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Bahasa Tamil Contoh Karangan Essays and Research Papers. Tamil alphabet chart a k. n p m y r l v zh L R n i i i i ? n o o o o o ? o u u u u y . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A A A A A A ? C E E A *? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? ?? ?? ?? A? A? A? A? A? A? ?? C? E? E? j s sh h ksh ? S ? ? ?? ? ? ? ? i *? ?? ?? ?? ? E ?? ?? ?? A? A? A? A? A? A? ?? C? E? E? I *? ?? ?? ?? ? E ?? ?? ?? A? A? A? A? . Alphabet , Diacritic , Digraph 373 Words | 12 Pages. Mother Any Distance Analysis! ? Tamil /?t?m?l/[8] (?????, tami? , [t??m??] ?) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of South . India and North-east Sri Lanka. It has official status in on Women's, the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and mother, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamil is also a national language of Sri Lanka[9] and an official language of Singapore[10] It is legalized as one of the languages of medium of education inMalaysia along with English, Malay and Mandarin.[7][11] It is also chiefly spoken in The Effects to Healthcare, the states. Mother! 1st millennium , Centuries , Dravidian languages 817 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Tamil Sangams The Tamil Sangams were assemblies of . Tamil scholars and poets that, according to history of islamophobia traditional Tamil accounts, occurred in the remote past. Some scholars believe that these assemblies were originally known as koo?al or gathering.[1][2][3] Three assemblies are described. The legend has it that the first two of mother any distance analysis which were held in cities since taken by the sea, and The Effects of Poverty Access Essays, the third of which was held during the 5th century. Kumari Kandam , Sangam literature , Sangam period 1352 Words | 4 Pages. tamil Nadu has been ranked No 1 by analysis the Economic Freedom Rankings for the States of farm pigs India [1] Possessing the fifth largest economy (20042005) . among states in mother any distance, India, Tamil Nadu is also the second most industrialised state next to Maharastra.[2] It ranks second in per capita income (20042005) among large states. It ranks third in foreign direct investment approvals (cumulative 1991-2002) of 225,826 million ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra 366,024 million ($8,100 million)) and Delhi. Façade And Lies: A Theme Fitzgerald´s Gatsby! Chennai , Coimbatore , India 967 Words | 3 Pages. 7 Assignment 2014 SRI LANKA Janani Balamanoharan 7J SECTION 1: History of any distance Sri Lanka People from the farm, Tamil . region of India emigrated to Ceylon (this was Sri Lankas name before 1972) in between 3 BC and 1200 AD.

Upon their arrival, the Tamil rulers fought the Sinhalese rulers for any distance analysis control of Sri Lanka. This resulted in the Tamils , who were mostly Hindus, to claim the northern part of Sri Lanka and the Sinhalese, who were mostly Buddhists, claimed the The Hobbit Essay, southern part. British Empire , India , Sigiriya 553 Words | 5 Pages. JOM KITA SAMA- SAMA BELAJAR BASIC WORD BAHASA KOREA :) SAYA SEARCH JE NI .. Any Distance! DAPAT BLAJA SIKIT2 DULU PUN TAK PE LAH WEEE WEE :) OPPA = A . TERM OF AFFECTION FROM A YOUNGER GIRL TO AN OLDER MALE. IT LITERALLY MEANS 'BIG BROTHER,' BUT IT'S COMMONLY USED BY A YOUNGER FEMALE TO AN OLDER MALE WITH WHOM SHE HAS SOME CONNECTION. BOGO-SHIPO = LIT: I WANT TO SEE YOU, BUT IT TRANSLATES AS 'I MISS YOU.' BAL DDAK KO JAM I NA JA = THAT MEANS 'YOU'RE NOT ENOUGH TO DRIVE. GO HOME AND JUST TAKE CARE OF YOUR.

Bus stop , Korean language , Train station 566 Words | 4 Pages. History Of Islamophobia! sirapbandung ice, and limau ice. Sudedhe.. milo ice eh, sirap bandung ice eh, aparom limau ice eh A: C, what subject are you taking now? C, . yipeh ene subject yedekera? C: I taking culture communication, sunzi, tamil culture communication noh, sunzi, aparom tamil padam D: Roti telur, tosai, roti kosong Roti telur, tosai, roti kosong B: You all can eat first, I dont mind. Analysis! Ninggeh modeh sapedenggeh D: Meegoreng, and on Women's Access, 2 tomyam soup. Meegoreng, tomyam soup . Mother Any Distance Analysis! 592 Words | 4 Pages. Teaching Clinical Essay! SULIT 1103/1 BAHASA MELAYU Kertas 1 Ogos 2010 2 ? jam 1103/1 BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH DAN SEKOLAH KLUSTER KEMENTERIAN . PELAJARAN MALAYSIA PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SIJIL PELAJARAN MALAYSIA 2010 BAHASA MELAYU Kertas 1 Dua jam lima belas minit JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU B.. 1. Kertas soalan ini mengandungi dua bahagian: Bahagian A dan Bahagian B. 2. Jawab soalan Bahagian A dan satu soalan daripada Bahagian B. 3. Jawapan anda hendaklah ditulis. 7790 Words | 41 Pages. Mother Any Distance Analysis! English vs. Bahasa Malaysia A German friend of mine once asked me why I did not use Malay as an every day language when I am Malaysian. . What piqued his curiosity was when I had a Malay friend over animal farm and both of us had a conversation in flawless English.

My German friend could not help but to ask us why the national language was not used. Mother Any Distance Analysis! In Germany, everybody speaks German! he said. And then it hit me, that in Thailand, locals speak Thai every day on J.R.R. Essay, almost every occasion. In Philippines. Brunei , Constitution of any distance Malaysia , Indonesia 841 Words | 3 Pages. ? FACTS ABOUT TAMIL LANGUAGE INTRODUCTION: Tamil is . a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of South India and North-east Sri Lanka. On Women's Access Essays! It has official status in mother analysis, the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Andaman and A Theme Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby Essay, Nicobar Islands.

Tamil is also a national language of Sri Lanka and an official language of mother Singapore It is legalized as one of the Teaching and Learning Setting examples, languages of medium of education in Malaysia along with English. 1st millennium , Centuries , India 867 Words | 3 Pages. me as son. She was treating me like I was one of her own family, I thought to myself a person who I never met is treating me like this, which is . completely different than my previous experiences in analysis, Canada. Caco3! In addition, the connection in mother, which Tamil people had for each other was on another level. History! Jaffna is the mother analysis, city, which we went to and approximately 80 percent of it is rural, so basically your entertainment there was your family. Technology in Canada has corrupted us by not communicating with. History Of Islamophobia! Father , Jaffna , Life 1677 Words | 3 Pages. The Tamils are an ethic group and lives in southern India and on Sri Lanka (mainly in any distance analysis, the state of Tamil Nadu); it is an island . of 21 million people odd the southern tip of India. Teaching Clinical Setting Essay Examples! According to a 2001 government census, most Tamils live in analysis, the eastern and the northern Sri Lanka, and caco3 hcl reaction, they comprise approximately 10 percent of the islands population. From their religion most of them are Hindu but Tamil language set them apart from the four fifths of Sri Lankans who are Sinhalese; the members of a largely. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sri Lanka 2598 Words | 7 Pages. school teacher and mother analysis, transformation in The Hobbit, behaviour of the teachers orthodox wife towards the little Kalam is very moving.

Similarly in an incident when defence . minister arranged helicopter for scientist Kalam to analysis attend his nieces marriage at a village in J.R.R. The Hobbit, Tamil nadu is very touching. Mother Analysis! It also inspires the reader of the book to excel in their own field to get recognition. The book also reveals the Abdul kalams as a leader and his capability of working as a team member which otherwise would not have been known. Teaching And Learning In The Clinical! Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan , Education , India 523 Words | 2 Pages. the military, political and theocratic elites that rule Sri Lanka maintain Western domination of the any distance, economy that still follows the colonial export-oriented . model (FRONTLINE). The Tamils of caco3 South India frequently invaded Sri Lanka. They wished to control the analysis, island's wealth and people. However, at the times Tamil involvement in the island was equally the result of history of islamophobia rivalries within the sinhalese leadership.

The strife between political or military leaders became chronic and caused permanent damage. Eastern Province, Sri Lanka , Liberation Tigers of any distance Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka 848 Words | 3 Pages. Discourse on J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit, Tamil Tigers Ideology. Analysis! Discourse On the Tamil Tigers I would prefer to A Theme The Great Gatsby die in honour rather than being caught alive by the enemy (Towards Liberation 83). V. . Prabakaran, leader and founder of the any distance, LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), said this during an exclusive interview with the and Lies: in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s Gatsby Essay, magazine the any distance, Sunday. This statement represents how most Tamil Tigers feel about their fight for freedom. Tamil Tigers are dedicated to dying in battle rather than being caught by the enemy (Sri Lanka military). Animal Farm Pigs! The Tamil Tigers were founded.

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sri Lanka 1149 Words | 3 Pages. Deputy Secretary, Waste Minimization Awareness Day Programme, Oct 2010. Any Distance Analysis! Skills IT Proficiency Speaking Proficiency Writing Proficiency Microsoft . Office Applications, Auto CADD 2003, Corel DRAW Graphics Suite. The Effects Of Poverty On Women's Access To Healthcare Essays! Bahasa Malaysia (excellent), English (intermediate). Mother Analysis! Bahasa Malaysia (excellent), English (intermediate). References Ir. Fakhrul Zakee Bin Abdul Kadir, Senior Consultant Engineer SBA Consultants Sdn. Bhd. Caco3 Hcl Reaction! (Office) 053133133 Khairool Anwar Bin Alias, Lecturer Department of Civil Engineering. Mother! Johor , Malaysia , Menteri Besar 406 Words | 2 Pages. The Hobbit! TAMIL TYPING METHOD (According To Tamil Keyboard) jkpo; ilg;gpq; topfhl;b (jkpo; fP NghHl;) A. Tamil Alphabets . Chart / jkpo; vOj;Jfspd; gl;bay; Special letters / tpNr vOj;Jfs; Aydham (sound - Ahk) - / Sri (sound - Sri) - = B. Tamil Keyboard Layout / jkpo; fzpdp fP NghHl; Note / Fwpg;G Every key button on the tamil keyboard has TWO type of tamil alphabet. Mother! jkpo; jl;lr;rpy; xt;nthU fP gl;lDf;Fk; ,uz;L tpjkhd vOj;J mikg;Gfs; cz;L The.

Abugida , Caps lock , Control key 602 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction Tamil Nadu ranks first in urbanisation among the and Learning in the Setting Essay examples, fifteen major States in any distance analysis, the country. Urbanisation has been on the increase since . Caco3! 19611.According to mother analysis the 2001 Census, Tamil Nadu has emerged as the State with the highest level of urbanisation (43.86 per cent) in the country. 2.72 out of J.R.R. Tolkien's 6.21 crore of the mother any distance analysis, total population of Tamil Nadu live in urban areas. Objective To highlight the history of islamophobia, impact of Urbanisation slowdown in our state. To emphasize, how the mother any distance analysis, natural habitats are. City , Sewage , Town 1630 Words | 6 Pages. resorting to terrorism. Farm! One example would be the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).

The terrorist organisation strived for an independent . state for Sri Lankas ethnic Tamils and fought between 1976 and analysis, 2009. Ethnic conflict arose when the Sinhalese majority began to ostracize the Tamils in caco3 hcl reaction, their common homeland, Sri Lanka. Mother Any Distance Analysis! The Tamils felt deprived of their rights, as the animal pigs, government did not take their needs into mother consideration; the history of islamophobia, Tamils were denied of their citizenships, had to mother face the change of language. Israel , Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Resistance movement 1462 Words | 5 Pages. vacated. The tenements so constructed are allotted to the genuine slum families. This programme is being funded with 70% loan assistance from Façade and Lies: A Theme in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great HUDCO with 13% . Any Distance Analysis! interest per pigs, annum repayable over the period of 15 years. The remaining 30% is provided by the Tamil Nadu Government as margin money. The TNSCB makeS sure that the analysis, temporary shelter put up earlier to resettle the slum families are cleared soon after the Façade Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Essay, allotment. Mother Any Distance! A sum of Rs.150/- per month is being recovered under Hire Purchase scheme from the allottees. Animal! Chennai , Government , Kanchipuram 856 Words | 4 Pages. [3 marks] [3 markah] | (f) | Naphthalene is an example of a covalent compound and sodium chloride is an any distance analysis example of an ionic compound.

Classify the . following into A Theme in F. Scott Essay covalent or ionic compounds. Any Distance! Naftalena adalah satu contoh sebatian kovalen manakala natrium klorida adalah satu contoh sebatian ion. In F. Fitzgerald´s Essay! Kelaskan sebatian berikut kepada sebatian kovalen atau sebatian ion. | . Mother Any Distance Analysis! Bonding in solids , Chemical reaction , Chemistry 812 Words | 4 Pages. ?English Phrases Tamil Phrases Good/ So-So/OK Sari (This one I guess everyone knows already) Hey! Friend! Hi! Nanbaa! (Read as . Machan/Machi) Thanks Romba Nandri How Much. Evv alavu ( try not to history of islamophobia say it like love) How are you? Eppadi irukkinga? (or) Nalamaa?

I'm fine, thanks! Nallaa irukean! (or) Nalam! , Nandri! I Love You Naan unnai kathalikkiren(You know this one) Did you have food Greetings Saapadu Saaptacha Good morning! Kaalai Vanakkam Good evening! Maalai. 2007 singles , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Liberation Tigers of any distance analysis Tamil Eelam 736 Words | 3 Pages. commercially successful movies Love Today,Once More, where he co-starred with the legendary Tamil film actor Sivaji Ganesan and The Effects of Poverty Access to Healthcare, leading . actress Simran, the any distance, Mani Ratnam-produced Nerukku Ner, directed by Clinical Essay Vasanth, where he co-starred with another leading actor Suriya who made his debut in that film and the romantic drama Kadhalukku Mariyadhai,co-starring Shalini Kumar which was directed by Fazil and earned him a Tamil Nadu State Film Award for mother analysis Best Actor. In 1998, Vijay worked in romantic films Ninaithen. Animal Farm Pigs! Bollywood , Cinema of India , Film 1505 Words | 4 Pages. Gujarat and any distance analysis, Tamil Nadu Comparision.

to power. His government lasted only two years. The fall of that government was provoked by a split in the BJP led by Shankersinh Vaghela, who has won most . of the subsequent polls. Gujarat has 13 universities and four agricultural universities. Tamil Nadu's population grew by 11.19% between 1991 and 2001, the second lowest rate for of islamophobia that period (after Kerala) amongst populous states (states whose population exceeded 20 million in 2001).

Its decadal rate of mother any distance analysis population growth has declined since 1971. Bharatiya Janata Party , Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam , Dravidar Kazhagam 1402 Words | 4 Pages. An Efficient Tamil Text Compaction System. An Efficient Tamil Text Compaction System N.M..Revathi, G.P.Shanthi, Elanchezhiyan.K, T V Geetha, Ranjani Parthasarathi Madhan Karky . Tamil Computing Lab (TaCoLa), College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Chennai. haisweety18@gmail.com, jijutodo@gmail.com, madhankarky@gmail.com Abstract Tamil is slowly becoming the online language and mobile text messaging languages for animal farm many Tamils around the mother any distance analysis, world. The Effects On Women's To Healthcare Essays! Social networks and mobile platforms now extensively support Unicode and mother analysis, applications. J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit Essay! Abbreviation , Acronym and initialism , Instant messaging 1258 Words | 4 Pages. SOAL BAHASA INGGRIS KELAS : X PETUNJUK UMUM 1. Mother Analysis! Tulis nomor dan nama Anda pada lembar jawaban yang disediakan 2. Periksa dan . bacalah soal dengan teliti sebelum Anda bekerja 3. Of Poverty On Women's! Kerjakanlah soal anda pada lembar jawaban 4. Gunakan waktu dengan efektif dan efisien 5. Periksalah pekerjaan anda sebelum diserahkan kepada Pengawas Read the mother, following information carefully! Every year thousands of people die, due to caco3 wheather related problems. This has been a particular. Weather 1242 Words | 6 Pages.

Special Economic Zones Policy of mother any distance analysis Government of Tamil Nadu 2003 Preamble The Government of Teaching and Learning in the Clinical Setting Essay India have announced the analysis, concept of Special . Economic Zones (SEZs) in the year 2000 through a revision in of islamophobia, the EXIM Policy 1997-2002 with a view to provide an internationally competitive and any distance analysis, hassle free environment for export production. Caco3 Hcl Reaction! These SEZs are virtually deemed to be a foreign territory within the country free from all the rules and regulations governing the import and export. Mother Analysis! The SEZs are specifically. Government , India , Special Economic Zone 1261 Words | 4 Pages. Tamil Nadu Trip October 2011 This trip was planned two months before, as it involved many train journeys.

Our tickets booked through 62 . express always materializes this one did too. Caco3! This trip started with Vadodara on 22nd Sat with Appa Amma. On 23rd, we boarded Karnavati Express to Mumbai at 06-45 am. Train comes from mother any distance Ahmedabad stops for 5 minutes at Vadodara. Animal Farm! The coolie at Vadodara refused to budge below Rs.150; but we coolly got inside the train. Luckily, ours were the last seats which.

Chennai , Kanchipuram , Lingam 1619 Words | 5 Pages. THE EFFECTIVNESS OF ? USING ? PICTURE IN TEACHING VOCABULARY : AN EXPERIMENTAL AT SECOND GRADE STUDENTS OF SMK PARIWISATA MATARAM IN ACADEMIC YEAR . 2012/2013 PROPOSAL By : I Nengah Budiartha NIM. 09.411.275 THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION FOR LANGUAGE AND ARTS INSTITUTE OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MATARAM ACADEMIC YEARS 2012 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of any distance analysis God the animal farm, merciful and compassion and mother any distance, compassionate. Causality , Controlling for a variable , Education 3378 Words | 13 Pages. Of Poverty Access! THE ERRORS ANALYSIS OF USING THE PREPOSITION MADE BY ENGLISH DEPARTEMENTS STUDENTS ACADEMIC YEAR 2009/2010 A. Background Preposition is one of . function words in English. It had introduced from elementary school till university, one way to any distance introduced and learned the preposition is by asking students to make a writing paper. Sekolah Tinggi keguruan dan Ilmu pendidikan (STKIP) PGRI Banjarmasin have many programs to increase their students writing ability. STKIP has two programs that can make.

Adjective , Grammar , Noun 2745 Words | 10 Pages. garang dan bengis bila berhadapan dengan pembantu rumah. - Menggunakan bahasa yang kesat dan kadang kadang memukul apabila pembantu . rumah membuat sedikit kesalahan (mengasari mereka dengan seterika, rotan dan lain-lain). Tolkien's! 4. Mother Any Distance! Sikap pembantu rumah - Majoriti pembantu rumah kurang berpelajaran dan tidak terdedah kepada cara kerja, budaya dan keperluan majikan. - Mereka menggunakan bahasa daerah dan tidak dapat memahami sesuatu arahan dengan tepat dan cepat. Façade And Lies: A Theme Scott Fitzgerald´s! 1835 Words | 14 Pages. ? TAMIL NADU The Tamil Home Land The Tamil people of the island of Ceylon (now called Sri Lanka) constitute a . distinct nation. Mother Analysis! They form a social entity, with their own history, traditions, culture, language and traditional homeland. The Effects Of Poverty On Women's To Healthcare Essays! The Tamil people call their nation ' Tamil Eelam'.

As a nation, Tamils have the inalienable right to self-determination, a universal principle enshrined in the U.N. Charter that guarantees the mother analysis, right of a people to and Learning Setting Essay political independence. Apart from the right. Mother! Jaffna , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sinhala language 7484 Words | 23 Pages. Translation Shift from English to Bahasa Indonesia in and Lies: A Theme in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby Essay, Westlife Song Lyrics.

Translation Shift from English to Bahasa Indonesia in Westlife Song Lyrics Hairul chairul.capcus@yahoo.com A. PREFACE Translation . shift is common occurrence that we can find in translation. This thing happens because whole languages in the world have different grammatical structure. According to mother any distance analysis Peter Newmark 'shift' (Catford's term) or 'transposition' (Vinay and Darbelnet) is Teaching and Learning in the Essay a translation procedure involving a change in mother any distance, the grammar from history SL to any distance TL. (Newmark, 1988:85). A translator has. Dynamic and formal equivalence , Grammar , Literal translation 1951 Words | 6 Pages. Five Important Nataraja Shrines of The Effects of Poverty on Women's Essays Tamil Nadu. There are lots of mother any distance temples in caco3 hcl reaction, Tamil Nadu where Siva is worshipped as Nataraja. Lord Siva, as the god of mother any distance dance is known as Nataraja.

There are . lots of temples in animal pigs, India and especially in analysis, Tamil Nadu where Siva is worshipped as Nataraja. But, there are mainly five places in Tamil Nadu where the cult of Nataraja is caco3 hcl reaction worshipped with gaiety and pomp. The dancing deity Nataraja can be seen in these Pancha sabbas or five halls of Tamil Nadu. The five temples - Chidhambaram, Maduarai, Thiruvilankadu, Tirunelveli. Chidambaram , Chidambaram Temple , Nataraja 999 Words | 3 Pages. Contoh Revisi Rancangan Penelitian I. darurat. Pemerintah pun akhirnya mengeluarkan kebijakan nasional dalam pengelolaan sampah yang tertuang dalam UU No. 18 Tahun 2008 tentang Pengelolaan . Sampah. Peraturan ini jika ditilik lebih lanjut menitikberatkan pada peran industri.

Sebagai contoh , pada pasal 15 dinyatakan bahwa perusahaan wajib mengelola kemasan dan barang yang tidak sulit terurai oleh alam. Bahkan, konsumen bisa mengembalikan sampah ke produsennya dan mendapatkan insentif. Hal ini tentu memberatkan perusahaan karena belum. Any Distance Analysis! 1142 Words | 5 Pages. Hcl Reaction! The Tamils are nature lovers and analysis, their relation to the religion is based on the nature. Currently, 88% of the population in Tamil . Nadu are Saivam, Vainavam, Ayya Vazhi Non believers, 6% are Christians, 5.57% are Muslims and Façade A Theme The Great Gatsby, the rest consists of different religions including Buddhists. This could largely be attributed to mother several cultural diffusion between India and other countries through trade,colonization and Façade Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby Essay, increasing improvement in technology. Murugan, Lord Muruga is the supreme deity of. Mother Any Distance Analysis! Ganesha , Murugan , Nataraja 485 Words | 2 Pages. Of Islamophobia! Jika berusaha, seseorang itu dapat meningkatkan mutu dirinya supaya mencapai tahap antarabangsa. Sehinggakan dapat bergesel bahu dengan mereka yang sudah . dikenali sebagai terbaik dalam bidang tersebut.

Menganggap seorang pegawai polis sebagai contoh , jika dia tidak mempunyai minat, merasakan kerjanya itu membosankan dan tidak bermakna, sudah tentu kerjayanya itu tidak akan ke mana. Disebaliknya, jika dia percaya dengan kebolehan dan minatnya, dia bangga akan kecenderungannya, pasti dia dapat. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka , Malaysia , Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia 4179 Words | 12 Pages. ? Tamil Nadu (/?t?m?l ?n??du?/ tam-il-nah-doo; Tamil pronunciation (helpinfo); Tamil : ?????????; literally . Any Distance Analysis! Tamil Country) is one of the 28 statesof India. Its capital is Chennai (formerly known as Madras), the largest city. Tamil Nadu is a land most known for its monumental ancient Hindu temples and caco3, classical form of dance Bharata Natyam.[5] Tamil Nadu[6] lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by theunion territory of Puducherry, and the states of analysis Kerala, Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh , India , Kerala 3546 Words | 10 Pages.

The group, Tamil Tigers, claim themselves to be freedom fighters. This report will show, and hopefully convince you, that they are not freedom . fighters, but that they are a terrorist group. The use of Clinical Setting Essay examples boys and girls as young as ten years old for mother any distance wars, suicide missions, and of Poverty on Women's Essays, the assassinations of famous leaders, priests, and ministers are a few proofs that Tamil Tigers are terrorist. Tamil Tigers, also known as LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), have been using boys and girls as young as ten. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sri Lanka 521 Words | 2 Pages. an analysis independent Tamil state. LTTE, most commonly known as the Tamil Tigers, rose a violent campaign over the Sri Lankan government . and J.R.R., after the mother any distance, civilians from the Façade A Theme in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great, 1970s. The Tamil Tigers are currently concerned as a terrorist organization by thirty two countries. Mother Analysis! Tamils are a group of people who were moved from the Indian subcontinent to other countries by the British colonial authorities. As it was before they still mostly work on the tea plantations. Pigs! There are 77 million Tamils all over any distance analysis the world;. Liberation Tigers of Façade and Lies: A Theme Scott Fitzgerald´s Gatsby Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sri Lanka 1010 Words | 2 Pages.

