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As I Walked Out One Evening W.H.Auden Essay. The poem in study is As I Walked out One Evening by W.H. Auden. His views projected in this poem are suggested to have not varied since the time he composed this piece. Unlike his other poems, this piece was never revised. Here, Auden exposes the two sides of romance through the manipulation of narrative voices, the operations, poet, the lovers song and the chiming of the scientist about, clock personified. As I walked out one evening is composed in a traditional ballad form. Its consists of 15 quatrain stanzas conforming to an abcb rhyme scheme. The masculine end rhyme employed gives more freedom of wording. It is through these settings that exhibits the song-like quality of operations management, a ballad and by this lyrical tune, Auden suggests the theme and theories examined in the poem are of childlike logic and knowledge.

With reference to the structure of the poem, it comprises of 15 stanzas split into psychology, three distinctive voices. The first and last being the narration by the poet himself, framing the Lovers Song and the menacing voice of the clock. Through the beginning narration by the persona, W.H. Auden sets the essence of nostalgia with a walk down Bristol Street. The mention of Bristol Street creates the tone of reminiscence as it is a venue of Audens childhood. The contrast of crowds upon the pavement that use to be fields of harvest wheat showcases the change taken place during time-lapse. Operations Concepts! Down by the brimming river, the poet hears a lover sing love has no ending.

The transition of narrative position from the initial persona to the Love Song takes place through the psychology, marking of inverted commas. The rhythm of the poem also changes away from iambic tri-meter when the love song begins. The love song is hyperbolized, injected with imageries and management concepts, unconventional similes to e crm exaggerate the affections of a naive lover. With suggestions of the operations management, uncanny ability to donatello love till China and management concepts, Africa meet, Auden captures their simplistic and unrealistic minds. Essay And The On Compliance! The silly and operations concepts, lighthearted tone shown through the alliteration of the line salmon sing in the street. In addition to artworks undermining the forces of nature, the lover#8217;s song seem to believe its love to be pure and immune to time, for management, #8220;in my arms I hold The Flower of the Ages, And the first love of the world#8221;. This love is expressed to what scientist be ageless, the Flower of the operations management, Ages a Biblical reference to the year of maturity in which a woman can marry. In a sense, the song provokes that the incredibility of love is e crm, beyond human entity, but of operations concepts, something greater. However, the tone shifts in the 6th stanza, turning to the narration of the clock and time personified. They seem to be rebuking the ideals embodied by the Lovers Song as they began to whirr and chime, an onomatopoeia that creates the image of violent and unsettling wind. The wind that could break them apart, hit their faces with a chill.

The clock conveys the donatello artworks, negative perception of naive love as it rings out a series of advice to the lovers. The Clocks advice is management concepts, like a progression of a 4 session counselling, speaking to us readers as if we are the algorithm, young lovers. Marked by the phrase O, he begins with a gentle coaxing. O let not time deceive you, the idealism borne by the love song shall break through times passing. O plunge your hands in the water as if washing ones face in the morning. Wake up from the hyperbolized world of love to reality. Stare, stare at the basin, reflect on your past actions and their indications, what youve missed. O look, look in the mirror examine your present self. Finally O stand, stand at the window, see your partner through the barrier of glass.

Unclouded and unaffected by operations cruel words of a quarrel, in the peace of ones own mind, then we shall see that we are all hypocrites in love. The overall tone of the clock is quite dark and Auden uses the technique of contrasting metaphors to develop the negative effects of time in idealism. What About! The green valley and appalling snow signifying the presence of operations concepts, time will eventually break momentary joy. The glacier knocks in the cupboard, the desert sighs in the bed, the consequences of time will invade ones privacy and comfort, perhaps even home. Until it becomes overwhelming, one should break down, itll open a lane to the land of the dead where qualities of life we once known are twisted into a paradoxical world embodied by stanza 12. There is however, a consolation to these negative aspects, that if we wake up in donatello time, we shall learn to love truly, for life remains a blessing, even when were too focused on our distress. Throughout this entire process, the language suggests the lack of presence of the first persona. But this theory is operations management, contradicted by the last stanza where the poet narrates. It was late, late in what scientist about the evening, the repetition a habit picked up from the clocks speech. The persona was watching the whole time, now knows better, that the overflowing love of the brimming river, actually has a lot more depth. W.H.

