are less readily degraded.

Dehalogenation (i.e. removal of a halogen substituent from an organic compound) of halogenated compounds is an The Power Word, essential step for their detoxification. Dehalogenation is frequently catalysed by Citizenship, the enzyme di-oxygenase. In this reaction, there is a replacement of halogen on benzene with a hydroxyl group. Most of the halogenated compounds are also converted to Word Poetry Essay catechol and protocatechuate which can be metabolised (Fig. 59.4). Besides Pseudomonas, other microorganisms such as Azotobacter, Bacilluefs and E. coli are also involved in the microbial degradation of on Problem of Obesity halogenated aromatic compounds.

Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) : The aromatic chlorinated compounds possessing biphenyl ring (substituted with chlorine) are the PCBs e.g. pentachlorobiphenyl. PCBs are commercially synthesized, as they are useful for various purposes as pesticides, in The Power of Spoken Word Poetry electrical conductivity (in transformers), in paints and adhesives. They are inert, very stable and resistant to romeo corrosion. However, PCBs have been implicated in cancer, damage to various organs and impaired reproductive function. Their commercial use has been restricted in of Spoken Word Poetry Essay recent years, and are now used mostly in electrical transformers. PCBs accumulate in soil sediments due to hydrophobic nature and high bioaccumulation potential. Although they are resistant to Essay about biodegradation, some methods have been recently developed for anaerobic and aerobic oxidation by employing a consortium of of Spoken Poetry Essay microorganisms. Pseudomonas, Alkali genes, Corynebacterium and moral principle, Acinetobacter. Of Spoken Word Essay! For more efficient degradation of PCBs, the microorganisms are grown on biphenyls, so that the enzymes of biodegradation of PCBs are induced. Biodegradation of Some Other Important Compounds : Some of the toxic organo-nitro compounds can be degraded by Energy, microorganisms for The Power their detoxification. 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT):

Certain bacterial and fungal species belonging to Pseudomonas and Clostrium can detoxify TNT. Hydrolysis, followed by anaerobic nitrification by certain bacteria, degrades nitrocellulose. They contain some surfactants (surface active agents) which are not readily biodegradable. Certain bacterial plasmid can degrade surfactants. Genetic Engineering for More Efficient Bioremediation : Although several microorganisms that can degrade a large number of xenobiotics have been identified, there are many limitations in bioremediation: i. Microbial degradation of organic compounds is a very slow process. ii.

No single microorganism can degrade all the xenobiotics present in the environmental pollution. iii. The growth of the microorganisms may be inhibited by Non-Renewable Energy, the xenobiotics. iv. Certain xenobiotics get adsorbed on to the The Power of Spoken Word Poetry, particulate matter of soil and become unavailable for microbial degradation. It is never possible to address all the above limitations and carry out an ideal process of harvard bioremediation. Some attempts have been made in recent years to The Power create genetically engineered microorganisms (CEMs) to enhance bioremediation, besides degrading xenobiotics which are highly resistant (recalcitrant) for breakdown. Some of these aspects are briefly described. Genetic Manipulation by moral principle, Transfer of Plasmids : The majority of the genes responsible for the synthesis of Word Poetry bio-degradative enzymes are located on the plasmids. It is Essay about Non-Renewable Energy therefore logical to think of genetic manipulations of plasmids. New strains of bacteria can be created by transfer of plasmids (by conjugation) carrying genes for different degradative pathways. If the The Power Word Poetry Essay, two plasmids contain homologous regions of Essay on Problem in Developing DNA, recombination occurs between them, resulting in the formation of a larger fused plasmid (with the combined functions of both plasmids).

In case of plasmids which do not possess homologous regions of DNA, they can coexist in the bacterium (to which plasmid transfer was done). The first successful development of a new strain of bacterium (Pseudomonas) by manipulations of plasmid transfer was done by Chakrabarty and his co-workers in 1970s. Word Essay! They used different plasmids and harvard, constructed a new bacterium called as superbug that can degrade a number of hydrocarbons of petroleum simultaneously. United States granted patent to this superbug in 1981 (as per the directive of American Supreme Court). Thus, superbug became the first genetically engineered microorganism to be patented. Superbug has played a significant role in the development of biotechnology industry, although it has not been used for of Spoken Poetry large scale degradation of oil spills.

Creation of Superbug by Transfer of Plasmids : Superbug is a bacterial strain of Pseudomonas that can degrade camphor, octane, xylene and naphthalene. Its creation is depicted in Fig. 59.5. The bacterium containing CAM (camphor- degrading) plasmid was conjugated with another bacterium with OCT (octane-degrading) plasmid. These plasmids are not compatible and therefore, cannot coexist in the same bacterium. However, due to the presence of homologous regions of DNA, recombination occurs between these two plasmids resulting in harvard citation machine a single CAM-OCT plasmid. This new bacterium possesses the degradative genes for both camphor and octane. Word! Another bacterium with XYL (xylene-degrading) plasmid is conjugated with NAH (naphthalene- degrading) plasmid containing bacterium. XYL and NAH plasmids are compatible and therefore can coexist in the same bacterium. Essay On Problem In Developing! This newly, produced bacterium contains genes for the degradation of xylene and naphthalene.

The next and final step is the conjugation of bacterium containing CAM-OCT plasmid with the other bacterium containing XYL and NAH plasmids. The newly created strain is the superbug that carries CAM-OCT plasmid (to degrade camphor and octane), XYL (xylene-degrading) plasmid and The Power of Spoken Word, NAH (naphthalene-degrading) plasmid. Development of SalicylateToluene Degrading Bacteria by Plasmid Transfer : Some attempts have been made for the creation of a new strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas putida to simultaneously degrade toluene and salicylate. Toluene-degrading (TOL) plasmid was transferred by conjugation to romeo another bacterium that is capable of degrading salicylate (due to Word Poetry the presence of SAL plasmid). The newly developed strain of Pseudomonas can simultaneously degrade both toluene and salicylate. Moral Principle! And this occurs even at a low temperature (0-5C).

However, the new bacterium is not in regular use, as more research is being conducted on its merits and demerits. Genetic Manipulation by Gene Alteration : Work is in progress to manipulate the genes for The Power of Spoken Poetry Essay more efficient biodegradation. The plasmid pWWO of Pseudomonas codes for 12 different enzymes responsible for the meta-cleavage pathway (for the conversion of catechol and protocatechuate to pyruvate and acetaldehyde, for degradation of certain aromatic compounds. Some success has been reported to alter the genes of plasmid pWWO for more efficient degradation of toluene and xylene. Genetically Engineered Microorganisms (GEMs) in Bioremediation : Superbug is the first genetically engineered microorganism. Romeo! Several workers world over have been working for the creation of GEMs, specifically designed for the detoxification of xenobiotics. A selected list of GEMs with a potential for the degradation of The Power Word Poetry xenobiotics is given in about Non-Renewable Table 59.3. Almost all these CFMs have been created by transferring plasmids. A genetically engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been created (by Chakarabarty and his group). This new strain can produce a glycolipid emulsifier (a bio-surfactant) which can reduce the surface tension of an oil water interface. The reduced interfacial tension promotes biodegradation of oils.

GEM for Degradation of Vanillate and SDS : A new strain of Pseudomonas sp (strain ATCC 1915) has been developed for the degradation of of Spoken Word Poetry Essay vanillate (waste product from paper industry) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a compound used in detergents). The genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) have now become handy tools of biotechnologists. The risks and health hazards associated with the use of GEMs are highly controversial and debatable issues. The fear of the biotechnologists and even the general public is that the new organism (GEM), once it enters the environment, may disturb the ecological balance and cause harm to the habitat. Some of the romeo and benvolio, GEMs may turn virulant and The Power of Spoken Word Essay, become genetic bombs, causing great harm to humankind. Nonmaleficence! Because of the of Spoken Essay, risks involved in the use of GEMs, so far no GEM has been allowed to enter the Essay on Organizational Citizenship, environmental fields. Thus, the use of The Power GEMs has been confined to the laboratories, and fully controlled processes of biodegradation (usually employing bioreactors). Further, several precautionary measures are taken while creating GEMs, so that the risks associated with their use are minimal. Some researchers are of the opinion that GEMs will create biotechnological wonders for Essay on Organizational Behavior the environmental management of xenobiotics, in of Spoken Poetry Essay the next few decades. This may be possible only if the associated risks of each GEM is in Developing thoroughly evaluated, and fully assured of its biosafety. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils and Waste Lands : Due to industrialization and extensive use of The Power of Spoken insecticides, herbicides and pesticides, the solids and waste lands world over are getting polluted.

The most common pollutants are hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, polychlorobiphenyls and metals. Bioremediation of soils and waste lands by the use of microorganisms is gaining importance in nonmaleficence nursing the recent years. In fact, some success has been reported for the detoxification of certain pollutants (e.g. hydrocarbons) in the soil by microorganisms. Bioremediation of soils can be done by involving two principles-bio-stimulation and bio-augmentation. Bio-stimulation in The Power of Spoken Soil Bioremediation : Bio-stimulation basically involves the stimulation of microorganisms already present in the soil, by various means. Essay On Problem Nations! This can be done by many ways: i. Addition of The Power of Spoken Word Essay nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. ii.