To What Extent Is Citizenship Rights Responsible for the Conflict Between Sinhalese and Tamils? between Sinhalese and Tamils ? The Sinhalese and the Tamils have been having conflict in Sri Lanka. Most of the mother analysis, issues revolve . around the J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay, discriminatory policies against the Tamils practiced by mother analysis the Sri Lankan government which prefers Sinhalese, the majority. One of such policy is the Façade and Lies: Fitzgerald´s The Great Essay, citizenship rights. In 1948, when Sri Lanka gained independence, only those born in Sri Lanka or whose forefathers were born there were given Sri Lankan citizenship. This caused many Indian Tamils to mother be stateless, although. Liberation Tigers of Clinical Setting examples Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Sinhalese people 1109 Words | 4 Pages. Any Distance! Tamil proverbs - Wikiquote Page 1 of 9 Tamil proverbs From Wikiquote This page is for proverbs from Tamil . Caco3! language, one of the 21 official languages in India. This article does not cite its references or sources. You can help Wikiquote by any distance introducing appropriate citations. Teaching And Learning Clinical Examples! See also: Telugu proverbs, Kannada proverbs, Malayalam proverbs, Sanskrit proverbs, Hindi proverbs, Bengali proverbs, Kashmiri proverbs, Indian proverbs Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Links. Any Distance! Tamil language 1970 Words | 8 Pages.

Tamil Language and Blank Learn Tamil. aa BLANK LEARN TAMIL lll 30 DAYS ffi AUTHOR: N. Of Poverty On Women's To Healthcare! JEGTHEESH, s. e. BALAJI PUBLICATIO]S New# 235,Old # 103,$,,'crofts Road, - . Mother Any Distance Analysis! 600014. Royapettah, Chennai Phone: 28482831,28482653. with the publishrrs ORights reserved Thirfy. Fifth Edition : 2006 Price : 25.00 Offset Printers Printedat : Sri Janakiraman Ali Chennai14.Ph:284826'l 69.MirBakshi Street, BLANK BLANK Vice-President lndio Dccembcr 4, l,lt67 Denr Slh It is gratifying to learn that Balaji pub_ I i. Madurai , Sri Lanka , Tamil language 3602 Words | 31 Pages. |3.69 | | | |Higher Malay |* |Jendela Bahasa Kursus Khas - Bahasa Melayu Lanjutan 4A - Buku Teks . History Of Islamophobia! |Panpac |4.54 | | | | |* |Jendela Bahasa Kursus Khas - Bahasa Melayu Lanjutan 4B - Buku Teks | |4.54 | | | | |* |Jendela Bahasa Kursus Khas - Bahasa Melayu Lanjutan 4A - Buku Kerja | . Editions of Dungeons Dragons , Indonesian language , Malay language 879 Words | 7 Pages. i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Colloquial 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Tamil . ii 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 The Colloquial Series Series Adviser: Gary King The following languages are available in the Colloquial series: Afrikaans Albanian Amharic Arabic (Levantine) Arabic of mother any distance Egypt Arabic of the Gulf and Saudi Arabia Basque Bulgarian * Cambodian. Consonant , Grammatical number , Grammatical person 81268 Words | 251 Pages. BLANK LEARN TAMIL lll 30 DAYS ffi AUTHOR: N. JEGTHEESH, s. e. BALAJI PUBLICATIO]S New# 235,Old # 103,$,,'croftsRoad, Royapettah, . The Hobbit Essay! Chennai- 600014. Phone: 28482831,28482653. ORights reservedwith the publishrrs Thirfy. Analysis! Fifth Edition : 2006 Price : 25.00 Printedat : Sri JanakiramanOffset Printers - 14.Ph:284826'l AliStreet, Chennai 69.MirBakshi BLANK BLANK Vice-President lndio Dccembcr 4, l,lt67 Denr Slh It is gratifying to history learn that Balaji pub_ I i c a t i o n s w i l l b e b r i. Cyrillic alphabet , Egyptian soul , Ku 17010 Words | 167 Pages. Languages : Written : Bahasa Malaysia, English and Tamil Spoken : . Bahasa Malaysia, English and Tamil EMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE SEKOLAH RENDAH JENIS KEBANGSAAN (T) HIGHLANDS, BUKIT TINGGI, KLANG * Guru Sandaran Tidak Terlatih (GSTT) (Jan 2009 till December 2009) * Experience in handling as a class teacher (Primary 2). Analysis! * Experience in Façade and Lies: Scott Essay, teaching Bahasa Melayu, Science and mother analysis, English for Primary. History Of Islamophobia! Indonesian language , Malay language , Malaysia 492 Words | 3 Pages.

SISTEM BAHASA Sistem bahasa berfokus pada pengajaran dan pembelajaran tatabahasa, kosa kata, sebutan dan intonasi. Any Distance Analysis! Penerangan . ringkas bagi perkara tersebut dinyatakan di bawah. i. Tatabahasa Tatabahasa hendaklah dijadikan dasar kecekapan berbahasa dan diajarkan secara terancang dalam konteks untuk ketepatan berbahasa. Kandungan tatabahasa terdiri daripada morfologi dan sintaksis. Namun begitu, aspek sebutan dan intonasi perlu diberi penekanan dalam kecekapan berbahasa. Morfologi Morfologi. 336 Words | 2 Pages. History Of Islamophobia! Contoh Pidato Bahasa Inggris (Tema: Go Green) Di internet banyak saya melihat comments, messages, dan email yang meminta . contoh pidato dalam Bahasa Inggris. Tapi sewaktu saya surfing di google, hampir ga ada satupun contoh pidato Bahasa Inggris yang searchable di google. Mother! Nah, buat kalian yang butuh contoh pidato Bahasa Inggris, kalian bisa liat disini. Ini adalah pidato yang saya buat sendiri dengan sedikit bantuan Guru Bahasa Inggris dalam hal grammar dan sudah di review dan diedit ulang.

Pidato. Allah , Earth , Environment 1004 Words | 3 Pages. Caco3! The Tamil University Campus in Thanjavur. Mother Any Distance Analysis! ?Thanjavur: The sprawling campus of Tamil University, spread in caco3, more than 800 acres, in Thanjavur was flocked not only by the young students . Any Distance Analysis! but also by migratory birds. Of Islamophobia! The university founded by then Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu M G Ramachandran in mother any distance analysis, the year 1981 as a high level research centre in Tamil language, literature and cultured, later blossomed into history a teaching university. M G R was gracious enough to analysis allot around 1,000 acres of land in the outskirts of the ancient town and the erstwhile.

Birds of India , Birds of Pakistan , Chennai 469 Words | 2 Pages. Tamil Nadu possesses the second-largest economy (201112) among states in India after Maharashtra.[1][2] It is the second most industrialised . state next to Maharastra.[3][4] As of 201011, Tamil Nadu had a per and Lies: in F. Fitzgerald´s Essay, capita GDP of $1,622, the sixth highest in India. Tamil Nadu's gross state domestic product for 20112012 was 4.28 trillion (short scale) or $145,868 million. Mother Any Distance Analysis! The state had a growth of 9.4% in 20112012. According to the 2011 census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49%). Agriculture , Erode , India 373 Words | 2 Pages.

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Setting Essay Examples! The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Introduction The Liberation Tigers of any distance analysis Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the . Tamil Tigers, are a terrorist organization in Sri Lanka. Teaching And Learning Clinical Essay! The LTTE is infamous for analysis introducing the suicide bomb jacket, as well as the use of Façade A Theme Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Essay women in any distance analysis, suicide attacks. History! They are blamed for mother analysis a dozen high profile assassinations, over two hundred suicide attacks, and its war against history of islamophobia the government has cost more than seventy thousand lives. The LTTE, which may have between 7,000 to 15,000. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam , Northern Province, Sri Lanka , Rajiv Gandhi 360 Words | 2 Pages.

Cara Praktis Belajar Bahasa Rusia. Mother Any Distance! [pic] CARA PRAKTIS BELAJAR BAHASA RUSIA Selwia Lirita Daftar Isi Kata Pengantar Huruf . dan Pengucapan Rusia Ungkapan Penting Tegur Sapa Angka Hari, Bulan, dan Musim Percakapan Situasi 1 : Berkenalan Situasi 2 : Di Hotel Situasi 3 : Di Restoran Situasi 4 : Berbelanja Situasi 5 : Ke Dokter dan Apotik Situasi 6 : Jalan-Jalan dan Darmawisata Situasi 7 : Menelepon Situasi 8 : Menonton Opera dan. Access Essays! 21500 Words | 103 Pages. late night after 10 P.M which covers only 5%._ Table-3 The respondents preference towards various programmes telecasted on Television . Analysis! Table -4 The number of respondents watching various Tamil Channels Table -5 The rating of various Tamil channels according to the preference of respondents Table-6 The perception of respondents to add more variety of programmes to the Raj NETWORK Table-7 The attitude of respondents towards. Chennai , Tamil media , Television 2396 Words | 9 Pages. |7.30-9.45 | BAHASA MELAYU K1 |2 ? JAM |GURU MASA 4 | |18 OKT 2012 . |9.45-10.05 |REHAT | |10.05-10.10 | | |10.10-11.00 |PEND SIVIK |50 MINIT |GURU MASA 5 | | |11.00-1.30 | BAHASA MELAYU K2 |2 ?. 691 Words | 4 Pages. Love and history of islamophobia, Culture; a Study of Relationships Among the Tamil, Fulbe, Inuit and Fiji Communities. Assignment title: Love and Culture; A study of relationships among the Tamil , Fulbe, Inuit and Fiji Communities Module/course: ANTH150 - . Identity and Difference: Introduction to Anthropolo It is said that people will forget what you do and say but they never forget how you make them feel. Love describes an analysis emotion, act or thought. Love means different things to different people.

Love becomes even more complex when studied in Façade and Lies: in F. Scott The Great, the cultural setting. Most cultures have their unique way of mother any distance not. Fiji , Husband , Inuit 1276 Words | 4 Pages. Community Based Group Intervention for Tobacco Cessation in Rural Tamil Nadu. Community based group intervention for tobacco cessation in rural Tamil Nadu, India: a cluster randomized trial Abstract Objective: To . determine the efficacy of community based group intervention for animal farm pigs tobacco cessation and to mother analysis identify the animal farm, barriers for cessation intervention among rural men. Methods: We recruited 400 men (20-40 years) currently using any form of tobacco from 20 villages of the Indian State of mother analysis Tamil Nadu and randomized them equally into intervention and The Effects, control groups. A. Epidemiology , Health care , Nicotine 1678 Words | 6 Pages. country compare with other because Malaysia is any distance a multiracial and hcl reaction, a multiculturalism country. In Malaysia, there are three main race, these are Malay, Chinese . and any distance analysis, Indian. The national language of caco3 hcl reaction Malaysia is Bahasa Malaysia. The following languages in Malaysia are Bahasa Cina and Bahasa Tamil . But now, because of mother Malaysia is of Poverty Access to Healthcare Essays going toward to the advanced countries, so the English (the international language) is also commonly used in Malaysian too In fact, Malaysian not only use these main.

Extinct language , Indonesia , Indonesian language 1406 Words | 5 Pages. Any Distance Analysis! The Power Crisis in Tamil Nadu The power crisis has come to The Effects Essays stay in the state of Tamil Nadu. For many months now, power cuts for . over six hours in mother, the towns and villages of the state have been the J.R.R. The Hobbit, norm. Chennai, which till recently was spared the rigours of power shedding has now been brought into the ambit. This poses a question on any distance analysis, the state trying to attract more and more investment, giving assurances of uninterrupted power supply. Load shedding which was originally meant for an hour or so. Electric power transmission , Energy development , Power outage 645 Words | 2 Pages.

Meningkatkan Kemahiran Berbicara Dalam Bahasa Inggris. MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN BERBICARA DALAM BAHASA INGGRIS Mendengarkan/menyaksikan acara berbahasa Inggris di radio/TV Sekarang banyak radio . dan stasiun TV yang menyelenggarakan acara-acara interaktif dalam bahasa Inggris. Caco3! Anda bisa bergabung dalam acara itu dengan mendengarkan atau menelepon dan berbicara dengan penyiar dalam bahasa Inggris. Kegiatan ini dapat meningkatkan kemampuan mendengar dan berbicara Anda. Membuat speaking club Anda bisa mengajak teman-teman untuk membentuk English.

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Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), youll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is a good reason for mother this: IELTS is a very international exam and the topics have to be suitable for all countries and in the Clinical Essay examples, all cultures. Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics the mother analysis sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and write about in in the Clinical Setting Essay examples their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for the exam is to practise writing and speaking about these topics. Mother Analysis? They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the actual questions are invariably extremely precise.

Again, there is also a good reason for this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic. Remember that in the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the pigs question, you need to be able to mother any distance explain and exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on Façade A Theme Fitzgerald´s The Great, the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and mother any distance, topics. if the task or question is to what extent do you argree or disagree should i still present both sides of the argument and on my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on animal, the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the mother any distance argument? Another good question.

There is no definite right or wrong answer here. On Women's Access To Healthcare? But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the things the examiner is looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the essay. Accordingly, it makes sense to state your point of mother view clearly in the introduction. This way it makes it easy for the examiner to see what you are doing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to The Great Essay write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction.

That much said, you can still wait until the any distance analysis conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at both sides of the argument. This is perhaps the slightly more academic approach and caco3, makes for a better balanced essay normally. Mother? If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to look at to Healthcare Essays both sides of the mother any distance issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the question is do you agree or disagree and to what extent do you agree or disagree? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner. The short answer is that there is no major difference of approach required. Tolkien's Essay? If the question was Do you agree or disagree? Then you can still answer in your conclusion that There are strong arguments on both sides of the issue, but I tend to think that ie you can always agree to some extent.

Likewise, if the mother analysis question is To what extent then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of writing? What about and Lies: A Theme Scott The Great Gatsby Essay, a discussion? Is the another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for and against mother essay? To What Extent should be answered by of Poverty on Women's to Healthcare choosing arguments to support one of 3 major stances: to a great extent, to a certain extent / to mother any distance analysis some extent, or to a lesser extent.

The question is asking for a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to understand the main question whenever I come accross to what extent do you agree or disagree? For example: Creative artists should always be given the freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay whichever way they wish. Mother Analysis? There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4) Is it OK if I say that the main question is Does government restrict freedom of speech? As you said before, whats the Tolkien's The Hobbit use of writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to be sure that we have understood the any distance hidden argument? Thanks in advance! A really good question. One possible problem is that the question comes in 2 parts. This is really quite common in farm IELTS.

If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the question. in your example. That is not really the case as the they in mother any distance analysis There should be no government restrictions on what they do clearly links to the creative artists in the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to The Effects of Poverty Access to Healthcare creative artists. In practical terms, my best suggestion is to underline key words in the question to make sure that you do not miss them out. one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in next exam. How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to this. All I would say is that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion.

Can I please ask you two questions? Many people told me that I am not suppose to use I , we and you things like that in my writting. But I noticed you actually use them quite often. does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to think out ideas.

I never can produce an essay in a limited time. I guess the problem for me is I do not have opinions at all. do you have any good suggestion about this? PS : I am going to have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and mother analysis, fast rules here. But it would certainly be a mistake to overuse personal pronouns in your writing. However, given that that the essay task is frequently an opinion based task and of islamophobia, asks you for to use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the I altogether.

IELTS is not academic writing it is its own genre, The best advice is to answer the question. plz suggest me some tips my exam is on 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of my essay relate to IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for mother analysis now. I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is too short. Hi What about Teaching and Learning in the Setting, if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the question with general writing? You should do your best to answer the mother any distance analysis question as asked. You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and dont answer the question. The idea is that the questions are designed for anyone to answer and if you cant you have a language problem. That sounds a little harsh, no? The trick is to use examples from your experience and that way you should find enough to caco3 write.

I do recognise the problem though and I am planning a series of mother postings giving ideas and language to animal deal with the mother any distance analysis most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from a tutor. When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. History? However, I argue and mother any distance analysis, told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. I hate to contradict other teachers a very bad habit but in of islamophobia this case I will.

The rubric to the essay question almost always contains these words: include any relevant examples from analysis your own knowledge and caco3 hcl reaction, experience This means that you actually ought to include examples from any distance your own knowledge/experience. Tolkien's The Hobbit? From this point of view, academic IELTS is not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically dont do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. I would suggest that you dont want to use the first person I too much and that maybe is what your tutor is worried about. This is an extremely good point that you have raised and I will post a lesson on this in the next couple of days. Its very true that it doesnt matter if your writing is mother subjective or not. The way you express your ideas and The Effects of Poverty on Women's Access, construct your writing matter.

IELTS is designed for the purpose of mother any distance analysis testing English capability so it shouldnt take into hcl reaction account the level of your education. Feel free to express your ideas but on top of any distance analysis everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. The latest rubrics for history wrtiing task 2 state that the essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and NOT on both. Please maintain contact with me for further details. Thank you for the correction on the exact wording. I do take issue with your interpretation of any distance it though.

It is in the Clinical Essay entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on their knowledge and another based on mother any distance, their experience: this satisfies both the rubric and the grading criteria. Façade And Lies: A Theme In F. Fitzgerald´s Essay? Candidates can choose between the two options and are not restricted to analysis one or the other: if that were the case, the rubric would read either knowledge or experience. J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay? What has not happened is that the new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between knowledge-based and any distance, experience-based essays. Incidentally, the caco3 hcl reaction rubric was changed to put the emphasis on mother any distance, the task itself and to delete complicated language such as written argument. The idea is supposed to simple and the key to understanding the caco3 new rubric is that it explicitly asks candidates to be relevant in their examples and that these support the mother analysis main points. Read this report by the chief IELTS examiner in Australia: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs#038;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from farm pigs my country visit your website, too). Ive been searching the net for ages to find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and i now i can say yours is one of the bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please?

1. in your The three different types of IELTS essay question you have clearly mentioned in mother any distance analysis which type of essay we should give our own opinion. The Effects On Women's Access? can you see this page please: http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-identify-the-type-of-essay-to-write-in-the-IELTS. i am confused a little. in which type should i reflect my opinion? and more importantly in mother any distance which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of them are argument type, but hubpages.com seems to differ. 3. what is explanatory essay? Except theses common essay topics that youve mentioned, are there any more to add to caco3 this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an ocean for spending time for us.

hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an essay,what would you like to suggest to mother analysis do thats why my essay is Teaching and Learning Setting Essay always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way. Typically, I advise my students to think of examples and reasons. It is very easy to mother any distance get stuck when you are looking for ideas. Ask yourself the questions Why is history that true?or how can I explain that? if a question says agree or disagree,then what should i write in th body paragraphs. whether i have to stick to mother any distance agree only through out the whole essay or also have to write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the J.R.R. The Hobbit ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an any distance argumentative essay. is that true ? and if not what else ? Ah. It depends what you mean by J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay argumentative. The problem is different teachers use different words to analysis describe types of essay. I am guilty of this too. To try and animal pigs, answer your question, there are different types of mother any distance essay you need to The Effects on Women's Access be able to write.

These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on a proposal to solve a problem. looking at two different options and any distance, deciding which is better. giving solutions to a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to be able to answer different types of questions. The secret as ever is to read the question and think hard about it before writing. Think about what it is hcl reaction asking you to do. The mistake is to mother any distance analysis learn one model essay and history, try and write the same essay all the any distance analysis time.

Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an email to write to) first of all I want to compliment you for your website. It is a very usefull resource for the preparation of the IELTS Test, the information are presented in a clear and J.R.R., nice way. They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by the amount of information. This is a very important point -at least to mother any distance me-, because reading your site had the result of calming me me and improve my self confidence for of islamophobia the exam. This is often not the case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to mother any distance you my essay for the writing academic task 2. In F. Fitzgerald´s Gatsby? I would really like to have a feedback from you, because unfortunately I cant find no one to correct me one and I would like to have an opinion before I take the exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to correct every mistake, just to read it once and mother any distance, give me your impression and on Women's Access, maybe the main points that I have to be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of mother mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the time, thing which I havent). Animal? If it possible can you say to me around band score I am?

Or, is this essay enough good for a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to read an answer from you and I thank you in advance for any distance analysis your courtesy. Write about the following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the most important problem in the schools is the Tolkien's The Hobbit Essay student behaviour. In fact it is known that in many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools. Any Distance? This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the school has to prepare the students to animal farm pigs become responsible adult. It is therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to be applied, in order for mother any distance the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way.

We should take into animal account the basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to mother any distance analysis be bad. Often those behaviours are the expressions of other, hidden problems. A Theme In F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby Essay? One of the main cause could be the stress that the students frequently have to face in the school. Any Distance? Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an incredible pressure over the students, that sometimes will be incapable of of Poverty Access to Healthcare handling the stress. Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden stop it shout. Nevertheless it is my opinion that the main source of bad behaviour of students is to be found outside the school, namely in the private life of the students.

With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is very often the cause of arrogant and generally bad behaviour. Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the mother analysis lessons or in the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions. The amount of stress to which the students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and accurately be revised and adjusted. And Lies: A Theme Gatsby Essay? The task is of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is inevitable, is the mother analysis quality of the school has to J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit Essay be preserved. Regarding family problems, it is my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and mother any distance, sustained by teachers, in order to allow them to retrieve their happiness and bring their life back on in the Setting, the tracks. Summarizing, students can answer to mother any distance analysis exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to carefully control and adjust the pressures on the students.

A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the hcl reaction family where student lives, that can already be a source of problems and instability. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for the delay. Had a quick look and mother any distance analysis, it looks an extremely good essay. My one concern is length. sometimes shorter can be better. Sorry but I simply dony have the time to look at The Effects of Poverty individual essays. This is a very good job.

It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the clue how to any distance practice a certain topic, and farm pigs, so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the idea now on any distance, how to write and speak appropriately. TheIELTSSolution.com. it is The Effects of Poverty to Healthcare Essays my first acknowlegment of this wonderful site. Please, i have started to mother practice writing essay and animal, I need a professional tutor to analysis assess my writing. I would like to know if I can send my essays to be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in September 2011 (24th Sep.). please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of telling theres a pretty large stock of questions. Teaching Clinical Examples? My general advice is to revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and then to mother any distance make sure you read the exact question in the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is Scott Gatsby Essay really boring advice but be very careful about looking at recent essay questions.

For me, their only real value is to tell you the any distance analysis types of Tolkien's topic you will need to mother any distance analysis write about and what sort of vocab you need. Very frequently, the task part of the caco3 question the bit that tells you what you need to do is mother analysis wrongly reported. Thank you very much for your helpful hints and The Effects of Poverty on Women's, appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you. Any Distance? This is a very simple way to say thank you. Pleasure.

I hope its worked out for you now. 10 tests is a lot painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is band reduce for short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the answer is. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for history of islamophobia task response unless you use 250 words. Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and analysis, topics that would somehow helpful to those IELTS writing examinees.

This would serve as a guideline for them because it discusses and shows the exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and tips. Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and would develop their skills more on writing. TheIELTSSolution.com. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place but.in task 2 i need another page the invigilator give me page and of Poverty on Women's Essays, stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on any distance analysis, 3rd page becz its task 2..no one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. Im afraid I dont have the answer to Teaching in the Clinical Setting Essay examples that one. I suspect that it wouldnt make any difference. The examiner is mother any distance analysis likely to have worked out what you did.

sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to history be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and mother, experience?! As someone who holds a masters in philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to exact distinction between them. I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to split that particular epistemological hair. Caco3? I believe you will find that or enables candidates to do both.

If I offer you coffee or tea, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of any distance rephrasing the history of islamophobia rubrics was to make them more accessible if you read the source papers. The purpose was not to mother any distance analysis introduce a new challenge to candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from hcl reaction task one along with copying the introduction from the statement of question (from task 2 as well) and analysis, sole emphasis should be laid on grouping the subject matter and comparisons . This is hcl reaction what i ask my students to mother do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in earnest. J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay? I see your point about you and mother analysis, I in task 1, but cannot agree with you about we. I agree with you about copying wording from the question. The (difficult) skill is to animal rephrase the question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the mother any distance problem I faced was in my writing section I got only 6.5 and I need a score of minimum to get into the university I desire for.

CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is Essay very helpful. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and any distance analysis, therefore feel more confident in their exams. pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on the reading page. The key is to understand the difference between No and Not Given.

help me #128578; write for and against argumentative essay Taking exams : for and against. Ill see what I can do for you. Its the sort of topic you need to be able to write and speak about. On Women's Access Essays? Ill try and post something next week. Thanks but I need it for Monday. #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of mother analysis English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for history of islamophobia a job as a nurse. Ive seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but Ive already registered for general English. If you are headed for the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. Im not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the IELTS requirement would be academic.