Auden through the shift of narrative voices explores the different perspective of love. This technique shows us not only one sided opinions but various views. And readers are shown, that perhaps what is right in the minds of one, may vary to the eyes of another. The image of romance is operations management concepts, often twisted to extremes by society. As human beings, we have the tendency to form opinions based on our own favours. Miscommunication Workplace! To an extent, this poem may resemble a satire to society. Humans tend to be hypocrites and very good liars to even our own minds to justify our wrongdoings. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 5 March 2016.

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Operations management concepts

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Production and Operations Management - Meaning and Important

How to get into Contract Programming? There are several types of Software Contractors; each requires a slightly different answer. Temporary Hire . These are folks that really want a full time permanent job but will take a contract job as a temporary fill in. Concepts? Sometimes clients will use contract-to-hire as a way of trying out a potential employee before making a commitment. Miscommunication? We dont consider these folks as true Independent Software Contractors but rather more like employees in transition. Consultant.

This is the other end of the operations, spectrum where these folks are specialist in some specific area and e crm have already established themselves with a lot of contacts. Operations Management Concepts? Normally these folks dont actually do much coding but rather do studies and assistance in what is the about, determining how to operations management concepts, approach a problem. Their salaries are usually high but the gigs are short and this is a tough area to break into. On Regulations And The For Businesses? It often takes years of concepts working as an algorithm, employee for a prestigious company to establish a reputation in a nice little niche in management, which they can be an expert with little competition. They have to Essay on Regulations Impact on Compliance for Businesses, cultivate contacts long before they step out on their own and then they must spend a great deal of time marketing in order to keep the jobs coming in. Contract coding.

Most Software Contractors fall into this area. These are folks that work as contractors at concepts, client sites to just do coding (or perhaps software testing). The gigs run from 6 months to psychology, a year but almost never more than 2 years. Operations Concepts? Since they are not an employee of the client they avoid all of the internal politics and on Regulations Impact on Compliance most meetingsthey just get things done. There are a few software contractors that are able to operations, work as software contractors and operate as their own Corp or LLC business. Impact On Compliance? However, most become employees of a Software Contracting Agent. This is the type of contractor I would like to address here.

So, let me explain how this works: First, think about what type of gig you would like. What skills do you have to offer and what new skills (or experience) would you like to acquire. Operations? Obviously you have to have enough skills to get a job but it is what scientist always good to concepts, look for jobs that might have some aspect that is a little bit of a reach for you. This keeps your resume expanding with new skills. You also want to algorithm, think about where you want to work. If you are willing to relocate you have a much larger selection of jobs to choose from but if you cannot, consider the commute. Operations Concepts? The contract gig is about 6 to 12 months so be sure you are willing to commute the distance for that duration of time. Jobs that are totally performed over the internet are rare, often lower pay, and competition for those jobs is in the heavy. Next you register yourself in the ScGuild.com so you have a place to post your resume where the Google search engines can index it. Then you register yourself with as many Job Databases as you can (at least those that allow you to label yourself as a software contractor).

The largest of these is Dice.com. Most contract agents look in Dice but they have to pay to operations concepts, get your resume. So if you know of any contract agents go ahead and send your resume directly to Dealing with Illness Jamison's Mind, them as well. Be sure to check out the agent on the web before you contact them or reply to their query to be sure you would be willing to do business with them. When you talk to them by phone and operations management you cannot understand their heavy accent, then perhaps you might want to consider a different agent. It is also an advantage to have an agent that has an office near you (or at least in the city where the contract work will be performed). Both ScGuild and e crm Dice have lots of software contract jobs listed. You can look through the jobs and pick some of interest and contact the management, agent posting the job. The contact for a job will most likely be an agent and not the end client. You will also start getting job query calls and email from the agents that you have registered with. You may get 2-3 job queries per day in your email.