Supplementation with co-substrates e.g. methane added to degrade trichloroethylene. iii. Addition of on Problem of Obesity Nations surfactants to disperse the hydrophobic compounds in water. Addition of nutrient and co-substrates promote microbial growth while surfactants expose the The Power Essay, hydrophobic molecules. In all these situations, the Essay about Non-Renewable Energy, result is that there occurs bio-stimulation by effective bioremediation of polluted soil or waste land. Bio-augmentation in Soil Bioremediation : Addition of specific microorganisms to the polluted soil constitutes bio-augmentation. The pollutants are very complex molecules and the native soil microorganisms alone may not be capable of degrading them effectively. The examples of such pollutants include polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), trinitrotoluene (TNT), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and certain pesticides. Based on the research findings at the laboratory level (with regard to biodegradation), it is now possible to add a combination of microorganisms referred to as consortium or cocktail of microorganisms, to achieve bio-augmentation. With the development of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs), they can be also used to bio-augment soils for very efficient bioremediation. But the direct use of GEMs in the soils is associated with several risks and health hazards.

Techniques of Soil Bioremediation : The most commonly used methods for the bioremediation are soils are in situ bioremediation, land farming and slurry phase bioreactors. In Situ Bioremediation of Soils : In situ bioremediation broadly involves the biological clean-up of soils without excavation. This technique is used for of Spoken the bioremediation of sub-surfaces of soils, buildings and road ways that are polluted. Sometimes, water (oxygenated) is cycled through the sub-surfaces for increasing the efficiency of microbial degradation. There are two types of in situ soil bioremediation techniques- bioventing and phytoremediation. This is harvard citation very efficient and cost- effective technique for the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils. Bioventing involves aerobic biodegradation of pollutants by circulating air through sub-surfaces of soil. Although, it takes some years, bioventing can be used for the degradation of The Power of Spoken Essay soluble paraffin#8217;s and citation, polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Word Poetry Essay! The major limitation of this technique is air circulation which is not always practicable. Bioremediation by use of plants constitutes phytoremediation.

Specific plants are cultivated at the sites of polluted soil. These plants are capable of Essay Non-Renewable stimulating the biodegradation of pollutants in the soil adjacent to roots (rhizosphere) although phytoremediation is a cheap and environmental friendly clean-up process for the biodegradation of of Spoken Poetry soil pollutants, it takes several years. Land farming in Soil Bioremediation : Land farming is a technique for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. A diagrammatic representation of and benvolio land farming system (also referred to as solid phase soil reactor) is depicted in Fig. The Power! 59.6. The soil is excavated, mixed with microorganisms and nutrients and spread out on a liner, just below the polluted soil. The soil has to be regularly ploughed for good mixing and aeration. If the soil is mixed with compost and/or temperature is increased the efficiency of biodegradation increases.

Addition of co-substrates, and anaerobic pretreatment of polluted soils also increases the Essay Non-Renewable vs. Renewable Energy, degradation process. Land farming has been successfully used for the bioremediation of soils polluted with chloroethane benzene, toluene and xylene. The last three compounds are often referred to as BTX aromatics. Slurry-phase Bioreactors in Soil Bioremediation : Slurry-phase bioreactors are improved land farming systems. In these cases, the excavated polluted soil is The Power Word Poetry subjected to bioremediation under optimally controlled conditions in nonmaleficence nursing specifically designed bioreactors.

Due to a close contact between the xenobiotics and the microorganisms, and the optimal conditions (nutrient supply, temperature, aeration etc.), the degradation is very rapid and efficient. Slurry-phase bioreactors, however, are not suitable for widespread use due to high cost. Environmental pollution also results in the contamination of ground water at several places. The commonly found pollutants are the petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic, cyclic and substituted molecules). Bioremediation of ground water can be carried out by two methods pump- and -treat technique and bio-fencing technique. Pump and Treat Technique for Bioremediation of Ground Water : Bioremediation of underground water by pump- and -treat technology is mostly based on physicochemical principles to remove the pollutants. The treatment units are set up above the ground. Strip columns and activated carbon filters can remove most of the of Spoken Word Essay, ground water pollutants. Moral Principle! Treated water is recycled through injection well several times so that the pollutants are effectively removed. For removal of certain organic pollutants, biological reactors (bioreactors) have to be installed (Fig.

59.7A). For instance, for The Power Word Essay the biodegradation of tetrachloroethane, a bioreactor with granular methogenic sludge is found to be effective. In recent years, bioreactors with both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria have been developed for better bioremediation of Essay on Problem in Developing highly polluted ground waters. It is however, not possible to achieve good clean up of The Power Word Poetry ground water by pump- and -treat technology, for various reasons (sub-surface heterogeneities, strongly adsorbed compounds, low permeability of pollutants etc.). Moral Principle! Bio-fencing Technique for Bioremediation of Ground Water : Bio-fencing is an improved technique for the bioremediation of ground water. It consists of installation of a bioactive zone at the down- gradient edge of a contaminated ground water area. Nutrients are injected through a well to the bioactive zone (Fig.

59.7B). As the ground water passes through the bioactive zone (by the impact of natural direction of flow), the pollutants are biodegraded, and clean ground water comes out. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by The Power of Spoken Word, visitors like YOU. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the moral principle, following pages:

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Sample Celta Essays and Research Papers. other disciplines. Essay? I am particularly interested in the CELTA course because of the course contents, its relevance to English language . Romeo And Benvolio? teaching, the certificate recognition, perhaps better teaching positions with more challenging portfolios in The Power Poetry Essay, the future and most of all, self-fulfilment as one could not be more satisfied with a course regulated and nonmaleficence, assessed by the University of Cambridge and conducted by its affiliates. Pursuing the CELTA course will enable me to become a certified and internationally. Celta , Education , English language 822 Words | 3 Pages. Cambridge CELTA Pre-Interview Test. Cambridge CELTA 2012 The Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults is accredited and validated by Cambridge ESOL . Of Spoken? (www.CambridgeESOL.org) This is a pre-service training course for those who wish to become English language teachers to adults. The specifications for the syllabus are laid down by Nations, Cambridge ESOL. To be eligible for the course you need to: ? be at least 18 years old by the start of the course ? have formal qualifications which would allow entry into higher education. Celta , Credit card , English as a foreign or second language 1217 Words | 7 Pages.

Cambridge CELTA Pre-Interview Task Name ______________________________________________________________________ Complete this task . carefully. The Power? It is an important factor in considering your application. CELTA is an intensive four-week course of romeo and benvolio, study. Because of this, candidates need to be fully prepared for The Power Essay, the demands of the course and show that they are able to research language structures, a skill required of ESL teachers. Keep in harvard, mind that we cover language analysis on The Power Essay, the CELTA course, so.

Celta , Phonology , Stress 1269 Words | 7 Pages. Celta Assignment- Lesson from the Classroom. We are almost half way through the Essay, CELTA course and it is admirable that all of Word Poetry Essay, us have had such a tremendous growth curve. Personally, I know . I have become much more confident about moral principle standing in The Power of Spoken Word, front of a classroom full of students and talking about different aspects of English language. I discovered the very first day that it was important to establish a good rapport with the vs. Renewable, students and be comfortable talking with them. I learned it was also important to engage students in conversation rather.

Celta , Language , Learning 832 Words | 3 Pages. Kingsway College 2013/14 Adult Pathways CELTA courses Last updated: . 08/07/2013 CELTA Teacher Training Course Thank you for your enquiry about our CELTA teacher training course. This booklet gives you information about: Teacher Training at Word, Westminster Kingsway College Our Teacher Training team The range of Teacher Training courses we offer Dates and moral principle, fees for our CELTA course How to Word Poetry apply. Please note: Our selection. Celta , English as a foreign or second language , English language 4226 Words | 23 Pages. | Please return this application form and Essay of Obesity Nations, a recent photograph to the centre of The Power Word Poetry, your choice: CELTA . Applications, New Delhi English Language Teaching Centre British Council Division 17 Kasturba Gandhi Marg New Delhi 110001 CELTA Applications, Mumbai British Council 901, 9th Floor One India bulls Centre Mumbai 400 013 CELTA Applications, Chennai. British Council Division, British Deputy High Commission 737 Anna Salai Chennai 600 002 Or email. British Council , British Empire , Celta 757 Words | 6 Pages.

CELTA Course Fact Sheet CAMBRIDGE CERTIFICATE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING TO ADULTS . Moral Principle? ( CELTA ) Ealing, Hammersmith and of Spoken Essay, West London College is an citation machine authorised centre for Word, courses preparing trainees for moral principle, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults ( CELTA ). These courses provide initial training in Essay, English Language teaching and are intended for those who have no previous experience in this field, or whose experience is moral principle, insufficient to qualify. Celta , Education , Language 1012 Words | 5 Pages. | | | . Of Spoken Poetry? | I have applied for citation machine, / attended a CELTA course before: Yes No ? If yes please give details How did you find out The Power of Spoken Poetry Essay about the course at and benvolio, HWLC? Names and address of two referees (either work or academic) Abdalla (co-worker) Shuto (former colleague) __ 246 Greenford road. Celta , Education , London 1487 Words | 10 Pages. Application form Course: Location: Cactus ref no: 2061 Cambridge CELTA London Barons Court Instructions Thank you for choosing to . apply for above course. Please complete in BLOCK CAPITALS Please check the www.cactustefl.com website if you need any specific course/school details. information, here is the application process: 1. Complete and return this application to Cactus TEFL. 2. Cactus reviews and forwards this to the centre's teacher training team.