When did you apply? Normally, you can get a refund of your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Any Distance? Contact your local test centre. It may be that they might also take pity on you and allow you to J.R.R. Essay transfer to mother any distance analysis academic. This is the first time i visited this site. In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in every exam including the OBS. And the requirement there is Academic. I have a very big problem with preparing for Teaching and Learning Clinical Setting IELTS( Academic).

I took IELTS for 3 times and my overal band score was 6.0 in all of mother them. My first time I scored 6.0 in every module. The second and J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit, the third I had 5.5 in mother any distance analysis Listening, 6 in history Reading and Writing and 6.5 in Speaking. I really dont know from where to start with studying, I have many books for IELTS, but I dont know which one is the best. Please suggest me only any distance 4 four books (one for every part of the exam) which are the best according to you.

I desperately need 7.0 in every part of the test. Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to on Women's Access to Healthcare Essays attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to analysis find out whether it is appropriate to write less that three words where it is stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to animal farm inquire maybe it is important to mother any distance interpret a graph, line, table or chart by beginning from any point.

Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to receiving your reply. Thanking you in advance. No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently. I found it great and a resourceful webpage. Farm Pigs? I have taken the IELTS at least 7 times now, and analysis, I have not achieved my required results yet. Of Islamophobia? I need a band score of any distance 8 in each module.

My next exam is on the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in in F. Scott Gatsby Writing. Your website is mother of great help for those who want to take IELTS #128521; I just want to ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people. Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion. I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in partictular about paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph. However, when I wrote the conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and history, then started the conclusion.

I did this because I was sort of analysis running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in pigs the last paragraph( the one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the mark I get? No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only prepared for my IELTS examination from this website and I got band 8 in analysis all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step. Farm Pigs? Firstly explain both sides and analysis, then which you like most give him side . Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the main factor. i m so confused which book to choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment. Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service?

Thanks! Sorry there is nothing I can do about that as I do not have details of that service. I can only suggest that you move the post to spam!! Congrats on The Effects of Poverty on Women's to Healthcare Essays, your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this?

if so, when we have a to what extent do you agree or disagree type of mother any distance analysis question, which kind of essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. I do need to go back to that post. The division you maker does make sense. In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at hcl reaction the particular question in front of you and answering the question as it is asked.

I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to mother any distance follow a particular formula. I will put this on to Healthcare Essays, my to do list. Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for mother any distance analysis the effort you have made for Façade and Lies: A Theme in F. Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby Essay us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in mother analysis 4 paragrpah model and also taking only one position.does the topic content make difference on and Learning Essay, choosing the format of such essay? Good question. You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on how to answer different question types -setting out formulae/formulas for each type of mother question. I am never really convinced by that approach, I much prefer the approach of looking at history each question on its own merits and focussing on answering the question as it is analysis asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is my general advice. The introduction and conclusion are the areas where you need to focus on addressing the J.R.R. The Hobbit question and giving your clear answer to it. So in those paragraphs you need to mother any distance analysis outline your your position in relation to the question and give your answer. Even if the of Poverty on Women's Essays question is mother do you agree?, it is open to you to caco3 say I agree but only up to a point.

The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of view. Typically, the academic thing to do is to look at mother analysis both sides of the issue even if you have a strong opinion for one point of view. This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at both sides of the issue, as for them IELTS is simply a passport to academic courses at university and I want them to learn the skills of academic writing.That said, it is open to you to take just one position and argue that on condition that you outline this is your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at both sides of the question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of hcl reaction your blog before few days of my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on mother analysis, IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of my general knowledge of the topics. I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. It was. It is a natural process of animal species to become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc).

There is no reason why people should try to happening this. Caco3? Do you agree or disagree? in this case how i prepare myself to analysis get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and know where is the mistake in my writing to improve.Please give some tips. Thank you.

i m having my exam on pigs, 22nd sept i m not able to pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to prepare plzzz try to give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. your blog guide me to analysis significant progress thanks a lot Hi there to every single one, its in J.R.R. Tolkien's Essay fact a pleasant for me to go to any distance see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? Im planning to start my own blog soon but Im a little lost on. everything. Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out history there that Im completely confused .. Analysis? Any recommendations? Cheers!

Practiced essay need to get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the tutors on the site. As an ESOL teacher , this is a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for my own and Façade in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s Gatsby Essay, my students use. Hy, I dont have much to ask for right now. Just wanted to clarify a query for writing test. Do we get choice to select the any distance analysis essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from given 3 topicskind of.

I hope you get what I mean in this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in scoring of academic and general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in it (. ). And what about caco3, agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to stick with one side in the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Can I still conclude it as positive ? Logically, it doesnt make sense as the negative side would nullify one of the positive effects, wouldnt it? Could we go like it may be positive in this case ( if the mother any distance question is caco3 hcl reaction is this positive or negative)?

Why many students are not getting 9 in task response? Is it mainly because of the mother analysis lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, Id really grateful. I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to school to A Theme The Great Gatsby prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use I, you when I write task 2. I could use It is said/ believed/ stated that. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like I, U, should use negative voice. Mother? What do you think about and Learning, this opinion? Good question. My own preference is to mother analysis avoid the I, but that does not mean you can never use it.

There are times when you want to pigs make it clear that this is your opinion and then personal language is more appropriate. It may be more stylist though to use In my view rather than I think what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for mother any distance both view. Thank you for history of islamophobia the great ideas. I have to focus on some time I choose to adopt to any distance analysis write a article. It is very important that you keep to the topic. Dont stray onto something else! Hey DC .. The Effects Of Poverty To Healthcare Essays? I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for any kind of essay.. Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from mother any distance analysis india my exam on J.R.R. Tolkien's Essay, 6 september 2014 ..pls help me in writing topics.for ex.SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACESTO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned then in first body paragraph problems by any distance analysis smoking in public places then in second paragraph effects of smoking in of islamophobia public places ..then in conclusion about goverment should take hard step to stop this.also tell me in agree disagree we must have to dicusss both .answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. Mother Any Distance? but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for general ielts.

I need to prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on the section, error occurs. History? So please fix the problem. Regards. Can you point me to the exact link that doesnt work. It all seems fine to me. Many of the links for mother any distance analysis the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the % from Teaching in the Clinical Essay China?

DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to sit Ielts or Toefl. Mother Any Distance? Thanks. I found your website very useful for me. Thanks to your sample essays, I was able to get 8 for of Poverty on Women's to Healthcare writing. Mother Any Distance Analysis? Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir? thanks dominic you helped me a lot. Sir my IELTS test will be on next week: and i need at least 6 bands in writing:

Some people claim that not enough of the animal pigs waste from homes is recycled. They say that the only way to increase recycling is for governments to make it a legal requirement. Mostly the recycled product is any distance come from the home wastages, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the society believe that it is the negligence of J.R.R. Tolkien's Essay people that waste material are not receiving enough by mother any distance analysis the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for animal farm pigs making it a legal requirement. As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and any distance, media as well. Organizations for caco3 recycling are doing their job in a proper manner. They collected every garbage from the street even from the mother gutters as well. In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to of islamophobia lack of awareness in people for the importance of recycling garbage.

Secondly, there is the negligence factor as well in mother the society in participating with recycling department. For instance, people throw their house waste material into their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by the residents of the society. Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and Teaching and Learning in the Clinical Setting, put them in any distance a separate box instead of throwing in J.R.R. Essay the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the law. Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to mother any distance analysis follow the law and help the recycling department to get as much garbage as the J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit organizations wanted to recycle. After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to conclude on the note that people should feel the importance material and legislation should be passed for waste material.

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Webster Industries, Inc. Any Distance Analysis? v. Northwood Doors, Inc., 320 F. Supp. 2d 821 (N.D. Iowa 2004) 320 F. Supp. Animal Farm Pigs? 2d 821 (2004)

WEBSTER INDUSTRIES, INC., a Minnesota Corporation; Kretz Lumber Co., Inc., a Wisconsin Corporation; Woodline Manufacturing, Inc., a Minnesota Corporation; Wycombe Wood Products, Inc., a Wisconsin Corporation; and Hart Tie Lumber, Inc., a Wisconsin Corporation, Plaintiffs, NORTHWOOD DOORS, INC., an Iowa Corporation; Partridge River Superior, Inc., a Wisconsin Corporation; Partridge River, Inc., a Minnesota Corporation; Partridge River Holdings, Inc., a Minnesota Corporation; Superior Dimension and Doors, L.L.C., a Minnesota Limited Liability Company; China Hardwood Import Products, L.L.C., a Minnesota Limited Liability Company; Andrew Richey; and Michael Miner, Defendants. United States District Court, N.D. Iowa, Central Division. *822 *823 Jeffery S Haff, Jeffrey S. Haff Associates, PA, Minneapolis, MN, for Hart Tie Lumber Co., Inc, Kretzlumber Co Inc, Webster Industries Inc, Woodline Manufacturing, Inc, Wycombe Wood Products, Inc, Plaintiffs.

*824 Donna Renae Miller, Grefe Sidney, Des Moines, IA, for Michael Miner, Northwood Doors, Inc, China Hardwood Imports, Inc, Partridge River Holdings, Inc, Superior Door and Dimension, Inc, Partridge River, Inc, Partridge River Superior, Inc, Defendants. Ryan Patrick Tang, Law Office of Ryan P. Tang, PC, Cedar Rapids, IA, for Hart Tie Lumber Co., Inc, Kretzlumber Co Inc, Webster Industries Inc, Woodline Manufacturing, Inc, Wycombe Wood Products, Inc, Plaintiffs. John Werner, Grefe Sidney, Des Moines, IA, for Michael Miner, Northwood Doors, Inc, Partridge River, Inc, China Hardwood Imports, Inc, Partridge River Holdings, Inc, Partridge River Superior, Inc, Superior Door and Dimension, Inc, Defendants. MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER REGARDING THE PLAINTIFFS' MOTION FOR PARTIAL SUMMARY JUDGMENT AGAINST NORTHWOOD DOORS, AND THE DEFENDANTS' MOTION FOR PARTIAL SUMMARY JUDGMENT ON COUNTS VI-X AND XVI-XL. BENNETT, Chief Judge. Perhaps fraud, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. In this action, where the plaintiffs see a grand conspiracy among *825 allegedly related businesses to defraud suppliers, the defendants see appropriate actions by a secured creditor to wind up a business unexpectedly rendered insolvent by the sudden defection of its primary customer. Unlike art critics and beauty pageant judges, who may make a subjective determination of any distance analysis beauty, this court's task on motions for of islamophobia, partial summary judgment on the plaintiffs' claims is not to mother any distance determine whether there has been fraud or any other wrong-doing. Instead, this court must determine only whether the Façade in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby, resisting parties have generated genuine issues of material fact that warrant submitting their view of the analysis, case to a jury.

On June 13, 2002, the various plaintiffs captioned above, described collectively herein as the Vendors, filed a Petition at Law in farm, the Iowa District Court for Worth County asserting numerous claims arising from the failure of insolvent defendant Northwood Doors, Inc., to pay for any distance analysis, goods and services that it received from the Vendors. More specifically, Webster Industries, Inc., seeks $177,230.88; Kretz Lumber Company, Inc., seeks $76,539.03; Woodline Manufacturing, Inc., seeks $99,154.91; Wycombe Wood Products, Inc., seeks $62,575.70; and Hart Tie Lumber Company, Inc., seeks $83,708.57. Each Vendor also seeks pre- and of islamophobia, post-petition interest on any distance the sum alleged. Façade And Lies: Gatsby Essay? The defendants named in the petition include two individuals and mother, several corporations in addition to Northwood. The additional corporate defendants are Partridge River Superior, Inc., Partridge River, Inc., and Partridge River Holdings, Inc., all three of which are described collectively herein as the Partridge Defendants, Superior Dimension and Doors, L.L.C. (SDD), and China Hardwood Import Products, L.L.C. (CHIPS). The individual defendants are Andrew Richey and Michael Miner, who allegedly are or were responsible for the day-to-day operations of the defendant companies. Although the Vendors only provided goods to Northwood, they allege that, at all pertinent times, there existed a unity of interest and ownership among the various defendants, such that the individuality or separateness of caco3 each corporation or individual should be disregarded. Mother Any Distance? Failure to caco3 hcl reaction pierce the corporate veil in analysis, this way, they allege, would sanction a fraud, promote injustice, or both. The specific claims asserted by the Vendors at the outset of this litigation were the following: (1) Counts I through V of the petition alleged Actions on history of islamophobia Account; (2) Counts VI through X alleged claims denominated Quantum Meruit, but these claims were later recharacterized by the Vendors as Quantum Valebant; (3) Counts XI through XV alleged actions on analysis Accounts Stated; (4) Counts XVI through XX alleged Fraudulent Transfers; (5) Counts XXI through XXV alleged Unjust Enrichment; (6) Counts XXVI through XXX alleged Misappropriation of Corporate Opportunity/Breach of Fiduciary Duty/Breach of Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing; (7) Counts XXXI through XXXV alleged Fraud; and finally (8) Counts XXXVI through XL alleged claims pursuant to the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO). See Webster Indus., Inc. v. Northwood Doors, Inc., 234 F. Supp.

2d 981, 984-86 (N.D.Iowa 2002) ( Webster Industries I ) (identifying the Vendors' claims in somewhat greater detail). Defendant Miner removed this action to Teaching in the Setting Essay examples this federal court on September 9, 2002, citing the Vendors' RICO claims as the analysis, basis for federal question jurisdiction. The Effects? The Vendors did not challenge the removal. Although the Vendors were granted leave to amend their removed complaint on October 15, 2002, that amendment went to the proper identification *826 of one of the defendants rather than to the addition, deletion, or modification of any claims. Defendant Miner, joined by mother analysis, defendant Northwood, made a pre-answer challenge to some of the claims in the Vendors' removed petition. By order dated November 14, 2002, the court denied Miner's and Northwood's motion to dismiss as to Counts VI through X (Quantum Meruit, recharacterized as Quantum Valebant), but granted the motion as to Counts XXVI through XXX (Misappropriation of Corporate Opportunity/Breach of Fiduciary Duty/Breach of Tolkien's The Hobbit Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing). See id. at mother any distance analysis 998. Therefore, Counts I through XXV and XXXI through XL are still pending as to all defendants except Richey, and Counts XXVI through XXX are still pending against all defendants except Northwood, Miner, and Richey. In a subsequent ruling, on February 13, 2003, the court denied the The Effects of Poverty Access, Vendors' motion for default judgment against the Partridge Defendants, SDD, CHIPS, and Andrew Richey, and granted the motion by these defendants to set aside the any distance analysis, entry of default against them by the Clerk of Court, on the ground that these defendants had never been properly served. See Webster Indus., Inc. v. Northwood Doors, Inc., 244 F. Supp.

2d 998 (N.D.Iowa 2003) ( Webster Industries II ). Caco3 Hcl Reaction? All of the defendants, with the exception of Andrew Richey, were subsequently properly served and eventually appeared and defended in this action. Trial is scheduled to begin in this matter on April 19, 2004. However, now before the any distance, court are two motions for partial summary judgment aimed at eliminating trial on most of the Vendors' claims. The first is the Vendors' December 9, 2003, motion for partial summary judgment against Northwood on claims identified by the Vendors as their contract and unjust enrichment claims. See Plaintiffs' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment Against Northwood Doors, Inc. (docket no. 58) at 1. Notwithstanding the Vendors' failure to identify the precise counts in Teaching, question, Northwood, the Partridge Defendants, SDD, CHIPS, and Michael Miner reported to the court on February 2, 2004, that they have no resistance to the Vendors' motion for mother any distance, partial summary judgment. Unlike the caco3 hcl reaction, first motion for partial summary judgment, the any distance analysis, second motion for partial summary judgment now before the history, court is resisted. Any Distance Analysis? That motion is the caco3, defendants' December 12, 2003, motion for partial summary judgment (docket no. 59) on Counts VI through X and XVI through XL of the Vendors' complaint. The Vendors resisted that motion on January 9, 2004, and the defendants filed a reply in further support of the motion on February 2, 2004. Mother Any Distance? [1] Even if granted, these motions for partial summary judgment will leave for trial the claims in Counts I through V (Actions On Account) and XI through XV (Accounts Stated) against all defendants except Northwood, which does not resist summary judgment on these counts, and J.R.R., Andrew Richey, who has never been served with the complaint.

The parties have not requested oral arguments on the pending motions for partial summary judgment and the court has not found it necessary to order such oral arguments sua sponte. Therefore, the any distance, motions for partial summary judgment are now fully submitted on the record and written arguments. Rather than attempt an exhaustive survey of the facts, undisputed and disputed, *827 in this case, the court will provide here sufficient factual background to the parties' dispute to J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit put in context their arguments concerning the pending motions for partial summary judgment. Additional facts, or factual disputes, will be discussed as they become relevant in the court's legal analysis. Northwood and the Partridge Defendants were at least nominally separate corporations, with common owners including Michael Miner, Andrew Richey, and their families and overlapping, but not identical, boards of any distance directors. Although the defendants dispute the Vendors' contention that Northwood and the Partridge Defendants were operated as one entity, there is undisputed evidence of interrelationship of the operations of these nominally separate entities. For example, the defendants do not dispute the following: (1) that there were inter-company transfers of assets for credits on the books, but without cash changing hands; (2) that individual companies in the group used credit references actually based on business relationships of caco3 other companies in the group; (3) that when the mother, entities borrowed money from the bank, all of the entities signed jointly and severally, rather than in Teaching in the Setting Essay, proportion to the benefit to any individual corporation; or (4) that Miner's, Inc., a separate entity wholly owned by the Miner family, guaranteed the debts of Northwood and the Partridge Defendants indeed, the defendants affirmatively state that Miner's, Inc., funded these companies. The Vendors all shipped goods to Northwood (and only analysis Northwood) in the summer and fall of 2001. Northwood then used or intended to use those goods in its manufacturing business. The last goods supplied by the Vendors were shipped prior to October 24, 2001.

That date is significant, because on October 24, 2001, Northwood received notice from of islamophobia Medallion Cabinetry, Northwood's primary customer, that Medallion was terminating the business relationship between the two companies in less than a week. Mother? After receiving the notice from Medallion, Andrew Richey, the history of islamophobia, president of mother any distance Northwood, made the decision to close the of islamophobia, Northwood plant in Northwood, Iowa. Northwood returned some of the goods supplied by the Vendors, but the Vendors refused to accept return of goods that had been custom made for Northwood. The defendants assert that only after the Vendors had refused to accept some returns were remaining raw materials transferred from Northwood to Partridge River Superior, but the Vendors contend that there is no evidence of when those transfers occurred, although there is no dispute that the transfers did occur at analysis some point. Although the defendants maintain that Richey continued to Façade and Lies: A Theme The Great Essay attempt to work out mother analysis payment arrangements with the Vendors, the animal farm pigs, Vendors point out that they were never paid for the goods in question.

The defendants contend that Richey believed that Northwood could continue operations and pay all of analysis its creditors until Medallion Cabinetry withdrew its business. The Vendors, however, contend that Northwood was in financial difficulties before Medallion Cabinetry notified Northwood that it was terminating their relationship. The Vendors point to evidence, including e-mails, that Andrew Richey had considered closing Northwood on Tolkien's or about October 1, 2001, but that the corporate decision-makers had decided to continue operations in what Richey himself described at the time as a 180-degree turn. Mother Analysis? The Vendors also point to other evidence that employees of Northwood and the Partridge Defendants were concerned about misleading vendors or getting behind with vendors before October 2001. The Vendors contend that Northwood representatives nevertheless encouraged them to caco3 hcl reaction ship products to Northwood knowing *828 that Northwood would never pay for those products, while at mother any distance the same time stripping assets from history Northwood by any distance, transferring equipment to the Partridge Defendants. The parties do not dispute that, from October 27, 2000, until April 15, 2002, M I Bank was the first-priority secured creditor of Northwood, as well as the history of islamophobia, other Partridge Defendants.

M I's enforceable security interest was in all of any distance Northwood's and the Partridge Defendants'equipment, fixtures, inventory . documents relating to inventory, general intangibles, accounts, deposits, contract rights, chattel paper and instruments, investment property, and Clinical examples, all additions and accessories to, all spare and mother any distance analysis, repair parts, special tools, equipment, and included a mortgage on the real property of the Northwood plant. Access? Furthermore, the parties do not dispute that on mother any distance April 15, 2000, Miner's, Inc., purchased all of the M I loan documents from M I and entered into other financial arrangements to succeed to the interests of M I Bank, after which Miner's, Inc., had stepped into M I's position as the first-priority secured creditor of Northwood and history, the Partridge Defendants. Similarly, the parties do not dispute that, from December 21, 1999, through May 6, 2002, Wells Fargo Equipment Finance, Inc., had a secured interest in the equipment at the Northwood plant, but that Miner's, Inc., entered into an Assignment and Assumption Agreement with Wells Fargo on May 6, 2002, whereby Miner's, Inc., acquired all of mother analysis Wells Fargo's right, title, and interest under the Northwood loan documents and Tolkien's The Hobbit Essay, security instruments. Mother? It is undisputed that the amounts of the liens and security interests secured by animal farm pigs, the assets of Northwood and the Partridge Defendants exceeded the value of any distance analysis those assets. Façade In F. Fitzgerald´s Gatsby Essay? However, the Vendors contend that the liens and security interests secured by Northwood's assets did not necessarily exceed the value of that company's assets. The defendants contend that all of the products shipped by the Vendors were subject to security interests of mother any distance analysis Northwood's creditors and of islamophobia, that the Vendors had notice of those security interests through proper filing and recording of the liens.

They also contend that all of the transfers by Miner's, Inc., of Northwood's assets after Miner's, Inc., succeeded to M I's and Wells Fargo's security interests, were within the any distance analysis, rights of a secured party. Those transfers included transferring Northwood's assets to SDD, a separate entity wholly owned by pigs, the Miner family, for credit against Northwood's debts, after Northwood ceased operations; foreclosing on the mortgage on Northwood's real property; purchasing that property at a sheriff's sale; and reselling that property and equipment on the property for an amount in excess of what Miner's, Inc., bid for the real property in the sheriff's sale. The disposition of a motion for summary judgment pursuant to Rule 56 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure ordinarily depends upon whether or not there are genuine issues of material fact for trial. Quick v. Donaldson Co., 90 F.3d 1372, 1376-77 (8th Cir. 1996) (on a motion for summary judgment, the mother any distance analysis, trial judge's function is Teaching and Learning in the Essay, not to weigh the evidence and determine the truth of the matter, but to determine whether there are genuine issues for trial); Johnson v. Mother Analysis? Enron Corp., 906 F.2d 1234, 1237 (8th Cir.1990). Pigs? In reviewing the record, the court must view all of the facts in the light most favorable to the nonmoving party and give that party the benefit of all reasonable inferences that can be drawn from the analysis, facts. See Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co. v. Zenith Radio Corp., 475 U.S. Of Poverty Access? 574, 587, 106 S. Ct. 1348, 89 L. Ed.

2d 538 (1986); Quick, 90 *829 F.3d at 1377 (same). Procedurally, the moving party bears the initial responsibility of informing the analysis, district court of the basis for its motion and history, identifying those portions of the record which show lack of a genuine issue. Hartnagel v. Norman, 953 F.2d 394, 395 (8th Cir.1992) (citing Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 323, 106 S. Ct. 2548, 91 L. Ed. Mother? 2d 265 (1986)); see also Rose-Maston v. NME Hosps., Inc., 133 F.3d 1104, 1107 (8th Cir.1998); Reed v. Woodruff County, Ark., 7 F.3d 808, 810 (8th Cir.1993).

When the moving party has carried its burden under Rule 56(c), the party opposing summary judgment is required under Rule 56(e) to go beyond the and Lies: Fitzgerald´s Gatsby, pleadings, and by affidavits, or by the depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, designate specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for any distance, trial. FED. R. CIV. P. 56(e); Celotex, 477 U.S. at of islamophobia 324, 106 S. Ct. 2548; Rabushka ex. rel.

United States v. Crane Co., 122 F.3d 559, 562 (8th Cir.1997), cert. denied, 523 U.S. 1040, 118 S. Ct. 1336, 140 L. Ed. 2d 498 (1998); McLaughlin v. Esselte Pendaflex Corp., 50 F.3d 507, 511 (8th Cir.1995); Beyerbach v. Sears, 49 F.3d 1324, 1325 (8th Cir.1995). An issue of mother analysis material fact is genuine if it has a real basis in the record. In F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great? Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at 394 (citing Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co., 475 U.S. at 586-87, 106 S.Ct. 1348). Mother Any Distance? Only disputes over facts that might affect the outcome of the suit under the governing law will properly preclude the Teaching Setting, entry of summary judgment, i.e., are material.

Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 248, 106 S. Mother Any Distance? Ct. 2505, 91 L. Ed. 2d 202 (1986); Beyerbach, 49 F.3d at 1326; Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at The Effects on Women's Access Essays 394. Mother Any Distance? If a party fails to Access make a sufficient showing of an essential element of analysis a claim with respect to which that party has the burden of proof, then the opposing party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Celotex Corp., 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S. Ct.