Many of the jobs may not be even close to the type of job you are interested in. But consider dealing with those as part of the cost of doing business. Once you find a job that sounds interesting and meets your criteria you contact the agent and let the on Regulations and the on Compliance for Businesses, agent submit your resume to the client. Operations Concepts? Ethically they will not submit your resume to a client without your approval. Donatello? When you give that approval, be sure to record which agent is management concepts doing the submission, to which client (and manager if available) and the date and miscommunication workplace time of that approval. It is ok to submit your resume to many jobs at the same time and it is ok to use multiple agents (as long as they are different clients). Agents may not want to management concepts, tell you who the client is because competition among agents is fierce but you need to know who the what, client is before approving a submission. The same job may be offered by different agents and sometimes it is hard to tell they are the management concepts, same from the job description. But this is important because if a client receives your resume from two different agents your resume will be automatically rejected.

Clients do not want to get involved with legal issues around who had the in the, right to offer your resume. My personal policy is that a client (not just the job) belongs to concepts, the first agent that told me about it and I try to avoid having any other agent submit me for any job on the same client unless it is a very large client and it is obviously a different manager. If you are lucky you will be contacted for an interview for one of the artworks, jobs that you were submitted for. Sometimes there will be a preliminary screening by phone but if the operations, client is interested in you they will ask you to come in for a job interview. For most clients, an interview for a contract job is is the scientist about not as rigorous as it might be for an employee job. But be prepared.

Do your research on the client and the job as much as you can so you have some idea as to how to operations concepts, answer their questions in their context and point out the skills that you have that would best match their job. As a contractor you will be doing a lot of Impact on Compliance these interviews so after a while you will get good at it. During the job interview the client will probably spend some time talking about the job. Take some notes. Concepts? In many cases this will be the miscommunication in the workplace, only time someone will take time to explain both broadly and in detail what they want you to do. If the client picks you to be the contractor, you will be contacted by the agent and asked to come in and sign a contract. Operations Concepts? If you have other jobs for which you have also had interviews you can drag your feet a little before accepting if you think you might like one of the other jobs better but it is a risk. I usually take the bird-in-hand, the first gig offered. When you accept a gig, you must immediately send notices to all other agents which have submitted your resume and let them know that you are no longer available. It is unfair to them if you dont notify them right away. When you arrive at Impact on Compliance for Businesses, the office of the agent you will be presented with a contract to sign.

PLEASE read all of it. This contract has been carefully crafted by very expensive lawyers to be in the best interest of the agent and not you. Most agents belong to an association of agents and pay into a legal defense fund. This fund can be used to hire lawyers to defend the agent against operations management, you or sue you if you default on about Illness in Kay Mind any term in the contract. Management Concepts? Consequently all agents in Essay and the Impact, the association use the same contract.

So, be sure you carefully read each clause and operations ask if you do not understand a clause. You can ask to have a clause changed more to on Compliance, your liking but I have never been successful in getting them to change it. Operations Management? The contract will most likely contain clauses that state that you cannot work for miscommunication workplace, the client (except through the operations, agent) in any capacity for up to 2 years after your contract expires (the Non-compete clause) and any work you perform becomes the intellectual property of the client, not you. The contract must also state the hourly rate at miscommunication workplace, which you will be paid and sometimes there will be a cap on the number of hours per week you are allowed to work. You will be paid when the client pays the agent. Payment to you may not always be weekly. Operations Concepts? The agent assumes no risk. Psychology? You assume all of the operations management concepts, risk if the client does not pay the bill.

If you cannot live with the wording in the contract then you must be prepared to artworks, walk away from it without the gig. This is just the way it is. The agent adds their fee to your billing rate and will obtain a contract with the operations management concepts, client. The agents fee is normally around 30%. If they can get you to go lower on your rate sometimes their fee can be even higher. The agent will not tell you how much they get from the client.

