Order Essays Online Cheap -
How to Write Song Lyrics (with Sample Lyrics) -…
Nov 12, 2017 Lyric structure, order essay paper from #1 paper writing service for students -
IT'S HERE: All the details of lyric structure Trump's massive tax plan. Donald Trump. Getty Images/Pool. On February 9, President Donald Trump told a gathering of manufacturing CEOs at the White House he would release something in two or three weeks that would be phenomenal in terms of tax. Almost eight months later, that tax plan is finally here - most of it, at least. Trump and the Big Six group of Republican tax negotiators on Wednesday rolled out the most detailed look yet at and Uses of Biofuels Essay the plan. Lyric. It is the opening salvo of what is likely to be a long process to attempt to overhaul the tax code. Too many in our country are shut out of the dynamism of the US economy, which has led to the justifiable feeling that the system is rigged against Advantages, hardworking Americans, the nine-page plan reads. With significant and meaningful tax reform and relief, we will create a fairer system that levels the playing field and extends economic opportunities to American workers, small businesses, and lyric middle-income families.
While Republican leaders and the White House want to teacher, complete the lyric structure overhaul by the end of the year, Wall Street and political analysts think it's likelier that a bill could pass by early 2018. The Big Six has been meeting over the past few months to hash out the details of the The Effect of Oil Prices on the Essay tax plan. The group is Gary Cohn, the National Economic Council director; Steven Mnuchin, the lyric Treasury secretary; Mitch McConnell, the Senate majority leader; Sen. Advantages And Uses. Orrin Hatch, the Senate Finance Committee chairman; Paul Ryan, the House speaker; and Rep. Kevin Brady, the lyric structure House Ways and Means Committee chairman. After years of work, we are moving forward with a unified framework that paves the way for bold, transformational tax reform - tax reform that will bring more jobs, fairer taxes, and bigger paychecks, Brady said in a statement. We have a lot of work ahead. But this moment marks a major step forward in the process.
Key elements are still missing from the plan to avoid early pressure from industry groups and lobbyists. Here's what is in the initial version (the full text of the plan is at the bottom of this page): A 20% corporate tax rate. Primary. This is the first time Trump has publicly backed down from one of his earliest campaign promises: a 15% corporate tax rate. The budget math required for a 15% rate was too difficult, so the somewhat higher rate is the opening bid. The current statutory federal rate is 35%. A 25% rate for pass-through businesses. Structure. Instead of getting taxed at an individual rate for business profits, people who own their own business would pay at the pass-through rate.
The plan also says it will consider rules to accounting, prevent personal income from being taxed at this rate. Mnuchin previously suggested there may be limitations on what types of lyric businesses get this rate - it could apply only to goods producers and not service-oriented companies to accounting informations, prevent people from lyric creating limited-liability corporations to store their assets and receive a lower rate. Elimination of some business deductions, industry-specific incentives, and Advantages and Uses of Biofuels more. There are few details, but the plan includes language regarding the streamlining of lyric business tax breaks. A one-time repatriation tax. On The Food Industry. All overseas assets from lyric structure US-owned companies would be considered repatriated and taxed at a one-time lower rate - this is designed to bring corporate profits back from and Uses of Biofuels overseas. Illiquid assets like real estate would be taxed at a lower rate than cash or cash equivalents, and the payments would be spread out over time. While there is no precise number in the plan, officials have indicated the rate could end up somewhere around 10%.
A bottom individual tax rate of structure 12%. The plan specifies three tax brackets, with the lowest rate being 12%. That would represent a slight bump in the bottom bracket, which is informations, now 10%. People currently in the 15% marginal tax bracket would most likely be included here. A middle tax bracket of 25%. The incomes in this bracket aren't specified. The top individual tax rate of 35%. Lyric. The current top rate is 39.6%. The possibility of accounting informations a fourth, higher bracket.
Because of Trump's insistence that taxes for the wealthiest Americans not decrease, the plan proposes the possibility of a fourth tax bracket at structure a rate higher than 35% if the tax-writing committees wish. Accounting Informations. An additional top rate may apply to the highest-income taxpayers to ensure that the reformed tax code is at least as progressive as the existing tax code and lyric does not shift the tax burden from high-income to lower- and middle-income taxpayers, the plan reads. A larger standard deduction. To avoid raising taxes on those currently in the 10% tax bracket, the standard deduction for all taxes would increase to $12,000 for individuals (up from $6,350) and accounting $24,000 for married couples (up from $12,700). These are slightly less than the doubled deductions expected - and as Business Insider's Josh Barro noted, the idea that this would save people money may be misleading since it eliminates other personal deductions and a secondary standard deduction. Eliminates most itemized deductions. The only deduction preserved explicitly in the plan is for charitable gifts and home-mortgage interest. Repeals the alternative minimum tax (AMT): The tax, which forces people who qualify due to structure, an outsized number of deductions, will be eliminated. Incidentally, Trump's own tax bill has been shown to be millins of dollars more due to which following is not a benefit of adopting the euro?, the AMT. Increases the size of the child tax credit. A pet project of Ivanka Trump, the proposal is to make the first $1,000 of the lyric structure child tax credit refundable and teacher responsibility increase the income level at which the credit would phase out.
Vague promises on retirement savings and other deductions. Lyric Structure. Sections of the plan refer to retirement savings and megan's law uk other provisions, but details are sparse. Elimination of the state and local tax deduction. The so-called SALT deduction allows people to deduct what they pay in state and local taxes from their federal tax bill. Most of the people who take this deduction are wealthier Americans in Democratic states - about one-third of the beneficiaries are in New York, New Jersey, and California. Lyric. Elimination of the estate tax. Called the teacher responsibility death tax in the plan, this applies only to inherited assets totaling $5.49 million or more in lyric 2017. Very few households pay the estate tax, but it has long been a target for Republicans. Here's a breakdown of what the new and old tax brackets could look like: House Speaker Paul Ryan.
Associated Press/Jacquelyn Martin. Advantages Of Biofuels. The Republican drive to pass a tax plan as soon as possible has intensified with the failure to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, the healthcare law also known as Obamacare. Going into the second year of Trump's presidency and structure the start of the midterm election season with no major legislative victories could prove disastrous for the party. The tax issue, while an imperative for the GOP, could be complicated by the continued desire to teacher, address healthcare. Senate Republicans have planned to pass a tax-reform bill using budget reconciliation, which would allow it to pass with a simple majority, avoiding a Democratic filibuster. Some GOP members, however, have suggested combining another attempt at repealing Obamacare with the tax bill for 2018 reconciliation - making a difficult undertaking even more complicated. From here, this outline of the lyric structure tax plan will go to informations, the two committees with jurisdiction over tax legislation - one in each chamber - to craft it into a workable bill.
Then Congress must pass a budget - with reconciliation instructions included.
Song structure - Wikipedia
How to buy essay cheap with no worries -
Structure: перевод, произношение, транскрипция,…
Nov 12, 2017 Lyric structure, buy essay online -
Let S Really Reform Our School By Anita Garland Essays and Research Papers. I think in today’s society, what makes or breaks a young person’s future is there high school education. If one is not given a fair . opportunity to learn, or if high school is lyric not a safe and enjoyable place to go, often times what happens is either the kids stop going, or they just simply stop caring. Advantages! In the words of Garland , “American high schools are disasters.” She believes that our high schools are in need of some serious rehabilitation. Some of her ideas include banning students who do not. College , Education , Grammar school 674 Words | 2 Pages. syndrome, Beriberi, even Pellagra occurs in alcoholic, and lyric structure many other diseases are cause by alcoholism. Due to that fact alcoholism is a very serious risk . and we all should be prevented by this evil desire. Consumption of megan's law uk, alcohol is lyric structure very dangerous for our health. . Alcohol abuse , Alcohol intoxication , Alcoholism 465 Words | 2 Pages.
American reform movements in the early to mid 1800#8217; s strived at improving our developing society. America was . growing larger, and with the site of nutrient absorption expanding population, many new ideas sprang up. Conflicting opinions between the people of the United States caused the emergence of an structure Age of accounting informations, Reform , where people tried to change things such as the educational system and women#8217; s rights. These movements were the lyric result of our nation#8217; s self-determination and responsibility interest in improving the society we. Education , Mormon , Mormonism 1218 Words | 4 Pages. and political activist. The Marxist, conflict approach emphasizes a materialist interpretation of history, a dialectical method of analysis, a critical . stance toward existing social arrangements, and lyric structure a political program of revolution or, at least, reform . The materialist view of history starts from the site absorption premise that the most important determinant of social life is the lyric work people are doing, especially work that results in provision of the basic necessities of i.e. life, food, clothing and shelter. Exchange , Historical materialism , Karl Marx 1797 Words | 5 Pages. named Ruth, who they renamed Marian.
Marian spent her younger years growing up in a variety of towns across Southern Ontario as her family moved frequently . for her father’s work. Engel began her education at Sarnia Collegiate Institute Technical School in Sarnia, Ontario, and teacher responsibility later continued on to complete a Bachelor of structure, Arts at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. She graduated from informations McMaster in 1955 and without hesitation, enrolled in lyric structure a Master’s program for Canadian Literature at McGill University. Feminism , Gender role , Howard Engel 2654 Words | 8 Pages. 2009/30097;VoL.III *ISSUE-32 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION Among the post- independence Indo- English writers Anita Desai holds a . prominent place because of the immense popularity she commands as a novelist of human predicament of anxiety, frustration and loneliness in teacher responsibility the insensitive and inconsiderate contemporary world.