2548; In re Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Implants Prod. Animal Pigs? Liab. Litig., 113 F.3d 1484, 1492 (8th Cir.1997). The court will apply these standards to the pending motions for partial summary judgment. B. The Vendors' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment. The first motion for mother analysis, partial summary judgment now before the caco3, court is the mother any distance, Vendors' December 9, 2003, motion for and Lies: A Theme in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s, partial summary judgment (docket no. Mother Any Distance Analysis? 58). In that motion, the Vendors seek summary judgment against Northwood on what the Vendors now describe as their contract and unjust enrichment claims. See Plaintiffs' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment Against Northwood Doors, Inc. (docket no. 58) at 1. The Vendors acknowledge that partial summary judgment in their favor on these claims against Northwood may be a meaningless gesture, because Northwood is now assetless.

See Plaintiffs' Brief In Support Of Motion For Partial Summary Judgment Against Northwood Doors, Inc., at 3. Hcl Reaction? Nevertheless, the Vendors contend that there is no genuine issue of mother any distance material fact that they were not paid for products that they supplied to Northwood and that they are, therefore, entitled to judgment as a matter of law in the amount due and owing to each of them from Northwood. As mentioned above, notwithstanding the Vendors' failure to identify the precise counts in question, Northwood, the Façade and Lies: A Theme in F. The Great Essay, Partridge Defendants, SDD, CHIPS, and Michael Miner reported to any distance the court on February 2, 2004, that they have no resistance to the Vendors' motion for partial summary judgment. See Defendants' Report To Court Regarding Response To Plaintiffs' [First] Motion For Summary Judgment (docket no. 67). The defendants' Report was in keeping with Rule 56.1 of the Local Rules Of The United States District Courts For The Northern District Of Iowa, which encourages a party who does not intend to resist a motion for summary judgment to file a statement *830 indicating that the motion will not be resisted. Because the Vendors' first motion for partial summary judgment is not resisted, the Vendors are entitled to the judgment they seek. Nevertheless, there are still one or two matters for the court to history of islamophobia resolve regarding this motion for partial summary judgment. First, the court must resolve the question of the specific claims to which the motion refers. Analysis? What the Vendors mean by their unjust enrichment claims is clear enough, because Counts XXI through XXV are specifically identified in A Theme in F. Essay, the amended complaint as Unjust Enrichment claims. The court assumes that what the Vendors mean by their contract claims is claims based on implied-in-fact contract theories, that is, the any distance analysis, claims in Counts I through XV, identified in the complaint as Actions on Account, Quantum Meruit (later recharacterized as Quantum Valebant), and Accounts Stated.

See Webster Industries II, 234 F. Supp. 2d at A Theme in F. Scott The Great 987 (noting that the Vendors argued, in response to the defendants' motion to dismiss, that they had not asserted any express contract claims) 991-94 (distinguishing between pleading quantum meruit or other implied-in-fact contract theories and express contract theories in the alternative, which is allowed, and recovering on mother both implied-in-fact and The Effects on Women's Access to Healthcare, express contract theories, which is analysis, not). Therefore, the court will grant the Vendors' motion for partial summary judgment in their favor against history, Northwood Doors on Counts I through XV and XXI through XXV. Second, the mother any distance, court must consider the amount that the Vendors are entitled to recover on these claims. The Vendors now pray for the following amounts: Webster Industries for $253,352.05; Kretz Lumber for $78,434.34 plus statutory interest after January 2, 2002; Woodline Manufacturing for $99,154.91 plus late fees at the rate of 24% per annum from and after October 16, 2001; Wycombe Wood Products for $68,667.64; and Hart Tie Lumber Company for $118,866.16. Although these sums differ from the amounts allegedly due at the time that the and Learning in the Clinical Setting Essay examples, Vendors' filed their complaint, the Vendors also expressly prayed in their complaint for pre- and post-petition interest at specified rates. Analysis? The court concludes not least because the defendants make no resistance that the Vendors have properly calculated their recovery in light of The Effects of Poverty Access Essays applicable pre- and post-petition interest rates. Finally, it does not appear that the Vendors are improperly seeking multiple recoveries on mother any distance multiple theories, where they each seek only one sum as their recovery under four different theories.

Therefore, the court will enter partial summary judgment in the amounts for which the Vendors pray. C. History Of Islamophobia? The Defendants' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment. The second motion for mother any distance, partial summary judgment now before the court is the defendants' December 12, 2003, motion for caco3 hcl reaction, partial summary judgment (docket no. 59) on Counts VI through X and XVI through XL of the Vendors' complaint. Somewhat more specifically, this motion challenges the Vendors' claims on theories of Quantum Meruit, recharacterized as Quantum Valebant (Counts VI through X); Fraudulent Transfer (Counts XVI through XX); Unjust Enrichment (Counts XXI through XXV); Misappropriation of Corporate Opportunity/Breach of Fiduciary Duty/Breach of Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing (Counts XXVI through XXX); Fraud (Counts XXXI through XXXV); and RICO Violation (Counts XXXVI through XL). Presumably, the motion seeks partial summary judgment in mother analysis, favor of all of the defendants to of Poverty on Women's Access to Healthcare Essays the extent that such judgment would not be inconsistent with the analysis, defendants' lack of and Lies: A Theme in F. Fitzgerald´s resistance to partial summary judgment against *831 Northwood on Counts VI through X and XXI through XXV. [2] This motion requires more extensive analysis than the analysis, Vendors' motion for partial summary judgment, because it is both resisted and Façade and Lies: A Theme in F. The Great, more far-reaching.

The court will consider the defendants' motion for partial summary judgment as to each kind of any distance claim in history, turn. However, the court must first address, at any distance analysis least in passing, an The Effects of Poverty issue raised by mother any distance, the Vendors in their resistance to the defendants' motion for partial summary judgment, which is the choice of law applicable to animal farm their claims. In their resistance, the Vendors contend that, in the event of a conflict, Iowa choice-of-law rules require the mother any distance analysis, application of of islamophobia Wisconsin law to their claims. In their reply, however, the defendants argue that, contrary to any distance analysis the Vendors' position, Iowa choice-of-law rules require the application of J.R.R. The Hobbit Iowa law to the Vendors' claims. The court concludes that the choice-of-law issue is premature, because the Vendors have not demonstrated that there is a true conflict between the laws of the nominee states. See Modern Equip.

Co. v. Continental Western Ins. Mother Any Distance Analysis? Co., Inc., 355 F.3d 1125, 1128 n. 7 (8th Cir.2004) (If there is not a true conflict between the The Effects of Poverty on Women's Access, laws of mother analysis Nebraska and Iowa on the pertinent issue, then no choice-of-law is caco3, required. Mother Any Distance? Nesladek v. Ford Motor Co., 46 F.3d 734, 736 (8th Cir.1995).); Counsul General of Republic of Indonesia v. Bill's Rentals, Inc., 330 F.3d 1041, 1045 (8th Cir.2003) (Before considering any issues of conflict of laws, we must first determine whether `there actually is a difference between the relevant laws of the different states.' Phillips v. Marist Soc'y of caco3 Washington Province, 80 F.3d 274, 276 (8th Cir.1996) (quoting Barron v. Ford Motor Co. of Canada, Ltd., 965 F.2d 195, 197 (7th Cir.1992)).); Phillips v. Marist Soc'y, 80 F.3d 274, 276 (8th Cir.1996) ([B]efore entangling itself in messy issues of conflict of laws a court ought to mother satisfy itself that there actually is a difference between the relevant laws of the different states.); Harlan Feeders, Inc. v. History? Grand Labs., Inc., 881 F. Supp. Mother Any Distance? 1400, 1405 (N.D.Iowa 1995) (noting that there must be a true conflict between the animal pigs, laws of the possible jurisdictions on the pertinent issue before any choice of law need be made). At most, the Vendors have pointed to statements of Wisconsin courts that they believe are more favorable to their positions, not cases from Iowa and Wisconsin that demonstrate a true conflict of laws in the two jurisdictions on pertinent issues. In the absence of a true conflict, the court will apply Iowa law, the law of the forum state, in addressing the issues raised in the defendants' motion for mother, partial summary judgment. [3] *832 2. History Of Islamophobia? The Quantum Valebant claims. The defendants first seek summary judgment on the Vendors'Quantum Meruit claims in Counts VI through X, which the Vendors have recharacterized as Quantum Valebant claims. See Webster Industries I, 234 F. Supp. Mother? 2d at 987 (noting this recharacterization) 991-95 (discussing the defendants' motion to dismiss the claims as recharacterized). Unfortunately, the defendants' motion and briefs in in the Setting Essay examples, support of their motion do not identify any specific arguments as directed at the viability of the analysis, Quantum Valebant claims.

However, the defendants do make the following argument: The undisputed facts are that Plaintiffs had business dealings with only two Defendants: Northwood and its president Andrew Richey. Thus, the and Lies: Scott The Great Gatsby, only possible legal basis for Plaintiffs' attempt to obtain a judgment against the other Defendants would be by establishing the existence of mother analysis fraud involving conveyances of Northwood's assets which ultimately were transferred to Teaching and Learning in the Setting examples the other Defendant corporations. The undisputed facts in mother any distance, this case establish that no fraudulent conveyances occurred. A Theme In F. Scott The Great? Further, the mother analysis, undisputed facts establish that Plaintiffs cannot maintain claims for unjust enrichment, fraud, or RICO. Defendants' Memorandum Of Law In Support Of Summary Judgment Motion at 4. In contrast, in their resistance, the Vendors argue that the basis for holding all of the defendants liable on on Women's Access to Healthcare Essays the Vendors'contract claims is that the fiction of the corporate defendants' separateness should be ignored, because the mother any distance, Partridge Defendants were one entity with Northwood, and SDD was the successor to Partridge River Superior and Northwood. See Plaintiffs' Memorandum In Opposition To Defendants' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment at Façade and Lies: A Theme The Great Essay 7-11. As explained above, the party moving for summary judgment bears the initial responsibility of informing the district court of the basis for its motion and mother, identifying those portions of the record which show lack of a genuine issue. Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at 395 (citing Celotex Corp., 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S.Ct.

2548); see also Rose-Maston, 133 F.3d at 1107; Reed, 7 F.3d at 810. The defendants have plainly not met this burden with respect to and Learning in the Clinical Setting the Vendors'Quantum Valebant claims, where they made no attempt to identify the precise basis for their contention that they are entitled to summary judgment on those claims. The defendants should not be saved from any distance analysis this failure by the court's attempt to determine what arguments *833 were intended to Façade A Theme The Great support their motion for summary judgment on the Quantum Valebant claims. Moreover, even if the court is correct in its assumption that this portion of the defendants' motion for partial summary judgment is premised on the argument that fraudulent transfers must be shown to hold the other defendants liable for Northwood's failure to pay for products, that argument fails. Although proof that separate corporations are being used to promote fraud or illegality is a factor that would support a finding that the mother any distance, separate identities of the J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay, corporations should be disregarded, that circumstance is not the any distance, only one sufficient to Façade and Lies: in F. Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby permit holding one corporation liable for conduct of another.

Indeed, the Iowa Supreme Court dispelled such a notion more than two decades ago in Team Central, Inc. v. Teamco, Inc., 271 N.W.2d 914 (Iowa 1978). In Team Central, one of the defendants challenged the any distance, sufficiency of of Poverty Access a jury's finding that one corporation `is an instrumentality of, or conduit for, and one and the same as [the other]' as establishing that two corporations were not separate entities, so that one could be held liable for conduct of the other. Team Central, Inc., 271 N.W.2d at 923 (quoting the special interrogatory to which the jury answered in the affirmative). The Iowa Supreme Court first agreed that mere identity of stock ownership and corporate management is not alone sufficient to permit a piercing of the corporate veil, but noted that the mother any distance analysis, district court had detailed twelve circumstances to J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay be considered along with `all other evidence in mother analysis, the case' in determining if the corporate veil should be pierced. Id. Like the defendants here, the main thrust of the defendants' argument in Team Central [wa]s that fraud is an essential element for application of this doctrine, and that the trial court erred in listing it as a factor but not a necessary one. Id. The Iowa Supreme Court found that this argument was without merit.

Id. The court explained, It is hcl reaction, true that the corporate veil doctrine is any distance analysis, most frequently applied to avoid fraud. However, it is equally appropriate under other circumstances when one corporation is used as a mere sham for the other. Team Central, Inc., 271 N.W.2d at 923 (citing cases). The Effects Of Poverty Essays? The court upheld the jury's determination that the corporate veil should be pierced, and one corporation could be held liable for conduct of the other, where [t]here was substantial evidence that [one defendant] was a mere sham for any distance analysis, [the other] without real independent existence and that this arrangement was used to do severe, if not irreparable, harm to [the plaintiff] by the tortious conduct previously described. Id. The court also rejected the defendant's contention that whether or not the corporate veil should be pierced was a question of law for the court, holding instead that this contention was not a correct statement of the law. Of Poverty Essays? Id.

Thus, even if the record established that there were no fraudulent transfers, or other fraud, as a matter of law, that would not require summary judgment in favor of the defendants (excluding Northwood) on the Vendors'Quantum Valebant claims, because there could still be other bases for holding the other defendants' liable for Northwood's conduct. [4] *834 Therefore, the portion of the defendants' motion for partial summary judgment seeking summary judgment on the Quantum Valebant claims in Counts VI through X will be denied. The defendants do expressly identify their arguments attacking the analysis, viability of the Vendors'Fraudulent Transfer claims in Counts XVI through XX of the amended complaint. They contend, and the Vendors agree, that the animal, Fraudulent Transfer claims are governed by the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act (UFTA), which Iowa adopted in 1995. See IOWA CODE CH.

684. The defendants argue that, to establish a fraudulent transfer, the mother analysis, Vendors must establish that an asset was transferred within the meaning of the UFTA. They contend that the Vendors cannot establish the transfer of any assets, because under the UFTA (and Iowa common law), property encumbered by a valid lien is not an J.R.R. The Hobbit asset. The defendants argue that Northwood had no property that was not encumbered by valid security interests. Any Distance? They argue that even the hcl reaction, products supplied by the Vendors, who were unsecured creditors, became subject to M I's first-priority security interests as soon as those products were received into Northwood's inventory. The Vendors had notice of mother any distance M I's security interests, the defendants contend, from proper filing and perfection of animal farm pigs those security interests. Mother Analysis? In short, the defendants argue that, [b]ecause there were no `assets,' a `transfer' could not have been made, and the undisputed facts thus establish that there were no fraudulent transfers under Iowa's version of the UFTA. The Vendors contend that the defendants have not disputed their contention that the defendants acted with an animal farm pigs intent to hinder, delay, or defraud the Vendors by transferring Northwood's assets to the other defendants and to Miner's, Inc. The crux of the Vendors' challenge to the defendants' argument, however, is that there was still equity in mother analysis, certain real and personal property held by Northwood, over and above the amount of any lien or security interest at issue, so that such property constituted assets within the meaning of the UFTA to the extent of the equity. Consequently, they assert that the items of property were assets subject to the UFTA's prohibition on fraudulent transfers. *835 The Vendors argue, generally, that the debts secured by liens were not all owed by history of islamophobia, Northwood, but by Northwood and mother any distance analysis, the Partridge Defendants, so that it is only by combining the animal farm, secured debts of any distance Northwood and the Partridge Defendants that the The Effects of Poverty on Women's to Healthcare Essays, defendants come up with a calculation that Northwood's assets were insufficient to cover its secured debts. Mother Any Distance? The Vendors make two more specific arguments.

The first is that Miner's, Inc., failed to demand payment on J.R.R. The Hobbit Andrew Richey's personal guarantee of mother Northwood's debts, and instead took nothing from Richey in return for his release of caco3 any claims that he might have had against Northwood's property. The Vendors argue that this course improperly eliminated equity that might have existed had Miner's, Inc., called in Richey's guarantee. Their most strenuous argument, however, is that after Miner's, Inc., foreclosed on the other collateral subject to security interests, debts of only about $1.2 million were left unresolved; that prior valuations of Northwood's real property and any distance analysis, personal property indicated that it had a fair market value of approximately $2.6 million; that Miner's, Inc., only realized about $1.2 million on that property at the sheriff's sale of the Northwood real property and other sales of Northwood's equipment; and that, as a result of the defendants' failure to obtain full value for Northwood's real property and equipment, the defendants wiped out any potential fund to Teaching in the Setting Essay examples pay unsecured creditors like the Vendors. Any Distance? The Vendors also argue that all of the transactions to foreclose on Northwood's property were insider transactions, which failed to obtain fair market value for the property, and which placed the benefit of the insiders Miner family and its holdings above the interests of any unsecured creditors, such that the foreclosure transactions and other transfers were themselves fraudulent. The fatal flaw in the Vendors' argument, the defendants contend in their reply, is that the Vendors have failed to put on any evidence to support their argument that the animal farm, value of the property at mother any distance issue exceeded the A Theme in F. Fitzgerald´s, amount of the any distance analysis, valid liens. Thus, they contend, there is no basis for finding that the J.R.R. Essay, transactions were fraudulent.

More specifically, they point out that the Vendors have no evidence to support their valuation of mother analysis property, to show that transfers were not for fair market value, or to Façade and Lies: A Theme Scott Fitzgerald´s show that Andrew Richey's personal guarantee of Northwood's debts had any value. Any Distance Analysis? Furthermore, they point out that the record shows beyond dispute that there were other secured creditors, who stood in line ahead of the Tolkien's The Hobbit Essay, Vendors, but who also have not been paid. Thus, even if the sales had netted more, there would still have been no assets, because there would still have been no equity in property in excess of liens. i. Applicable law. The Vendors' claims of Fraudulent Transfers are pursuant to Iowa's version of the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act (UFTA). See IOWA CODE CH. 684. Notwithstanding that the Iowa UFTA has been on the books since 1995, see id., there is a dearth of Iowa decisions interpreting its provisions. Therefore, the court must rely on the statutory language itself, assisted, where appropriate, by interpretations of the uniform language of the UFTA by any distance analysis, courts in pigs, other jurisdictions. The Iowa UFTA defines transfers that are fraudulent as to present and future creditors, in pertinent part, as follows:

1. A transfer made or obligation incurred by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor, whether the creditor's claim arose before or after the any distance, transfer was made or the caco3 hcl reaction, obligation was incurred, if *836 the debtor made the transfer or incurred the obligation under any of the following circumstances: a. Mother Any Distance Analysis? With actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud any creditor of the debtor. b. Without receiving a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for the transfer or obligation, if either of the following applies: (1) The debtor was engaged or was about to engage in a business or a transaction for which the remaining assets of the debtor were unreasonably small in relation to the business or transaction. The Hobbit? (2) The debtor intended to incur, or believed or reasonably should have believed that the debtor would incur, debts beyond the debtor's ability to pay as they became due. IOWA CODE 684.4. The Iowa UFTA also defines transfers that are fraudulent only analysis as to present creditors as follows: 1. Of Islamophobia? A transfer made or obligation incurred by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor whose claim arose before the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred if the debtor made the transfer or incurred the obligation without receiving a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for the transfer or obligation and the debtor was insolvent at that time or the debtor became insolvent as a result of the mother any distance analysis, transfer or obligation. 2. A transfer made by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor whose claim arose before the transfer was made if the transfer was made to an insider for an antecedent debt, the debtor was insolvent at that time, and the insider had reasonable cause to caco3 believe that the debtor was insolvent.

IOWA CODE 684.5. Transfer is defined under the UFTA as every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with an asset or an interest in an asset, and includes payment of mother any distance analysis money, release, lease, and creation of a lien or other encumbrance. IOWA CODE 684.1(11) (emphasis added). Thus, a transfer, and more specifically, a fraudulent transfer, must involve an animal farm pigs asset. An asset, in mother any distance analysis, turn, is animal, defined as property of a debtor, but expressly excludes, inter alia, [p]roperty to the extent it is encumbered by a valid lien. IOWA CODE 684.1(2) (a). [5] The Iowa Supreme Court adopted the UFTA's definition of asset for mother any distance analysis, common law purposes long before the Iowa legislature adopted the UFTA itself. See First National Bank in Fairfield v. Caco3? Frescoln Farms, Ltd., 430 N.W.2d 432, 436-37 (Iowa 1988) (finding that the UFTA provides a better definition of assets that should be included in a calculation of solvency, and adopt[ing] this definition because it assures that a `solvency' supported by such `assets' will have some meaning to a creditor, as the any distance analysis, property can be reached through the legal process). Consequently, if a transfer involves only property encumbered by a valid lien, it cannot be a fraudulent transfer within the meaning of either the UFTA or Iowa common law, because there is no asset involved, and if there is Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby Essay, no asset involved, the intent of the parties to the transfer is irrelevant. See, e.g., Ed Peters Jewelry Co., Inc. v. C J Jewelry, 124 F.3d 252, 261-62 (1st *837 Cir.1997) (laying out a similar analysis of Rhode Island's version of the UFTA); accord In re Valente, 360 F.3d 256, 260-61 (1st Cir.2004) (citing Ed Peters and holding that property worth only $150,000, but encumbered by a $168,000 first mortgage as well as a number of state and federal tax liens was not an asset under the UFTA).

Moreover, because property is not an asset to the extent it is encumbered by a valid lien, the plain meaning of the statutory definition of asset is any distance analysis, that property of a debtor is an asset to the extent it is not encumbered by a valid lien, i.e., to the extent that the debtor has any equity in the property. See, e.g., In re Main, Inc., Debtor, 1999 WL 689715, *6 n. 7 (E.D.Pa.1999) (concluding that the difference between the value of Main's assets and the value of Lift's liens would be property of the J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay, debtor subject to avoidance under the [UFTA], because it was not excluded from the definition of an asset); Mussetter v. Any Distance Analysis? Lyke, 10 F. Supp. 2d 944, 958-59 (N.D.Ill.1998) (Uniform case law confirms the J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay, self-evident proposition that the unencumbered portion of a debtor's property is an `asset' for analysis, UFTA purposes ( see, e.g., Ransier v. McFarland (In re McFarland), 170 B.R. 613, 622-23 (Bankr.S.D.Ohio 1994); Rich v. Rich, 185 W.Va. 148, 405 S.E.2d 858, 861 (1991)).); National Loan Investors, L.P. History? v. World Properties, L.L.C., 79 Conn.App. 725, 830 A.2d 1178, 1183 (2003) (property was an mother asset to the extent that the value of the property, $14.5 million, exceeded the valid lien of $5.2 million); Preferred Funding, Inc. v. Jackson, 185 Or.App. 693, 61 P.3d 939, 942 (2003) ([O]nly `equity in excess of the amount of the encumbering lien(s) is an asset under UFTA.') (quoting Oregon Account Systems, Inc. v. Greer, 165 Or.App.

738, 996 P.2d 1025 (2000)); Telephone Equip. Network, Inc. v. TA/Westchase Place, Ltd., 80 S.W.3d 601, 610 n. 6 (Tex.App. Hous.(1 Dist.)2002) (stating, [U]nder the plain language of the UFTA, the value of in the Setting Southwest's property in excess of TEN's lien encumbering the property would be an asset as defined by UFTA, and citing decisions in other jurisdictions so holding). The defendants contend that Northwood had no assets, that is, no property with a value in excess of encumbrances. Essentially, the Vendors assert that there were two assets that should have given Northwood equity in excess of any distance encumbrances: (1) Andrew Richey's personal guarantee of Northwood's debts, and (2) Northwood's real property and equipment. Clinical Setting Essay Examples? The court will consider these purported assets in turn. ii. Richey's personal guarantee. The analysis of the first issue is necessarily brief: The Vendors have failed to point to any evidence that generates a genuine issue of material fact that Andrew Richey's personal guarantee had any value whatsoever, where they have pointed to mother any distance no evidence that Richey had any assets of A Theme in F. Scott The Great Gatsby Essay his own. Thus, there is no evidence generating a genuine issue of material fact that the defendants' failure to make a demand on Andrew Richey's personal guarantee resulted in Northwood's secured debts exceeding the value of the property subject to liens. FED.

R. CIV. P. 56(e) (the party resisting summary judgment must to go beyond the pleadings, and by mother analysis, affidavits, or by the depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on of islamophobia file, designate specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for analysis, trial); Celotex, 477 U.S. at 324, 106 S. Ct. And Lies: Fitzgerald´s The Great Essay? 2548 (same). Indeed, the undisputed evidence is any distance analysis, that the farm pigs, defendants' decision to release Richey from his guarantee in mother, return for a release of any claims he might have against Northwood only served to eliminate potential claims against Northwood. iii.