3. The school contacts you to tell. Celta , English language , Grammatical aspect 3073 Words | 9 Pages. attended a CELTA course before: No ( If yes please give details How did you find out about the course at HWLC? ONLINE Names and . address of two referees (either work or academic) JULIE NORBURN SHANNON __ ART4SPACE DISNEY ENGLISH __ 54 SALTERS HILL, LONDON, SE19 1DZ __ jewels@art4space.co.uk _____ __ Tel: 0208 766 7163 Tel: __ Personal Statement: Please give further particulars of career and interests and why you are applying for the CELTA . . Celta , Education , Foreign language 2001 Words | 12 Pages. CAMBRIDGE CELTA COURSE 24 June 19 July 2013 Dear Trainee, Welcome to British Side and the course! You are now trainees on the . Cambridge CELTA Course and students at The Power, British Side. The former means that you are following a training course designed by the University of Cambridge ESOL.

The syllabus and assessment criteria are laid down by nonmaleficence, this organisation, and the course will be inspected and moderated by an externally appointed assessor. You will not be assessed by this person (s/he will inspect. Celta , Education , Language acquisition 15580 Words | 65 Pages. statement 7 Overview 7 Research Question/Hypothesis 7 OBJECTIVES AND AIMS 8 Overall Objective 8 Specific Aims 8 BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE 9 . research design and Word, methods 10 Overview 10 Population and Study Sample 10 Sample Size and Selection of Sample 10 Sources of Data 10 Collection of Data 10 Exposure Assessment 10 Data Management 10 Data Analysis Strategies 10 Ethics and Human Subjects Issues 10 Timeframes 10 Strengths and Weaknesses of the Study 11 . Citation , Data , Decimal 690 Words | 5 Pages. ?I would like the opportunity to partake in the CELTA course at TBI, so I am able to increase my knowledge and experience, whilst . simultaneously being able to on Organizational Citizenship assist students in their own understanding of the English language. By gaining the CELTA qualification at your institute, I will be equipped to continually encourage my students towards reaching their language goals by The Power, building on the foundation of knowledge they already have. Essay Vs. Renewable? My future aims and intentions are to train to be a teacher of. Celta , Education , English language 508 Words | 2 Pages. Human resource management , Human resources , Management 1332 Words | 4 Pages. ?????,???????????: - ????????(probability sample ,??random sample )? - ????(the sampling frame)???????????????????? - . Of Spoken Word? ?????(The Sample Size)? - ????(the sample design),???????????? - ???(the rate of response),?????????????????? ?????????? - ????????the sample frame(????)? - ??????????????????????,???????????????????? - ???????,?????,??????,???????????? The Sample Frame ?????????????????????????,????????????,????????????????the sample frame ? - ???????????: . Cluster sampling , Random sample , Sample 386 Words | 4 Pages.

CELTA Handbook Manchester Academy of English Welcome to moral principle Manchester Academy of English! Student satisfaction is The Power of Spoken Word Poetry Essay, very important to us. If you . Essay On Organizational Citizenship Behavior? have a question please ask any member of staff, were happy to of Spoken Poetry Essay help! Contents Page School information, facilities and safety 2 Teacher training staff and course overview 3 Course requirements, course timetable 4 Components of the course Additional requirements Candidate assessment 5, 6 7 8, 9 Course assessment 9 Plagiarism and referencing 11 1. Assessment , Celta , Learning by moral principle, teaching 3594 Words | 12 Pages. CELTA Pre-Interview task Language awareness (please make notes) 1a.What problems of meaning might the following words present to of Spoken Poetry Essay a . learner of English? a library a paper nervous get 1b.What problems might a learner of English encounter with the about Non-Renewable Energy, following pairs of words? live/leave ship/sheep glass/class dog/dock 1c.What problems might a learner of English encounter when wanting to write the following words? beginning necessary receive. Black-and-white films , Celta , English-language films 475 Words | 2 Pages. Teacher Development Centre Cambridge CELTA Application Task: Version B Language Awareness and Essay, Teaching Ideas VERSION B Name: . ________________________________ Date of Application: _________________ Please complete the tasks as neatly, as carefully and as fully as you can by hand. You may refer to a dictionary and a grammar. Nonmaleficence Nursing? Recommended grammar reference books and Word, dictionaries: English Grammar in Use Raymond Murphy (Cambridge University Press) Practical English Usage Michael Swan (Oxford. British Council , Cambridge , Celta 1223 Words | 9 Pages.

Statistics - Probability and Sample Data. collection. Sample Data Sample data basically is a subclass of nonmaleficence nursing, populations such as humans, animals and The Power Word Essay, even objects; it often . goes as far as Physical Science and the Scientific Method. Within statistics, known as survey methodology, Sample Data concerns itself in harvard citation machine, the selective method regarding the The Power of Spoken Poetry, subset of inhabitants or humans from within any particular population. Essay On Problem Nations? This is done in order to approximate the The Power of Spoken Poetry Essay, uniqueness of an entire populace like weight, gender, color, religion, job types, etc. Sample Data. Bureau of Labor Statistics , Data , Data collection 1178 Words | 4 Pages. Communication Research notes sample. your experiment to the larger population from which the Essay on Problem in Developing, sample was drawn. You should not apply your results to those subjects only of Spoken Word who . Harvard Citation Machine? participated in the study. The Power Of Spoken Word? Applying findings from a sample to nonmaleficence nursing a larger population is known as generalization.

As the results of an experiment are to generalize the population, so we must be very careful while selecting the The Power of Spoken, sample . The optimal procedure is to identify the Essay Citizenship Behavior, population and then draw a random sample of individuals for participation in the experiment. In. Causality , Design of experiments , Experiment 1612 Words | 5 Pages. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 7. . Reasons for wanting to do the course Write at The Power Word, least 150 words on why you wish to attend the Cambridge CELTA course at British Council Dhaka, and what you intend to do upon completion of the course. | | | . Celta , Following , Grammatical tense 1398 Words | 16 Pages. HUELLA CASE: SAMPLE RESEARCH PAPER. developed with company feedback and the participants in moral principle, the survey will be approached via multiple methods. 50% of the survey will be online, presented to . people visiting the company websites, and few other commonly accessed tourism sites. 30% of the sample population will be approached via telephone. The names will be obtained from sites offering information on frequent travelers. 20% of the questionnaires will be more focused towards businessmen and youth, We might target 10% of the questionnaires.

Internet , Marketing , Quantitative marketing research 572 Words | 5 Pages. Unit 3 Survey Sample Size Yvonne Johnson American InterContinental University Abstract This essay will have two parts one will discuss . three different surveys and the second will be a survey that was performed by the author. The subjects of the surveys will be Entertainment, Political, and General. We will analyze the surveys that do not have the population that were surveyed. Introduction The entertainment survey will be a survey that was conducted by Universal UK, was conducted. Federal , Federal government , Federal government of the United States 1481 Words | 6 Pages. cm, top 2.5 cm and bottom 4cm Double spacing. The Power Of Spoken Word Essay? Times new roman size 12 Chapter title (as in chapter one , two, three) in the center underlined. Remember . to put table of contents, 1.1 Background of the harvard machine, study Respondents (From your journals) Sample Location DV (Consider as Title too) IV IV IV Before ending this part write the following paragraph Therefore, the purpose of this study aims to explore the TITLE among the Word, respondents and the.

Cluster sampling , Research , Respondent 1188 Words | 30 Pages. Calculating Sample Size Types of Samples Subjective or Convenience Sample - Has some possibility of bias - . Citizenship Behavior? Cannot usually say it is representative - Selection made by The Power of Spoken Word, ease of collection Simple Random Sample - No subjective bias - Equal chance of selection; e.g., select the fifth chart seen on every third day - Can usually be backed to Essay on Problem say it is representative Systematic Sample - Is a random sample - Equal chance of selection due to methodology; e.g., computer-generated list of . Arithmetic mean , Estimator , Mathematics 1735 Words | 7 Pages. Transportation Survey Sample Calculation The confidence interval (also called margin of error) is the plus-or-minus figure usually reported . in newspaper or television opinion poll results. For example, if you use a confidence interval of 4 and of Spoken Word Essay, 47% percent of your sample picks an answer you can be sure that if you had asked the vs. Renewable, question of the Word Poetry Essay, entire relevant population between 43% (47-4) and 51% (47+4) would have picked that answer. The confidence level tells you how sure you can be. It is. Confidence interval , Interval finite element , Normal distribution 634 Words | 4 Pages. no more than thirty (30) minutes on each question. Question 1 a) Explain what each of the following terms mean in the context of Essay Behavior, research: i) . Population ii) Probability sampling iii) Non-probability sampling iv) Representative sample (8 marks) b) Discuss FOUR (4) main characteristics of a good research. (16 marks) Total: 25 marks Question 2 a) It is advantageous to develop a directional hypothesis whenever we are sure of the predicted direction. Define directional.

Data collection , Nonprobability sampling , Sample 588 Words | 4 Pages. Marketing Research Proposal Sample. different places such as Malls, supermarkets, college campuses, public places etc. * structured questionnaire will be administered to The Power of Spoken Word Essay the respondents. . Sample Design: a) Population People residing in the city of and benvolio, Ahmedabad. b) Sample Unit Consumers of fruit drinks. c) Sampling Method Quota Sampling d) Sample Size 500 Significance of the study * This report aims to generate information on various factors influencing consumer decision while purchasing a fruit. Exploratory research , Juice , Marketing 568 Words | 3 Pages. Sample Size and Sampling Mechanics Sampling. things that is the subject of exploration. A census involves obtaining information, not from a sample , but rather from the entire population . or universe. The Power Of Spoken Essay? A sample (as opposed sampling) is and benvolio, a subset of the population/universe. For Marketing Research purposes, sampling usually involves people, not data or things. Sampling Plans are strategies and mechanics for selecting members of the sample from the The Power, population: 1. Define the population.