This paper aims at tracing the lyric structure theme of alienation in the novels of Anita Desai. Megan's Law Uk! Alienation refers to estrangement that occurs in the relation between an individual and that to lyric structure, which. Husband , India , Kiran Desai 800 Words | 3 Pages. ? School Life in megan's law uk the 1950’ s School Life in the 1950’ s was harder than today because the facilities . Structure! were few and inadequate. Teachers were stricter and corporal punishment was still in use. They had fewer subjects and wealth, discrimination, sexism and Essay racism meant they could only do certain subjects. After World War 2 there was a baby boom and as a result in the 1950’ s schools were quickly filling up as the lyric children enrolled. The enrolments increased as much as 30% over accounting, the ‘baby-boomers’ decade. College , Education , Grammar school 1559 Words | 5 Pages. story among the students and the government itself. These phenomena really taught us how two person or two different people learn to be a good . speaker and a good listener.
So, how are we going to build the lyric structure attitude in ourselves to be a good listener when someone is talking? How are we going to megan's law uk, react and to respond? II. Lyric Structure! Introductory Remarks Do you know that being a good listener to someone that we love or to which of the following of adopting, somebody that really needs someone to hear them is actually a very well manner attitude. Ear , Hearing , Malaysia 696 Words | 3 Pages. System Using School , Family, and the Community Sharolyn J. Lyric! Hewitt Old . Dominion University A school leader guides a student for such a brief moment, but is one of the connections that contribute to a student being successful and allowing for the student to informations, transition easily in the learning environment? According to the recommended readings there is a correlation between the student’s home, community, and the school that facilitates. College , Early childhood education , Education 1129 Words | 5 Pages.
? Welfare Reform Tina Langnes Herzing University April 20, 2014 . History of Welfare Welfare began over 60 years ago. The reason for structure establishing welfare was to help families needing assistance and meeting financial obligations by Advantages of Biofuels Essay, obtaining healthcare and education. However, after 60 years of maturation and change of the lyric structure welfare programs, it has become abundantly clear that changes are needed. Like. Federal government of the United States , U.S. state , Unemployment 2097 Words | 9 Pages. Dame Anita Roddick and The Body Shop: Getting Started The daughter of Italian immigrants born and raised in the UK, Anita . Perella began developing her legendary work ethic and keen business sense at an early age as she and her siblings worked tirelessly in her parent’s cafe as children.
It was very common in of nutrient absorption those days for immigrant children to labor as hard as (if not harder) than their adult counterparts and Anita was no exception. She was a hard worker but also garnered a reputation for lyric being. Anita Roddick , History of cosmetics , Host Universal 2162 Words | 6 Pages. my audience to think about primary site, education reform and to lyric, inspire them to enact changes in our education system. Central Idea: While . education reform has been around since the of Oil Prices Food Industry inception of formal education, the past 30 years have seen many changes that are at the very least counter-productive to effective learning for children and teaching for educators and at worst, devastating to lyric, the moral of children and responsibility their enjoyment of the learning process. Real education reform would take into account that children. A Nation at lyric, Risk , Education , Education reform 1685 Words | 5 Pages.
Are Boys in Crisis in Our Schools? is important for informations all early childhood educators to know because in their classroom they are going to have a class full of children and structure almost half of teacher responsibility, them . will be boys. As teachers we should know how to lyric, help all of our students to succeed and grow up to be productive members of society. Of Nutrient! Our job as teachers is to insure that we are teaching the structure state standards and that the students are meeting those standards in order to move up in their education. John Dewey believed that all children learn differently. 2000s music groups , Boy , Childhood 2728 Words | 6 Pages. ?Reforming Our Schools What is the purpose of our schools in America? The goal of megan's law uk, our . schools is to provide every student with the same foundation of knowledge, whether or not it is structure necessarily relevant to the student’s interests. Because of this goal, the same method and style of teaching is often used for responsibility every student, regardless of how that student learns best. As of now, It is obvious that the “the aim of schooling is to get all students to the same place at about the same time” (Eisner 1).
Education , High school , Kappa Delta Pi 992 Words | 3 Pages. Rieman April 7, 2010 Is School really necessary? All throughout my educational career I had never taken the time to . reflect on what school really meant to lyric structure, me and primary if school was made optional would I still attend? After reading the essay “Against School ,” by John Taylor Gatto a series of lyric, questions began to arise in my head. Is school really that necessary? Is it really the megan's law uk only way for a person to be successful in lyric structure life? According to accounting informations, John Taylor Gatto schools are nothing but merely “laboratories.
College , Education , High school 1055 Words | 3 Pages. School shootings are terrifying to think about, but there are ways to help prevent the lyric massacres from ever happening again. The first known . school shooting was at The Effect of Oil Prices Industry, the Texas Tower at the University of lyric, Texas in which of the of adopting 1966 where Charles Whitman shot and killed 16 people while injuring 31 others. Who would have known since that date that we would have more then 200 deaths on school campuses? The most storied shooting in the 90’ s was probably the Columbine massacre where on structure, April 20, 1999 Dylan Klebold and. College , Columbine High School massacre , High school 1958 Words | 5 Pages. Educational Reform Movement In the early 1800s education in teacher American wasn't the best. Most schools were small and only went . for structure 6 weeks because the children worked on their family farms. Responsibility! Other, more wealthy, children would have a tutor in lyric their homes or they would be sent to a private school . The children that did go to absorption, school would sit in structure a one room building with 60 other children. Informations! The teachers also didn't have much training and has limited knowledge to teach the children. They also received.
College , Education , Gymnasium 760 Words | 3 Pages. Let Our Lives Be healthier Recently, on the Internet we can often see an interesting picture that describes what teenagers’ . entertainment now compares to what teenagers have done before. Before the electronic technology was not very developed like today, teenagers had more physical activities, but now they meet together and spend more time using electronic devices. With the rapid development of science and technology, our lives become more and more convenient. However, at the same time there are. Electronics , Health , Healthy diet 852 Words | 3 Pages. Why should I go to lyric, school ? You might have asked the questions, why go to school ? What is the practical value of . The Effect Of Oil Prices Food Industry Essay! school ? Is school important? Well school will help you acquire wisdom and structure the bible in Ecclesiastes 7:12 says “wisdom is for The Effect of Oil on the Food a protection” and more so, “wisdom itself preserves alive its owners”. Lyric! With a good education, you have several strong friends at your side, these includes; 1. THINKING ABILITY: Going to school can help you develop what the Prices Food Industry Essay bible calls “common sense and sound judgement”. Bible , Child , Education 1133 Words | 3 Pages. The Connection Between Corporal Punishment in the Public School System and Our Nation’s Crime Rates.
Shannon Rose English 112 The Connection Between Corporal Punishment in the Public School System and Our Nation’s Crime Rates. Structure! . All states will have crime but not all states allow corporal punishment in the public school system, currently twenty states have not prohibited the use of corporal punishment in the United States. Teacher! Corporal Punishment has many definitions one is lyric structure defined as physical punishment to the body; with children it is generally a spanking with a paddle on the buttocks, another. Caning , Corporal punishment , Corporal punishment in the home 2064 Words | 6 Pages. immigration restrictions applied to Mexican Immigrants for the first time. Nearly 30 years later in 1986, the immigration Reform and Essay Control . Act was, created which granted amnesty to immigrants that had lived in the United States before 1982. Nevertheless, this later act made it a crime for employers to hire undocumented immigrant workers. In order to create a successful Immigration Reform Policy, the government has to consider several socioeconomic areas including border control, worker programs, education. Alien , Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 , Human migration 1212 Words | 4 Pages. Welfare and welfare reform has been a hot topic amongst politicians and their constituents for years. Feeling the pressure brought on by people . crying out for welfare reform President Clinton brought about lyric, some changes in our welfare system. Prior to informations, President Clinton's sweeping reforms this is not the first time that the whole idea of welfare has come under fire; former California governor Wilson, was a strong opponent of welfare.
It was he, along with many other people, which really were the lyric ones to. Adolescence , Black people , Marriage 1496 Words | 4 Pages. SOUTH ASIAN WRITING HOME ASSIGNMENT: Diaspora In South Asian Literature- As seen in Meera Syal’s . “ Anita and Me” Submitted by : 08/EL/47 Urmimala Bhattacharjee The mention of megan's law uk, ‘home’ and ‘outside’ is lyric not a specification of India at accounting informations, all, but rather. Anita and Me , Asia , Betty Trask Award 2688 Words | 7 Pages. Should the Bible Be Taught in lyric structure Schools? the Bible be taught in Schools ? Public schools are the most diverse schools in the U.S., students come from teacher responsibility . different religious, social, ethnic, racial, and hierarchical backgrounds. Some students may be Muslims, Christians, Catholics or Atheists. In the lyric structure article The Case For Teaching The Bible David Van Biema an author who is responsible for of Biofuels Essay writing The Life and Works of a Modern Saint, currently being reissued by TIME books argues for structure teaching the Advantages and Uses Essay Bible in public schools . He makes the case for.
Bible , Christianity , Criticism of the lyric Bible 859 Words | 3 Pages. My Very Own Declaration of Independence on My School Dress-Code. I N C O N G R E S S A U G U S T 2 0 1 2 A S C H O O L D R E S S -C . O D E B Y A S T U D E N T O F W E S T L A K E H I G H S C H O O L Introduction When, in the course of The Effect Prices Food Industry, human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the academic and educational bonds which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of this school building, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of administration entitles them, a decent respect to the opinions. Education , High school , High School Musical 925 Words | 3 Pages. Was the 1920’s Really a Change for Women? Women and lyric structure the 1920’ s Now and site of nutrient absorption Then Final Paper American History Was the 1920’ s really a Change for Women? . Women only had a handful of options beyond that of lyric structure, isolation with the domestic sphere. The several developments and of the a benefit new opportunities presented themselves towards that of structure, women’s society.
Today, we as women have come so far since the site absorption 1920’ s however, in a different parts of our world other than America there are women who are not being treated as fair as they should be. The reasons. 1920s , Change , Coco Chanel 2211 Words | 6 Pages. Recently there has been talk about kids being bullied in school . Those kids are sometimes even bullied until they kill themselves. Lyric Structure! Recently the . Advantages And Uses Of Biofuels! government has been trying to prevent this from happening and they even passed a law. People should really stop and see what goes on in schools very carefully because if we don’t our kids will get the worse out of it and it might be too late to help. School violence has been a very important topic ever since what happened in Newtown, Connecticut. What. Abuse , Bullying , School bullying 2405 Words | 6 Pages. 2007 A True American Icon Throughout the years America has had many symbolic icons that have influenced its change.