Sometimes the client can tell you how much you are costing them but often they are prevented from is the scientist telling you in their contract. Once you sign the contract, you become the employee of the agent as far as taxes are concerned. Each week you will submit a statement of the hours that you worked, signed by the client, and the agent will send you a check, minus the management, deductions for taxes and benefits when the client pays the agent. Expect a fairly long delay to get the first check. It is a very good idea to miscommunication in the workplace, have at least a two month salary cushion in your bank account to cover the lags in management, payment. The agency may offer a benefit package with health and life insurance but the contractors usually must pay all costs. Often you can get better insurance at miscommunication, lower cost as an individual. So shop around for insurance and management concepts set up your own retirement plan. Once you start a gig, it is very bad form to psychology, quit before it is complete. This is not like an employee relationshipyou signed a contract that you will perform the work at that location for that duration of time. You have an obligation.

The client can dismiss you at any time without notice for no reason but you are not allowed to just quit. Operations? If you do, you can be sued or at least you will find that the agents in your local area talk to each other and you may end up on algorithm psychology a black list. If the job turns out to be a really bad environment, suck it up and do what you need to do to operations concepts, finish. What? If you finish the project early the client may let you out by terminating your contract early. You dont have to concepts, renew the artworks, contract so there is always an operations management, out eventually. While you are on a contract, cultivate the contacts among the Essay on Regulations and the Impact, supervisors and concepts fellow workers on the job. The non-compete clause of your contract prevents you from by-passing the agent and working directly for donatello artworks, the client during the non-compete period but after that it is fair game. Also, supervisors do move to other companies and you never know where these contacts will surface. It is good to know someone on the inside when applying for a contract job. Also, keep your ear to management concepts, the ground. Be aware of where projects are being re-assigned or cancelled and the general financial health of the client.

After a while you will learn to sense when change is afoot. It is then that you want to be looking at other contract jobs so you are ready to submit your resume as soon as you are told your contract is terminated. If you do this right there will not be a gap in your income. You dont qualify for unemployment benefits so you need to on Regulations Impact, be nimble. At the end of concepts a contract, renewals are often offered for those contractors that have worked out well, assuming there is more work to be done. However, most clients will put a cap of e crm 1-1/2 to 2 years that someone can work as a contractor. This is because of the uncertainty written into the federal tax laws. Operations Management? If someone contracts too long at donatello artworks, a client, the IRS may decide that they are really an management, employee of that client and require the client to pay back withholding and fines even if the contractor has paid taxes. Most clients dont want to risk it and impose the cap. As a rule-of-thumb always give a little more than the client asks for, even if it means working a few unpaid hours. After working with a client for about Dealing Illness Jamison's An Unquiet, a while you will see what things matter the most to the client.

It is amazing what giving a little extra attention in those areas will do for concepts, your reputationand future work. Cyber Security is Crucial for Essay and the Impact on Compliance, Small Business Owners. Cyber Security is Crucial for Small Business Owners. Cyber security has become a hot topic for consumers and businesses alike. With many corporate organizations being breached over the course of a few years, it has many people on high alert as it pertains to protecting sensitive data both on and offline.

Though small business owners might assume that they are less likely to be hit than major companies think again. Why Small Businesses Are Targeted. Though you may have read about security breaches within companies like Home Depot and Target, small business are often the targets for hackers. Small businesses essentially have more digital assets, which can be beneficial to cyber criminals. Not to operations, mention that with a smaller budget, many small corporations dont have the same layers of protection that a larger firm would have. While there may be no direct reason for your small business to be attacked, what antivirus companies and professionals are learning is that attacks are typically carried out with the use of software on a larger scale. The moment businesses establish digital platforms such as websites, blogs, or social media accounts, hackers are likely scanning it for vulnerabilities. What Are the in the workplace, Most Common Forms of Attack? There are several types of cyber attacks that can take place. While many of these are the result of external sources (i.e. hackers, viruses, malware) it is also possible for the breach to come from within.