It is usually limited based on some set of and benvolio, characteristics. Mean , Normal distribution , Sample 991 Words | 5 Pages. from cooperatives and from individual lenders ? Sample Size: A sample size of 50 respondents will be taken . for this study out of the The Power Essay, massive counts of harvard citation machine, clients of Microfinancing and the available allotted time and of Spoken Word Poetry, the confined location we took the Essay about Non-Renewable Energy, survey. The 50 different borrowers from different financial providers whos age lies between 20 years old up to The Power of Spoken Word Essay 50 years will be our respondents. The sample will be taken in on Problem Nations, the form of The Power of Spoken Word Poetry Essay, strata based on name, age, gender. Mean , Research , Sample 795 Words | 5 Pages. Life Sciences Sampling and Populations Paper.

concepts that are essential to understanding the romeo, statistics of the life and health sciences. The idea that a sample is illustrative of a given . The Power Word Poetry? population, since a sample is derived from a specific, yet larger pool of information seems factually representative. Random sampling aides research in that it applies experimental design to the selection process and is the fairest means of about vs. Renewable, sample collection, providing equal chance to the members of a given population being signified. Word Poetry Essay? Populations Populations. Biology , Data collection , Demography 854 Words | 3 Pages. type is used, then the density will change. Materials: 4 metal samples Balance 50 ml graduated cylinder Water Paper towels . Apparatus: Pre-Lab Questions: 1. Romeo And Benvolio? Whats the formula to calculate density? D = M / V 2. What are the units for density? g/mL, g/L, mg/mL, g/cm3 3. A sample of metal has a mass of Word, 85.6 grams and a volume of 12.1 mL. Whats. Density , Heavy metal music , Mass 391 Words | 4 Pages.

Imaging Research Laboratories 1. INTRODUCTION PURPOSE The proper management of human biological samples for laboratory testing and analysis . is essential to assure the romeo, quality and of Spoken Word, integrity of romeo, data collected in clinical trials, as well as to of Spoken Word Poetry protect the safety of all those who handle the samples . 2. SCOPE This standard operating procedure (SOP) describes the procedures related to biological sample management, including the collection, processing, storage and handling. 3. APPLICABLE REGULATIONS AND. Clinical research , Clinical site , Clinical trial 1197 Words | 7 Pages. test is a process by which elements (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfur, manganese, copper and zinc) are chemically removed from the . soil and measured for their plant available content within the sample . The quantity of available nutrients in the sample determines the amount of fertilizer that is recommended. A soil test also measures soil pH, humic matter and exchangeable acidity. These analyses indicate whether lime is nursing, needed and, if so, how much to apply. | Why Do You. Garden , Lawn , Nutrient 1184 Words | 3 Pages. Sample Concept Paper for Masters Degree. the same schools. The chosen group is mainly because they are adolescence, in senior classes and The Power of Spoken Word, so have a vast of experience with teachers in the classroom . as compared to students in the junior classes. 2.2 Sample sizeamp; Technique Four hundred students will be selected in the study sample since among the three camps the population will be limited to two camps.

From the two camps, fifty students will be selected from each class and five teachers from each school. 2.2.0 Sampling techniques The following. Education , High school , Motivation 1710 Words | 6 Pages. females consuming a high fat diet. Problem Comparative Question The purpose of this investigation is to determine if the median systolic blood pressure . mmHg (SBP) of male participants is higher than the median SBP of female participants from this sample of 200 participants from this study. The difference between the median SBP of the male and nursing, female participants will be used to make a formal inference about the SBP of British male and females with high fat diets.

Plan The sampling method used. Blood pressure , Female , Gender 1146 Words | 4 Pages. Laboratorio de Analisis Argentina. original collection of samples to the final step of communicating the of Spoken Word Poetry Essay, test results to nursing the patients, LAA has shown that they have created a . process with numerous factors to success as well as room for The Power of Spoken Word, improvement. The following is a flow chart representative of the steps of the process and the reliance each step has to other steps: While not all information was provided in on Organizational Citizenship, the same metric for each step, the table below has converted each step to minutes per 1,000 samples to allow the capability. Bottleneck , Capacity utilization , Chemical engineering 1434 Words | 5 Pages. and fat globule distribution of the coconut milk. The process of homogenisation involves pressure forcing the Poetry, coconut milk through a membrane to nursing make the fat . Poetry? particles small enough to mix together with the watery components of the coconut milk. The samples of coconut milk subjected to nonmaleficence higher pressure show a higher temperature with longer time interval, this is due to The Power Word Essay mechanical friction and shear force in the homogeniser.

During this experiment a major precaution which had to be taken was not to allow. Colloid , Emulsion , Fundamental physics concepts 1772 Words | 6 Pages. sells. 3. Business Model Major revenue streams: Subscription revenue. For $10/month, a user receives a Box with product samples . This . subscription fee needs to at minimum cover the marginal cost of citation, shipping each box (the shipping cost), and also help to cover some of the Word Essay, other major expenses (marketing, overhead, etc.) Affiliate fee. When a customer purchases a sample at full price from romeo and benvolio, one of Birchbox's suppliers, Birchbox shares revenue on The Power of Spoken Word Poetry, the total amount of product purchased. Over time. Cost , Marketing , Sample 1189 Words | 7 Pages.

Several contractors miss out the projects caused by improper and unimpressive estimates. Essay Citizenship Behavior? There are diversified estimate sheet samples . The Power Word? available online which can be downloaded easily according to the requirements. The contractors can utilize this estimate sheet samples depending on the project they opt for bidding. The contractors can easily customize these sample estimate sheets to fulfill their requirements. The estimating sheets will facilitate the contractors to get rid of the human error. Construction , Estimation , Estimation theory 730 Words | 3 Pages. details 2. Tech pack sent to the sampling department for development of the moral principle, proto sample 3. The Power Word Essay? Fabric consumption along with mini markers from moral principle, . CAD 4. Cost calculation/ Final Costing. 5. Confirming Purchase Order (PO) and receival 6. Bulk fabric and The Power of Spoken Poetry, trims ordered based on PO quantity.

7. Moral Principle? Getting fit sample approved 8. Fabric Performance Testing (FPT) to conform to buyer standards 9. Getting size samples approved set 10. Preparing the cutting ticket in Word Poetry Essay, PPC and handing it over. Buyer , Sample , Sampling 465 Words | 3 Pages. Two soil samples were consistently used for all four test completed below. The first is Essay on Problem in Developing Nations, labelled as Valley A, and was obtained from The Power of Spoken Poetry, a field . which has been known to be uncultivated for 10 years in the valley. Valley B was obtained from a domestic garden, under a Magnolia tree in nonmaleficence nursing, the same region.

At times when a third sample was tested, the source will be indicated. Of Spoken Word Essay? Soil texture tests These tests were carried out using a texture by feel analysis. Nonmaleficence? This test began by taking a sample of soil in the. Analytical chemistry , Filter paper , Humus 610 Words | 3 Pages. Determination of Moisture Content. of the soil sample . 3.0 Apparatus 1. A thermostatically controlled oven set at a temperature of 105-110 . C. 2. Sample tins 3. Balance readable and accurate to The Power of Spoken Word Poetry Essay 0.01 g 4. A scoop Photo 1- Oven | Photo 2- Sample Tin | Photo 3- Balance | Photo 4- Scoop | 4.0 Procedures 1. The empty tins was labeled, weigh and the data was recorded into the data sheet. 2. 3 soil samples was taken. 3. Each sample was placed. Bulk density , Humidity , Hydrology 578 Words | 3 Pages. (i.e control and harvard citation machine, insitu testing respectively).

They are tested to achieve strength, quality, workability, durability, and any other reasons as may be deemed . suitable like a reason of economic control. The tested materials-hereinafter referred to The Power Word Poetry Essay as sample , are tested and shall have to on Problem comply with the set specifications like the Botswana Road Design Manual and the Standard Specification for Road and Bridge works. These specifications are agreed standards set after rigorous consultations to meet weather. Material , Materials science , Sample 1765 Words | 7 Pages. difficult to sample and The Power of Spoken Word Poetry Essay, analyze, for many reasons. Natural bacteria levels in streams can vary significantly; bacteria conditions are strongly . Romeo And Benvolio? correlated with rainfall, and The Power of Spoken Essay, thus comparing wet and dry weather bacteria data can be a problem; many analytical methods have a low level of precision yet can be quite complex; and Essay on Problem of Obesity Nations, absolutely sterile conditions are required to collect and handle samples . The primary equipment decision to make when sampling for bacteria is of Spoken Word Essay, what type and romeo, size of sample container.

Agar plate , Bacteria , Container 1590 Words | 6 Pages. didnt get proper job. I upgraded myself and still willing to learn and adapting myself in new circumstances. Poetry Essay? * Perform sample . Romeo And Benvolio? preparation and procedures prior to analyses * Perform basic testing procedures, identify any non-routine samples and seek guidance on procedures for handling * Meet quality and TAT specifications required by the client and Word Poetry Essay, ensure samples are analyzed within holding time requirements * Ensure laboratory protocols are followed and Essay of Obesity in Developing Nations, turn-around-times are met . Cash , Customer , Customer service 1187 Words | 4 Pages. Ampalaya seeds coffee ( Sample A) , a mixture of Ampalaya seed coffee and commercial coffee ( Sample B) , and Word Poetry, pure commercial . coffee ( Sample C). Statement of the Problem The main problem of the study is to Essay on Problem of Obesity Nations make coffee from Word Essay, ampalaya seeds. It also answers the and benvolio, following problems: 1. Essay? What are the characteristics of the different ampalaya coffee samples in Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, terms of: a. Color b. Aroma c. Taste d. Acidity? 2. . What is the acceptability of the different ampalaya coffee samples prepared? 3. 3. The Power Essay? Is there.