In the structure late 20th century one man by Advantages and Uses, . the name of Hunter S . Lyric Structure! Thompson made a big impact on American society. Hunter S . Thompson with his writings, satirical humor, and his strong political beliefs caused changes in our society. Primary Site Absorption! Through his journalism he criticized society on lyric, topics from megan's law uk consumerism to structure, politics. He fought desperately for civil liberties and encouraged people to vote and. Civil liberties , Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas , Fourth Amendment to The Effect of Oil Prices Food Essay, the United States Constitution 924 Words | 3 Pages. The Welfare Reform Act Carole Parsons HCR/230 Feb. 13, 2011 Barbara Hopkins The Welfare Reform Act of 1996 is also . known as the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act ( PRWORA).
As part of this act it requires recipients to find work after two years of structure, assistance with very few exceptions. For a single parent household it is required that they work twenty hours a week for the first year, this must increase to at least thirty hours a week after that. For a two. Conditional Cash Transfer , Immigration to the United States , Money 928 Words | 3 Pages. Health Care Reform On March 23, 2010 President Barack Obama signed The Affordable Care Act, also known as health care reform , . into law. (whitehouse.gov, 2013) The Affordable Care Act has brought on primary of nutrient, a lot of controversy within our country mainly because the people who oppose the new act are not well informed on what the aspects of the structure new law entail. With so many details to Advantages and Uses of Biofuels, this new law, it is lyric no wonder why so many American’s are confused; the Affordable Care Act is meant to help us not to hurt us.
Barack Obama , Health care , Health economics 1103 Words | 4 Pages. Prison Reform in America In the site of nutrient absorption essay Prison Reform in America, Roger T. Pray points out the much attention that has . been devoted to research to help prevent crimes. Showing criminals the errors of their ways not by brutal punishment, but by locking them up in the attempt to reform them. Robert Pray, who is a prison psychologist, is currently a researcher with the lyric structure Utah Dept. of Corrections. He has seen what has become of our prison system and easily shows us that there is really no such. Capital punishment , Corrections , Crime 1903 Words | 5 Pages. What Role Does Society and Politics Have in Our Public School System and What Are.
What role does society and politics have in our public school system and what are its ultimate affects on the children? In . the and Uses of Biofuels Essay 1600' s in the New England colonies of Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Connecticut, what began as a system of lyric, primarily teaching male children to read and interpret the Bible was eventually reformed to the 19th century concept of creating a national public school system which would be used as a community cornerstone to “create better citizens, unite society and accounting prevent. Education , Education in the United States , Gymnasium 961 Words | 3 Pages. ?Study of School Uniforms' Influences The debate of school uniforms, the lyric structure unified form of of Biofuels Essay, clothing which students wear . Structure! under the school rules, had never stopped since they were created. As the clothes of which following is not, school students, school uniforms became a big symbol of the relationship between the students group and our society. In the lyric 1990 s , the teacher Long Beach Unified School District found a great change after the implementation of school uniform policies in the second year. The campus crime and structure fight. Dress code , Education , High school 1949 Words | 6 Pages.
Can Violence in Our School Be Reduced The problem we are facing today with violence in our schools . is a major concern with communities all over the world. School violence wears many faces. It can be gang activity, locker thefts, bully and intimidation, gun use, or anything that products a victim. Violence is primary absorption perpetrated against students, teachers, and staff and ranges from intentional vengeance to accidental killings and bystanders. Can violence in our schools be reduced? If so what do we.
Aggression , Crime , Domestic violence 1176 Words | 4 Pages. The Influence of Horace Mann on Educational Reform. The Influence of Horace Mann on Educational Reform Terri Schryer St. Petersburg College EDF 3660 Fall 2011 . Abstract This paper discusses the lyric influence of Horace Mann on the issue of education of the primary of nutrient masses, evident in his dedication to improving the quality of structure, education through the process of improving teacher education, increasing available funding, and standardizing the quality of educational experience provided to its students. It addresses specifically. Education , Education reform , Framingham State College 1911 Words | 6 Pages.
5-1-2011 Against School -Engaging The Text 1. Question: Why does Gatto think that school is boring and Advantages of Biofuels Essay childish? How does . Gatto’s depiction of school compare with your own elementary and secondary school experience? Answer: Gatto thinks school is boring because the lyric structure teachers and students are bored with material. The students say they already know the material. I can compare my school experience to Gatto’s depiction of school . My experience in elementary was a breeze and easy.
Then I entered. Certified teacher , Education , High school 974 Words | 3 Pages. eating everyday. Personally, I think that this topic is teacher important to prevent the diseases that eating lots of junk food can make. Also we can know what to lyric, . eat and when to which of the following is not a benefit of adopting, eat fast food , we will see the lyric structure effects it causes on our body and what can we do to prevent them Lets start from , what is fast food? It is the food you can buy quickly and cheap, usually buyed by people who wants to have a quick lunch and have things to do later. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found out.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Causality , Diabetes mellitus 811 Words | 6 Pages. Educational Reform In chapter five “Stupid Schools ” of John Stossel's book Myths, Lies, and primary site absorption Downright Stupidity we get a clear . and direct view of Stossel's view of the American Education system. It's apparent from the beginning that in the authors opinion we're doing things wrong, American education is a government monopoly. Stossel states several interesting myths such as American public schools level the playing field, all high school students can read, and public schools are underfunded. College , Education , Education in lyric the United States 1016 Words | 3 Pages. The first day is always the hardest. You go from being the leaders of the school , to the babies of the school . It was the primary . first day and structure everybody was full of megan's law uk, both excitement and fear. Lyric! I looked around, I saw a bunch of crowded newbies all around me, anxiously awaiting the bell, at the start the only person I could recognise was Chiara. Chiara is one of megan's law uk, my best friends; we went through primary school together. Lyric! Gradually more and more people showed up, until I could barely move. A few of them.
Educational stages , High school , Junior school 765 Words | 3 Pages. on school uniforms Now, who likes to dress up? Who likes to be unique? I can tell you that wearing the same clothes as everyone is not very . unique is it? Body paragraph 2 basically the only reason for uniforms is that School’s are afraid that students are going to Advantages and Uses, dress inappropriately. Polls actually say that less than a quarter of students in high school dress inappropriately. So why everyone should get punished too!?
Body paragraph 3 We are told to tuck our shirts in and do our top. Clothing , Dress code , Education 943 Words | 3 Pages. “Should High Schools Have a High School Uniform Policy?” “Should High Schools Have a High . Lyric Structure! School Policy?” In my opinion, I agree that high schools should have a high school uniform policy, but I also agreed that they should not have a high school inform policy. A high school uniform policy can solve many problems and also they can cause many others. The good part of the problem creating issue is that about 95% of the time it helps students get together and form a group. That group can grow. College , Education , Free education 958 Words | 3 Pages.
Immigration Reform in the United States. appeal to American’s, but it does not take in to account the good it does for megan's law uk the immigrants themselves. Lyric Structure! It is teacher responsibility not an issue of economy, but an issue of . humanity that shows why immigration makes America better. In the article titled “Sophies Choice,” by Anita Maddali, she says that “The statements of anti-immigrant advocates minimize the consequences that certain policies have on immigrant children,” (Maddali 498). Children of immigrants are only one group that is harmed by strict immigration practices. Economy of the lyric United States , European Union , Human migration 991 Words | 3 Pages. ?Nazira Coury R.A. James Rhetoric 450 12 November, 2014 Immigration Reform : A Necessary Action The evening news is ripe with controversial . legislation, policy and debate from the lawmakers of the is not a benefit of adopting United States. Some of these include the structure most recent midterm elections taking place this week, with people anticipating which party will control the senate, others talk about what should be done with the growing problem of ISIS in the Middle East.
Any of these topics could spark a heated conversation in. Human migration , Illegal immigration , Immigration 1756 Words | 8 Pages. profession. It is important for us as human beings to Advantages Essay, acknowledge and accept people for who they are. We need to understand and be sensitive to structure, the cultural . Teacher Responsibility! needs and practices of others, and welcome those that are different as important members of lyric structure, our society. This should be everyone’s goal in primary absorption the professional and business world. Employers and lyric managers should be onboard with this concept. The culture needs to change. All of us need to live and responsibility work in a society that is accepting and tolerant of others.
Gender , Gender role , Handedness 1036 Words | 5 Pages. Year Writing Seminar II September 24 2013 Divorce Reform : Should we make it harder to get Divorced? In marriages where the partners are, . even after thoughtful reconsideration and counsel, estranged beyond reconciliation, we recognize divorce and the right of divorced persons to lyric structure, remarry, and express our concern for the needs of the children of such unions. To this end we encourage an active, accepting, and enabling commitment of the Church and our society to minister to the needs of divorced persons. Alimony , Annulment , Divorce 2398 Words | 6 Pages. Name: Pamela B. Sumunod C/Y/ S : BIT21 FINAL TERM PAPER TOPIC: Education: Lack of facilities in Advantages and Uses of Biofuels Essay most of schools in the . Lyric! Philippines EXPERIENCE: I never had experience having lack in facilities in my school ever since from the time I started studying because all of the schools I went into were all private. I don’t intend to be rude but the lack of facilities in schools mostly happen in Advantages Essay public schools . Lyric! Too many students with not enough classrooms are mostly the common scenario.
Mostly. Education , High school , Independent school 843 Words | 3 Pages. Michigan School for the Deaf Imagine your life in a mute state. Megan's Law Uk! You can't hear and lyric structure you can't talk. What if you grew up around people that . were just like you? Would you feel more comfortable with how you are?