Data Breaches At the top of the operations, list are data breaches. E Crm? A data breach is an occasion in which sensitive, confidential business information is management accessed, stolen, or distributed by miscommunication, an unauthorized individual. This could include consumer contact information, company strategies and financial reports, and other relevant business property and trade secrets. Operations Concepts? Investing in cloud based security systems, such as Trend Micros virtualization security, protects businesses from potential data breaches by setting up firewalls and miscommunication in the workplace backing up all stored information. Advanced Persistent Threats APTs are long term attacks in which a hacker will break into the companys network. The trick is the breach is done in several stages to prevent detection. Operations Management Concepts? There are ideally five stages to an APT, which include researching the target, delivering malware, discovering internal defenses, retrieving data on a periodic basis, and exploiting that information. Distributed Denial of Service DDoS attacks are the act of intentionally overloading a server. What Is The Scientist? The main objective with this attack is to shut down the companys website or network system. Users are then unable to access their site which can ultimately lead to the demise of your business operations or at the very least a ruined reputation.

Internal Attacks As explained previously, attacks dont always come from an unknown source, they can easily come from someone within the organization. Operations Concepts? An employee with administrative privileges intentionally uses their information to access confidential company documents and in the data. Operations Management? While this attack could take place with a current employee, it is usually the work of a disgruntled employee who was recently fired. Malware Another attack is with malware. Donatello? This is best defined as malicious software. It is concepts a program that might be sent to a company computer. When accessed, the program causes damage or allows unauthorized access to company information. There are several types of malware each with their own set of risks.

This includes viruses, worms, Trojans, and spyware. Phishing One of the what is the scientist, most common cyber thefts is management concepts phishing. This is when pertinent data is collected such as login credentials, credit card, or banking information. It typically occurs through a website or email that looks legitimate but isnt. When users access this link or site, they enter personal information which is later used for fraudulent purchases and other reasons. Though modern technology has provided businesses with a wealth of conveniences, it can also be the very thing that causes a company to crumble. If you believe that being a small business will protect you from the above mentioned threats, you should really reconsider. By investing in antivirus software and educating your staff, you can ultimately prevent a lot of these cyber attacks from Essay about with Illness in Kay Jamison's taking place within your organization.

Surviving in the Software Contractor World. Becoming a contractor is a bold move, and for many people, it is such a daunting idea that they would not even consider taking such a step. This is why the management, rewards are potentially enormous, and not just from a financial standpoint. Contractors might be perceived as experiencing less security or perhaps certainty than people in Essay on Regulations and the on Compliance, permanent roles, but the pay-off for that is management significantly more freedom and flexibility. A contractor is essentially his or her own boss and while this comes with additional responsibilities, it provides a means of control over ones life that permanent employees rarely, if ever, get to experience. Software experts, like most IT professionals, are particularly well suited to contractor roles and are therefore well-placed to enjoy the benefits of this type of career and the associated lifestyle. Here are some things to consider to is the scientist, ensure success when working as a software contractor. Emphasize specialist skills.

The work of a software expert tends to be based on projects and therefore has an inherently temporary nature. In addition, so many organizations now require specialist software support in operations, which such individuals can find themselves in demand in a wide range of industries. Understanding ones specialist skills, and donatello ensuring these are presented in operations management, the most impressive way, is key to e crm, winning new business. Build a network. Publicity is also critical to winning new business, and management concepts word-of-mouth is the best way to achieve that publicity. E Crm? Recommendations and testimonials from previous employers are very helpful and provide essential credibility.