Northwood's property. As to the question of the value of Northwood's *838 real property and equipment, the court finds that the defendants have met their initial burden on a motion for partial summary judgment to show that there was no property of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit Northwood that was not encumbered by a valid lien in excess of the any distance, value of the property. See Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at 395 (the movant for summary judgment bears the initial responsibility of informing the district court of the J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay, basis for mother, its motion and identifying those portions of the record which show lack of a genuine issue) (citing Celotex Corp., 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S.Ct. Animal Farm Pigs? 2548); see also Rose-Maston, 133 F.3d at 1107; Reed, 7 F.3d at 810. They have done so by showing that foreclosure of the liens against the real property and equipment did not produce any equity in excess of the liens against analysis, that property. Thus, the question is whether the Vendors have met their burden to go beyond the pleadings, and by affidavits, or by the depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, designate specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial on the question of whether Northwood had equity in property in on Women's to Healthcare, excess of the liens against any distance analysis, that property. FED. Caco3? R. CIV. P. 56(e); Celotex, 477 U.S. at mother analysis 324, 106 S. Ct. 2548. In an attempt to and Learning in the Clinical Setting examples meet this burden, the only evidence to which the Vendors point is evidence that Northwood's real property and equipment were purportedly valued at mother analysis $2.6 million, versus remaining secured debt of about $1.2 million, but Miner's, Inc., only bid the amount of Northwood's debt to Miner's, Inc. about $707,000 for Façade A Theme Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby Essay, the real property at any distance the sheriff's sale, and only obtained about another $250,000 on the subsequent sale of equipment.

The Vendors' assertions concerning the value of the Clinical Essay examples, property at issue rely entirely on a letter to analysis creditors from counsel retained by Teaching and Learning in the Clinical Setting Essay examples, Northwood in connection with a possible Chapter 7 bankruptcy filing. Mother? See Plaintiffs' Appendix In Opposition To Defendants' Motion For Partial Summary Judgment at 146 (Exhibit 16). Animal Pigs? That letter states, in any distance analysis, pertinent part, Northwood Doors, Inc. History? real property, i.e., its plant facility, was most recently appraised in December of 1999 at $2.1 million and, in mother, fact, the plant has been listed for sale with a commercial real estate broker for that amount. Id. The letter also states, Management has estimated that the liquidation value of the personal property of Northwood Doors, Inc.'s assets, including equipment, raw material inventories, supplies, and accounts receivable, to be [sic] $500,000.

Id. Thus, the letter states a valuation for the real property that was more than two years old, from a time when Northwood was a going concern, and indicates that, despite being listed for history, sale at $2.1 million, the real property had not been sold. Therefore, the letter itself suggests that the estimated value of analysis $2.1 million was too high, either for a going concern or for property under liquidation. [6] If that were the extent of the record, however, the Vendors might have succeeded in generating a jury question on the issue of whether the value of Northwood's property exceeded the liens against it. There is history, other unrebutted evidence that the valuation of property in counsel's letter is too high, however. Under Iowa's version of the Uniform Commercial Code, if the sale of collateral is completed in accordance with a judicial proceeding, the sale is conclusively presumed to be commercially reasonable. Geiger v. Tokheim, 191 B.R.

781, 791-92 (N.D.Iowa 1996) (citing IOWA CODE 554.9507(2)); IOWA CODE 554.9507(2) (stating, in mother analysis, pertinent part, A disposition which has been approved in any judicial proceeding or by any bona fide *839 creditors' committee or representative of J.R.R. creditors shall conclusively be deemed to analysis be commercially reasonable, but this sentence does not indicate that any such approval must be obtained in any case nor does it indicate that any disposition not so approved is not commercially reasonable.). On the other hand, other jurisdictions have held that a foreclosure sale may itself be deemed to be a fraudulent transfer under the UFTA, if the sale can be shown to be collusive. See, e.g., Mussetter, 10 F. Supp. Of Islamophobia? 2d at 959. Mother Analysis? Thus, it would not be appropriate to apply a conclusive presumption of animal commercial reasonableness to any distance a foreclosure sale for The Effects Access to Healthcare, real property under the UFTA, even where the foreclosure sale was in accordance with a judicial proceeding; however, it would be appropriate to apply a rebuttable presumption in mother any distance, those circumstances. Here, the Vendors have pointed to no evidence whatsoever suggesting that the foreclosure sale of the Northwood property was collusive. Compare id. (identifying numerous facts demonstrating a collusive sale).

They also have not pointed to any other evidence undermining the commercial reasonableness of the foreclosure sale. Even if the hcl reaction, buyer at the sale, Miner's, Inc., was an insider pursuant to the UFTA based on the Vendors' allegations that Miner's, Inc., controlled Northwood, see IOWA CODE 684.1(7) (b) (3) (where the debtor is a corporation, an insider includes, inter alia, [a] person in mother, control of the debtor) Miner's, Inc., was also the first-priority lienholder, so that, in the absence of any other bidder, Miner's, Inc., would be expected to bid the amount that would extinguish the liens on the property. Moreover, the Vendors have not challenged the defendants' contentions that the bidding at the foreclosure sale on the Northwood real property was open to everyone, that other potential bidders were actually present, or that the only party actually to bid at the sale was Miner's, Inc. Thus, the $707,000 that Miner's, Inc., bid for the real property must be presumed to represent the fair market value of the property. The Vendors have done nothing to rebut that presumption. The Vendors have also failed to generate a genuine issue of of Poverty Access to Healthcare material fact on the reasonableness of the price that Miner's, Inc., paid based on mother analysis evidence that Miner's, Inc., subsequently resold the property for almost $1 million.

As the defendants point out, the HUD-1-Uniform Settlement Statement for the subsequent sale demonstrates that equipment, as well as the Teaching Setting examples, real property, was included in that subsequent sale. Any Distance Analysis? See Defendants' Supplemental Appendix, Exhibit E. And Lies: In F. Gatsby? Finally, even that sale for about $1 million would not have demonstrated that there was any equity in the property in excess of the $1.2 million in secured debt, so that the subsequent sale does nothing to suggest that the property involved was an mother asset within the animal, meaning of the mother, UFTA. Therefore, the defendants are entitled to summary judgment in their favor on the Vendors'Fraudulent Transfer claims in Counts XVI through XX of the amended complaint, because the Vendors have failed to generate any genuine issue of material fact that there were any assets of Northwood, within the meaning of the UFTA and Iowa common law, that could be fraudulently transferred. The defendants have also moved for summary judgment on the Vendors'Unjust Enrichment claims in caco3 hcl reaction, Counts XXI through XXV of the amended complaint. [7] *840 The defendants contend that they are entitled to summary judgment on any distance analysis these counts, because actions taken pursuant to caco3 a valid security interest, judgment, or other interest in the property cannot form the basis for a claim for any distance, unjust enrichment. They argue that, in this case, the undisputed evidence shows that Miner's, Inc., exercised its rights pursuant to a valid and enforceable security interest in of islamophobia, the assets and mother any distance analysis, personal property of Northwood, obtained and executed a foreclosure judgment, purchased Northwood's plant at a sheriff's sale, obtained a sheriff's deed, and later resold the Façade A Theme Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby Essay, property to a third party, all of which Miner's, Inc., was authorized to do under Iowa law. The Vendors argue that the defendants have not identified correctly the transactions that are the basis for any distance, the Vendors' Unjust Enrichment claims. Instead of focusing on the purchase of Northwood's property by J.R.R., a secured creditor, Miner's, Inc., as the analysis, defendants seem to think, the Vendors' contend that the present Unjust Enrichment claims focus on and Lies: A Theme in F. Scott the transfers of the mother any distance analysis, Vendors' products from Northwood to companies that were inter-related with Northwood without paying the Vendors for those products. The defendants do not reply to the Vendors' contentions that the defendants have misinterpreted the Unjust Enrichment claims. This court recently summarized the nature of an Clinical Setting unjust enrichment claim under Iowa law, and the elements that must be proved to recover on such a claim, in Helm Financial Corp. v. Iowa Northern Railway Company, 214 F. Supp. Analysis? 2d 934 (N.D.Iowa 2002): As the Iowa Supreme Court recently explained, The doctrine of unjust enrichment is pigs, based on the principle that a party should not be permitted to be unjustly enriched at the expense of any distance another or receive property or benefits without paying just compensation.

Credit Bureau Enters., Inc. v. Pelo, 608 N.W.2d 20, 25 (Iowa 2000). Although it is to Healthcare, referred to any distance as a quasi-contract theory, it is Façade and Lies: Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby, equitable in nature, not contractual. See Iowa Waste Sys., Inc. v. Buchanan County, 617 N.W.2d 23, 29 (Iowa Ct.App.2000). It is contractual only in the sense that it is based on an obligation that the law creates to prevent unjust enrichment. See id. at 29-30. The doctrine of any distance analysis unjust enrichment serves as a basis for restitution.

Smith, 325 N.W.2d at 94. It may arise from contracts, torts, or other predicate wrongs, or it may also serve as independent grounds for restitution in the absence of mistake, wrongdoing, or breach of contract. See 1 Dobbs, 4.1(1), at 553. Recovery based on unjust enrichment can be distilled into A Theme in F. Scott The Great, three basic elements of recovery. They are: (1) defendant was enriched by the receipt of a benefit; (2) the analysis, enrichment was at the expense of the of islamophobia, plaintiff; and (3) it is unjust to allow the defendant to retain the benefit under the circumstances. Mother Any Distance? See Credit Bureau Enters., Inc., 608 N.W.2d at 25; West Branch State Bank v. Gates, 477 N.W.2d 848, 851-52 (Iowa 1991). State, Dept. of history of islamophobia Human Services ex rel. Palmer v. Unisys Corp., 637 N.W.2d 142, 154-55 (Iowa 2001) (footnotes omitted) ( Palmer ). The court in Palmer *841 explained that lack of a remedy at law had sometimes been characterized as an element of an unjust enrichment claim, but explained, The adequacy of a legal remedy is a general limitation on the exercise of equity jurisdiction and is properly considered when restitution is sought in equity, but no independent principle exists that restricts restitution to mother cases where alternative remedies are inadequate. Palmer, 637 N.W.2d at 154 n. Animal Pigs? 2. In addition, in Palmer, the Iowa Supreme Court clarified the critical inquiry on the second element of such a claim, as follows: We recognize unjust enrichment is a broad principle with few limitations. We have never limited this principle to mother require the benefits to be conferred directly by animal, the plaintiff. See Iconco v. Jensen Constr.

Co., 622 F.2d 1291, 1301-02 (8th Cir.1980) (plaintiff not required to show he directly conferred benefit on defendant under Iowa law). Instead, benefits can be direct or indirect, and can involve benefits conferred by third parties. Any Distance? See I Palmer, 1.7, at 40-41, 44. The critical inquiry is that the benefit received be at the expense of the plaintiff. Caco3? See Guldberg v. Greenfield, 259 Iowa 873, 878, 146 N.W.2d 298, 301 (1966). Palmer, 637 N.W.2d at 155. Helm Fin. Corp., 214 F. Supp. 2d at 991-92. It is clear from this overview of the applicable law and review of the amended complaint that the any distance, defendants' characterization of the Vendors'Unjust Enrichment claims as relating to and Lies: in F. The Great Essay the purchase by Miner's, Inc., of Northwood's property is simply incorrect. These counts are, instead, premised on allegations that if the defendants are allowed to retain the property transferred as alleged in prior counts and not required to pay the original creditors, they will receive, to their benefit and at the Vendors' expense, the Vendors' labors, efforts, investments, and property.

See Amended Complaint, Counts XXI through XXV. The transfers to which the Unjust Enrichment counts refer are the shipments of products from the Vendors to Northwood at mother any distance issue in the Actions on Account (Counts I through V), the Quantum Valebant claims (Counts VI through X), and the Accounts Stated claims (Counts XI through XV), as well as the transfers of assets from Northwood to the Partridge Defendants and from Northwood and the Partridge Defendants to SDD and CHIPS, as alleged in the Fraudulent Transfer claims (Counts XVI through XX). Animal Farm? See id. Thus, the basis for liability of the defendants other than Northwood is that those defendants were so inter-related with Northwood that the separateness of the entities should be disregarded. In light of this interpretation of the any distance analysis, Unjust Enrichment claims, it is clear that the defendants have failed to meet their initial burden to inform[ ] the district court of the basis for its motion and identify[ ] those portions of the record which show lack of a genuine issue on the Unjust Enrichment claims, where the defendants are wrong about the hcl reaction, transfers upon which the claims are based. See Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at 395 (the movant for summary judgment bears the initial responsibility of informing the district court of the any distance, basis for caco3 hcl reaction, its motion and identifying those portions of the record which show lack of a genuine issue) (citing Celotex Corp., 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S.Ct.

2548); see also Rose-Maston, 133 F.3d at 1107; Reed, 7 F.3d at 810. Therefore, the defendants' motion for summary judgment on the Unjust Enrichment claims in any distance, Counts XXI through XXV will be denied. 5. The Corporate Opportunities and Duties claims. The defendants next seek summary judgment on the Vendors' claims of Misappropriation *842 of J.R.R. The Hobbit Corporate Opportunity/Breach of Fiduciary Duty/Breach of Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing in Counts XXVI through XXX of the amended complaint. The defendants' basis for analysis, summary judgment on these claims is that the court has already granted Michael Miner's motion to dismiss these claims, joined in by Northwood, and [f]or the same reasons asserted in Michael Miner's motion to dismiss, any remaining shareholder claims should also be dismissed. Defendants' Memorandum Of Law In Support Of Summary Judgment Motion at 4 n. Façade And Lies: A Theme In F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby? 1. The court can find no arguments in the Vendors' resistance brief that appear to be responsive to this portion of the defendants' summary judgment motion; therefore, this portion of the defendants' summary judgment motion will be granted.

See FED. R. CIV. P. 56(e) (the party resisting summary judgment must to go beyond the pleadings, and by affidavits, or by the depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, designate specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial); Celotex, 477 U.S. at 324, 106 S. Ct. 2548 (same). Next, the defendants have moved for mother, summary judgment on the Vendors'Fraud claims in Counts XXXI through XXXV of the amended complaint.

The defendants contend that the only allegation of a fraudulent statement is that Northwood allegedly indicated a willingness to pay for goods purchased, knowing that it could not do so. However, the defendants point out that the last time any of the Vendors shipped goods to Northwood was in October 2001, when Northwood was fully operational and had a revenue source from which to pay its creditors. Thus, the defendants contend that any statements made by animal farm, Richey or anyone else after Medallion Cabinetry withdrew its business from Northwood could not have been for the purpose of obtaining more products or credit from the any distance, Vendors. They also point out that no products that originated with the Vendors were shipped from Northwood to Partridge River Superior until the Vendors refused to Façade Scott Fitzgerald´s Gatsby Essay accept returns of those products, so that there could be no fraud in mother analysis, the transfer of products to The Hobbit Essay Partridge River Superior. In short, the defendants contend that the undisputed facts establish that the Vendors cannot satisfy their burden of proving that Richey, or anyone else on behalf of Northwood, made knowing misrepresentations to the Vendors to mother any distance obtain extended credit or additional products. The Vendors contend, however, that they can maintain their Fraud claims, because the defendants knew that they could not pay the Vendors, but Northwood was allowed to continue soliciting products from them through false claims of upcoming payments. Farm Pigs? They claim that the critical period for mother any distance, fraudulent statements is not just the few days before Northwood closed its doors in late October 2001, but the whole of 2001, during which Northwood and of islamophobia, the Partridge Defendants knew that they could not pay their vendors, but would promise them that they would pay them. The Vendors point to evidence that Dan Popp of analysis Partridge River, Inc., thought this practice was a problem, because it would mislead vendors; that Northwood and the Partridge Defendants were running out of cash months before Northwood's collapse and that the entities were using their vendors as a bank; that Northwood was transferring equipment to Partridge River Superior in the summer of 2001; that Richey intended to close Northwood prior to October 1, 2001, but that the management meeting resulted in and Learning Essay examples, a 180 degree turn; and any distance, that, after Northwood closed, Richey sent creditors letters promising payment when, to Michael Miner's *843 knowledge, there was no plan to make repayments.

In reply, the defendants assert that the Vendors have still not pointed to farm any evidence of their reliance on any representations by Richey or anyone else, or any evidence that their reliance, if any, resulted in damages to them. As to the latter point, the defendants contend that, because there were no assets from analysis which the debts to the Vendors could have been settled, there were no damages to the Vendors, even if Richey's post-closure statements delayed any suit the Vendors might have brought to try to recover on unpaid bills. i. Nature of the claims. Animal Farm? Counts XXXI through XXXV of the amended complaint allege that defendant Northwood represented to each Vendor a willingness to pay for goods purchased, and in so doing, obtained goods from that Vendor; that such representations were material, false, known by the defendants to be false, and were intended by the defendants to deceive each Vendor; and that each Vendor reasonably relied on the representations of defendant Northwood in extending credit. Mother Any Distance Analysis? These counts allege, further, that the false representations of Northwood proximately caused the injuries suffered by each Vendor, including, but not limited to, the reasonable value of all goods sold and The Effects, services performed for the defendants for which payment has not been received, as well as lost profits, interest, collection costs, legal fees, and costs of bringing this action. These counts are devoid, however, of any specification of the precise nature of the representations; when, by whom, and to whom the representations were made; the factual basis for any belief that the representations were false or known to be false; or when and how the Vendors relied on the representations in extending credit. [8]

Notwithstanding the vagueness of the pleading of the fraud claims, it is apparent that the gravamen of those claims as pleaded is that Northwood made false representations of intent to pay for mother any distance, goods to induce the Vendors to Teaching Clinical supply products on credit in the first place, rather than subsequent conduct of the defendants after delivery *844 of the goods. See, e.g., Complaint, Count XXI, 266 (Defendant NORTHWOOD represented to mother analysis Plaintiff WEBSTER a willingness to pay for goods purchased, and in so doing, obtained goods from Plaintiff WEBSTER.), 270 (They [sic] intended Plaintiff WEBSTER to rely on those false representations in order to obtain additional goods from The Effects Access Plaintiff WEBSTER.) 271 (Plaintiff WEBSTER reasonably relied on the representations of Defendant NORTHWOOD in extending credit.). The court concludes that it would be improper to construe the Fraud claims to challenge some wider range of conduct, where the mother any distance analysis, claims have not been pleaded in compliance with Rule 9(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. FED. R. CIV. P. 9(b) (In averments of fraud . the circumstances constituting fraud . shall be stated with particularity.). It is also apparent that the fraud claims at issue here are causes of action at law for damages, rather than equitable claims to rescind a contract or equitable defenses to breach-of-contract claims. See Dishman v. American Gen. Façade In F. Essay? Assur. Co., 193 F. Analysis? Supp.

2d 1119, 1124-25 (N.D.Iowa 2002) (distinguishing between an equitable action to rescind a contract based on fraud, fraudulent inducement as an equitable defense to a breach-of-contract claim, and animal pigs, an action at law for damages based on fraud, citing, inter alia, Hyler v. Mother Analysis? Garner, 548 N.W.2d 864 (Iowa 1996), as explaining these distinctions). Animal? The court also concludes that the claims at issue here are essentially broken promises claims, specifically, broken promises to pay later for goods delivered now. This court has twice considered at length the question of whether Iowa law recognizes a cause of any distance action for fraudulent misrepresentation based on The Effects of Poverty Access to Healthcare broken promises in Schaller Telephone Co. v. Golden Sky Systems, Inc., 139 F. Supp. 2d 1071, 1104-06 (N.D.Iowa 2001), and Brown v. North Central F.S., Inc., 987 F. Supp. 1150, 1157 (N.D.Iowa 1997). In both Schaller Telephone Company and Brown, this court concluded that, under Iowa law, a statement of intent to any distance analysis perform a future act is actionable if, when the statement is hcl reaction, made, the speaker had an mother existing intent not to perform. See Schaller Tel. Co., 139 F. J.R.R. Essay? Supp. 2d at 1105; Brown, 987 F. Supp. at 1157.

Thus, the Vendors'Fraud claims are at mother any distance least colorable under Iowa law, because they allege that Northwood stated an intent to pay later for goods received, but had an of Poverty on Women's to Healthcare existing intent not to perform when the promise was made. The question is mother any distance analysis, whether the Vendors can generate genuine issues of material fact on the elements of such claims. ii. Elements of the claims. As the Iowa Supreme Court recently explained, to establish a claim at law for damages for fraudulent misrepresentation, a plaintiff must prove (1) defendant made a representation to the plaintiff, (2) the representation was false, (3) the representation was material, (4) the defendant knew the representation was false, (5) the caco3, defendant intended to deceive the plaintiff, (6) the analysis, plaintiff acted in reliance on the truth of the representation and was justified in relying on the representation, (7) the representation was a proximate cause of plaintiff's damages, and (8) the amount of damages. Gibson v. The Effects Of Poverty On Women's To Healthcare? ITT Hartford Ins. Co., 621 N.W.2d 388, 400 (Iowa 2001); In re Marriage of Cutler, 588 N.W.2d 425, 430 (Iowa 1999) (defining the elements of fraud as including (1) misrepresentation or failure to disclose when under a legal duty to do so, (2) materiality, (3) scienter, (4) intent to deceive, (5) justifiable reliance, and mother any distance analysis, (6) resulting injury or damage). The knowledge of falsity and intent to and Learning in the Clinical deceive elements distinguish an any distance action at law for damages for fraud from an Tolkien's The Hobbit Essay equitable action to rescind a contract, because *845 even innocent misrepresentations may be sufficient to support an any distance analysis action for caco3 hcl reaction, rescission, but they are not sufficient to support a fraud action at law for damages. Hyler, 548 N.W.2d at 872. The plaintiff must prove the elements of fraudulent misrepresentation by clear and convincing evidence. In re Marriage of Cutler, 588 N.W.2d at 430; see also Ralfs v. Mowry, 586 N.W.2d 369, 373 (Iowa 1998) (describing the burden as proving the existence of mother analysis fraud by clear, satisfactory, and convincing evidence) (citing Benson v. Richardson, 537 N.W.2d 748, 756 (Iowa 1995)).

The defendants challenge the existence of of Poverty on Women's Access any evidence of falsity of any alleged representation, the defendants' knowledge of falsity, the Vendors' reliance, and damages from that reliance. In the present circumstances, the court concludes that the Vendors have albeit just barely pointed to evidence generating a genuine issue of material fact as to whether or not Northwood was already unable to pay its bills when it promised to analysis pay the Vendors for products shipped to Northwood on credit (falsity of the representation), and that Northwood's representatives knew at that time that Northwood would be unable to pay the Vendors when their bills came due (knowledge of falsity). See FED. Hcl Reaction? R. CIV. P. 56(e) (the party resisting summary judgment must go beyond the any distance, pleadings, and by affidavits, or by J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay, the depositions, answers to interrogatories, and any distance, admissions on file, designate specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial); Celotex, 477 U.S. at and Lies: Scott Fitzgerald´s Essay 324, 106 S. Mother? Ct. 2548. Those genuine issues of material fact arise from evidence that Northwood representatives were already concerned that Northwood was or soon would be unable to pay its bills well before Medallion Cabinetry withdrew its business and that Northwood representatives discussed the company's need to rely on its vendors to extend credit to get Northwood through the bad patch.

Similarly, the of islamophobia, court concludes that the Vendors have generated genuine issues of material fact on their actual reliance on misrepresentations, whether or not that reliance was justifiable, and damages resulting from that reliance, where they have pointed to evidence that they shipped goods on credit in reliance on promises to pay, but were not paid. See id. (resisting party's burden to defeat summary judgment). The defendants have pointed to no evidence showing that the Vendors should have known that Northwood could not pay for the goods when they first extended credit to Northwood or showing that the Vendors were not damaged by reliance on Northwood's representations where they were not paid indeed, the defendants' arguments concerning lack of reliance and lack of damages from any distance reliance do not relate to the pre-collapse transactions and representations that the court finds actually are pleaded as the basis for the Vendors'Fraud claims. Thus, it is the J.R.R. Tolkien's Essay, defendants who have failed to carry their initial burden to obtain summary judgment on the reliance and damages from reliance elements of the Vendors'Fraud claims. See Hartnagel, 953 F.2d at 395 (the movant for summary judgment bears the initial responsibility of informing the district court of the basis for mother analysis, its motion and identifying those portions of the of islamophobia, record which show lack of any distance a genuine issue) (citing Celotex Corp., 477 U.S. at 323, 106 S.Ct. 2548); see also Rose-Maston, 133 F.3d at The Effects of Poverty on Women's Access to Healthcare 1107; Reed, 7 F.3d at 810. While the court has little doubt that it would find against the Vendors on this claim, if it were the trier of fact, it is not the court's role on a motion for summary judgment to decide the truth of the mother any distance analysis, matters presented, and the Vendors have presented just enough evidence to generate a fact question for farm, the jury on their Fraud claims. See Quick, 90 F.3d at 1376-77 (on a motion for summary judgment, the trial *846 judge's function is not to weigh the evidence and mother any distance analysis, determine the truth of the matter, but to determine whether there are genuine issues for trial).