Or would you still feel out of place? I bet you'd feel a lot more comfortable at a place where they are people just like you. What if the state you lived in might have to take your only Advantages of Biofuels Essay place of feeling normal away from you? Would you try anything in your power to lyric, keep it around? Michigan. Deaf culture , Deafness , Education 1902 Words | 5 Pages. Returning to School Angelique Benner-LayPool English Composition I Instruction Collette Morrow April 14, 2013 Pregnant at which of the the euro?, seventeen and . Structure! no foundation of which following of adopting the euro?, stability, I dropped out of school to prepare to structure, raise my child.
I then began to struggle and had a hard time making ends meet, so at that time I got on track to seek help and guidance. I started the process to get enrolled in school but backed out due to informations, finding out at nineteen I was expecting my second child. I finally went back to lyric, school and got. 2006 albums , Debut albums , Greatest hits 1198 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Let Teenagers Try Adulthood.
2010 Leon Botstein’s “ Let Teenagers Try Adulthood” talks about how high schools are obsolete and why they should be abolished. . He feels that schools are run like a popularity contest and that high school is accounting informations a waste of time. Structure! Botstein goes on to say that how well a school does in teams sports is how well the community will support that school . Of Oil Prices Food! He also believes that high schools should be abolished since children don’t learn anything and the rules they play by in school are not the same rules of. Adolescence , College , Education 1160 Words | 3 Pages. Immigration Reform is obviously a big issue in lyric structure America today. I mean everywhere you go; you either see something about or read about it.
There . is accounting informations no exact number as to lyric, how many illegal immigrants cross the border, but it is and Uses of Biofuels estimated to be around 11 to structure, 12 million. This has become a major political and social issue because of the continued flow of illegal immigrants. Which Following Is Not A Benefit The Euro?! There is nothing really around that will stop this problem. Nothing has really been done, I mean there are borders and all, but who. Alien , Human migration , Illegal immigration 1032 Words | 3 Pages. Immigration Reform: Closer to lyric structure, Reality or Destined for teacher Failure? Immigration Reform : Closer to Reality or Destined for structure Failure?
In the present day, the United States is an open country for migrant workers . who seek temporary employment or students who wish to study at American colleges and universities. Nevertheless, permanent residence and citizenship are still barely attainable for most immigrants. The reason why I chose to talk about informations, immigration reform is structure that it relates to my life and what I have seen and which following is not of adopting the euro? heard about immigrants. I immigrated to the United. Barack Obama , Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 , Human migration 1777 Words | 5 Pages. School Counselor's Role Marjorie Sutton, School Counselor RH Dana Elementary Some people wonder… What do school . Lyric Structure! counselors DO? School Counseling Programs Are About RESULTS!
How are students different as a result of the and Uses Essay school counseling program? General Goals of the School Counseling Program ? Support the school’s academic mission ? Ensure equity and access for every student ? Provide personal/social support for students, family, and staff School Counselors Affect Change In Students: AQUIRE. Education , Frank Parsons , Psychotherapy 426 Words | 15 Pages. Military Recruiters in Our High Schools. Should the Military be allowed to recruit in High Schools Darin Bell Post University Abstract Military recruiters should be allowed in . our high schools despite the opinions of anti-war groups, counselors and lyric teachers who are focused on informations, keeping the military recruiter out of our schools . Structure! This report will reveal opinions of those opposed to military recruiting showing that they are more focused on accounting informations, the war concept and slandering the structure recruiter rather than assisting the megan's law uk students with a job, trade. Battle , College , Conscription 1129 Words | 4 Pages. Government and Health Care Reform. Health Care Reform Most people believe that Obama’s health care reform plan is about getting health care for everyone in . America and making the health care system better for everyone. When everyone hears about health care reform and lyric structure everyone thinks about the following is not a benefit advantages and lyric disadvantages to the issue.
Through the research that has been done about this subject, there are more disadvantages to the issue than what everyone thinks. Some people are in of the is not of adopting the euro? favor of Obama’s health care reform plan because. Health care , Health care provider , Health economics 1433 Words | 4 Pages. History of Educational Reform Today new school reforms have been formulated. Lyric Structure! These reforms are . created to form individuals into The Effect of Oil Industry, becoming financially advanced and globally competitive persons. Lyric! The very means to gauge the progress of the new reform is through test scores. Standardized tests and the test scores are now tantamount to accountability, transforming the educational system into a dehumanized market institution. The school is seen as a capital investment and is now measured according. Education , Education in the United States , Education reform 2596 Words | 7 Pages.
My Utopian School My idea of an ideal high school is megan's law uk one that students are proud to attend and, at the same time, receiving a . good education. In order to achieve this, a school would need to structure, have teachers that are greatly qualified in their field of which is not of adopting, expertise. The teachers would be efficient and lyric very goal oriented, and Prices Food Industry would require all to have a master’s degree. The teachers would place the structure students’ well-being and success at the front of their agenda. My class size would have a maximum of twenty-five. Education , Education reform , High school 877 Words | 3 Pages. Global Warming : IS it Really Our Fault?? Argumentative Research 11/29/2011 Global Warming: Is It Our Fault? Global warming has been a topic of world-wide discussion and argument . for which of the a benefit the euro? many decades. People take the stance of lyric, either: yes, it is real, or no, it is primary of nutrient absorption not happening. The group that argues that it is happening states their main argument as being human contribution.
But this argument can be rebutted by looking at the research that shows just how much of an lyric structure impact humans really have on the warming issue and accounting CO2 output, the history. Carbon dioxide , Climate , Climate change 1306 Words | 4 Pages. ? School Safety Jake Kristiansen Senior Committee Senior Project 13 December 2013 Over the years, the United States has . Structure! encountered numerous amounts of schools shootings. With every attack that has occurred, how have we failed to stop them? In the future, parents of the students must allow them to enter schools and feel confident that they will be safe. Is Not A Benefit The Euro?! We have the lyric structure technology and The Effect of Oil Prices Industry time to emplace tactics that can prevent any type of school shooting, we just need to structure, initiate. Columbine High School massacre , Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold , High school 1902 Words | 5 Pages.
?Research Paper 29 Nov 2010 New Healthcare Reform Effective September 23, 2010 health reforms under the teacher responsibility Affordable Care Act . in the United States will provide Americans with greater rights and benefits in healthcare coverage. Many new laws are being set to structure, control the ongoing battle of insurance fraud. More children will have health coverage, preventative services will now be covered, and many limitations will be eliminated. The reform will be a gradual process over primary absorption, the next few years that. Health care , Health care reform in the United States , Health economics 1256 Words | 4 Pages. Estephanie S . Lyric Structure! Hidalgo It was in the year 2009, I was a graduating elementary student back then, when our adviser talked to me, . together with my fellow honor students, regarding our plans after graduation.
The conversation included where we wanted to Advantages Essay, study in high school . Lyric! Most of us said that a simple school will do, what’s important for us back then was to have a school . That simple. After a few words, our adviser said that there is prestigious school inviting us to megan's law uk, study there. Our initial reaction. Education , High school , Teacher 1061 Words | 3 Pages.
Buy Essays Cheap -
Essential Guide to Lyric Form and Structure:…
Nov 12, 2017 Lyric structure, pay for exclusive essay -
An essay on bushfires as natural hazards. Essay by BYLuo , High School, 11th grade , A , July 2008. A bushfire is lyric structure a firre burning out of control inthe open. Bushfires can burn using grass,scrub or forest (or a combination of of Oil on the Food, these) forfuel. Unless quickly controlled, bushfirescan become large, spreading to lyric structure, affect forests,wildlife, crops, houses and other buildings,and human life. In Australia, some bushfireshave become major disasters. Of Oil Prices On The Food? Fires are not a recent occurrence in Australia.
Since the lyric last Ice Age, bushfires have influencedthe development of the Australian land. Fires arean essential element in some Australian ecosystems,which need the intense heat of bushfires torelease the seeds from plants and responsibility, replenishgrowth. Australian Aborigines used fires to assistthem in their hunting activities. It is believedthat the fire activities of Aborigines contributedto the development of an structure open woodland ecosystemin parts of south-eastern Australia. Early European settlers used fire to assist inthe clearing of land for Advantages and Uses of Biofuels crops and as a means ofremoving stubble following cropping. However, inmore recent times, laws have been passedrestricting the lighting of structure, fires for these purposes. This has led to a more dense vegetation in manyrural areas and a greater accumulation of leaf andba rk litter on the ground. The litterprovides a significant amount of fuelfor fires if they do start.
Bushfires are one of the most destructiveforces of nature. Firefighters risktheir lives each year to control andeventually extinguish them. Eventhough bushfires can occur naturally,mainly as a result of lightning strikesand spontaneous combustion, most arestarted by the activities of people. Thisincludes cigarettes and matches beingcarelessly discarded, electricity cables,sparks from machinery and of the following is not a benefit the euro?, tools, andburning off. Structure? Arson has been the causeof some of the worst bushfires. BUSHFIRESWHAT CAUSESBUSHFIRES?Eucalypts and bushfiresThere are two main types of which of the a benefit of adopting, bushfires:A?A· Surface bushfires burn in grass, low shrubs andground litter.
They can travel at high speed butare relatively easy to control. A?A· Crown bushfires occur when heat and flamesfrom a surface flre ignite the crowns of trees. Crown fires spread rapidly if there are strong,hot winds and very dry vegetation. Hugeamounts of A?A?ammable eucalyptus vapour,transpired from leaves, can create firebrandsthat engulf the tree crowns ahead of the firefront. This makes crown fires very dangerousand difficult to control. As the lyric structure map shows, bushfires usually occurin the less arid parts of a benefit, Australia. Aridareas tend not to have enough fuel to sustainfires for structure any length of time. SoutheasternAustralia is particularly subject tobushfires. There are several reasons for this,including the following:1. Large areas are covered with sclerophyll vegetation. The dominant trees are eucalypts,which have highly flammable oil in theirbranches.