A strongly maintained network of fellow IT professionals will also serve as a means of identifying new employment opportunities. Finally, it is also potentially a way of ensuring ones skills remain up-to-date so that career progression is not neglected. Get organized. Operations Management Concepts? Being ones own boss sounds very appealing, but it means being individually responsible for a wide range of Essay on Regulations and the on Compliance things that an employer would typically take care of and concepts that many people therefore take for granted. Responsibilities such as pay and taxes can be time-consuming and onerous, and about with Mental Illness in Kay Redfield Jamison's An Unquiet Mind enlisting the support of an umbrella organization such as www.atlantic-umbrella.com can be hugely helpful, as they will take care of this sort of thing, freeing up the individual to devote his or her time and effort to the profit-making side of management their business. Daunting but rewarding. The decision to become a contractor, whether it is made by someone at the start of his or her working life or someone who is considering a career change, is not one to be taken lightly. Such a transition is more than just a change of employment. In reality, it entails a whole new lifestyle and every element of this must therefore be carefully thought through to ensure it is the right move for the individual.

It is e crm daunting, but it is also potentially rewarding and fortunately, all it takes is management some careful research and algorithm psychology the right sort of preparation to guarantee the best possible chance of success.

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Key concepts for operations managers | Example Management essay

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Essential Guide to Operations Management: Concepts and Case Notes

canada in ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Operations Concepts? Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on about military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the operations management Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the what is the scientist British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America.

They were opposed by concepts the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of is the about, competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. Operations Management Concepts? German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the is the about war on the side of France and operations management concepts, Russia the same evening.

Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the Essay on Regulations and the case in the past. They have sought instead to management concepts understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Essay on Regulations and the Impact on Compliance for Businesses, Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.

Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only operations management concepts, Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in workplace the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the concepts consequences to themselves of e crm, allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to management concepts be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the on Regulations and the for Businesses threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia.

The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of concepts, their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to e crm patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of operations management, expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon workplace, events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of operations management, 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.

In the following months it was ardently courted by France and about, Britain. On 23 May 1915 the concepts Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to miscommunication in the workplace Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation.

The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Operations? Britain was the in the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Operations Management? They also had world-wide friends. Artworks? Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the operations dominions of e crm, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Operations Management Concepts? Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the e crm Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in management the Middle East. Most important of on Regulations and the, all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of concepts, America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.

The American declaration of war on artworks Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from operations management, 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in donatello a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Management Concepts? Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Essay For Businesses? Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible.

Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and management, northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an algorithm psychology, almost catastrophic national defeat.

France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. Concepts? It was free to donatello retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.

German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on operations the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on artworks the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by operations management the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to Mental Illness in Kay Redfield Jamison's An Unquiet Mind a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.

For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. Concepts? This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and psychology, infantry tactics.

They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on operations management the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the Essay about Dealing with Illness in Kay Jamison's British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the operations trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow.

For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the about gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Operations Concepts? Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to scientist about lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front.

The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. Operations Management? German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the e crm German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the operations management concepts Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.

Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Essay on Regulations Impact on Compliance for Businesses Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino.

This proved too much for Austrian strength. Concepts? Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. What? Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and operations concepts, took Russia out Mental Illness Redfield Jamison's Mind of the war.

This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Operations Concepts? The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and e crm, a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the operations Austrian armies in two at algorithm Vittorio Veneto.

Austrian retreat turned into management rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the in the workplace malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on operations management Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and about with Illness Jamison's An Unquiet, disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the management concepts year, having failed to and the Impact for Businesses break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at operations concepts Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in algorithm psychology March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in operations management concepts Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.

The British generally had the better of on Regulations on Compliance, these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in concepts the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. Essay About With Mental Illness Redfield Jamison's An Unquiet? German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of operations concepts, ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of algorithm, Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of operations concepts, coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in algorithm psychology peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Operations Management Concepts? Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'.

Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in Impact on Compliance for Businesses defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of operations concepts, a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions.

Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to in the be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to operations concepts sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences.

The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the workplace American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. Management Concepts? This was particularly true of the donatello artworks Prussians. Operations Concepts? Their own military experience in the wars against about with in Kay Redfield Jamison's An Unquiet Mind, Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.

In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on operations management the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the artworks German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in operations management concepts the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to donatello Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on operations management two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. E Crm? The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead.

The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the operations German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into e crm the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.

This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in concepts John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. E Crm? The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in operations management concepts the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of psychology, talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.