Therefore, the defendants' motion for summary judgment on the Vendors'Fraud claims in Counts XXXI through XXXV will be denied. Finally, the court turns to the defendants' motion for summary judgment on caco3 Counts XXXVI through XL of the any distance, amended complaint, which allege claims pursuant to the Racketeer Influenced and The Effects on Women's to Healthcare, Corrupt Organization Act (RICO). Although the defendants made no challenge to the adequacy of the mother any distance, Vendors' pleading of Façade Scott Fitzgerald´s Gatsby Essay their Fraud claims, the defendants's first challenge to the RICO claims is that the claims have not been adequately pleaded under Rule 9(b) of the mother any distance analysis, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Of Islamophobia? Specifically, the defendants contend that the Vendors have not pleaded any details as to the time, place, and analysis, content of false representations, or the identity of the person making the misrepresentation and what was obtained or given up thereby. The Effects Of Poverty Access To Healthcare? The defendants also point out that the claims do not specify what provisions of the mother any distance, Iowa Business Corporation Act or Uniform Commercial Code the Clinical Setting Essay, defendants have allegedly violated. Any Distance? Even if the hcl reaction, claims satisfy the heightened pleading requirements of Rule 9(b), the defendants still contend that summary judgment in their favor is appropriate on these claims, because the Vendors cannot establish the existence of a predicate act for a RICO claim, either in the form of fraudulent transactions, where all transactions involved property that was security for debts, or mail fraud, where no mailing contained a fraudulent representation. Next, the defendants assert that the mother any distance, Vendors cannot establish any pattern of and Learning Essay racketeering activity, either in terms of number, relatedness, or continuity of predicate acts, and the undisputed facts show that any scheme lasted at most four months prior to the last delivery of goods by the Vendors. The Vendors contend that they can establish a RICO claim, because they can establish violations of the UFTA, involving a series of fraudulent transactions spanning the time from their first shipments in 2001 through the setting up of SDD in analysis, April of 2002, as well as related acts of mail fraud. Of Islamophobia? [9] They argue that it is not necessary that statements in a mailing be fraudulent, as the analysis, defendants contend, if the mailings were designed to lull the recipient into caco3, a false sense of security, postpone inquiries, or hide the appearance of fraud. There is evidence of such mailings, they contend, in analysis, the form of letters from Andrew Richey promising a repayment scheme that did not exist and letters to farm creditors from Northwood's bankruptcy counsel painting a false picture of mother analysis insufficient assets to cover secured debts. They also assert that the scheme lasted more than a year, because it involved fraudulent transfers from caco3 mid-2001 through the sale of assets in 2003 by mother any distance analysis, Miner's, Inc., that gave Miner's, Inc., a profit, but provided no benefit to unsecured creditors.

In reply, the defendants point out animal that the Vendors have not even attempted to demonstrate the sufficiency of their pleadings to mother meet the heightened pleading requirements for RICO claims. They also *847 contend that the letters to which the Vendors point were not part of a scheme to commit any fraudulent transactions, but that even giving the Vendors the benefit of all doubts, the last allegedly fraudulent act would have been Richey's letter to the Vendors in December 2001, so that the supposed scheme simply didn't last long enough to satisfy the requirements of of Poverty on Women's Access Essays a RICO claim. i. Elements of the RICO claims. The Vendors do not make clear, in either their complaint or their resistance to summary judgment, the precise nature of their RICO claims. However, it appears that they are pleading claims of conduct in analysis, violation of The Effects of Poverty on Women's Access to Healthcare Essays 18 U.S.C. 1962(c). Mother Analysis? Section 1962(c) makes it unlawful for any person employed by or associated with any enterprise engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce, to conduct or participate, directly or indirectly, in the conduct of hcl reaction such enterprise's affairs through a pattern of racketeering or collection of unlawful debt. 18 U.S.C. 1962(c). Any Distance? Persons injured by reason of a 1962 violation have standing to bring a civil suit pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Tolkien's The Hobbit? 1964(c). See Fogie v. THORN Americas, Inc., 190 F.3d 889, 894 (8th Cir.1999).

To prove such a claim, a RICO plaintiff must prove the defendant `engaged in (1) conduct (2) of an enterprise (3) through a pattern (4) of racketeering activity.' Asa-Brandt, Inc. v. ADM Investor Servs., Inc., 344 F.3d 738, 752 (8th Cir.2003) (quoting Handeen v. Mother Any Distance Analysis? Lemaire, 112 F.3d 1339, 1347 (8th Cir.1997)); In re Sac Fox Tribe of the of islamophobia, Mississippi in analysis, Iowa/Meskwaki Casino Litigation, 340 F.3d 749, 767 (8th Cir.2003) (To state a claim under 1962(c), a plaintiff must establish (1) the existence of an enterprise; (2) conduct by the defendants in association with the enterprise; (3) the defendants' participation in at least two predicate acts of racketeering; and (4) conduct that constitutes a pattern of racketeering activity. Caco3 Hcl Reaction? United HealthCare Corp. v. Any Distance Analysis? American Trade Ins. Co., 88 F.3d 563, 570 (8th Cir.1996).). ii. Pleading requirements for farm, the RICO claims. Among other things, the Vendors must have adequately pleaded a pattern of racketeering activity, i.e., a pattern of predicate acts. 18 U.S.C. 1962(c); Abels v. Mother Any Distance Analysis? Farmers Commodities Corp., 259 F.3d 910, 918 (8th Cir.2001). There are two issues here that should be kept distinct: whether the plaintiffs have sufficiently pleaded acts of racketeering, and whether those alleged acts can be said to form a pattern. Abels, 259 F.3d at 919. Thus, a heightened pleading standard pursuant to Rule 9(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure applies when the predicate acts alleged are acts of fraud; however, particularized allegations are not needed in order to determine whether a pattern exists, that is, to determine whether there are any facts that the plaintiffs could plead that would connect the predicate acts to the pattern.

See id. (clarifying Murr Plumbing, Inc. v. Scherer Bros. Fin., 48 F.3d 1066 (8th Cir.1995)). As to pleading of of islamophobia predicate acts of fraud, Rule 9(b) requires that the plaintiff specifically allege the mother any distance, `circumstances constituting fraud,' Fed.R.Civ.P. 9(b), including `such matters as the time, place and contents of false representations, as well as the The Effects, identity of the person making the misrepresentation and what was obtained or given up thereby.' Id. at 920 (quoting Bennett v. Berg, 685 F.2d 1053, 1062 (8th Cir.1982), adhered to on reh'g, 710 F.2d 1361 (8th Cir.) ( en banc ), cert. denied, 464 U.S. 1008, 104 S. Ct. 527, 78 L. Ed. 2d 710 (1983)); accord Murr Plumbing, Inc., 48 F.3d at 1069. Predicate acts making up a pattern of racketeering activity may include mail fraud, as proscribed by 18 *848 U.S.C. 1341, and wire fraud, as proscribed by 18 U.S.C. 1343.

Abels, 259 F.3d at 918. These fraud offenses would necessarily be subject to the heightened pleading standards of Rule 9(b). See id. Mother Any Distance Analysis? Because the conduct constituting these offenses may vary widely, [a] plaintiff may, but need not, allege that a defendant made misrepresentations of fact, and no misrepresentations need be transmitted by mail or wire: even routine business communications in these media may suffice to make a scheme of hcl reaction false dealing into a federal offense. Any Distance? Abels, 259 F.3d at 918; see also Atlas Pile Driving Co. In The Setting Examples? v. DiCon Financial Co., 886 F.2d 986, 992 (8th Cir.1989) ([A] mailing [that serves as an element of mail fraud] may be a routine mailing or even one that is any distance, sent for a legitimate business purpose so long as it assists in carrying out the fraud) (internal quotations omitted). Because the Vendors have identified certain mailings that they assert furthered a fraud, even if those mailings did not contain misrepresentations, the Vendors have identified some conduct that could constitute predicate acts for purposes of The Effects on Women's Access to Healthcare Essays their RICO claims. On the other hand, fraudulent transfers as defined by the UFTA are not criminal offenses identified as racketeering activity in 18 U.S.C. 1961(a). Cf. Any Distance Analysis? Wisdom v. First Midwest Bank of Poplar Bluff, 167 F.3d 402, 406 (8th Cir.1999) (holding that Truth In Lending Act violations were not in the list of racketeering activities in 1961(1), and so could not be a predicate act for purposes of a civil RICO claim). Therefore, even if adequately pleaded, such fraudulent transfers would not support the Vendors'RICO claims.

Furthermore, where the court concluded, above, that the Vendors failed to generate any genuine issues of material fact that there were any fraudulent transfers, no mailings related to Façade and Lies: in F. Fitzgerald´s The Great Essay such transfers could form the basis for a mail fraud predicate act. The mail fraud predicate acts must, therefore, be based on analysis the only other fraud alleged, which is history, a fraudulent statement of Northwood's intention to pay later for mother, goods shipped to Northwood by the Vendors. Thus, the question is whether or not the Façade and Lies: A Theme Scott The Great, Vendors adequately pleaded any underlying fraud to mother any distance which any mailings related. See Abels, 259 F.3d at 918-19 (the heightened pleading standards of Rule 9(b) apply to pleading of predicate acts for a RICO claim, but the pleading of a mail fraud predicate act does not require an allegation that the mailing itself contained a fraudulent statement, only and Learning in the Essay that the mailing related to the fraud); Atlas Pile Driving Co., 886 F.2d at 992 (the mailing must have assisted the fraud). From review of the pleading of the RICO claims and the underlying frauds identified in those claims, the answer, quite obviously, is mother analysis, no. The Vendors' pleadings do not identify the time, or place or even the method, means, or mode of any misrepresentations, or the of Poverty Access to Healthcare, identity of anyone who purportedly made such misrepresentations, concerning Northwood's intention to mother pay for goods after receiving them. See id. at 920 (the plaintiff must specifically allege the `circumstances constituting fraud,' Fed.R.Civ.P. 9(b), including `such matters as the time, place and contents of false representations, as well as the identity of the person making the misrepresentation and what was obtained or given up thereby') (quoting Bennett, 685 F.2d at 1062).

No specific incidence of a pertinent representation is identified anywhere in the amended complaint; indeed, the complaint does not even allege that any such representations were conveyed by mail or wire, or identify any mailings that assisted in the original fraudulent promises to pay for history of islamophobia, goods delivered on mother any distance credit. *849 Therefore, the defendants are entitled to summary judgment on the Vendors'RICO claims in Counts XXXI through XXXV of the amended complaint on the ground that the Vendors have not pleaded the underlying fraud predicate acts with the Façade and Lies: A Theme Scott The Great Gatsby Essay, particularity required by mother any distance analysis, Rule 9(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. iii. And Learning In The Clinical Essay? Supporting evidence. In addition, or in the alternative, the defendants also assert that the Vendors cannot generate genuine issues of any distance analysis material fact on any predicate acts or any pattern of predicate acts sufficient to sustain their RICO claims. Animal Farm Pigs? See Asa-Brandt, Inc., 344 F.3d at 752 (proof of a RICO claim requires, inter alia, proof of any distance a pattern of racketeering activity).

The Vendors rely on of islamophobia a pattern of mail fraud and fraudulent transfers in violation of the UFTA. However, as noted above, fraudulent transfers as defined by the UFTA are not criminal offenses identified as racketeering activity in 18 U.S.C. 1961(1). Cf. Wisdom, 167 F.3d at any distance 406 (conduct not in the list of racketeering activities in 1961(1) could not be a predicate act for purposes of a civil RICO claim). Therefore, fraudulent transfers do not support the Vendors'RICO claims, and the Vendors consequently must rely entirely on predicate acts of mail fraud to establish the necessary pattern. See id. (where certain wrong-doing was not identified as racketeering activity under 1961(1), the plaintiff had to rely only on predicate acts that were so defined to establish the Façade and Lies: A Theme in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby, pattern element). [10] Thus, in this case, if there is no mail fraud, there are no predicate acts to support the allegations of racketeering under RICO. Blue Dane Simmental Corp. Mother Any Distance? v. And Lies: A Theme? American Simmental Ass'n, 178 F.3d 1035, 1042 (8th Cir.1999).

The only mailings identified by the Vendors in the summary judgment record in support of their RICO claim none are identified in their complaint are letters from any distance Andrew Richey promising a repayment scheme that allegedly did not exist and letters to creditors from Northwood's bankruptcy counsel painting an allegedly false picture of insufficient assets to cover secured debts. J.R.R. Essay? The mailing by bankruptcy counsel plainly relates to the Vendors' untenable allegation of fraudulent transfers, which, as explained above, are neither predicate acts under RICO, nor supported by the record, where the letter related to transfers involving only mother analysis property subject to valid liens. Thus, the Vendors'RICO claims must stand on history Richey's correspondence as the alleged predicate acts of mail fraud. The Vendors point to nearly identical letters, each dated December 27, 2001, to Kretz Lumber, Plaintiffs' Appendix at 192, Webster Industries, Plaintiffs' Appendix at 219, and mother, Hart Tie Lumber Company, Plaintiffs' Appendix at 228, in which Richey stated, inter alia, that Northwood has formulated a plan, which will permit us to resume payments on your account and ask that we work together to get these payments initiated as soon as possible. *850 These letters did not assist [ ] in carrying out the original fraud, see Atlas Pile Driving Co., 886 F.2d at 992, where the history of islamophobia, Vendors had already shipped products on mother analysis credit, based on prior promises of payment. Rather, the few mailings that the Vendors identify were all sent after the Vendors had already delivered goods to Northwood on credit.

However, those mailings may have helped to disguise the prior fraud. Therefore, construing the Tolkien's The Hobbit, record very much in favor of the Vendors, the Vendors may have generated genuine issues of material fact that there were predicate acts of mail fraud. Even so, to sustain a RICO claim, there must also be a pattern of mother racketeering activity. See Asa-Brandt, Inc., 344 F.3d at 752 (stating the elements of J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay a RICO claim). Analysis? The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals has explained the pattern element as follows: The pattern element requires at least two acts of racketeering activity. 18 U.S.C. 1961(5); see also H.J.

Inc. v. Northwestern Bell Tel. Co., 492 U.S. 229, 237-38, 109 S. Ct. Teaching And Learning In The Clinical Essay Examples? 2893, 106 L. Ed. 2d 195 (1989).

However, a mere allegation of two or more acts is insufficient to any distance analysis state a RICO claim; the farm, predicate acts must be related and mother, must amount to or pose a threat of continued criminal activity. See United HealthCare Corp. v. American Trade Ins. Co., Ltd., 88 F.3d 563, 571 (8th Cir.1996) (quoting H.J. Inc., 492 U.S. at 239, 109 S.Ct. 2893). Animal? The relationship prong of the pattern element is satisfied if the predicate acts `have the any distance, same or similar purposes, results, participants, victims, or methods of commission, or otherwise are interrelated by distinguishing characteristics and are not isolated events.' Handeen v. On Women's Access To Healthcare Essays? Lemaire, 112 F.3d 1339, 1353 (8th Cir.1997) (quoting H.J.

Inc., 492 U.S. at 240, 109 S.Ct. 2893). The second prong, continuity, can be either closed-ended or open-ended. Closed-ended continuity involves a series of related predicates extending over a substantial period of time; open-ended continuity involves acts which, by mother, their nature, threaten repetition into the future. See H.J. Inc., 492 U.S. at 241-42, 109 S. Ct. 2893. Multiple predicates within a single scheme are encompassed within the RICO statute as long as the relationship and continuity elements are met.

See id. at 237, 492 U.S. 229, 109 S. Ct. 2893, 106 L. Ed. Of Poverty On Women's To Healthcare Essays? 2d 195; Terry A. Lambert Plumbing, Inc. v. Western Sec. Bank, 934 F.2d 976, 981 (8th Cir.1991). Wisdom, 167 F.3d at 406; Handeen v. Lemaire, 112 F.3d 1339, 1343 (8th Cir.1997) (It is by now familiar doctrine that a pattern of racketeering activity is present only when predicate acts are linked by `continuity plus relationship.') (quoting H.J., Inc. v. Northwestern Bell Tel. Co., 492 U.S. 229, 239, 109 S. Any Distance? Ct. 2893, 106 L. Ed.

2d 195 (1989)). [11] The continuity requirement generally requires proof that the predicate acts extended over a closed period of at least a year. Handeen, 112 F.3d at 1353 (citing its recognition in Primary Care Investors, Seven, Inc. v. PHP Healthcare Corp., 986 F.2d 1208, 1215 (8th Cir.1993), that other circuits have so held). Otherwise, the pattern must meet the definition of open-ended continuity, which requires that the conduct `involve a distinct threat of long-term racketeering activity.' Id. (quoting H.J., 492 U.S. at 242, 109 S. Ct. 2893, with emphasis added in Handeen ); *851 accord Wisdom, 167 F.3d at 406. Here, there is no evidence of open-ended continuity, i.e., no threat of repetition in and Lies: Scott, the future, see id., because Northwood has ceased operations, Richey has disappeared, and the Vendors have instituted suit to recover their losses.

Thus, the Vendors must generate genuine issues of material fact that there was a closed-ended pattern that extended over any distance analysis a substantial period of time. Id. While the Vendors assert that nearly everything the defendants have done, from the allegedly fraudulent transfers in mid-2001 through the in the Setting, sale of assets in 2003 by Miner's, Inc., is part of the pattern, what is required is a pattern of predicate acts. Again, in this case, those predicate acts must be acts of mail fraud. All of Richey's letters allegedly constituting the predicate acts of mail fraud were sent on the same day, and thus, do not establish a pattern extending over a substantial period of time.

Even were the court to link those letters back to the original broken promises fraud that allegedly occurred some six months earlier, the alleged pattern falls well short of the one-year rule of thumb for mother analysis, a RICO pattern. Handeen, 112 F.3d at 1353. Thus, even if a reasonable jury could find relationship, it could not find sufficient continuity to establish a pattern of predicate acts in support of a RICO claim. Therefore, the defendants are also entitled to summary judgment in their favor on the Vendors'RICO claims in Counts XXXVI through XL of the amended complaint on the alternative ground of failure to generate genuine issues of material fact on the elements of their RICO claims. The court cannot conclude that either the Vendors' or the defendants' view of the this case is the only one supportable on the record evidence as a matter of law. Although certain claims are subject to history of islamophobia summary judgment, others must be submitted to a jury. 1. The Vendors' December 9, 2003, unresisted motion for partial summary judgment (docket no. 58) is granted. Summary judgment is mother any distance, granted in favor of the Vendors and against defendant Northwood Doors, Inc., on the Vendors' claims in Counts I through V (Actions on Accounts), Counts VI through X (Quantum Valebant), Counts XI through XV (Accounts Stated), and Counts XXI through XXV (Unjust Enrichment) in the following amounts:

a. In favor of Webster Industries in Façade Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby, the amount of $253,352.05; b. In favor of Kretz Lumber in mother any distance, the amount of $78,434.34 plus statutory interest after January 2, 2002; c. In favor of Woodline Manufacturing in the amount of $99,154.91 plus late fees at and Lies: Scott The Great Gatsby the rate of 24% per annum from and after October 16, 2001; d. In favor of Wycombe Wood Products in the amount of $68,667.64; and e. In favor of Hart Tie Lumber Company in the amount of $118,866.16. 2. The defendants' December 12, 2003, motion for any distance analysis, partial summary judgment (docket no. 59) is granted in part and denied in part, as follows: a. The motion is denied as to the Vendors'Quantum Valebant claims in and Learning in the Setting, Counts VI through X as to all defendants except Northwood Doors, Inc.; b. The motion is granted as to the Vendors'Fraudulent Transfer claims in Counts XVI through XX; c. The motion is denied as to the Unjust Enrichment claims in Counts XXI through XXV; d. The motion is granted as to the Vendors' claims of Misappropriation of Corporate Opportunity/Breach of Fiduciary *852 Duty/Breach of Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing in Counts XXVI through XXX; d. The motion is denied as to the Vendors'Fraud claims in Counts XXXI through XXXV; and e. The motion is granted as to any distance the Vendors'RICO claims in Counts XXXVI through XL. 3. Consequently, this matter will proceed to caco3 hcl reaction trial on April 19, 2004, on Counts I through XV (Actions on any distance Accounts, Quantum Valebant, and Accounts Stated) and Counts XXI through XXV (Unjust Enrichment) against all defendants except Northwood Doors, Inc., and Andrew Richey, who has never been served, and on Counts XXXI through XXXV (Fraud) against Façade A Theme The Great Gatsby, all defendants except Andrew Richey.

A key issue on any distance analysis each of these claims will be whether other defendants can be held liable for any wrongdoing by defendant Northwood. IT IS SO ORDERED. [1] The defendants filed a corrected response to the Vendors' statement of additional facts on February 5, 2004. [2] As mentioned above, even if granted, the motion will leave for trial the in the Setting, claims in Counts I through V (Actions On Account) and XI through XV (Accounts Stated) against all defendants except Northwood, against which summary judgment on these claims has already been entered above, and mother analysis, Andrew Richey, who has never been served with the complaint. [3] The court notes that the parties are correct that Iowa's choice-of-law rules use the most significant relationship test to determine the history, law applicable to any distance analysis a particular claim. J.R.R. Tolkien's Essay? See, e.g., Lyons v. Mother Analysis? Midwest Glazing, 265 F. Supp. 2d 1061, 1072 (N.D.Iowa 2003). The court also notes, however, that the parties do not appear to have recognized that the factors pertinent to determination of the most significant relationship vary depending upon whether the claim at issue is a tort claim or a contract claim. As this court explained in L L Builders Co. v. Mayer Associated Servs., Inc., 46 F. Supp. Animal? 2d 875 (N.D.Iowa 1999), The first step in determining any choice-of-law question is to determine the mother analysis, proper characterization of what kind of case is involved.

Jones Distrib. Co., Inc. [v. White Consol.], 943 F.Supp. History? [1445,] 1458 [(N.D.Iowa 1996)] (also observing that the law of the forum controls this question as well); Harlan Feeders, Inc. [v. Any Distance Analysis? Grand Labs., Inc .], 881 F.Supp. [1400,] 1404 [(N.D.Iowa 1995)] (same). The Effects Of Poverty Access? Although Iowa applies the any distance analysis, `most significant relationship test' to conflict-of-laws or choice-of-law questions involving either contract or tort claims, the factors the court is to consider are not identical in the context of torts and contracts. Teaching And Learning Clinical Setting Essay Examples? Harlan Feeders, Inc., 881 F. Supp. at 1405. L L Builders Co., 46 F. Mother Any Distance Analysis? Supp.

2d at farm pigs 881; see also id. at analysis 882 (Iowa courts have adopted the A Theme in F. Fitzgerald´s, `most significant relationship' test of the Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws 188 for determination of conflict-of-laws questions pertaining to a contract claim.); Dethmers Mfg. Co., Inc. v. Automatic Equip. Mfg. Co., 23 F. Supp. Any Distance? 2d 974, 1002-04 (N.D.Iowa 1998) (noting that Iowa has adopted the most significant relationship test of Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws 188 for both contract and Teaching and Learning in the Clinical Setting examples, quasi-contract claims, but has adopted the most significant relationship test in Restatement (Second) of mother any distance Conflict of Laws 145 for tort claims); Harlan Feeders, Inc., 881 F. Supp. at 1405-09 (same). Façade And Lies: Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby Essay? However, because no true conflict has been shown, the court need not determine, in light of these differing factors, which forum's law applies to the contract and tort claims still pending in this action.

[4] The Iowa Supreme Court has noted that piercing the corporate veil is mother any distance analysis, primarily used to farm pigs impose personal liability upon the owners, directors, or officers of the corporation attempting to use the corporate entity as an `intermediary to perpetrate fraud or promote injustice.' See Haupt v. Miller, 514 N.W.2d 905, 908 (Iowa 1994). However, Iowa courts have used piercing the corporate veil to refer to at least three different theories under which various defendants in any distance, this case could be held liable for the conduct of Northwood in this case: (1) corporate identity, the situation described in history, Team Central, which could establish the liability of the Partridge Defendants for Northwood's conduct, on the basis that the nominally separate entities did not actually have separate corporate identities; (2) owner, shareholder, director, or officer liability, which could establish the liability of Miner and mother analysis, Richey for conduct of Northwood; and (3) successor corporation liability, which could establish SDD's liability for Northwood's conduct. The defendants have not pointed to Façade and Lies: Fitzgerald´s Gatsby Essay any authority that fraudulent transfers are a necessary element of proof for any of these theories, and indeed, Iowa law is to the contrary. See, e.g., Team Central, Inc., 271 N.W.2d at 923 (establishing that fraud is not a necessary element of mother analysis corporate identity liability); In re Marriage of Ballstaedt, 606 N.W.2d 345, 349 (Iowa 2000) (factors that would support piercing the corporate veil to hold an and Lies: A Theme The Great Gatsby owner, shareholder, or officer liable include (1) the corporation is undercapitalized; (2) it lacks separate books; (3) its finances are not kept separate from mother any distance individual finances, or individual obligations are paid by and Lies: in F. Fitzgerald´s Essay, the corporation; (4) the mother analysis, corporation is used to promote fraud or illegality; (5) corporate formalities are not followed; and caco3, (6) the corporation is a mere sham); Pancratz v. Any Distance Analysis? Monsanto Co., 547 N.W.2d 198, 200-01 (Iowa 1996) (identifying four circumstances in which a successor corporation, i.e., a corporation that purchased the assets of another corporation, may be liable for the predecessor's debts and liabilities, as follows: (1) the buyer agrees to be held liable; (2) the two corporations consolidate or merge; (3) the buyer is and Learning in the, a mere continuation of the seller; or (4) the transaction amounts to fraud). [5] The complete statutory definition of asset is as follows: 2. Asset means property of a debtor, but does not include any of the following: a. Mother Analysis? Property to Teaching and Learning in the Setting examples the extent it is encumbered by a valid lien. b. Mother Analysis? Property to the extent it is history, generally exempt under nonbankruptcy law. c. An interest in property held in tenancy by mother any distance analysis, the entireties to the extent it is not subject to process by a creditor holding a claim against only one tenant. IOWA CODE 684.1(2). [6] Moreover, the Tolkien's Essay, conclusion of counsel in the letter was that, even assuming this valuation of the property, Northwood's secured debts exceeded the value of its property.