Eucalypts burn readily and canbecome so hot during fires that their sap boilsand the whole tree or shrub can explode inflames. This is not a problem for the plantspecies as most eucalypt varieties burn hotand fast as a means of releasing seeds onto thefire-cleared ground. Some burnt trees simplysend up new shoots from their stumps or rootsand grow to full-size trees again. 2. The area is also subject to prolonged periods ofbelow average rainfall and droughts. Many ofthe most severe bushfires have occurredduring droughts and El NiA?A±o events.
Bushfiresand drought often occur together. 3. South-eastern Australia is also subject toheatwaves and strong northerly winds duringthe summer months. Which Of The Following Is Not? Two or three days ofheatwave weather can often provide conditionssuitable for bushfires to occur. Bushfires can bring massive destruction, loss oflife and personal hardship to families and communities. Individuals, community-based groupsand governments have responded to lyric structure, this hazardin many ways. There are over 70 000 individuals who are volunteermembers of bushfire brigades. They domost of the fighting of bushfires. During times ofsevere bushfires they can be on duty for days at of Oil Food atime, sometimes facing extreme danger.
Theymake a highly significant contribution to makingour communities safer. The government has set up many agenciesthat work to protect the community when bush-fires occur. These include A?A®re brigades, police andambulance services, welfare agencies and lyric, theState Emergency Service. Governments can provideemergency financial assistance in severebushfires. The Bureau of Meteorology providesshort- and long-term weather forecasts to warnof bushfire dangers. An essay on bushfires as natural hazards. (2008, July 03).
In WriteWork.com. Retrieved 05:48, October 05, 2017, from http://www.writework.com/essay/essay-bushfires-natural-hazards. WriteWork contributors. An essay on bushfires as natural hazards WriteWork.com. WriteWork.com, 03 July, 2008. Of The Is Not A Benefit? Web. 05 Oct. 2017. WriteWork contributors, An essay on bushfires as natural hazards, WriteWork.com, http://www.writework.com/essay/essay-bushfires-natural-hazards (accessed October 05, 2017)
An essay on Natural Hazard; Storms and Black Saturday, Canberra, 2003. . bushfire in lyric its history. Canberra 'sfirestorm had its beginnings on 8 January, whenlightning strikes in is not a benefit of adopting adjacent national parksignited a number of bushfires. Shifting windswidened the lyric fire fronts of of Biofuels, these fires, joining sometogether. Lyric Structure? Eight days later, strong south-westerlywinds drove the bushfire . 2 pages 1958 Jul/2008 0.0. . force of gravity. Rock slides and debris slides result when rocks or debris slide down . 1 pages 2 Nov/2008 0.0.
The Alaskan Highway Pipeline Project. . Highway Pipeline Project is one of Trans-Canada's natural gas pipeline constructions. This project . 9 pages 37 Feb/2007 5.0. . Lower Egypt (Parsons 2001). The Nile has many distinct areas. Within the southern . The Euro?? 12 pages 46 Nov/2005 5.0. . rocks into magma. The Ring of Fire is a great example of structure, . 4 pages 77 3 Oct/2005 5.0. . An essay comparing and contrasting the effects of Advantages, a tropical storm in a MEDC country and lyric structure, a LEDC . . natural disasters cause havoc but one of the most common natural . And Uses Essay? do is evacuate the area and hope the lyric .
Write My Research Paper for Me -
Structure- русский перевод - bab la словарь
Nov 12, 2017 Lyric structure, order essay writing from our custom essay writing service -
Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and structure Periodic Style. I offer this essay in draft (or “beta”) form with the hope that it will provoke discussion. Corrections and criticisms are welcome. Site Of Nutrient. Just e-mail me by clicking here. Graphic images of the Greek texts discussed are provided. When transliterating Greek in structure, the body of the essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is that epsilon and eta, and omicron and omega are not distinguished. With the Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . Primary Site Of Nutrient Absorption. These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on lyric structure a banner in a triumphal procession of megan's law uk Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for an analysis of rhetorical figures and sentence-construction. “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to translate. I was surprised, then, on walking into a classroom once, all prepared to analyze a complex piece of Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended.
It turns out that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in lyric structure, short kommata instead of longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of sounds, especially between vidi and vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on accounting informations words involving, again, vidi and lyric vici ), to say nothing of the megan's law uk, overall brevity achieved by the ellipsis of words easily supplied from the (very crowded) context. To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is a joke, of course. Structure. It pokes fun at pedantry. But it is also perfectly valid and makes a serious point.
The words on Caesar’s placard are rhetorically brilliant and instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by megan's law uk, taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, and–most important–comparing other, inferior ways of lyric saying the same thing. Which Of The A Benefit. The goal is lyric structure, not an arid list of accounting tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for lyric structure how the words before us work, for what makes them forceful and effective. How big an armory of rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyth’s Greek Grammar has a convenient list of forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from The Effect of Oil Prices, Greek, Latin and English literature, is available at the Web site of the Classics Department of the University of Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanham‘s A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the structure, top of their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to memorize in Shakespeare’s time. Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only guides to help us understand and on the Food Essay experience a text; students often learn more by lyric, making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. Then, if there is a handy label for what they have observed, they can learn it and use it. No student who describes accurately and insightfully how an author’s words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesar’s placard. One advantage of of the following a benefit of adopting starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the structure of this sentence is structure, clear and teacher one can concentrate on details.
When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is easy to forget that the goal of arranging words “rhetorically” is to lyric, shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is heard or read, not to distract the audience with pointless ornamentation. And Uses. To learn about an author’s style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts. Lyric. Analysis and labeling and note-taking is useless if it merely dissects an author’s words. The goal is to go back and read those words, in order, as they were intended to be read, letting the many “signposts” along the way guide us by shaping our expectations of what is to primary site of nutrient absorption, come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Students struggling to lyric, make sense of an author’s words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Ironically, they get this impression from the emphasis which most of us place on the most obvious marks of style–rhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleuton–as the Advantages and Uses, key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the structure, text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and labeling them like specimens found on a nature hike. We pay great attention to primary absorption, classification, which can become quite complex: is that an example of synecdoche or of metonymy?
Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on occasion such “surface scans” of classical texts. The problem with them is that they don’t necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and expressed his thoughts, the “character” or “cast of thought” each presents to us. To grasp this we must understand how an author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. Structure. This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and understanding how “rhetorical devices”, in a well-turned sentence, mark the progression and structure of the responsibility, thought. Lyric. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the ideas in the order in which the which of the is not a benefit of adopting the euro?, author wants us to hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the lyric structure, way. To learn about an author’s style is to The Effect of Oil on the Food, learn to read that author’s words, in order, as they were written–not to disarrange the words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the style of Cicero W. Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: ” . . . Lyric Structure. Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is good thinking (and good feeling). It is for of Biofuels Essay this reason that what we want to pay most attention to in style is the structure, structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and informations how they fail.” [ Luxuriance and Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. 7] He quotes Virginia Woolf’s description of “the rhythm of a book that, by running in lyric structure, the head, winds one into a ball”, and he rescues from obscurity a book by site of nutrient, Edith Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , which asserts the importance for style of the length of whole sentences and structure of their parts. [Chapter IV, “Thought Patterns”, has much that is interesting on informations the structure and structure relationship of sentences as a guide to style. As Rickert remarks (p.
111), “The study of the sentence is one of the most fundamental and certain means of eventually getting at the secret of megan's law uk style.” She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word “sentence” as a matter of convenience. There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Dianoia , “thought,” is closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on lyric whether to punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is it, after all, which stays with you when you’ve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for hours? Not a collection of megan's law uk tropes but something more fundamental and harder to express in a phrase. Why did reading Isokrates for hours on end once make me physically ill?
Why, after the excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an early speech of Demosthenes seem flat? Because a real stylist “gets in among” you. The “rhythm” of the writer’s thought is what does this. The Architecture of Greek Sentences: Loose and Periodic Style. This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on the structure or “architecture” of structure a Greek sentence. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in mind two fundamental points: 1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the units of which they are composed are almost always short. “The edifice, lofty though it may be, is built of bricks, not of huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry.” [J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 61] 2. Greek is megan's law uk, unusually rich in particles and conjunctions which serve as signposts.
These helpful qualities of the language, however, carry a danger for students. One can often get sense out of the lyric structure, various separate parts of a complex sentence–enough sense to have a fair idea of what the primary of nutrient, entire thing means–without really understanding the development of the whole. And the reason for this is often the very profusion of “marker-words” or “signposts” in Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in structure, corresponsion with them, appear. Megan's Law Uk. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for every single connective word in a sentence. One can then turn pedantry to profit by (re-)reading the author’s words and letting the sentence unfold as the original audience experienced it. Before we turn to structure, the analysis of accounting informations sample passages from Greek authors, let us consider the two main types of sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the loose style (lexis eiromene) and the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally “speech strung together” (from eiro, “to string or thread together”, like beads in a necklace); the second, “speech turned or guided toward an lyric, end”; the word “period” (periodos, “way around”) refers metaphorically to a racecourse, where the starting and finish lines were the same: contestants went out and which of the a benefit of adopting the euro? around the turning-post, then retraced their path.
The loose style is often called the “running style”, a term which can be confusing in view of the race-course metaphor of the term “periodic”. [Dover points out the difficulty of interpreting the terms lexis katestrammene and periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes “a unit of lyric structure utterance which begins from absorption, major pause and ‘returns’ to lyric structure, a state of rest by leading to a second pause” (p. 39).] These two styles represent two ways of developing and structuring sentences. In the loose style one statement is simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is coming. The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the reader or hearer any idea that it is about to absorption, end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Here is a banal example in English: “Bill went to the store and lyric bought some milk and decided to get some cheese; he came home and saw that the cat had gotten out; he looked for it and couldn’t find it; his TV suddenly went blank.” No statement looks ahead to what follows; the series could stop at teacher any point or go on indefinitely. There is no “race-course” with a beginning, a turning point, and structure an end.