Acid , Brown , Color term 642 Words | 3 Pages. CHAPTER 2 DATA COLLECTION AND PRESENTATION 2.1 Data Collection This section aims to: 1. Identify, compare and . contrast the Essay on Organizational, different types of data; 2. List and explain the various techniques of Poetry, selecting a sample ; and 3. Essay On Problem Of Obesity In Developing Nations? Enumerate and illustrate the The Power of Spoken Word Poetry Essay, different sampling techniques Types of Data Data is a collection of nonmaleficence, facts, such as values or measurements. It can be numbers, words, measurements, observations or even just descriptions of The Power of Spoken, things. Two types. Cluster sampling , Data collection , Sample 1278 Words | 5 Pages. mass of filter ring and extracted sample . Harvard Citation? EQUIPMENT Centrifuge Extractor and filter rings.

Balance Oven Solvent- Methylene Chloride . SIEVE ANALYSIS After getting the binder content, Extracted aggregates are put in of Spoken Word Essay, the sieves and sieve shaker is nursing, turn on. Of Spoken Word? The extracted aggregates are separated to individual sizes. Then the moral principle, individual size aggregates is weigh to get the mass. EQUIPMENT No. of Sieve Sieve shaker Balance PREPARING MARSHALL SAMPLES To achieved 135 c temperature test. Colander , Force , Kilogram 401 Words | 3 Pages. KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPIs) SAMPLES The following sample KPIs are indicative only as a starting point or guideline to The Power of Spoken Poetry Essay . assist you to romeo develop your own KPIs. Samples 1 and 2 are for of Spoken Word, individuals - 3, 4 and 5 are for systems and and benvolio, departments. The Power Of Spoken Word Essay? SAMPLE 1 Name/Team: Jean Torrins Finance Manager Nature of KPI: Recovery of outstanding debtors Definition: The improved collection time of nursing, monies owed by of Spoken, debtors Performance Targets: Collect 75% within 45 days and 100% within 60. Finance , Management , Measurement 466 Words | 6 Pages. oil samples can only Essay Non-Renewable vs. Renewable be sampled into earthed steel sampling containers. Earth leads must be used to reduce the potential for static ignition . 3. Gas monitors should be used where hydrocarbon gas may be evolved.

4. Wear appropriate PPE when carrying out sampling. 5. The Power Of Spoken Poetry Essay? Open the Energy, sampling point and flush the The Power Poetry Essay, sample line into harvard machine an earthed waste container for as long as needed to ensure the Poetry Essay, pipe work is Essay on Problem of Obesity in Developing, hot enough. 6. Collect at Word Poetry, least 500ml of Essay, crude oil into the earthed sample can. API gravity , Hydrocarbon , Hydrometer 997 Words | 4 Pages. Auditing Sample Case Study Memo Team D (Wayne Brown, Melissa Ginez, Matthew Gourlie, Juel Rypka) University of of Spoken Word Essay, Phoenix ACC/491 Alisa Dumond . December 19, 2011 ------------------------------------------------- interoffice memorandum to: John Smith, CEO Key west company from: Audit Team D subject: Audit Findings for Key West Company date: 12/18/2011 ------------------------------------------------- Dear Mr. Smith The purpose of this memo is to communicate to you the nonmaleficence, results. Accounts receivable , Audit , Book value 1973 Words | 7 Pages.

What Is the Impact of International Strategic Management of Transnational Corporations Under Economic Globalization Backdrop? particular, employ local competent people, who can easily establish an intimacy with local people and local corporations. It would help to overcome the . The Power Of Spoken Poetry? cultural difficulties and improve firms performance. Therefore, by measuring the data collected from Essay on Organizational Citizenship, sample groups, figures can be analyzed to support whether the hypothesis should hold or reject. In this paper, the following hypothesis will be researched: -Null Hypothesis: Employing local employees benefit firms by overcoming cultural difficulties and. Chi-square distribution , Chi-square test , Cluster sampling 1748 Words | 6 Pages. demographic characteristics (APA 2.06) Hint from Professor Randy (Delete) (Delete All) Sampling procedures Describe the procedures for selecting . participants (APA 2.06) Hint from Professor Randy (Delete) (Delete All) Sample size, power, and precision Demonstrate that sample size has sufficient power for The Power of Spoken Essay, results' precision (APA 2.06) Hint from Professor Randy (Delete) (Delete All) Measures and covariates Define primary and secondary outcome measures and covariates (APA 2.06) Hint from. Demographics , E-participation , Hypothesis 415 Words | 7 Pages. chamber at Non-Renewable vs. Renewable Energy, thelower edge is capable of The Power Essay, sliding freely between vertical guides, and fall concentric over and benvolio the cup.

There is The Power of Spoken Essay, anarrangement for raising the . hammer and allowing it to fall freely between vertical guides from a height of Essay on Organizational Behavior, 38cm on the test sample in the cup, the height of Word Poetry, fall being adjustable upto 0.5 cm. In Developing? A key is Poetry Essay, provided for supporting the nonmaleficence nursing, hammer while fastening or removing the cup. Refer Figure. (b)Measure : A cylindrical metal measure having internal diameter 7.5 cm and Poetry, depth 5 cm for measuringaggregates. Charpy impact test , Construction aggregate , Kilogram 1144 Words | 4 Pages. which may be important in specimens preserved for taxonomic purposes).: Formalin increasingly hardens tissue and may soften bones when its pH value is nursing, too . low (under influence of light formic acid may accumulate from oxidation of formalin, so samples in formalin should best be stored in the dark, maybe in a refrigerator). So for longterm storage (museum specimens), after fixation a transfer into The Power Essay alcohol may be best. Nursing? Storage in alcohol, however, may lead to shrinking and The Power Poetry, some hardening due to dehydration. Food preservation , Formaldehyde , Fur 2188 Words | 6 Pages. purchasing behavior and romeo, subsequent usage patterns of a respondent sample , often over The Power Word Poetry Essay an extended period of time. Marketers can then study the . impact of changes in marketing inputs, such as packaging, promotions and pricing.

Consumer panels can be used to identify changes in consumer habits. Marketers use consumer panels to about Non-Renewable vs. Renewable Energy analyze the availability and effectiveness of key distribution outlets. Consumer panels enable marketers to sample trends in various outlets, then analyze the contributions from. Answer , Interview , Panel 763 Words | 3 Pages. Lab Report #1 Microscopy and Staining. stain used in The Power Word Poetry, this lab was methylene blue, a common simple stain. The different types of specimens used experiment include: A letter E as a specimen . slide and a sample of bacteria scraped from the moral principle, inside of a individuals mouth by of Spoken Word, using a toothpick.

A hypotheses arose during this experiment pertaining to nonmaleficence the bacteria sample . Such as, the bacteria will be round in shape and the nuclease if any, will be a different color blue than the rest of the bacteria because the amount of protein indicated. Biology , Experiment , Jenner's stain 603 Words | 3 Pages. Various Schemes in Mutual Fund for The Power Essay, Investors. mutual funds at Kotak Mahindra Bank. H0 (null hypothesis): There are not much schemes available for investors in mutual funds at harvard, Kotak Mahindra Bank. . Sampling: Sample Profile Simple Random Sampling method has been adopted for the study consisting of 100 samples . Essay? The respondents were selected from all the categories. Sample Size The sample size was fixed at 100 respondents. Plan of Analysis: Primary data collected through questionnaire was tabulated and analyzed using statistical techniques.

Financial services , Funds , Hedge fund 658 Words | 3 Pages. study * Setting - Field Sample The Sample should be people who have bought a product or who are thinking of Essay of Obesity in Developing, buying a . product. Of Spoken? They should be buyers and not specifiers. They may be multiple purchasers. During the course of our research when the probable sample was listed there was a temptation to say yes, all of these but considering that the greater the scope of the project the more it will cost and the longer it will take we decided to stick to romeo and benvolio a sample size of 50. The Power Poetry Essay? . Consumer protection , Critical thinking , Decision making 461 Words | 3 Pages.

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Writing the Scholarship Essay : by Kay Peterson, Ph.D. Its the hardest part of of Spoken Word Poetry, your scholarship application. But its also the part of the application where the real you can shine through. Moral Principle? Make a hit with these tips from scholarship providers: Think before you write. Brainstorm to generate some good ideas and of Spoken Word Poetry Essay then create an moral principle, outline to of Spoken Poetry Essay help you get going. Be original.

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Dont simply list all your achievements. Decide on Non-Renewable Energy, a theme you want to The Power Word convey that sums up the impression you want to make. Write about experiences that develop that theme. Know your audience. Personal essays are not one size fits all. Write a new essay for each application-one that fits the interests and requirements of that scholarship organization.

Youre asking to be selected as the nonmaleficence, representative for that group. The essay is your chance to show how you are the ideal representative. Submit an essay that is neat and readable. Make sure your essay is neatly typed, and that there is a lot of of Spoken Word Essay, white space on the page. Double-space the about vs. Renewable, essay, and provide adequate margins (1?-1 1/2?) on all sides. The Power Of Spoken Essay? Make sure your essay is well written. Proofread carefully, check spelling and grammar and share your essay with friends or teachers. Another pair of eyes can catch errors you might miss.

Special thanks to the scholarship specialists who contributed these tips: TROA Scholarship Fund. Kathy Borunda, Corporate Development. Society of moral principle, Hispanic Professional Engineers Foundation. The American Legion. Patti Cohen, Program Manager. Coca-Cola Scholars Foundation. AFSA Scholarship Programs.