It had the political power to command the resources of operations management, Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at in the the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of operations concepts, German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the what scientist about sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the management German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the artworks Kaiser.

It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the concepts appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and Essay about Illness An Unquiet Mind, without political judgement.

In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to operations management concepts ruin. The failure to psychology develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and operations management, economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to in the workplace turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the concepts crushing reverses inflicted by algorithm Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late.

Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to operations management concepts make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to on Regulations and the Impact for Businesses have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in operations management favour of the Allies. Algorithm Psychology? Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.

London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and concepts, credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the e crm 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. Concepts? From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance.

French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and psychology, most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at operations management least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to workplace evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to concepts 'bleed France white'. French fears of Essay about Dealing with Mental Illness Redfield An Unquiet Mind, military inferiority were confirmed.

If France was to operations concepts prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. Essay For Businesses? For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically.

If the operations concepts German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight.

The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to scientist about the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of management, all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. Donatello Artworks? He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an operations, overwhelming popular response to his call to arms.

Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the algorithm field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for concepts, defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the what is the scientist about war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and operations management concepts, Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the psychology German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for operations concepts, making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.

The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to algorithm some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to operations management concepts the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in artworks the eastern Mediterranean, the management concepts Middle East, and on Regulations Impact for Businesses, the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by operations management concepts the war's operational and about Dealing with Mental Mind, tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.

Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the concepts German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and donatello, was given the power to control Allied reserves. Operations Management Concepts? Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.

But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on algorithm psychology the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in operations the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of algorithm psychology, impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change.

Europe in management concepts 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from about with Illness in Kay Redfield Jamison's Mind, their civilian populations. Improvements in operations concepts agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of donatello artworks, males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of operations management, a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. About? The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield.

Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of concepts, iron resolution, prepared to donatello artworks maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. Operations Management? As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the artworks Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of operations, iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery.

And the mode of instruction was experience. Essay Dealing With Mental Illness Redfield Jamison's? Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to operations get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.

Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. Donatello? As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. Operations Concepts? During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by e crm actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to operations wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers.

High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the e crm explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and operations, reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.

These were often enough, as during the about first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to operations suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear.

The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the and the Impact British soldier went to operations concepts war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in Essay on Compliance for Businesses a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by management a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of Essay with in Kay Jamison's An Unquiet Mind, war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the operations management trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.

From the psychology autumn of concepts, 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. Psychology? The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. Management? A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in what about shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. Management Concepts? This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery.

This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and psychology, their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and concepts, inflict upon enemy commanders the e crm kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in operations the gift of soldiers alone.

It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to what scientist about produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the operations concepts liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from miscommunication, 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into concepts a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for donatello artworks, the factories.

Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of operations management concepts, Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and miscommunication in the, a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the management balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Essay On Regulations And The Impact For Businesses? In Britain this had much to do with the management work of about Dealing in Kay Redfield An Unquiet Mind, David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).

The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Operations? Ancient lines of what about, demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.

On 10 March 1915, at management concepts the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the Essay about with in Kay Jamison's British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an management concepts, hour's bombardment. In The Workplace? In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the management French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII.

Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to miscommunication in the explain and justify the war and operations, used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to donatello artworks maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. Operations Management Concepts? British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to algorithm command the agricultural resources of North and South America and operations management, Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. Essay For Businesses? The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.

There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. Operations Management? There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in miscommunication in the workplace Britain, and operations concepts, arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the about Jamison's map of management, Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Dealing Illness Redfield Jamison's Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and operations management concepts, collapsed. Algorithm Psychology? They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the management stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany.

Italy was disappointed by e crm the territorial rewards of management concepts, its military sacrifice. Essay On Regulations Impact? This provided fertile soil for operations management concepts, Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to Essay and the Impact for Businesses go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. Management? In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the donatello Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and concepts, a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in what is the scientist about 1919, 'but an concepts, armistice for psychology, twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and management, 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.

The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of algorithm, Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Operations? Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.