The virtue of this style is that it produces an impression of plain speaking. Megan's Law Uk. In a court case, for example, if one is lyric, trying to set out the facts and convince the jury of one’s honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the “facts”), this is the style to use. Of course, the Advantages of Biofuels, loose style, when handled well, is every bit as “rhetorical” as the periodic style–but its art is less apparent. In the periodic style, by contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to the main idea, indicate the lyric, path ahead. The reader sees signs of things to come and is prepared for them when they appear. The art of composing and of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and then fulfilling (often with variations along the way) assumptions about how the informations, sentence will develop. At the finish, the audience should feel that an appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed.
All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of sense: the arrangement of one or more elements of the sentence so that the lyric structure, thought is not felt to be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in periodic style: “After his trip to the store, where he bought milk and (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bill’s arrival at home was marred, first by his cat, who had gotten away and megan's law uk couldn’t be found, then by lyric, his TV, which suddenly went blank.” Bill’s shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by the preposition “after”. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by the conjunction “where”. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese. Essay. The center of the sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun.
The two reasons for this are appended in two parallel expressions consisting of an adverb (“first”, “then”), a prepositional phrase (“by his cat”, “by his TV”), and a relative clause (“who. . .”, “which. . .”). As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the main point(s) the lyric structure, writer is trying to put across and will require the writer to primary site, decide how various events or ideas are related. This need not mean, and in Greek usually does not mean, that the sentence is left grammatically incomplete until the very end. More often, as above, the main clause is in the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Many other arrangements are of course possible and none is “objectively” better than another. What is important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to understand the thought which drives the structure.
Loose Style and lyric structure Periodic Style: Examples in English. The periodic style is not at home in present-day American English. Short, clear sentences pack more punch for us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. But we should recall the of the the euro?, importance of Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward.
Here are examples in lyric structure, English of Food Essay both styles. First, the lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the twentieth century, in a paragraph from Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the road. The country was barren and rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the structure, road. Looking back we could see the country spread out below. Far back the fields were squares of green and informations brown on the hillsides.
Making the horizon were the brown mountains. They were strangely shaped. As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. As the structure, bus ground slowly up the road we could see other mountains coming up in the south. Then the road came over on the, the crest, flattened out, and went into a forest. It was a forest of cork oaks, and the sun came through the trees in patches, and there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and the road came out and turned along a rise of land, and out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it. These were not like the brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind.
These were wooded and there were clouds coming down from them. The green plain stretched off. It was cut by fences and the white of the road showed through the trunks of a double line of trees that crossed the structure, plain toward the north. As we came to the edge of the rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on is not of adopting the plain, and away off on the shoulder of the first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles. (Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. 1954, chapter 3, p. Lyric Structure. 108) As an example of Advantages periodic style here is structure, Samuel Johnson in the Preface to his edition of megan's law uk Shakespeare:
That praises are without reason lavished on the dead, and that the honours due only to excellence are paid to lyric, antiquity, is a complaint likely to be always continued by those who, being able to primary absorption, add nothing to truth, hope for eminence from the heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by disappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to lyric, hope from posterity what the present age refuses, and flatter themselves that the regard which is yet denied by envy will be at last bestowed by time. . . . To works, however, of which the excellence is teacher responsibility, not absolute and definite, but gradual and comparative; to structure, works not raised upon principles demonstrative and scientific, but appealing wholly to observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. Accounting Informations. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and lyric compared, and if they persist to value the possession it is primary site, because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in its favour. As among the lyric, works of nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of many mountains and many rivers, so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. . . . The reverence due to writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the degeneracy of of Biofuels Essay mankind, but is the consequence of acknowledged and indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and what is most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. R. T. Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. Structure. 262-263) The elegant and varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only of “straight talk” but also of grandiloquence. We live in megan's law uk, a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Isokrateans. [For the difference between the two see Cicero‘s comments on Isokrates; E. Lyric Structure. Laughton, “Cicero and the Greek Orators”; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in a tradition which goes back to the humanists of the Renaissance, and responsibility indeed to lyric structure, the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. “period”, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp.
20-21 and 131: “The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the period: that is, the Prices Essay, sentence combining a number of thoughts and lyric structure statements in a number of balanced clauses. . . . It is quite difficult to enjoy the teacher, humanists’ preoccupation with the periodic sentence. . . Lyric. . But one cannot come to historical terms with the humanists’ verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for them, and in how many different ways. The periodic sentence is the primary of nutrient absorption, basic art form of the early humanists. It was a test of prowess, a focus for criticism, the lyric structure, full flower of the classical way with words and primary of nutrient absorption notions, the medium of most statements about relationships, and . . . it became at a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in lyric structure, general. . . . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in primary, a humanist school had been taught to apply to lyric, language. It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of elements: words go to of the following is not, make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to lyric structure, make sentences.”] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for examples of a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the responsibility, other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from a starting post, around a course, and back to a finish-line.
As one would expect, the structure, loose style developed before the of the following is not the euro?, more elaborate periodic style. Lyric Structure. But only of nutrient absorption scraps of the earliest prose remain, and the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of him suggest and structure writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in the periodic as in the loose style. The longest surviving fragment of Herodotos’ predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of Deukalion, came to Aitolia for of Biofuels a kingdom and his dog gave birth to a log, and he ordered it to be buried, and lyric structure from it grew a vine with many grapes. Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the Greeks of old called vines oinai). And from Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is megan's law uk, “strung” after the previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. paratactically (with coordination or parataxis).
The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an structure, emphatic point. The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, “on account of which, therefore”), de, the participle kletheis, gar, and again de. The Greek text above is The Effect of Oil Prices Essay, given with Jacoby’s punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by a raised dot, the lyric structure, second containing also a parenthesis. There is is not, nothing, however, in either the grammar or the lyric, sense to prevent putting a full stop at the end of each clause, including the one set off by parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of course, stand alone, but it too is “tagged on” at the end of a clause.) Note also the somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the Greek of teacher responsibility Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to what precedes and follows. Nor is the connection in any way crude: in lyric, the first sentence the three kai’s lead to a conclusion introduced by primary site absorption, dio. The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. Even in the two simple statements introduced by de (toutou d’ Oineus egeneto. . .Oineos d’ egeneto Aitolos) the position of egeneto changes, as does the position and case of Oineus’ name.
This is not to lyric, claim any great sophistication for Hekataios’ Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an is not the euro?, example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is typical of lyric structure Hekataios. He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Megan's Law Uk. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for example in structure, a passage from the Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of of Biofuels a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios’ successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. One should remember that he lived in Periclean Athens and lyric was a friend of Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the archaic age but was not himself “archaic”. He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is which of the is not, not limited to, lexis eiromene. Indeed, many a “loose” Herodotean sentence leads us step by step to a dramatic climax–and has, in lyric, retrospect, the essential quality of a periodos. Informations. Such sentences gain much of their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions. Here is lyric, Herodotos’ description of the arrival of Adrastos at Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
When Croesus’ child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at informations Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and not clean in hands, being a Phrygian by birth and of the royal house. This man, coming to Croesus’ house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is similar for the Lydians and the Greeks. When Croesus had performed the accustomed rites, he inquired where the structure, man was from and site of nutrient who he was, saying as follows: “Man, who are you and from where in Phrygia have you come to be at my hearth? Whom of men or women did you kill?” And he answered: “King, of Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and I am called Adrastos, and having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by my father and deprived of everything.” And Croesus answered him as follows: “You are born of lyric structure men who are friends, it turns out, and you have come among friends, where you will lack for primary site of nutrient nothing, remaining in our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most.” [This translation is as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Herodotos’ narrative. Lyric. A useful exercise in coming to understand an author’s style is to note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.]
Herodotos’ sentences are longer and more complex than Hekataios’ and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to hold several thoughts suspended at once. Thus the first sentence consists of a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by more about the man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. At the end the phrases with men and of Oil on the Industry Essay de, both dependent on eon, lead up to structure, the climactic word basileiou; the responsibility, chiastic placement of the similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the final phrase. Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. In the second sentence, for example, a participle leads off, then the main verb, then a second verb appended with de.
Especially notable is Adrastos’ reply to Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the connectives are men. Structure. . .de. . Teacher. .de. He begins with his father’s and grandfather’s names, then his own; then, in a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the lyric, weight of which of the of adopting the euro? this clause, with an structure, unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them. This sentence is a good example of an ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in three parts with the of Oil on the Food Industry, longest element last. Further, this last element is itself divided into two parts, the second of which is again divided. One could thus call the lyric structure, sentence “periodic” in the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in megan's law uk, this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in a linear, “strung together” sequence. Also imparting “flavor” to Herodotos’ style are the repetitions and “superfluous” words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in the second, houtos; in lyric, the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus’ questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. Megan's Law Uk. . Lyric Structure. . .tis te eon kai kothen. (Note the responsibility, chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrative–but not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to pause over each question, each answer, each event in lyric structure, the tale of Croesus, Atys and Adrastos so that at the end, in the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the story (45.3), the whole weight slowly and relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.]
For an analysis of the periodic sentence which begins Herodotos’ History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for teacher responsibility the simplicity and elegance of his style and the vividness and structure clarity of his narrations. Is Not A Benefit The Euro?. In the speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is lyric structure, describing his own arrest by the Thirty Tyrants: For a graphic image of the The Effect Prices Food, Greek text, click here. Dividing up the houses, they went on their way. Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and lyric handed me over to Peison. The others went to the workshop and made a list of the slaves. Accounting. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and rescue me. He said he would, if it were a lot. I said then that I was ready to give him a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this.
Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to lyric structure, be imperative to get some pledge from him. After he swore an oath, calling down ruin on himself and his children, that he would accept the talent and save me, I went into the room and opened the chest. Peison noticed and came in, and when he saw the contents he called two of his servants and ordered them to take the things in Prices on the Food Industry, the chest. This translation ignores most of the lyric, connectives and converts most of the participles to finite verbs but nonetheless retains the megan's law uk, exact order in which Lysias’ narrative unfolds. Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is that one can translate it in order, phrase by phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias’ Greek. To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on lyric a separate line, with indentations to show the relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the “loose” style of Lysias really is. To emphasize the careful connection and subordination of the Greek (even where ideas seem to megan's law uk, follow straightforwardly one after the other), words which serve as signposts are in boldface and circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. And dividing up the houses they went on their way.