Thomas Murphy, Executive Director. Konieg Education Foundation. Lisa Portenga, Scholarship Coordinator. The Fremont Area Foundation. Practice Session: Common Essay Questions by Roxana Hadad. The essay Its the of Spoken Poetry, most important part of your scholarship application, and nonmaleficence it can be the hardest.

But the essay shouldnt keep you from applying. Take a look at some of the most commonly asked essay questions and The Power of Spoken Poetry Essay use them to prepare for your scholarship applications. Brainstorm ideas, do some research or create your own stock of scholarship essays. When the time comes, youll be ready to write your way to scholarship success! Your Field of nursing, Specialization and Academic Plans.

Some scholarship applications will ask you to Word Poetry write about your major or field of study. These questions are used to determine how well you know your area of specialization and moral principle why youre interested in it. How will your study of _______ contribute to your immediate or long range career plans? Why do you want to be a _______? Explain the importance of (your major) in todays society. What do you think the industry of _______ will be like in the next 10 years? What are the The Power of Spoken Word Essay, most important issues your field is nonmaleficence nursing facing today? To test your skills at problem-solving and of Spoken Word Poetry Essay check how up-to-date you are on current issues, many scholarship applications include questions about problems and issues facing society. What do you consider to be the single most important societal problem?

Why? If you had the authority to change your school in a positive way, what specific changes would you make? Pick a controversial problem on harvard, college campuses and suggest a solution. The Power Of Spoken Poetry? What do you see as the greatest threat to the environment today? Scholarships exist to reward and encourage achievement. And Benvolio? You shouldnt be surprised to find essay topics that ask you to brag a little. Describe how you have demonstrated leadership ability both in and out of school. Discuss a special attribute or accomplishment that sets you apart.

Describe your most meaningful achievements and how they relate to your field of study and your future goals. Why are you a good candidate to receive this award. Who you are is closely tied to where youve been and who youve known. Poetry Essay? To learn more about you, some scholarship committees will ask you to write about your background and major influences. Pick an experience from your own life and explain how it has influenced your development. Who in your life has been your biggest influence and why? How has your family background affected the way you see the world? How has your education contributed to who you are today? Scholarship sponsors look for applicants with vision and motivation, so they might ask about your goals and aspirations. Briefly describe your long- and short-term goals.

Where do you see yourself 10 years from now? Why do you want to nonmaleficence get a college education? Many scholarship providers have a charitable goal: They want to provide money for students who are going to have trouble paying for college. In addition to asking for The Power Word Poetry information about your financial situation, these committees may want a more detailed and personal account of your financial need. From a financial standpoint, what impact would this scholarship have on nonmaleficence nursing, your education?

State any special personal or family circumstances affecting your need for financial assistance. How have you been financing your college education? Some essay questions dont seem directly related to your education, but committees use them to test your creativity and get a more well-rounded sense of your personality. Choose a person or persons you admire and The Power Word Essay explain why. Choose a book or books and that have affected you deeply and explain why. While you cant predict every essay question, knowing some of the nonmaleficence nursing, most common ones can give you a leg up on of Spoken Essay, applications. Start brainstorming now, and you may find yourself a winner!

Essay Feedback: Creating Your Structure by Kay Peterson, Ph.D. You might think that the secret of citation machine, a winning scholarship essay is to Word Poetry write about a great idea. Moral Principle? But thats only half the job. The best essays take a great idea and The Power Poetry present it effectively through the structure of the essay. To see how important structure is, lets look at an essay by about Non-Renewable Emily H. In her application for the UCLA Alumni Scholarship, Emily responds to the following essay topic: Please provide a summary of your personal and family background, including information about your family, where you grew up, and perhaps a highlight or special memory of your youth. Heres how Emily responded: To me, home has never been associated with the word permanent. I seem to use it more often with the word different because Ive lived in The Power of Spoken Word Essay, a variety of places ranging from Knoxville, Tennessee, to Los Angeles, California. While everyone knows where Los Angeles is on a map, very few even know which state Knoxville is in.

Fortunately, Ive had the chance to live in the east and on Problem of Obesity Nations west and to view life from two disparate points. I always get the The Power Word Essay, same reaction from people when I tell them that Im originally from on Problem of Obesity Nations, a small town in Tennessee called Knoxville. Along with surprised, incredulous looks on their faces, Im bombarded with comments like Really? You dont sound or look as if youre from Tennessee. These reactions are nearly all the of Spoken Poetry Essay, same because everyone sees me as a typical Californian who loves the sunny weather, the beach and about Energy the city. They dont know that I lived in Reading, Pennsylvania, before I moved to Chattanooga, Tennessee, and then moved again to Knoxville, Tennessee. The Power Of Spoken Word Poetry Essay? The idea of my living anywhere in the vicinity of the South or any place besides California is inconceivable to many because Ive adapted so well to the surroundings in Essay about, which I currently find myself. This particular quality, in a sense, also makes me a more cosmopolitan and open-minded person. Having already seen this much of the world has encouraged me to visit other places like Paris or London and the rest of the world. My open-mindedness applies not only to new places, but also to intriguing ideas and opportunities. This attitude towards life prepares me for the vast array of opportunities that still lie ahead in the future. The Power Word Poetry? From my experiences of moving place to place, I have also come to acknowledge the nursing, deep bond I share with my family.

It has helped me realize the importance of supporting each other through tough times. The Power Poetry Essay? Moving from nursing, Tennessee to of Spoken Word Poetry California meant saying good-bye to the house we had lived in for six years, longtime friends and the calm, idyllic lifestyle of the country that we had grown to love and savor. But knowing that we had each other to depend on made the transition easier. It also strengthened the bond we all shared and and benvolio placed more value on the time we spent with each other, whether it was at home eating dinner or going on a family trip. The Power? Now when I think of the word home, I see the bluish-gray house I live in now. In the past, however, home has been associated with houses of varying sizes, colors and forms. The only moral principle thing that has remained unchanging and permanent is my family.

I have acknowledged this constancy, knowing well enough that it is, and always will be, a part of me and a unique part of my life. Los Angeles is Essay one of and benvolio, many places in which Ive lived. This fact by itself has had a tremendous impact on The Power Word, me. This kind of essay topic can be difficult because it is very general. Emily deftly avoids this pitfall by citation machine focusing her essay on one topic: the fact that shes moved many times. As a result, this essay contains a lot of winning elements: Her opening sentence is great.

It really grabs the readers attention because its unexpected and paradoxical. The Power Of Spoken Essay? We want to learn more about her. Her story is unique; she doesnt rely on cliches. She provides a lot of detail; we feel the differences among the Essay Behavior, various cities. Shes focused the account so we learn just enough, not too much. The Power Word Essay? She tells us why these events are important.

Rather than just listing the cities, she tells us how her experiences have affected her. But there are also a number of things she could do to improve her essay: Opening paragraph gets off to a strong start, but quickly loses steam. The last sentence is too vague. The second paragraph is far too long, and covers too many ideas. The transitions among the various ideas are underdeveloped. Theres a thought progression behind her essay that isnt supported by the transitions. Conclusion is weak and moral principle doesnt capture the much richer ideas that resonate throughout her essay. The first thing Emily should do is The Power of Spoken Word Poetry step back from her essay and think about how she has organized her ideas-that is, what structure has she provided? She can do this by moral principle creating an of Spoken Poetry Essay, outline of the ideas that appear in her essay. It should look something like this:

a. Emily has lived in a lot of places. b. Emily has viewed life from two disparate points. 2. On Problem Of Obesity? Body (one paragraph) a. The Power Of Spoken Poetry? People dont guess that Emily is not originally from California. b. Thats because she has adapted so well to her current environment. c. This adaptability has made her open-minded about the world around her, and ready to take new opportunities. d. Shes also learned to recognize and value the Citizenship, bond with her family, which gives her a sense of permanence throughout all the changes.

3. Conclusion: Los Angeles is one of the places she has lived. As we can see, Emilys essay is jam-packed with good ideas. Essay? With the exception of the Essay vs. Renewable, conclusion (which she should cut), everything in here is meaningful and necessary. What she needs to of Spoken Word Poetry Essay do now is identify the most important idea for moral principle the whole essay and then rearrange the points so that they support that idea. What is the overriding idea?

I identified a number of fruitful ideas that involve these various points: Constant change has been challenging, but learning how to deal with change has made Emily ready for Word more challenges in the future. Of Obesity In Developing? Constant change has had a paradoxical effect on of Spoken Word Poetry, Emily: Its taught her both how to be adaptable and how determine what is truly permanent (i.e. her family). Non-Renewable? Constant change has taught her all about different parts of the country, but has also taught her that while she grows and changes, shell still remain the same person she always was. Once Emily has decided what main idea she wants to communicate, she can then restructure the points to support that idea. She may find that she needs to cut some points or develop others more fully. The key is to Word make it clear how those points relate to the central idea and to use meaningful transitions that point the machine, way to the next idea. With a new structure in place, Emily should have a unique and winning essay! Once you have determined which scholarships you will apply for, write to them and ask for their scholarship application and requirements. Poetry? The letter can be a general request for information form letter that can be photocopied, but you should be specific about the name of the scholarship you are inquiring about on the envelope. Write to Behavior each source as far in advance of their scholarship deadline as possible and dont forget to send a self-addressed, stamped envelope(SASE) it not only expedites their reply, but some organizations wont respond without one.

Remember, on the outside of the of Spoken Word Poetry, envelope, list the name of the Essay, specific scholarship you are inquiring about. That way, the person opening the The Power of Spoken Poetry Essay, mail will know where to direct your inquiry. Here is an example of Essay on Problem in Developing, what your letter might look like: XYZ Corporation (Ian Scott Smith Scholarship) 1234 56th Street, Suite 890.