[7] Again, the court assumes that this motion is in favor of the defendants other than Northwood, because the defendants did not oppose summary judgment in mother any distance analysis, the Vendors' favor on the Unjust Enrichment claims against Northwood. [8] Indeed, were the court presented with a motion to history of islamophobia dismiss the Fraud claims for failure to mother any distance analysis state a claim pursuant to Rules 12(b) (6) and 9(b) of the Federal Rules of history of islamophobia Civil Procedure, it is highly likely that the claims would be dismissed on the basis of the utter failure to plead fraud with the any distance, particularity required by Rule 9(b). See FED. R. CIV. P. 9(b); see also, e.g., Wright v. Brooke Group Ltd., 114 F. Supp.

2d 797, 832 (N.D.Iowa 2000) (reiterating the requirements for animal farm, pleading fraud pursuant to Rule 9(b)). Although the fraud claims were originally asserted in state court, prior to removal, the mother, Vendors offered and were allowed to file an amended complaint after removal, which made their claims subject to the heightened pleading requirements of Rule 9(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. See, e.g., Schaller Tel. Co. v. Golden Sky Sys., Inc., 139 F. And Learning In The Clinical Essay? Supp. 2d 1071, 1099 n. 9 (N.D.Iowa 2001). As this court observed in Schaller Telephone Company,

There is something counterintuitive about the mother any distance analysis, court being required to consider, on a motion for summary judgment, a claim that it almost undoubtedly would have found insufficiently pleaded on a motion to The Effects of Poverty Access dismiss. Mother Analysis? Nevertheless, the matter is currently presented on a summary judgment procedural footing. Thus, the question is whether genuine issues of caco3 hcl reaction material fact preclude summary judgment on the claim or whether the mother analysis, defendants are otherwise entitled to summary judgment on the claim as a matter of law. See FED. Teaching And Learning Clinical Examples? R. Any Distance Analysis? CIV. P. 56. Schaller Tel. Co., 139 F. Supp. 2d at 1098 n. 9. The same situation obtains here, where the court must consider pursuant to Rule 56 standards the viability of Fraud claims that were inadequately pleaded under Rule 12(b) (6) and Rule 9(b). [9] The Vendors apparently have abandoned their allegations in their complaint that predicate acts included violations of the Iowa Business Corporations Act and the Uniform Commercial Code, because they make no reference to these allegations in their resistance to the defendants' assertions that the Vendors cannot generate genuine issues of material fact on any predicate acts. [10] Even if fraudulent transfers could be considered predicate acts for purposes of a RICO claim, the court determined above that the Vendors had failed to generate genuine issues of material fact that any fraudulent transfers occurred.

Instead, the supposed fraudulent transfers involved property subject to liens by creditors. Tolkien's Essay? In Sinclair v. Hawke, 314 F.3d 934 (8th Cir.2003), the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals observed, `Bankers do not become racketeers by acting like bankers.' Terry A. Lambert Plumbing, Inc. Mother? v. Western Sec. Bank, 934 F.2d 976, 981 (8th Cir.1991). Likewise, bank regulators do not become racketeers by acting like aggressive regulators. Sinclair, 314 F.3d at and Learning in the Essay 943-44. A logical extension of these principles is that lienholders do not become racketeers by acting like lienholders.

Therefore, actions involving only property subject to liens could not be predicate acts for purposes of RICO. [11] As the mother any distance, Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals has explained, The enterprise is not the pattern of animal pigs racketeering activity. Rather, the mother analysis, enterprise must have a common or shared purpose, some continuity of personnel, and an ascertainable structure distinct from the pattern of racketeering. Asa-Brandt, Inc., 344 F.3d at The Effects of Poverty on Women's to Healthcare Essays 752 (internal citations omitted). Subscribe to Justia's Free Newsletters featuring summaries of mother any distance federal and state court opinions .

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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to apply for any distance analysis a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit Essay plug in all of the information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates.

Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to mother create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the caco3 hcl reaction, authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning. Mother Any Distance Analysis! Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and choose from a wide range of history, businesses in mother, different industries in which to base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and animal are a great option for mother any distance analysis beginners and J.R.R. new business owners. Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of business plans free in PDF, PowerPoint and Word. Analysis! The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the SeamlessDocs platform. The site includes a template for of Poverty on Women's to Healthcare Essays a variety of specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to any distance add their logos and business information. If you need a guide to writing a business plan, Entrepreneur.com also provides a download for that.

This step-by-step business plan builder, offered by Law Depot, covers structure, product marketing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), operations, and details specific to your business in their templates. Once the animal farm pigs, template is complete, you can download and print. The plan builder asks specific questions to help focus your answers and makes your business plan concise and comprehensive. MOBI, or My Own Business Institute, is part of mother any distance, Santa Clara University#39;s Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. They offer a fifteen-section business plan template, including the business profile, licenses/permits and location, which are available for free download in Word as individual templates, or as a larger all-in-one document. All download are compatible with current and of Poverty to Healthcare older versions of Word (2003 and earlier). Mother Any Distance! MOBI also covers topics associated with startups, but also provides information on how to run a business, including employee management, how to and Learning in the Clinical Setting examples handle problems, and e-commerce. Office Depot#39;s Business Resource Center contains free business plan samples for retailers, manufacturers and service providers. The business tools include downloadable rich text format (RTF) business plan templates, which is Word compatible.

Excel business plan financials are also available for manufacturers and mother any distance service providers, while the retailer business plan template is animal farm pigs, complete with forecasting and financial tables, but this requires Microsoft Word version 6.0 or later. Catering to analysis businesses owned by farm, women, Oprah.com#39;s free one-page business plan templates can be used by analysis, anyone who wants to start a business. The PDF templates come filled in The Effects of Poverty on Women's Access to Healthcare Essays, with example information for small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to be left with a template that works for any business venture. The template has space for information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and action plans. When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to make sure your document is legally sound. The template is questionnaire-style and asks for key information about your business such as founders, structure and industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc. Rocket Lawyer not only aims at helping you create a blueprint for your business, but also for investors.

Your completed document is available for mother analysis download as a Word document for free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the one-week trial period at no charge. The document is $10 on its own without a subscription. SCORE is a small business resource website that aims to The Effects of Poverty on Women's Access to Healthcare help entrepreneurs launch and mother any distance analysis grow small business across the United States. Their collection of business planning tools includes free Word business plan templates for startups and established businesses. They also provide a sales forecasting template, competitive analysis charts to determine your business#39; strengths and weaknesses, and financial planning templates such as startup expenses, profit and loss projections, and financial statements. Pigs! You can then use these business templates to meet with a Score mentor for analysis expert business planning advice.

The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers an online business plan template and guide to help you build your business plan, step by step. Once you create an account, you complete the cover page by filling in your company name, owner name and contact information, and then upload your logo. Façade A Theme In F. Gatsby! There are six business plan sections to choose from (Executive Summary, Company Description, Market Research, Product/Service Line, Marketing and Sales, Financial Projections), and mother any distance analysis you can save and work on your file anytime you want. The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan. Looking for The Hobbit Essay a no-fuss business plan template that gets straight to mother the point? The $100 Startup, a New York Times and Wall Street Journal best seller, offers the One-Page Business Plan, a simple form that asks several questions you can quickly answer to get up and running.

This free business plan template covers everything from your business overview to finances, marketing, goals and challenges. Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and The Effects of Poverty on Women's more. Additional reporting by Sara Angeles and analysis Marci Martin. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with business plan services, use the J.R.R. Tolkien's Essay, questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of analysis, vendors for free. Teaching And Learning In The Setting Essay! Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in mother analysis, 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in the food industry, print and animal farm pigs online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for any distance analysis Business News Daily.

When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the 700th time.

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California State University, Northridge. In these examples, the students had 120 minutes to produce an essay on a topic given them at the test and were not permitted to use dictionaries or other aids. They were advised to plan before writing and to check their papers over after finishing but not to try to recopy them because there would not be enough time. The essays are, in mother, effect, first drafts, with such revisions and corrections as the writers found time to animal, make. All the essays printed here are informative and coherent, but even the mother any distance analysis best are not flawless, and merely adequate papers exhibit several weaknesses and errors. It should be understood that in Façade A Theme Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby Essay, passing these papers the faculty is recognizing realistically the differences between an impromptu piece of writing and a paper prepared outside of class with adequate time for revising and polishing. We provide here a sample essay topic, together with the scoring guide, and three sample essays, rated 6 (High Pass - Superior), 5 (High Pass - Strong), and 4 (Pass - Adequate). Sample Essay Topic -- Sparkling Water is the New Soda. Sparkling Water is the New Soda.

The hottest drink in America is water with bubbles. Long a kitchen table staple in European households, sparkling water is making inroads in the U.S. thanks largely to mother, Americans waning interest in soda. Between 2009 and 2014, the history of islamophobia volume of carbonated bottled water sold in mother any distance analysis, the U.S. has increased by 56.4 percent, according to data from Euromonitor International, a market research firm. Soda drinking declined sharply during the same period. Still, sparkling water sales are a fraction of soda sales.

The U.S. soda market is worth about $39 billion, according to Euromonitor. Teaching Clinical Essay? The market for unflavored sparkling water, flavored sparkling water and functional water -- a category that includes flavored still water and enhanced still water like Smartwater -- is just $4 billion. It has a way to go before it catches up to soda, but sparkling water is indeed having a moment. The growth in any distance analysis, millions of liters of sparkling water sold in the U.S. According to Euromonitor International, Sparkling Water sales grew from 400 million liters per year to caco3 hcl reaction, 667 million liters per year in 2015, and are projected to grow to almost 800 million liters per year in 2019. The decline in millions of liters of soda sold in the U.S. (Note that the scale is very different from the chart above, with soda sales still dwarfing sparkling water sales.) According to Euromonitor International, soda sales fell from 40 billion liters per year to about 32 billion liters per mother year in 2015, and are projected to fall to just over 30 billion liters per year in 2019.

Americans growing obsession with health is the The Effects of Poverty on Women's Access to Healthcare biggest reason for the shift, according to Jonas Feliciano, a global beverage analyst at any distance analysis, Euromonitor. Coke and Pepsi have resorted to Teaching in the Clinical examples, hawking products like energy drinks and mother any distance, even milk to boost sales as Americans become increasingly wary of the high levels of caco3, sugar in soda. The opportunity for variety is another factor in the sparkling water boom. These beverages are available in a range of mother any distance analysis, flavors, from orange-pineapple to kiwi-strawberry. Feliciano noted that most mainstream soda comes in just cola and lemon-lime flavors. One exception, Mountain Dew, has built its success in part on constantly launching new flavors. [Americans] are turning away from things that identify with soda and instead are turning toward things that identify with water, Feliciano said. If Im looking for health and J.R.R. Essay, Im looking for variety, sparkling water with different flavors seems to provide that. For some companies, Americans changing tastes are offering an opportunity. The growth in sales at Washington-based Talking Rain Beverage Company, which makes flavored sparkling water, has pretty much directly mirrored the mother rise of the beverage's popularity.

The company brought in more than $384 million in sales in 2014 compared to just $2.7 million in 2009. Sparkling Ice, a Talking Rain line of zero-calorie sparkling water in flavors like pink grapefruit and peach nectarine, is responsible for most of that growth. Kevin Klock, Talking Rains CEO, says the company doesnt try to animal, make health claims about its drinks because shoppers recognize on their own that sparkling water is probably healthier than soda. Its great that its zero calories, but its probably not the number one thing the consumer is looking for, Klock said. Theyre not drinking it because they have to, theyre just drinking it because its something they find they enjoy. Sodas two main draws are caffeine and a bubbly sweet sensation, according to Klock.

As concerns about sodas health consequences mount, drinkers are turning to mother, coffee and energy drinks for their caffeine fix, and flavored sparkling waters for Façade in F. Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby, that throat-tickling combination of mother any distance analysis, bubbles and sweetness. I dont see it as a fad, Klock said of farm pigs, flavored sparkling water, noting that the trend in all beverages, including liquor and any distance, beer, is toward more variety and flavor. SodaStream is betting big that interest in sparkling water continues to grow. The at-home carbonation machine company has shifted its marketing in recent months to focus more on the product's ability to make sparkling water and less on its ability to make soda. SodaStream rebranded its devices as sparkling-water makers instead of soda makers, and it has changed its slogan from set the bubbles free to water made exciting. The company made the shift in part because Americans havent really taken to The Hobbit, the machines.

In the U.S., SodaStream is probably better known for its Scarlett Johansson commercials than for its carbonation device. So far, just 1.5 percent of households in the U.S. have a SodaStream, compared to about 20 percent of households in mother, Finland or Sweden, according to Daniel Birnbaum, SodaStreams CEO. Even with the new messaging, it may be hard to Teaching and Learning in the Essay examples, achieve Birnbaums goal of getting a SodaStream in every home. Feliciano notes that low-income shoppers arent likely to mother any distance analysis, make the caco3 hcl reaction switch from soda to sparkling water anytime soon. Even those who don't shell out for a SodaStream machine -- the cheapest option on the company's website is $79.99 -- will probably find better deals on any distance, soda than sparkling water. While there's not that much difference in the average price per liter ($1.10 per caco3 hcl reaction liter for soda versus $1.30 per liter for sparkling water, according to Euromonitor), the supermarkets, discount outlets and convenience stores where most low-income Americans shop offer promotional deals on soda that often make it much cheaper than sparkling water, according to Feliciano. This is mother still not for the masses, Feliciano said. But Birnbaum is J.R.R. Tolkien's confident that Americans' shift away from soda is more than just a whim. We feel like we are now at the early stages of analysis, a revolution in of Poverty Access to Healthcare Essays, the beverage industry in America, Birnbaum said, noting that about 70 percent of SodaStreams customers globally use the machine only for carbonating water. The death of soda comes with the life of something else, Birnbaum said.

PROMPT: Sparkling Water is the New Soda. This test assesses written communication, critical thinking, quantitative literacy, and information literacy. 1. Any Distance Analysis? consider any cultural or social issues, including any biases of the author; 2. include your assessment of the history of islamophobia quantitative evidence the article uses; and. 3. discuss what research strategies you would use to find additional sources of information to evaluate the claims. Each essay is read and evaluated by at any distance analysis, least two faculty members in a carefully planned and of Poverty on Women's, supervised reading. Each reader scores an essay on a scale of 1 to any distance analysis, 6, and the two scores are combined. 12 is the highest possible total score. A score of 8 or above is passing. (See sample scoring guide and sample essays below.) It is the intention of CSUN to report test results that accurately reflect each student's performance. Test administration and test security standards are designed to assure that all test takers are given the same opportunity to demonstrate their abilities and to prevent anyone from having an unfair advantage over others because of testing irregularities.

With this in mind, in rare cases in which there is a question about the validity of a student's essay, the UDWPE Advisory Board reserves the right to in the Setting Essay examples, request that a student take a retest at no cost to the student. The student will be required to bring acceptable and specified identification. The Advisory Board will notify the student of the decision regarding the retest outcome. Each essay is read and evaluated by at least two faculty members in a carefully planned and supervised reading. A High Pass Superior paper addresses the topic in a complex, meaningful way, and executes its plan convincingly and skillfully. Purpose : Shows a clearly identifiable purpose through a highly-focused essay. Topic : Addresses the topic by sophisticated employment of many issues raised in any distance analysis, the reading passage. Critical Thinking and Logic : Evaluates the validity of the readings conclusions, and synthesizes information pertinent to the topic, and/or offers an alternative interpretation of the animal farm pigs topic. Development : Shows extensive development, following a logical progression in well-focused paragraphs exhibiting strong sentence and paragraph-level transitions, and offers cogent sources of information that go beyond those presented in the text. Style / Usage/Grammar: Offers variety and sophistication in sentence structure, diction, and vocabulary; exhibits a strong command of mother any distance, written English.

A High Pass Strong paper addresses the topic in a meaningful way, and executes its plan skillfully. Purpose : Shows a clearly identifiable purpose. Topic : Addresses the topic by competent employment of Essay, issues raised in the reading passage. Critical Thinking and Logic : Considers the validity of the readings conclusions, and synthesizes information pertinent to the topic. Development : Shows extensive development following a logical progression in focused paragraphs exhibiting strong sentence and paragraph-level transitions. Style / Usage/Grammar: Offers variety in sentence structure, diction, and vocabulary; exhibits a command of written English. A Pass paper takes a satisfactory approach. Purpose : Shows an analysis, identifiable purpose.

Topic : Has engaged the animal farm pigs primary issue raised by the reading passage. Critical Thinking and Logic : Demonstrates an understanding of the reading's topic and a grasp of analysis, its use of evidence. Development : Presents focused paragraphs in a reasonably logical sequence with adequate sentence and animal farm pigs, paragraph-level transitions. Style / Usage/Grammar: Employs adequate use of sentence structure and vocabulary; exhibits control of written English, and while the essay may contain some grammatical flaws, they do not detract from the overall effect or clarity of the mother analysis writing. An Inadequate No Pass paper fails to develop or address the issue in a satisfactory way. Purpose : Shows little purpose. Topic : May address some issues presented in the reading passage, but some significant aspects may be slighted or only marginally addressed.

Critical Thinking and Logic : Fails to adequately address the reading and develops no relevant points of its own. Development : Has underdeveloped portions presented in unfocused paragraphs lacking adequate transitions at A Theme Scott Essay, both the sentence and paragraph level. Style / Usage/Grammar: Contains sentences that are difficult to read or seem confused; may show frequent misuse of vocabulary; exhibits wavering control of written English, including major grammatical errors. An Incompetent No Pass paper fails to develop or address the issue at all and will reveal serious and repeated problems, including confusion as to the task. Purpose : Lacks apparent purpose. Topic : Fails to address the issues presented in the reading passage. Critical Thinking and Logic : Fails to any distance analysis, understand the reading. Development : Is significantly underdeveloped and lacks adequate transitions at both the sentence and paragraph level. Style / Usage/Grammar: Generally consists of hcl reaction, sentences that are difficult to read or seem confused; often shows misuse of vocabulary; exhibits little control of written English, including repeated major grammatical errors.

An Incomplete No Pass paper presents too little writing for any distance analysis, evaluation. It may be a blank exam or one containing only a few sentences. Student Response - Score: 6. This article discusses the phenomenon of sparkling water and its popularity, focusing on the drink's potential to drive soda out of our supermarkets. The potential take-over is one of the most significant paradigm shifts the beverage industry has ever seen. Soda has been the bully on the block for years, inventing new flavors purely for Façade and Lies: Essay, the sake of winning shelf space. Now, for the first time, soda consumption has declined by nearly twenty-five percent, while sparkling water consumption has gone up to mother, balance the change. While the new change is definitely worth exploring, I think the analysts quoted in the article are making black and white arguments, clearly caused by their biased positions in the beverage industry. This close-minded approach can be seen especially in The Effects of Poverty on Women's Access, their reasons behind the increase of sparkling water sales.

They argue that the change is being caused by health concerns, the mother any distance public's desire for variety, and economic factors like low income. Tolkien's Essay? All of these reasons are true to some extent, but I think both drinks will exists for decades to come, once they find a way to share the market. Jonas Feliciano of Euromonitor International believes that America is becoming more health conscious, causing them to realize that soda is not a wise decision. While this is mother true, and we are seeing more Americans every day taking up the vegetarian, vegan, or organic lifestyles, they are still a tiny minority. To Healthcare? The change will not likely become a majority because America is addicted to consumption.

It is part of mother any distance analysis, a national mentality of The Effects on Women's Access to Healthcare Essays, excess from fast food to caffeine addiction, and no addiction is easy to kick. The world saw a similar phenomenon when cigarettes were invented. They were believed to any distance, be healthy, then proven to be lethal, and everyone thought the. cigarette industry would die as a result. Look around. Millions of people still smoke cigarettes, and they probably always will.

For the of Poverty on Women's Access to Healthcare Essays same reasons, health concerns will cause national soda sales to decline only slightly. It is no surprise that Soda Stream is struggling to get their product into every American home, given America's health status. They have rebranded, hired Scarlett Johansson to be the face of the company, and mother analysis, still they have only wiggled their way into 1.5 percent of American households. This is because we are one of the unhealthiest countries. In Finland and Sweden, on the other hand, Soda Stream products can be found in J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay, twenty percent of homes, which comes as no surprise because these are two of the most highly educated countries on the planet. Furthermore, I think the sparkling water companies know that they are not much healthier than soda. Kevin Klock of Talking Rain Beverage Company does not make health claims about his company's sparkling water products.

He says this is because people buy sparkling water for the taste, not the mother any distance analysis health factors. I think Kevin avoids health statements because sparkling water is also unhealthy. The flavoring comes from sugar, just like soda. Even the zero calorie alternatives cannot be brought up as an argument because soda companies offer the same thing. In the end of the day, the only healthy choice is unflavored sparkling water, which is hardly a significant portion of of islamophobia, Talking Rain's sails. Klock's reasoning for the change towards sparkling water is mother that people only drank soda for the caffeine and bubbles. Façade Scott Essay? In recent years, people have turned to coffee and energy drinks for caffeine and to sparkling water for the bubbles. This may come as a shock to Klock, but coffee and energy drinks are unhealthy addictions. So even the mother owner of a successful sparkling water company believes that in order to knock soda off the caco3 hcl reaction market, the public needs to inherit new, equally unhealthy alternatives. Any Distance? The public will eventually recognize this hypocrisy, turn away from sparkling water, and maybe even turn back to caco3 hcl reaction, soda.

I think it is clear that health concerns, if any part of the market change, are not the main part. Feliciano's next argument is that people buy sparkling water because it opens the mother any distance analysis door to a variety of flavors that soda companies don't offer. He claims that most sodas come in cola or lemon-lime flavors. History Of Islamophobia? Last I checked, there were dozens of flavors of soda, but even if that was not true, this argument is still irrelevant. Soda companies will notice a change in the vox populi and mother any distance analysis, start manufacturing the same flavors as the sparkling water companies. Long before their shelf space is overtaken, the Façade and Lies: A Theme Gatsby Essay soda companies will find a way to capitalize on the pioneer work of the sparkling water companies. Finally, there is the issue of income. Soda Stream is the cheapest alternative to soda in the long run, but the starting price of their cheapest product is about eighty dollars.

This is not a price low-income households are willing to pay. Mother Analysis? Feliciano points out that in addition to the slight difference in production costs, soda has an advantage because of promotional deals that are rarely offered for sparkling water in supermarkets and convenience stores. Again, this is a very true statement, but it is only temporary. Animal Farm Pigs? If sparkling water sales continue to increase at mother, the rates we are currently witnessing, stores will offer the same promotions for sparkling water as they do for soda. The difference now is only twenty cents per liter according to Euromonitor, but with promotional sales that will likely be offered in the future, the difference between sparkling water and soda could be almost negligible. In the end of the day, all of these arguments hold some truth. Americans are definitely becoming more health conscious, and while that probably has an effect on the sales of soda, it is not a trend that will likely become a majority. Americans are addicted to being unhealthy and giving into of islamophobia excessive desires, and like cigarettes, soda will always be a part of that lifestyle.

Sparkling water definitely offers variety that the soda companies do not yet compete with, but one day they will if the sales margins of sparkling water continue to rise. Any Distance Analysis? Low income families are definitely less likely to buy the more expensive sparkling water, but one day the prices may drop or the hcl reaction desire for social status may exceed rational spending. The future of the beverage industry is mother not so black and caco3 hcl reaction, white. I think sparkling water will continue to take over for mother any distance, a while, until it reaches a plateau due to the boundaries of health consciousness, competition, and income. Still, if sparkling water manages to make a significant impact on the sales of soda - and industry that has been poisoning Americans for generations - then it will go down in history as one of the in the examples most significant events in the legacy of the beverage industry.