And me, on the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out structure they handed me over to Peison; the rest, on the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on the one hand, (5) if he wanted to rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to responsibility, give a talent of lyric structure silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. Of Biofuels Essay. (10) Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be most necessary. to take a pledge from lyric structure, him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on himself and his children, (15) that accepting the talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the contents, called two of primary his servants.
and ordered them to take the things in the box. [As a tool for analyzing Greek style such an ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the lyric structure, goal is to understand the Greek, not to replace it. Students should develop the habit of translating Greek this way, in the order of the original. Megan's Law Uk. To aim for a “polished” translation is to ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the line-division and indentation of this and other passages below. It is intended only to suggest the units of lyric meaning into which the a benefit of adopting the euro?, sentence seems to fall. Structure. Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on accounting a speaker’s (or reader’s) delivery. No “scientific” accuracy is claimed or, indeed, is possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun , for example, on structure a separate line, but this would create a false impression of megan's law uk composition in very short units [kommata].)
We should remember, more fundamentally, that the very idea of a “sentence” is modern: ancient writers speak of lyric a dianoia or sententia, “thought”, which may not coincide with our idea of a “sentence”. [For a modern definition of a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. Megan's Law Uk. 111.] Likewise, while a “period” (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a “sentence”, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Modern punctuation represents the judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on lyric the placement of full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and Economy , pp. 15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (“limb”, membrum) necessarily correspond to what we call a “clause”; E. Of Adopting The Euro?. Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the structure, force of a kolon. Of Biofuels. [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is no hard and fast distinction between a kolon and lyric the shorter unit called a komma (“cutting”, incisum). As for on the Industry the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to the structure of the sentence. In particular they do not always correspond to levels of subordination. (I have always found complex systems of notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by (re)organizing the “layout” of these passages in their own way and analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for Lysias. Lyric Structure. In the accounting, passage quoted above there is almost nothing of overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the interweaving of lyric participles and finite verbs.
They tend to megan's law uk, be paired, but not mechanically so. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peison’s actions, is set out in three parts linked by kai. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by putting everything into lyric structure, a single clause with several participles and Advantages and Uses of Biofuels Essay one main verb, but this would spoil the simplicity of the narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. Structure. (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third –note ekeleusen], add to the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and accounting it is worth analyzing each participle in this passage as to whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Note especially eparomenos in Peison’s oath (15): the phrase in which it appears is a longer element between two shorter ones, and lyric we linger on it before coming to Advantages and Uses, the oath itself, labon. . .sosein. Of course, even without such analysis the reader responds directly to what Lysias writes–but for lyric this very reason it is easy to teacher, miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly.
Notice also the variety. Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. . . , ho d’ ephasken ei. . . ., eipon oun hoti . . . Structure. ., ho d’ homologese. Which Is Not A Benefit. . . ., epistamen men oun hoti. . ., homos d’. . .edokei. . . ., epeide de omosen. . . . Note, too, the placement of sosai. . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. . .sosein (16), labein (20). Structure. The repetition is “subliminal” rather than rhetorically insistent and includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16). In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by concealing itself. As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. If one wants to appreciate Lysias fully, one need only attempt to translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an analysis of periodic sentences by Lysias, click here.
Sophisticated in a different way is the Prices on the, storytelling style which Plato adopts from lyric structure, time to primary of nutrient absorption, time, for lyric example in responsibility, the fable about the lyric structure, origin of justice told by Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Here is an excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Once there was a time. when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for these too there came the primary site of nutrient absorption, appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the structure, earth (5) from earth and responsibility fire mixing them. and from the things which blend with fire and earth.
And when they were ready to lead them to the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and structure assign powers to megan's law uk, each as was fitting. (10) And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. “And when I’ve assigned them,” he said, “you inspect them.” And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to structure, some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the ones he wrapped in smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the rest, maintaining a balance.
On its surface the Essay, style of lyric structure this passage is naive: Plato imparts a “flavor” of archaism to his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and accounting informations repeated words. The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the verb eimi; the second and third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and ends with the same word (the figure of kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an epeide-clause, then the main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an adverb and structure thus does not have a line to itself.] The first of these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the which following the euro?, addition of line 7 is elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the variation meixantes/kerannutai. Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of forms of lyric structure nemo carrying over of nutrient absorption, from the preceding sentence (10) and into the next (14). In particular, the repetition of the last word of a sentence at the beginning of the next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in the manner of Herodotos. Each of these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is shorter than the one before. One can see the art of lyric this by glancing at the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to 23): exactly the sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the megan's law uk, illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. Structure. This sentence catalogs the attributes which Epimetheus assigned to various creatures. After the link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and three des; note the chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and the varied length of the responsibility, clauses.
The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and introduces the whole category of animals without natural weapons; the longer kolon in 18, with the verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in structure, 19-23. Here each category of animals is introduced by Advantages of Biofuels Essay, a relative clause, followed by a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected. The description of small animals, of structure course, is much longer than that of large ones! Finally, again very much in the manner of Plato, the Food Industry, enumeration is concisely cut short by the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is anything essential to grammatical sense or meaning suspended for more than one line, so that the dominant impression is of someone speaking in the loose, “strung-together” style. Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of lyric structure Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an example of a period whose form is determined precisely by its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Here, and in the examples which follow, the periodic effect is gained by suspending until the end of the sentence an element essential for megan's law uk the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Men of the structure, jury, most of all because I think it benefits the city for Essay the law to be annulled, second for the sake of Chabrias’ child, I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for these men. Demetrios says that this period, which consists of three kola [apart from the opening vocative], has a certain “bending” or “turning” (kampe) and “concentration” or “coiling together” (sustrophe) at the end. What gives it this quality? Unlike the examples of lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to structure, the final kolon not only grammatically but also in sense: malista men heineka. . . ./eita kai. . .heineka. . . . The main verb homologesa comes at the beginning of the last kolon but requires an of Oil on the Industry, infinitive in indirect statement to complete its meaning. Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by dividing toutois from sunerein with a subordinate clause. The whole sentence is aimed at an end, which sunerein provides. Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the first two kola by varying their length, changing the lyric structure, position of heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by Advantages of Biofuels, answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios’ re-arrangement of this into a non-period is instructive. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I shall speak for structure these men, citizens of megan's law uk Athens.
For Chabrias’ son is a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is right for me to speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared. Each kolon is independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the end of any of the first three kola. Nothing forces us to look ahead for a conclusion to come. (Indeed, Demosthenes’ final word has become Demetrios’ first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and a finish line in sight, but on lyric a straight path of uncertain length. Each kolon is appended to the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of Demosthenes is analyzed below. To return to the table of contents, click here. Here is a period from Isokrates’ Panegyrikos (186), cited by Aristotle in accounting, the Rhetoric (1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Fame and memory and glory.
how much ought one to lyric, think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in deeds of this sort excel? Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its “finish-line”, aristeusantas. Each element of the sentence requires something later to complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of which requires an accusative subject, the second an teacher, infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and infinitives, but since the accusative words are participles we still don’t know who the sentence is lyric structure, about; finally, the phrase tous. . .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us.
Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and leads us forward to the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of megan's law uk Isokrates is analyzed below. Short and Long Kola: Xenophon and Thucydides. As is usual in Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the structure, very end.
Two examples cited by Demetrios, each a description of a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. First, Xenophon’s description of the river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d’ en kalos men, megas d’ ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides’ description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For the river Acheloos, flowing down from Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the Advantages and Uses of Biofuels, city Stratos upland. and discharging into the sea by Oiniadai and creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the water, in winter to lyric, mount a campaign.
The sentence, like the river, flows and twists and turns to its conclusion. Only in the last kolon do we get the main verb, and megan's law uk the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is suspended until the end, here is a sentence of Lysias, who was just as much at home in the periodic as in structure, the loose style (25.18): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the protasis of this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the which of adopting the euro?, whole sentence in effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the lyric structure, relative clause forward to precede the infinitive apolesai on which it depends.
The sentence concludes both logically and dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai. Not every periodic sentence postpones an essential element until the very end. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly “rounded” and “directed toward a finish-line”, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for primary site absorption an audience to follow if they had to lyric, keep track of multiple suspensions of meaning and site of nutrient absorption multiple subordinations until the final kolon. Often the main verb comes at the beginning or in the middle, and the effect of a structured whole is achieved by lyric, carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is complete before the sentence moves on. Here is Isokrates’ description of Xerxes’ march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in part by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to of the following is not a benefit of adopting the euro?, so great a point of lyric arrogance.
that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to leave a monument so great. that it is not a thing of human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the mainland. and march through the sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont. and digging through Athos. This is a splendid example of informations a long and carefully crafted period where the main verb comes in the first kolon and everything else unfolds in lyric structure, later subordinations.
The layers of subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. Advantages And Uses Of Biofuels. Note how small the elements are which make up most of lyric this sentence. The longest kola, the second and third, describe Xerxes’ grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in two short phrases, he yokes the site absorption, sea and digs the land. And note the careful and varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of participles and a pair of infinitives set off by men and de. Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12).
End-rhyme links the paired verb forms, the first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is structure, analyzed above. Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by C. D. Adams in his insightful discussion of the differences between loose and of the of adopting periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. The killing of men they thought of no importance; the taking of money they considered of great importance. (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to lyric, our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and responsibility left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the daughters about to be married they balked. (12.21)
Strictly speaking, the first of these sentences presents an antithesis, the second a series of parallels. In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in lyric structure, form: in the first, each kolon consists of infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and brings closure. The kola are nearly equal in length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). The conjunctions men and de produce a suspension not of immediate meaning but of general thought: while the primary absorption, first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the nefarious character of the Thirty Tyrants. Not only lyric structure are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is strengthened by the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. The detail added by the fourth kolon–the confiscations of property even prevented some families from the euro?, giving their daughters dowries–provides a vivid and dramatic climax and brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. For a graphic of lyric Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in kola and kommata, click here.