Metropolis, FL 00000-0000. Dear Scholarship Coordinator: I am a (college) student (give academic year) and will be applying for admission to (a graduate) program for academic year 20__ __. I would appreciate any information you have available on educational financing, including application forms. I am enclosing a self-addressed, stamped business size envelope for your convenience in replying. Daniel J. Cassidy. 2280 Airport Boulevard. Santa Rosa, CA 95403. Make sure your letter is neatly typed, well written and does not contain grammatical errors or misspelled words. When filling out The Power Word Poetry, scholarship application forms, be complete, concise and creative.

People who read these applications want to know the citation, real you, not just your name. The application should clearly emphasize your ambitions, motivations and what makes you different. Be original! You will find that once you have seen one or two applications, you have pretty much seen them all. Usually they are one or two pages asking where you are going to school, what you are going to major in and why you think you deserve the The Power of Spoken Word, scholarship.

Some scholarship sources require that you join their organization. If the romeo and benvolio, organization relates to your field of study, you should strongly consider joining because it will keep you informed (via newsletter, etc.) about of Spoken Poetry, developments in that field. Other scholarship organizations may want you to harvard machine promise that you will work for them for a year or two after you graduate. The Dow Jones Newspaper Fund offers a scholarship for The Power of Spoken Word up to $20,000 for journalism, broadcasting, and and benvolio communications students with the understanding that the student will intern for them for The Power Poetry Essay two years. This could even yield a permanent job for the student. Your application should be typewritten and neat. I had a complaint from one foundation about a student who had an excellent background and qualifications but used a crayon to fill out the application. Once your essay is finished, make a master file for it and other supporting items.

Photocopy your essay and attach it to the application. If requested include: a resume or curriculum vitae (CV), extracurricular activities sheet (usually one page), transcripts, SAT, GRE, or MCAT scores, letters of recommendation (usually one from Essay, a professor, employer and friend) outlining your moral character and, if there are any newspaper articles, etc. about you, it is a good idea to include them as well. You might also include your photograph, whether its a graduation picture or a snapshot of your working at your favorite hobby. Of Spoken Poetry? This helps the selection committee feel a little closer to you. Instead of just seeing a name, they will have a face to match it.

Mail your applications in early , at least a month before the deadline. **Dr. Peterson has won numerous college and graduate scholarships, including the Jacob Javits Fellowship, the University of Essay of Obesity in Developing Nations, California Regents Scholarship and Essay the National Merit Scholarship. Together we care for our patients and our communities.

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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to Poetry Essay apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to nonmaleficence nursing write a business plan. The Power? Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in harvard, all of the The Power information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates. Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. Moral Principle? [See Related Story: The Dos and of Spoken Poetry Essay Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the romeo authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of contents. Word Poetry? It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and nonmaleficence nursing financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and choose from Poetry Essay a wide range of businesses in different industries in which to and benvolio base your plan.

Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and new business owners. Of Spoken Poetry? Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of business plans free in PDF, PowerPoint and Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the SeamlessDocs platform. The site includes a template for a variety of specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to add their logos and business information. If you need a guide to writing a business plan, Entrepreneur.com also provides a download for Essay about Non-Renewable Energy that. This step-by-step business plan builder, offered by Poetry, Law Depot, covers structure, product marketing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), operations, and details specific to your business in their templates.

Once the citation template is complete, you can download and print. The plan builder asks specific questions to help focus your answers and makes your business plan concise and comprehensive. The Power Word Poetry Essay? MOBI, or My Own Business Institute, is part of Santa Clara University#39;s Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. They offer a fifteen-section business plan template, including the business profile, licenses/permits and location, which are available for free download in Word as individual templates, or as a larger all-in-one document. All download are compatible with current and older versions of Word (2003 and earlier).

MOBI also covers topics associated with startups, but also provides information on how to romeo and benvolio run a business, including employee management, how to handle problems, and e-commerce. The Power Of Spoken Word Poetry? Office Depot#39;s Business Resource Center contains free business plan samples for retailers, manufacturers and service providers. The business tools include downloadable rich text format (RTF) business plan templates, which is on Problem Word compatible. Excel business plan financials are also available for manufacturers and The Power Word service providers, while the retailer business plan template is on Problem of Obesity Nations complete with forecasting and of Spoken Word Essay financial tables, but this requires Microsoft Word version 6.0 or later. Catering to businesses owned by women, Oprah.com#39;s free one-page business plan templates can be used by anyone who wants to start a business. The PDF templates come filled in with example information for small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and nonmaleficence nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to be left with a template that works for any business venture.

The template has space for information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and The Power Essay action plans. When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to make sure your document is moral principle legally sound. The template is questionnaire-style and asks for of Spoken Poetry Essay key information about your business such as founders, structure and industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc. Rocket Lawyer not only aims at helping you create a blueprint for your business, but also for investors. Your completed document is nursing available for download as a Word document for free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the one-week trial period at no charge. The Power Word Poetry Essay? The document is $10 on its own without a subscription. SCORE is a small business resource website that aims to romeo help entrepreneurs launch and of Spoken Word Poetry grow small business across the United States. Their collection of business planning tools includes free Word business plan templates for startups and established businesses. They also provide a sales forecasting template, competitive analysis charts to determine your business#39; strengths and weaknesses, and financial planning templates such as startup expenses, profit and loss projections, and financial statements. You can then use these business templates to meet with a Score mentor for romeo expert business planning advice. The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers an online business plan template and guide to help you build your business plan, step by step.

Once you create an account, you complete the cover page by filling in The Power Poetry Essay, your company name, owner name and contact information, and then upload your logo. There are six business plan sections to choose from (Executive Summary, Company Description, Market Research, Product/Service Line, Marketing and machine Sales, Financial Projections), and you can save and Essay work on your file anytime you want. The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan. Looking for a no-fuss business plan template that gets straight to the point? The $100 Startup, a New York Times and Wall Street Journal best seller, offers the One-Page Business Plan, a simple form that asks several questions you can quickly answer to nonmaleficence get up and running. This free business plan template covers everything from your business overview to The Power of Spoken Word Essay finances, marketing, goals and challenges.

Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and more. Additional reporting by Sara Angeles and Marci Martin. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with business plan services, use the romeo and benvolio questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for free. Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and of Spoken Word Essay marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily.

When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Essay Non-Renewable vs. Renewable Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for of Spoken Poetry the 700th time.

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clever essay title A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and Poetry stealthy ninja assassins.

These figures, often seen in popular movies and Essay in Developing Nations games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on reality. In fact, many different types of of Spoken Word Poetry Essay, people helped shape the medieval period. Over 400 years, from the late twelfth to the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and priests, women and merchants, poets and playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the moral principle, country in tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to power led to The Power of Spoken, an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant. But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the breakdown in Citizenship, civil order. Buddhism enjoyed the strong support of both samurai and commoners. Such new cultural traditions as the The Power Word Poetry, tea ceremony became popular.

The arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to on Problem of Obesity Nations, change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. It described a “middle” period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance. During this period, central government was weak and society was divided among feudal rulers. Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Europeans who visited Japan at that time felt it resembled medieval Europe.

Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to describe the period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and warriors played an important role in Word Poetry Essay, governing society. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to moral principle, the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in Word Poetry, the 1180s. As late as the harvard machine, 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). They owed their positions to central government aristocrats and of Spoken Word Essay powerful temples. If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to rivals. Moral Principle! Thus, for of Spoken Word Poetry, most of the and benvolio, twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator.

In 1180 he forced the imperial court to make his grandson (the child of Word Essay, his daughter who had married an emperor) the next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Of Obesity Nations! Yoritomo, exiled head of the Minamoto clan (and now an adult), mobilized warriors to join him in The Power, attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and Taira fought the length of the country for five years in a conflict known as the Genpei War. Harvard! When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on Word Essay to found Japan’s first warrior government.

The real significance of the war, however, was the nonmaleficence, warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government. Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to follow him by promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the The Power of Spoken, old system chose to join the Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to oppose them. So the Genpei War was, more than anything, about Essay on Problem of Obesity in Developing Nations, warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and the central government. The imperial court, at a loss to stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to bring order to of Spoken, the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for Essay about, his own warrior government in the eastern city of Kamakura. His government is known as the The Power of Spoken Word Essay, Kamakura bakufu or shogunate.

Its primary duties included supervising warriors and deciding lawsuits. Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by Essay on Problem of Obesity Nations, appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. These jit#333; served as police and tax collectors. Poetry! While jit#333; worked on individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and collected information for Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun. Later that title would be passed on to the Citizenship Behavior, head of the of Spoken Poetry, warrior government. When Yoritomo died in 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to be weak leaders.

Real power was maintained by the family of Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and brother, Masako created the position of regent for moral principle, the shogun. The Power Word Essay! Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 1203 until 1333. Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in nursing, Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the Kamakura government kept the peace. Of Spoken Poetry! It never eliminated the imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the Essay about Non-Renewable vs. Renewable Energy, aristocracy, temples, and civilians.

The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and precedent. Outcomes could be appealed. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into The Power keeping warriors off the battlefield. In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an machine, army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger. Another threat came in the late 1260s, when the Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into submitting to his empire.

Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in of Spoken Poetry, 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from Essay of Obesity in Developing, typhoons. Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds). Samurai of the Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the bow and arrow over other weapons. Word Essay! These samurai were quite independent. They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. There was no “samurai code” at this time, and you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and rewards.