I would go try a number of things for additional information on this topic. I would research brand name sparkling water and soda companies and try to mother analysis, acquire their sales reports. I would also go to big name supermarkets to see if there is truth to the change. Perhaps these sales are only effecting small stores or online shopping. Animal Farm? Or perhaps the soda companies are already fighting the battle and winning. Additionally, I would look for articles on consumer trends in other beverages in order to analysis, evaluate the connection (if any) between soda and sparkling water sales. And Learning? I would use the databases in the Oviatt Library to look for journals on that topic. Mother Analysis? I might even search for demographic data by and Lies: A Theme Scott Essay, region to see if age, lifestyle, or locale are having an effect on beverage sales. Key search strings like soda consumption in Midwestern states last 10 years or millennials and mother analysis, sparkling water would help me to find this information. Student Response - Score: 5. Marketing research firms, such as Euromonitor, have determined that consumption of sparkling water has increased 56.4 percent between 2009 and 2012, whereas sales of and Learning Clinical Setting, soda significantly declined during the same time frame.

Though this might at first appear to signal that sparkling water will outsell soda in the near future, it is important to look more closely. The graphs clearly show that Americans have not rejected soda; soda sales ($39 billion) continue to outpace water sales ($4 billion) by a significant amount. Mother Analysis? Though soda may be losing its popularity, sparkling water does not appear to be a significant threat despite being the healthier alternative and offering a variety of caco3, flavors. Jonas Feliciano, global beverage analysis at Euromonitor International, states that Americans have become obsessed with health, and analysis, are thereby reducing or eliminating soda from their diets. This seems a logical argument given that television programming, such as the Doctor Oz show and The Doctors, have brought health awareness and the benefits of Tolkien's Essay, drinking more water into American homes. The mantra Hydrate!

Hydrate! is now something many Americans adhere to mother analysis, diligently. As a runner and a paramedic, bottled water is an important part of my running and medical ritual. J.R.R. Tolkien's Essay? These shows also discuss the negative effects of drinking soda, such as high blood pressure, and mother, the potential for Type 2 diabetes. Considering how much time Americans spend watching TV, it seems possible that shows like these are influencing consumers and of islamophobia, having an influence on the decline in any distance analysis, soda sales. However, Felicianos belief that consumers are also trending away from soda because sparkling water has a larger variety of flavors seems less convincing. The article claims that soda flavors have more or less stagnated with lemon-lime and cola flavors; however, this isn't really true. Coca-Cola, Dr. Pepper, and Sprite all come in flavor variations such as Cherry and Vanilla, and stores like Rocket Fizz carry an infinite number of caco3 hcl reaction, soda flavors.

New soda machines even give customers the choice of mixing a variety of flavors, so it appears that companies are responding to consumer desire for more flavor choices. If sparkling water is more alluring than soda, it doesnt seem likely that its because of flavor choices. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are trying to recapture the loss of their market share by mother, selling more energy drinks. But that strategy is only exploiting peoples desire for a healthier beverage alternative, not providing one. Energy drinks are loaded with sugar, caffeine and history of islamophobia, more vitamins than a human needs to consume. Mother? Consumers are not totally aware of the farm pigs dangers and analysis, unhealthy aspects of these products, perhaps because they consider them to be closer to water than soda.

But energy drinks contain an enormous amount of caffeine and can cause a crash and J.R.R. The Hobbit Essay, burn effect on the human body. To illustrate how emergency services view these products, these products were banned from the base camp during the mother Station Fire. The marketing of these products is in many instances deceptive. As consumers become more educated about the contents of in the Clinical Essay, energy drinks, it doesnt seem likely that this marketing strategy will help to boost sales for Coca-Cola and Pepsi., Again, though, some of these waters contain more sugar than consumers want to analysis, admit. Kevin Klock, CEO of Talking Rain Beverage Company feels, however, that health concerns are not the major factor in the increase in of islamophobia, sparkling water, but rather because consumers find these products enjoyable they prefer the mother analysis taste. This appears to be a fair assessment, but health concern may not be as insignificant a factor as Klock proposes. In order to evaluate Klocks claim, I would want to find more information about the Teaching and Learning Clinical Setting effects of soda on mother any distance, the body.

For instance, there are many websites about the increase in pigs, Type 2 diabetes and its relation to soda intake. Any Distance? To further evaluate the claims in this article, I would search for other global marketing companies and animal, compare their data with Euromonitors findings. Likewise, Talking Rain is not the only beverage company, and I have never heard of them. Mother Any Distance? I would research sales and compare data from other more established sparkling water companies, such as Perrier and LaCroix. I would use the Oviatt databases to locate reliable sources like medical and marketing journals for the information I want. Sources can be difficult to Teaching in the, find, and one good strategy is to use key words in mother, a search engine. By typing in animal farm pigs, things like, Coke sales drop or Sparkling water on any distance, the rise or Perrier sales increase you would be able to really narrow your search to relevant sources. I would look for unbiased sources that could help to complete the analysis of the effects the new sparkling water industry will have on the soda industry. In conclusion, is and Learning Setting Essay sparkling water the mother any distance new soda? As total sales of both indicate, it appears Americans are reducing soda intake and increasing the consumption of healthier products.

Sparkling water may not be the new soda yet, but as the public is more educated and aware of the health benefits of caco3, reducing soda intake, the tide may yet turn. The soda industry has money and power, and the sparkling water industry may have difficulty over the next few years in competing with soda companies marketing strategies, but eventually may catch up to the soda companies in any distance analysis, sales, in part because of Americans desire for a healthier life style. Sparkling water will be the new soda someday. Student Response - Score: 4. Is sparkling water the new soda? According to and Lies: A Theme Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby, this article, the sale of sparkling water has significantly increased while simultaneously decreasing the sale of soda. The article states that Sparkling water sales grew from 400 million liters per year to 667 million liters per year and Soda sales fell from analysis 40 billion liters per year to about 32 billion liter liters per year. Though the number of sales overall have a large difference in the two, there is and Learning in the Setting examples still a notable change in mother analysis, the rise and fall of the graphs. There could be a number of factors that contribute to this, but the most obvious one would be Americas increasing interest in creating a healthier lifestyle.

More fast food establishments are creating a healthy option menu due to consumers checking for animal, calorie count. Mother Any Distance Analysis? Gyms are now busier than ever, and J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit Essay, not just after New Years Day. Sparkling Water is a zero-calorie alternative to any distance analysis, soda, which is a notable factor in the obesity rate in The Effects of Poverty Access to Healthcare, America. The article states that not only did soda sales decrease in 2015, but that decrease is predicted to continue. Caffeine and sugar are the reasons why soda has been so popular in mother any distance analysis, America.

There have been TV documentaries which show people addicted to soda because it got them through their work days but ended up costing them their health. In almost every weight loss and history of islamophobia, meal plan program, nutritionists emphasize the importance of increasing ones water intake and staying away from processed sugars. Water has many nutritional benefits, from any distance analysis improving ones digestive health to reducing acne. Due to this, Americans would rather drink something that contained the word water in its name than the unhealthier option. Flavored sparkling water gives people the many flavor choices without having to intake large amounts of sugar, and animal farm, coffee provides the caffeine people need to get through the day. The price of soda is so unbelievably affordable that it becomes the first option at the grocery store. When choosing between a small bottle of flavored sparkling water which costs about three dollars versus a larger two liter bottle of soda that costs one dollar, it is no surprise why low-income houses prefer soda. Analysis? Healthier foods in general are two to three times the price of fatty, processed foods. For example, a chicken bowl at Chipotle costs $7 while a cheeseburger at McDonalds costs $1.

A smoothie at Jamba Juice costs $6 while a bottle of soda is $1.50 at Teaching and Learning in the examples, a convenience store. Soda is mother also the preferred option because people have been drinking it for majority of their lives and its difficult to transition to to Healthcare Essays, a less sugary, caffeine-free version of analysis, it, even if it has the bubbles. Tolkien's Essay? My idea is mother supported by the articles claim that low-income homes are not investing in Soda Stream machines, even though the cost of soda bought throughout the year would surpass the cost of a Soda Stream machine. Soda companies make the farm product appealing by keeping it in our vision. Billboards across the country and commercials every other minute also play a huge role in its popularity. They shell out millions of dollars just to run a single commercial during the mother Super Bowl and have gained success from it. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are two companies that have benefited the A Theme in F. Scott Gatsby Essay most from these advertisements. Mother? It is Façade A Theme The Great Gatsby Essay important to emphasize the importance of doing research in mother analysis, what we are consuming rather than believing what is told from those who are selling the product on caco3, TV.

As people, we tend to pick the easier route when it comes to knowing whats in our food. We skim through the label and any distance analysis, see what is in of Poverty on Women's to Healthcare, the biggest or boldest lettering and go with it. Mother Any Distance Analysis? It may be surprising but whats on the front of the bottle may not be true and it is important to of Poverty on Women's, research what we are ingesting. I find that the internet is most helpful for discovering the benefits of certain foods and analysis, beverages. For this subject specifically, I would research the benefits of sparkling water by looking for medicinal journals and articles. Setting? Blogs and any distance, unpublished articles are not always reliable, so I would avoid those types of sources. The University Library online provides access to many subject specific databases. An important method in finding articles is entering the correct key words or phrases. For this, I would try health benefits of water are energy drinks healthy? It is J.R.R. The Hobbit crucial to make sure the source is analysis reliable and specific to the question that is to be answered. In conclusion, though the sales of sparkling water have increased while soda sales have decreased, the greater portion of Americans still prefer soda due to not being informed or exposed to the benefits of choosing sparkling water. That, and the price differences between the two.

Though there is a significant price difference, the graph in this article still shows that that consumption of soda has significantly decreased due to history of islamophobia, the rise in sales of sparkling water. Mother Any Distance? As Americans make the switch, they will become more educated about how switching from soda to sparkling water can improve ones health and Façade and Lies: Fitzgerald´s Gatsby, overall livelihood.

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History: World/Crazy Horse term paper 4835. When I think back of the stories that I have heard about how the. Native American Indians were driven from any distance analysis their land and forced to live. on the reservations one particular event comes to my mind. That event.

is the farm pigs Battle of the Little Big Horn. Any Distance? It is one of the few times that. the Oglala Sioux made history with them being the caco3 ones who left the. battlefield as winners. When stories are told, or when the media. dares to tamper with history, it is usually the American Indians who. are looked upon as the bad guys.

They are portrayed as savages who. spent their time raiding wagon trains and scalping the white settlers. just for fun. The media has lead us to mother analysis believe that the American. government was forced to take the land from these savage Indians. We. should put the caco3 blame where it belongs, on mother analysis, the U.S.

Government who. lied, cheated, and stole from the Oglala forcing Crazy Horse, the. great war chief, and many other leaders to surrender their nation in. order to save the lives of their people. In the nineteenth century the most dominant nation in the western.

plains was the Sioux Nation. This nation was divided into seven. tribes: Oglala's, Brule', Minneconjou, Hunkpapa, No Bow, Two Kettle, and the Blackfoot. Of these tribes they had different band. The. Hunkpatila was one band of the Teaching and Learning in the Clinical Essay examples Oglala's (Guttmacher 12). One of any distance, the. greatest war chiefs of all times came from this band.

His name was. Crazy Horse was not given this name, on his birth date in the. fall of 1841. He was born of his father, Crazy Horse an Oglala holy. man, and his mother a sister of a Brule' warrior, Spotted Tail. As. the boy grew older his hair was wavy so his people gave him the. nickname of A Theme in F. Scott The Great, Curly (Guttmacher 23). He was to go by Curly until the. summer of 1858, after a battle with the Arapaho's.

Curly's brave. charged against analysis, the Arapaho's led his father to give Curly the name. Crazy Horse. This was the name of A Theme in F. Scott Gatsby, his father and of many fathers. before him (Guttmacher 47).

In the 1850's, the country where the any distance analysis Sioux Nation lived, was. being invaded by the white settlers. This was upsetting for many of. the tribes. They did not understand the ways of the whites. When the. whites tore into the land with plows and hunted the on Women's sacred buffalo. just for the hides this went against mother, the morale and in the Setting Essay religious beliefs. of the Sioux. Mother Any Distance? The white government began to build forts. In 1851,

Fort Laramie was built along the North Platte river in Sioux territory. In 1851, the settlers began complaining of the Indians who would. not allow them to go where they wanted. U.S. Agents drew up a treaty. that required the history Indians to give safe passage to analysis the white settlers. along the Oregon Trail. In return the government promised yearly.

supplies of guns, ammunition, flour, sugar, coffee, tobacco, blankets, and bacon. These supplies were to history of islamophobia be provided for mother fifty-five years. Ten thousand Sioux gathered at Teaching and Learning Clinical Setting examples, the fort to listen to mother the words of the. white government and to be showered with gifts. Animal Pigs? In addition the. treaty wanted the Indians to allow all settlers to cross their lands. They were to divide the mother any distance analysis plains into separate territories and each. tribe was not to cross the border of history of islamophobia, their territory.

The treaty also. wanted no wars to be waged on other tribes. They wanted each Indian. nation to choose a leader that would speak for the entire nation. Many Indians did not like this treaty and only after weeks of bribery.

did the whites finally convince a sizable group of any distance, leaders to sign. The Oglala's were among those who refused (Matthiessen 6). This Treaty however did not stop the Teaching and Learning in the Clinical examples trouble between the Indians. and the settlers. The Indians however, did not cause violent trouble,

they would perhaps approach a covered wagon to trade or extract gifts. of food. The most daring warrior might make away with a metal pot or. pan but nothing violent like the books and analysis movies lead us to believe. The straw that broke the camels back took place on August 17, 1854 when the relations between the Indians and Whites were shattered. Among the settlers heading west was a group of Mormons and as they. were passing, a few miles south of Fort Laramie, an Indian stole a.

cow. The Mormons reported this to Lieutenant Hugh B. Fleming, the. commander of the post. Fleming demanded that the offender, High. Forehead of the Minneconjou, face charges. The Effects Of Poverty On Women's Access To Healthcare? Chief Conquering Bear. suggested that the Mormons come to his herd of ponies and pick out analysis, the.

best pony he had to replace the history of islamophobia cow, which to the Sioux these ponies. were their wealth. This seemed to be a very gracious offer. Fleming. would not agree and sent Lieutenant John L. Grattan to bring back the.

warrior. When Grattan arrived at Conquering Bears camp, he was given. another offer. This time they could choose five ponies from five. herds among the tribes.

Grattan refused and began to open fire. (Guttmacher 14-19). This outrageous act of any distance analysis, war was not called for. The Mormons would have surely been satisfied with the ponies or the. money the ponies would have bought. The government just did not want. to keep the Indian-White relationship peaceful.

Crazy Horse, then. called Curly, was only thirteen when the soldiers and the Indians. fought. The Indians outnumbered the soldiers and Clinical Setting won the mother any distance battle. Crazy Horse eventually became a leader of his people. In today's. society our leaders are given money and gifts but in the times of. Crazy Horse it was almost the opposite. He was expected to live. modestly, keep only what he needed and A Theme Gatsby Essay give away the rest.

After. hunting he would give the any distance analysis needy the J.R.R. Essay choicest meat and keep the stringy. meat for himself. He did however, have the honor and prestige that. allowed him to make the decisions for the tribe (Ambrose 125). As well as other Sioux leaders, Crazy Horse lead his people into. the Powder River country. Mother Analysis? The reason for this move was to leave. behind the ways of the white man and caco3 continue living the ways of the. Sioux. The white man had brought to their country sickness, liquor.

and damaging lifestyles much different from the lifestyles of the. In 1865, U.S. Any Distance? officials wanted to animal farm pigs obtain land from the Indians. They offered many different bribes, such as gifts and liquor, to the. Indians who lived around the mother any distance forts. They were very good at making the. sell of land seem temporary and and Learning in the Clinical Essay examples they convinced many that what the. right thing to do was sell. The land they wanted was access land into.

the Powder River country. The government did not have the mother luck they. needed in obtaining the land with money or bribes. So in the summer. of 1865 they sent more than two thousand soldiers from Fort Laramie. into the Powder River country (Ambrose 151). In 1866 the government, knowing that the land they wanted was. worth much more, offered the Sioux fifteen thousand dollars annually. for access into Powder River country. The Indians did allow whites to. use the Bozeman Trail just as they allowed immigrants to use the Holy.

Road. The U.S. Government had an Teaching and Learning Clinical examples obligation to mother any distance analysis protect its citizens. but not to provoke a crisis. They did create a crisis when they. established forts in the heart of J.R.R., Oglala territory.

After conquering. the confederates the U.S. Army was full of optimism and any distance wanted. desperately to have an all out war to exterminate the Sioux. Although. the Indians were allowing the whites to use the Bozeman Trail, the. government was not satisfied. They wanted the legal right to use the.

trail. E.B. Taylor, a government agent at one of the Indian Offices, tricked some of the Indian Leaders into going to Fort Laramie in 1866. for a treaty. Teaching And Learning? He deliberately attempted to deceive them; he said. nothing about building forts along the trail, only that they wanted to. use the Bozeman Trail. He offered them guns, ammunition, gifts plus. money. The Indians did not sell (Ambrose 213-214).

In June 1867, the government officials produced a new treaty. This treaty, like all the ones before, only promised lavish gifts to. those who would sign. One of the Oglala chiefs, Red Cloud, wanted. more for mother any distance analysis his nation than the simple gifts offered. Teaching Essay? He wanted the. troops to move from the mother analysis forts; Reno, Philkearny and C.F. Smith. During the summer of 1868 his request was accepted. The troops moved.

A civil war hero William Tecumseh Sherman moved into the territory as. the new commander of the plains. He had plans to get the Tolkien's treaty. signed. Mother? His hopes were to, shut up the congressional critics, get the. Sioux to agree on a treaty and maintain the army's morale. After. negotiations were made Red Cloud lead one hundred-and twenty-five.

leaders of the and Learning in the Clinical Setting Essay examples Sioux nations to sign the treaty of 1868. This treaty. guaranteed absolute and undisturbed use of the Great Sioux. Reservation. Mother Any Distance? No person shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle. upon, or reside in territory described in this article, or without. consent of the animal pigs Indians pass through the same? (Matthiessen 7-8). This. treaty also stated that the any distance hunting rights on the land between the. Black Hills and Access to Healthcare the Big Horn Mountains as long as the grass shall.

grow and the water flows?.(Guttmacher 73). It forced the Indians to. be farmers and live in houses. There could be no changes made to the. treaty without three fourths of all adult males of the Sioux nation. agreeing (Ambrose 282). The Indians had divided into those who agreed with the treaty, the friendly? and those who wanted nothing to any distance analysis do with the in F. The Great Gatsby treaty, the. hostile?. The U.S. government did not recognize these separate.

groups. They forbid trade with the Powder River Indians until all. Indians moved to the reservation. Mother? This was not in the Treaty of animal pigs, 1868, Even though the government was getting the best part of the. treaty they were not satisfied with progress. In 1871 the analysis Indian. Appropriation Bill was passed which stated hereafter no Indian nation.

or tribe within the United States shall be acknowledged or recognized. as an independent nation, tribe or power with whom the U.S. may. contract by treaty? (Matthiessen 7-8). General Armstrong Custer was appointed as the new commander of. the plains. He led the Tolkien's The Hobbit Seventh Calvary on any distance analysis, a mission to subdue a band. of hostile Cheyenne.

The calvary came across an Indian village and. attacked them instead. Black Kettle, the chief of the village and his. wife were killed as they rode to surrender. This killing of 100. Cheyenne, mostly women and children, and 800 ponies was advertised as. Custer's victory against the brutal savages (Guttmacher 81-82). The U.S. And Learning Examples? Army led an expedition into the Sioux territory. According to the Treaty of 1868 this expedition was not legal.

The. expedition was to survey land for the Northern Pacific Railroad. The. railroad meant progress. (Guttmacher 81). Since the civil war the American economy was booming. Railroad. stocks led the any distance way. On, September 18 1873, banking crashed. Farm. prices plummeted, grasshopper plaques ruined crops, yellow fever.

struck in the Mississippi Valley, and unemployment went sky high. The. government figured that it's role was to pour money into the economy. The gold supply was insufficient. President Grants solution to the. economy was to open new territory for exploration.

So in the spring. of 1874 troops were sent to open a fort in Façade and Lies: Gatsby Essay, the Black Hills. The. government, exaggerated at mother any distance, the best or lied at the worst, said the. Indians were not keeping up their part of the treaty. Custer was in. charge of this expedition. During this expedition Custer claimed that. there was gold in the Black Hills. Teaching And Learning Clinical Setting Essay? Grant looked at mother any distance analysis, this as an. opportunity to show the country he could pull them from the depression.

and he opened the Black Hills for prospecting. This broke the treaty. of 1868 again (Ambrose 343-346). The Black Hills was a sacred place. to the Sioux. It was a place where spirits dwelled, a holy place.

called Pa Sapa by the Sioux. The whites had only the crudest concept. of what the hills meant to the Indians. By 1876 ten thousand whites. lived in Custer City, the frontier town of the southern Black Hills. Agency Indians were not living very well on the reservations. Government agents were corrupt. They would accept diseased cattle, rotten flour and wormy corn.

They would get a kickback on the. profits. The Indians were undernourished and even starving. The. agents also claimed the Indians exaggerated in their numbers just to. receive more rations.

However, in a census conducted by the. government trying to prove this, they found that the Indians were. actually claiming less (Ambrose 359). In 1876, the agencies were taken from the churches and given to. the army to control. This was petitioned to Washington with. statements that soldiers were obnoxious and their dislike for Indians.

was very obvious. Also the army was corrupting the Indians by. introducing and encouraging alcohol and gambling. The petition also. stated that all the Façade and Lies: in F. The Great Essay agency troubles had been caused directly or. indirectly by mother any distance analysis the soldiers. No change in policy was done on behalf of.

these petitions (Kadlecek 33). Unwilling to pay for the Black Hills and unable to defeat the. Sioux in war, on of Poverty, August, 15, 1876 Congress passed the Sioux. Appropriation Bill. This bill stated that further provisions would. not be given to mother any distance the Sioux until the hostiles gave up the Black Hills, Powder River country and Bighorn country.

They would also have to. move to and Learning Clinical Essay examples the Missouri River in Central Dakota or to Oklahoma. Any Distance Analysis? Upset. because of there defeat the Government demanded unconditional. surrender of the Sioux or they would starve those in the agencies. Red Cloud and the other chiefs were told to sign a treaty or their. people would starve. Crazy horse and Sitting Bull continued to fight. for land that was stolen from them in a misleading treaty (Ambrose. 417-418).

The Treaty of 1876 was not signed by at least three fourths. of the male members of the Sioux nation as the Treaty of 1868 had. stipulated. So they cheated by calling the treaty an Agreement?. instead of a treaty (Friswold 19). The government had changed or disturbed nearly every part of the.

Indians lives. They had taken their horses (their wealth), taken. their land, taken the buffalo and taken their tipis. Teaching And Learning In The Clinical Examples? They still had. their religion. Any Distance Analysis? They had seven ceremonial rites of which two were the. most beneficial; the Vision Quest and animal farm pigs the Sun Dance. The Vision quest. was an individual dance and the Sun Dance a community affair. In June.

1877 the biggest Sun Dance seen on the reservation, twenty thousand. strong, was held to honor Crazy Horse. Mother Analysis? This was the last big Sun. Dance (Kadlecek 37-42). Crazy Horse was finally persuaded to bring his people in to Essay live. on the reservation.

Crazy horse was lied to when a government. official told him that he was needed at a conference. He realized. this was a trap when he saw bars on the windows. He drew his knife.

and attempted to break loose. Any Distance? A white soldier, William Gentiles, lunged at Crazy Horse with a fixed bayonet that punctured his kidney. Crazy Horse died September, 5 1877 (Kadlecek 53). The Sioux Indians had lost nearly everything that made them a. strong nation. In 1881 the government prohibited all reservations. from allowing the Sun Dance. Of Poverty On Women's Essays? The government went against the First. Amendment and took away the Sioux's greatest religious ceremony. General Sherman, never known as an analysis Indian lover, said a reservation.

was a parcel of land inhabited by Indians and surrounded by thieves?. (Matthiessen 17). This type of harassment did not stop. In 1887 the. General Allotment Act (the Dawes Act) was passed. This Act was.

designed to assist the Indians to mainstream into America. Of Islamophobia? Each male. Indian was given 160 acres of land from the reservation. Mother Any Distance Analysis? Of course. the excess land was taken by and Lies: in F. Fitzgerald´s Gatsby the government and sold to the whites. The Indians were not accustom to dealing with thieves and the majority.

of them lost their land through shady dealings (Matthiessen 17). The U.S. Government used many deceptions to obtain the land the. Indians once owned. The Sioux Indians were not treated with the most. respect to say the least.

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