Even a single kolon can be periodic. Demetrios cites (17) the opening of Herodotos’ History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. Advantages. . . . Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this. A neat suspension of sense, where longer words lead to a shorter “capstone”, hede. Since this period is part of lyric a longer sentence, it is primary site of nutrient, worth quoting the whole thing: For a graphic image of the lyric, Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of accounting informations Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and structure wondrous deeds, some by foreigners shown forth, both the of the a benefit of adopting the euro?, other events and through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and scope of his History . Note the careful connections and the alternation of lyric long and short kola. Note the double purpose clause (hos mete. Megan's Law Uk. . .genetai, mete. . .genetai), where the second clause makes us wait while the meaning of erga is structure, amplified by ta men. . . ta de. Teacher. . . in structure, apposition. Note, especially, how the Persian Wars appear, understated, in a kolon appended at the very end, in apposition to and amplifying what went before. Isokrates could have done no better.
Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and Advantages of Biofuels can achieve “rounding” or “concentration toward an end” or “completeness” in various ways and to various degrees. In addition to Adams‘ distinction between periods involving suspension of sense, antithesis, and parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the structure, rhetorical period, the historical period, and the philosophical period or period of dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a “turning” and “concentration” at the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the passages from Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is withheld until the conclusion. To return to following a benefit the euro?, the table of contents, click here.
A Short Historical Period of lyric structure Xenophon. As an example of a historical period Demetrios cites the opening of Xenophon’s Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Dareios and Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the site of nutrient, younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an integral part of the sentence, completes its own thought. [One could also treat the lyric structure, phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is complete in itself, but the second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an organized whole.
Many sentences, both shorter and longer, are organized in this way, not only by historians but by every kind of writer. Megan's Law Uk. The construction is looser than that of a rhetorical period but still produces the impression of a rounded whole. To return to the table of contents, click here. The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and barely gives the impression of being a period at all. Demetrios cites the opening of Plato’s Republic : For a graphic image of the structure, Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Peiraios. with Glaukon, Ariston’s son, to pray to the goddess. and also wanting to see the festival, how they would perform it, since now they’re holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is of nutrient, piled on kolon in apparent artlessness–yet, as critics have long remarked, this is one of the structure, most studied and megan's law uk artful of Greek sentences. [See, for example, Denniston’s remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. 41).] Plato is structure, said to of the a benefit of adopting, have puzzled long over the order of the opening words. The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of structure each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the The Effect of Oil Prices on the, accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of prolepsis).
Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. The sentence is more than what it seems to be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is lyric, really periodic. There is no one formula, then, for a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an author, should we expect to be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is megan's law uk, “loose” or “periodic”, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Structure. Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and how they use connectives and rhetorical figures as “signposts” for which following the euro? the listener and reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios’ remarks on the three types of lyric structure period, click here. In order to place in perspective the which is not a benefit, use of rhetorical figures as guides to the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of lyric them all, Gorgias of Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in which repeated sounds and plays on words were part of the very texture of the Greek. Our Gorgianic exemplar is chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For either by Fortune’s volitions.
and the on the Essay, gods’ counsels. and Necessity’s decrees. she did what she did, or by force seized (5) or by words persuaded. If, then, because of the first, worthy to be accused is the one accusing: for god’s zealousness by human forethought it is impossible to hinder. (10) For it is natural not for the stronger thing by the weaker to lyric structure, be hindered, but for the weaker by the stronger to be ruled and guided, and for the stronger to lead. and the accounting informations, weaker to follow.
But god than man is a stronger thing (15) both in force and in lyric structure, wisdom and in all else. If, then, to Fortune and responsibility the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from her ill fame one must absolve. Not only lyric structure is the passage composed for site the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the same or nearly the same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias’ development of the argument in chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18). Parallel phrases follow one another in staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of sound and structure comes from plays on lyric sound (parechesis) and meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and of Oil Industry Essay even forms of the lyric structure, same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is and Uses Essay, passive, the second middle; kreisson. Structure. . .hessonos. . .hesson. . .kreissonos. Teacher Responsibility. . .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus.
Note also the end-rhymes in -sthai and the alliteration of h- in 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in lyric, 10: what appears to be a longer kolon is accounting informations, broken up (or is it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to sense. Second, the argument from which this passage is excerpted is meticulously logical and entirely typical of lyric structure fifth-century “sophistic” argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and Aristophanes. [See the works of John Finley cited in The Effect on the Food Industry, the bibliography.] The layout of this passage in the graphic attempts to lyric, isolate its smallest constituent elements. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and of the following is not a benefit the euro? isokola. Lyric. But if we step back and look at overall sentence-structure, Gorgias’ sophistication is evident. The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the possible reasons for Helen’s elopement are presented on of nutrient either side of this main clause. Structure. Preceding it is one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in number with one phrase each). Site. Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the lyric structure, series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the sense nicely near the center of the sentence.
The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is Advantages Essay, inherently periodic. In the next (10) the predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the grammatical construction, comes next to last, and the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and lyric structure where koluesthai is answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and agesthai; at the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the idea expressed in line 12. Since the phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on site of nutrient absorption a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.
The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by three datives each introduced by kai. Lyric Structure. The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by a verbal adjective. [In line 18 the first word is MacDowell’s conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11  p. 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of Gorgias’ rhetoric the confident construction of the sentences which convey his argument is apparent. Responsibility. Gorgias’ prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at first anything but “periodic”. Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in periods (15). Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias’ speaking, but in the courts as well as in the ekklesia the lyric structure, goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and the present epideixis is a tour de force of exactly that. If we look to the overall length and structure of informations each successive argument in Gorgias’ logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in novel form. Often cited in this context is Kleon’s condemnation of the Athenians’ obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). The Athenians, says Kleon, want to anticipate a speaker’s words and be seen doing so.
Later, for an audience to structure, do this was a sign of an unoriginal speaker whose words followed an all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). This is the audience that, only months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Gomme‘s notes ad loc., citing several passages from megan's law uk, Aristophanes, evoke well the lyric, intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias’ arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook: For either by the disposition of fortune and megan's law uk the ratification of the structure, gods and the determination of necessity she did what she did, or by violence confounded, or by persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. Site Absorption. If, however, it was against her will, the structure, culpable should not be exculpated.
For it is impossible to forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is responsibility, a law of lyric nature that the stronger is not subordinated to informations, the weaker, but the weaker is subjugated and dominated by the stronger; the stronger is the leader, while the weaker is the entreater. Structure. Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in sight, and in all else. Therefore, if on fortune and the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of informations Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to Isokrates’ Helen , in vol. Structure. 3 of the Loeb edition of Isokrates, pp. 55-57.] Here, lastly, is an example of the finest periodic style in Greek, the mature style of Advantages and Uses of Biofuels Essay Demosthenes. Lyric. Over the course of his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the opening of the speech On the Crown : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. First, Athenian men, I pray to all the gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to the city and all of of Biofuels you, that so much be accorded me from you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and your piety and reputation, this for the gods to grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor.
about how you ought to lyric, listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and the oath, in which, in addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in the same way. At the outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in his own way. At each stage of the sentence grammatical “signposts” and other key words create a suspension of meaning which is only resolved in a later kolon. Demosthenes casts the entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the conclusion of the speech , which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by Food, proton men (1) and epeith’ (4). The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and structure a spondee. As for the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5).
Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for primary of nutrient the completion of its meaning: in return for his efforts on behalf of the city and its citizens, Demosthenes asks an equal recompense (a point reinforced by lyric, humin. . .par’ humon). The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to its antecedent touto (and note, in 4 and 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the primary site of nutrient absorption, earlier pronouns humin  and humon ). But the structure, second part of the prayer is not complete. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to complete the meaning of megan's law uk touto, which is supplied by structure, the infinitive me. . Primary Site Of Nutrient Absorption. .poiesasthai, in apposition to touto. But we are not through yet. The word sumboulon requires an explanation, provided (7) by a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for a parenthetical remark (8). Then he picks up and continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . Lyric Structure. .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to complete its meaning.
The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors’ oath–a clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by informations, the pronoun touto, in apposition to which comes the final articular infinitive–the point of the whole sentence, an lyric, equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the megan's law uk, authority of the gods and the solemnity of the oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of sense. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. Lyric. The main verb leads off; the accounting, climax of the sentence comes in a “mere” relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and not pedantically regular. The same variety is apparent in structure, the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11). Teacher. Even proton men and epeith’, the linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith’ should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the structure, same verb understood, but it does not. It introduces the second prayer dependent on eukhomai. Line 4 above should logically be indented in the Greek graphic, but this is where logical strictness yields to megan's law uk, art. Lyric Structure. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the first kolon–but how banal that would be!
A shorter period of Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of of Oil on the Food Essay Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and structure Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to following the euro?, see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods. Click here to see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the lyric structure, periodic structures favored by Isokrates and those of Demosthenes is brought out well by The Effect Prices Essay, Eric Laughton in his comparison of these orators with Cicero, who is Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (“Cicero and the Greek Orators”, AJP 82  27-49; see especially pp. 41-49). Cf. H. C. Gotoff, “Thrasymachus of Chalcedon and Ciceronian Style.”
But when one looks back at the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at the effortless variety of Plato’s expression, and especially at the elaborate edifice of 14-23 (nemon . . Lyric Structure. . enemen), one has, in The Effect of Oil Prices on the Food Industry Essay, retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and end. Structure. It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a “loose” narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of teacher periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of Protagoras’ story as an example of a traditional fable, and a discussion of lexis eiromene in general, see E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp. 366-379. On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perry’s introduction to the Loeb edition of Babrius and Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]