For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and brave warriors rewarded. Consider, for about vs. Renewable, example, the personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against the Mongols. In his version of events, he makes no mention of The Power Poetry Essay, fighting to Essay Behavior, defend Japan. Word! Instead, he fought to make a name for himself, be witnessed, and earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the romeo and benvolio, winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the losers. The Power Of Spoken Word Poetry Essay! But the Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the economy started to expand, and many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties. Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money.

If they failed to repay loans, they had to forfeit their property. And Benvolio! At the The Power of Spoken Poetry, same time, the H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on moral principle government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and change during Japan’s medieval period.

The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. The Power Of Spoken Word! In earlier times, they relied on the taxes from those estates for much of harvard machine, their income. Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to The Power of Spoken Essay, collect tax income. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of income. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to the common people. Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an important role in the evolution of Non-Renewable, Japanese Buddhism. Many people believed in of Spoken Word Essay, the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on nonmaleficence nursing how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into of Spoken Essay better or worse circumstances.

The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and be freed from the cycle of rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the final days of the law. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the on Organizational Citizenship, teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to fully comprehend them. Therefore, it was almost impossible for individuals to Word Essay, achieve enlightenment on their own. For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times. One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land came from the teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of mapp#333; . He taught his followers to place complete faith in Essay about Energy, the Buddha Amida.

Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment. Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by Word, repeatedly expressing their faith in moral principle, him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the phrase (known as the nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of The Power of Spoken Essay, training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Romeo And Benvolio! Shinran, one of H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the The Power of Spoken Poetry, only hope for mankind. Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary. His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and romeo and benvolio gained widespread acceptance, especially among the The Power of Spoken Poetry Essay, peasantry.

Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and Essay on Problem of Obesity in Developing was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. Of Spoken Word Poetry Essay! But his conviction won him followers, and his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Essay Non-Renewable Energy, Japan during the medieval period. It was based on Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and Word D#333;gen both trained in China.

The faith they brought back to Essay Behavior, Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of The Power Essay, questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city. Romeo! Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century. The Power Word Poetry! Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of Essay on Problem of Obesity in Developing Nations, refuge for women seeking divorces. The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in Nara. The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the Essay, most important literary form. Members of the imperial court were the best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest.

The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the medieval age. The Tale of the Essay on Problem of Obesity, Heike was the most popular. It described the The Power Word, Genpei War and harvard citation the Taira clan’s downfall. Its stories are quite exciting and seem to offer an intriguing view of twelfth-century warfare. But the tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the war. Buddhist chanters composed the of Spoken Word Poetry Essay, tale many decades after the war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and show how the mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by women have survived. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant.

Her work is lively, frank, colorful, and on Organizational offers a valuable view of The Power Poetry, life in Kyoto and the provinces. Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in harvard citation, society. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to The Power of Spoken Essay, show how temples were founded and how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto. Essay Behavior! Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against the Mongols, even commissioned an The Power Word Poetry Essay, illustrated scroll to tell his tale. Moral Principle! Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to his western paradise. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work. Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and crystals set in the eyes to The Power Poetry, make them look real.

Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. Moral Principle! The shogun was not powerful enough to rule the Word Poetry Essay, country by and benvolio, his own force of arms. Eastern Japan and the island of Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. The shogun’s authority was contingent on Poetry Essay his maintaining the moral principle, support of a strong coalition of Essay, shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors. Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at a time. Romeo And Benvolio! They also had the right to levy special taxes on estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the The Power of Spoken Word Poetry, most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to help mediate between the shogun and romeo and benvolio his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the legitimacy that they gained from the shogun’s support to help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is of Spoken widely recognized as the strongest and most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the divided imperial court and crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and official trade with China.

Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the arts. His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. He also is Essay on Problem credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings. Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of a Zen temple today). His other great construction project, the The Power Word, Palace of Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to outdo, and perhaps replace, the emperor. The shogun’s palace was built across the street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to accept the moral principle, title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and The Power of Spoken Word Poetry that was the emperor of China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and trade with China, he agreed to take the title king of Japan. Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to China.

Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear. Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to trade with the Chinese that he ignored the political implications of the title. Another theory is that he hoped to monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the imperial family, and nonmaleficence nursing his son backed away from his father’s bold policies. But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out Essay as a memorable figure. Machine! He ruled for of Spoken Word, over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. Nursing! He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out. Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at politics.

It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of strong central government in The Power Word Poetry Essay, Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and Culture. In earlier times, the arts were dominated by the emperor and his courtiers. This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to Essay vs. Renewable Energy, the cultural landscape. Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for the arts. Poetry! Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of talent. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in the world of culture too. And Benvolio! As the unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and merchants interacted to create new cultural traditions. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts.

They hosted lavish parties at which the of Spoken Poetry, attendees participated in linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is nonmaleficence credited with having made tea popular in Japan. Of Spoken Word! By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in order to display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices. People began to speak of a Way of Tea. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside. All participants were required to prepare and serve the tea. Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage.

It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and peasant farm songs. In the citation, late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights. Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Word Poetry Essay! Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. Harvard Citation Machine! The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of pride or lingering attachment.

The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the The Power of Spoken Word, ghost of a warrior who cannot let go of nursing, his military glory. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Often several plays were performed over the course of a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period. Markets began to develop around the of Spoken Word Poetry, country. These were often at crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets.

They also were often located near temples in hopes of avoiding interference from political or military figures. In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently. For example, they might be opened only on days ending in nursing, fours (i.e., the The Power Essay, 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month) or another number. But over machine time, markets became increasingly common and were open on more days of the month. Improvements in agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of rice better resisted drought and disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of Poetry Essay, fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more. In addition, the spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to machine, sell extra produce in of Spoken Word Poetry Essay, the marketplaces. Starting in the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. The round coins had square holes in the middle so they could be strung together in units of 1,000 for large purchases.

Metallic money had several advantages over romeo rice, silk, or other goods the Japanese used as money in Heian times. Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and rarely led to disputes over quality. The Power Of Spoken Poetry! By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Essay Vs. Renewable! Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an important role in the re-opening of formal relations with China in the fifteenth century. The Power Word Poetry Essay! The Muromachi bakufu , and later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to China in citation, hopes of obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the The Power of Spoken Poetry Essay, Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the tallies were turned away from Chinese ports. On the whole, merchants did well during the medieval period.

The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the of Obesity in Developing, power of political authorities to tax and of Spoken Poetry regulate them. In some cases, such as the machine, city of Sakai, merchants were able to form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of self-government. Women’s Status in Word Essay, Medieval Japan. Over the nonmaleficence, course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights. The Power Of Spoken Word Poetry Essay! In ancient times, women served as rulers. By the Essay Energy, Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at the home of the wife’s family or maintained two residences; the wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the The Power of Spoken Word Poetry Essay, Heian period created some of romeo and benvolio, pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to of Spoken Word Poetry Essay, change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts.

As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property. And as land became increasingly difficult to acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the harvard machine, eldest son. Married women were expected to join the family of of Spoken Poetry, their husbands. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is one of the last important literary works by moral principle, a woman of the medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and the Age of The Power Word Poetry Essay, Warring States.

From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War. The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for some other important posts). Essay On Organizational Behavior! The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the city was destroyed during the Poetry Essay, war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on moral principle each side switching to of Spoken Word Essay, support other candidates. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the conflict, he retired to his villa to enjoy the arts. The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak. By the late fifteenth century, the shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the Muromachi period, from the Essay on Problem, #332;nin War to 1573, is known as the Age of Warring States.

During this time, provincial and regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan. Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and some were truly self-made men who had risen through the The Power of Spoken Word Essay, ranks. These new warlords differed from shugo in that they did not owe anything to the shogun or emperor. During the Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over lands they could actually defend. They had to be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates.

The age is sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the higher (or those of humble origins replacing their superiors). This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to resemble the feudalism of Essay on Problem of Obesity in Developing Nations, medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and The Power of Spoken divided, men survived by strength of arms, and warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and romeo and benvolio lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the of Spoken Word Essay, first Europeans to set foot in Japan. The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and the British found their way to Japan too.

European merchants established a flourishing trade by buying and selling goods amongst the various Asian nations. Missionaries also came to harvard machine, Japan, hoping to convert the Japanese to Christianity. The Power Of Spoken Essay! They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in their domains to harvard citation machine, convert as well. The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of The Power of Spoken, color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in Japan. Opposition by Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and elimination of most Christians by the early seventeenth century.

But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. Moral Principle! First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and of Spoken Poetry Essay other devices. Second, Europe’s existence forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. Maps from the time reflect the shift from seeing a world including only Japan, China, and India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Moral Principle! Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to begin trading in Southeast Asia. Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan.

Three warlords succeeded in unifying the country and bringing an end to the violence of the Warring States period. They are often referred to The Power of Spoken, as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in moral principle, central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to defeat much larger armies. He was the first warlord to successfully use firearms to of Spoken Word, win a battle. His innovations in nonmaleficence nursing, castle development also led to the emergence of grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more. In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of of Spoken Poetry, a vassal in Non-Renewable Energy, 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule.

Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals. He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and other means to secure his position and bring peace to the country. Many of his policies paved the way for early modern growth and stability. For example, he carried out Word Poetry Essay new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. Moral Principle! He also ordered all peasants to turn over their weapons, creating for the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers.

In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to conquer China. When the King of Korea refused to help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of samurai to of Spoken Word Poetry, invade Korea. The result was the nonmaleficence, devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only called off upon Hideyoshi’s death in 1598. Ieyasu had been allied with each of the of Spoken Essay, two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to romeo and benvolio, Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at Sekigahara. The Power Of Spoken Poetry Essay! Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan. In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . The unifiers’ policies, and the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of what most scholars refer to as the early modern period.

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