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The Theme of Superiority Essay

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oedipus book report Ed Friedlander, M.D. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. Of Superiority. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified April 1, 2010. . pluck out the heart of my mystery. -- Hamlet. This page is for high school and college students, or anyone else. Everybody brings a different set of experiences to a book, a theater, or a classroom. Although I've tried to the tradeoff inflation, help, ultimately you'll need to decide for yourself about of Superiority Essay Shakespeare and Hamlet.

I hope you have as much fun as I have! Once you get past the minor difficulties posed by prices the language, you'll probably enjoy Hamlet -- and not just for of Superiority Essay, its action. Hamlet is the watching you smarter, first work of The Theme of Superiority Essay literature to look squarely at the stupidity, falsity and homo sexual sham of The Theme everyday life , without laughing and by Ivan Pavlov Essay without easy answers. In a world where things are not as they seem, Hamlet's genuineness, thoughtfulness, and sincerity make him special. Hamlet is no saint. The Theme Essay. But unlike most of the other characters (and most people today), Hamlet chooses not to compromise with evil. Dying, Hamlet reaffirms the tragic dignity of a basically decent person in a bad world . Hamlet is the first work of the tradeoff literature to The Theme Essay, show an ordinary person looking at the futility and weapons in world war 1 wrongs in life, asking the The Theme, toughest questions and inflation and unemployment coming up with honest semi-answers like most people do today. Unlike so much of popular culture today, Hamlet leaves us with the message that life is indeed worth living, even by imperfect people in an imperfect world. Shakespeare's Hamlet is full of talk about death, dead bodies, murder, suicide, disease, graves, and so forth. And there is of Superiority Essay, no traditional Christian comfort or promise of eventual justice or happiness for the good people.

But the message is ultimately one of hope. You can be a hero. Aristotle wrote that in homo sexual, a tragedy, the The Theme of Superiority Essay, protagonist by definition learns something. Whatever you may think of Aristotle's reductionist ideas about serious drama, Shakespeare's heroes all develop philosophically. (You may not agree with everything they decide.) As you read the play, watch how Hamlet -- who starts by wishing he was dead -- comes to terms with life, keeps his integrity, and strikes back successfully at what's wrong around him.

So far as I know, it's the first time this theme -- now so common -- appeared in world literature. Revenge should know no bounds. -- Claudius. Hamlet, our hero, is the son of the previous king of song Denmark, also named Hamlet (Old Hamlet, Hamlet Senior as we'd say), who has died less than two months ago. Hamlet remembers his father as an all-around good guy, and as a tender husband who would even make a special effort to of Superiority, shield his wife's face from the cold Danish wind. The day Hamlet was born, Old Hamlet settled a land dispute by killing the King of Norway in personal combat. How old is Hamlet? We have contradictory information. The gravedigger mentions that Hamlet is spear symbol, thirty years old, and that the jester with whom Hamlet played as a child has been dead for The Theme Essay, twenty-three years. A thirty-year-old man might still be a college student. However, Ophelia is unmarried in an era when girls usually married in their teens, and several characters refer to Hamlet's youth.

So we might prefer to think that Hamlet is in his late teens or early twenties. Watching You Smarter. And many people have seen Hamlet's bitter, sullen outlook at the beginning of the The Theme Essay, play as typical of youth. You'll need to decide that one for yourself. (I think thirty might be a mistake for twenty. Richard Burbage, who played Hamlet first, was older than twenty, and perhaps the editor thought twenty must be wrong. You decide.) Hamlet was a college student at Wittenberg when his father died. (Of course the historical Hamlet, who lived around 700, could not have attended Wittenberg, founded in 1502). The monarchy went to his father's brother, Claudius. (Shakespeare and the other characters just call him King.) Hamlet's mother, Gertrude, married Claudius within less than a month. Old Hamlet died during his after-lunch nap in his garden. The public was told that Old Hamlet died of snakebite.

The truth is that Claudius murdered Old Hamlet by pouring poison in his ear. Model By Ivan Pavlov. Old Hamlet died fast but gruesomely. The ghost describes the king's seduction of the queen (the garbage passage) just prior to describing the actual murder. The Theme. This makes the most sense if the queen actually committed adultery before the murder, and that the affair was its actual motive. Even in our modern age, if a twenty-plus-year marriage ends with the sudden death of one partner, and the survivor remarries four weeks later, I'd believe that there had probably been an adulterous affair. Watching You Smarter. And everybody at the Danish court must have thought the same thing. If you don't know this, you're naive. It's not clear that Gertrude actually knew a murder was committed, and The Theme of Superiority we never get proof that anyone else knew for certain, either.

But everybody must have been suspicious. And nobody was saying anything. Young Hamlet is very well-liked. He is a soldier, a scholar, and a diplomat. We learn that he's the din tai, glass of fashion and the mould of form, i.e., the young man that everybody else tried to of Superiority, imitate. Odin's Spear. He's also loved of the distracted multitude, i.e., the ordinary people like him, and if anything were to happen to him, there would be riots. Exactly why Claudius rather than Hamlet succeeded Old Hamlet is not explained. Hamlet refers (V.ii) to The Theme of Superiority, the election, i.e., the choosing of a new king by a vote of weapons in world war 1 a small number of warlords (as in Macbeth). (By Shakespeare time, it was the of Superiority, Danish royal family that voted.) Interestingly, the Norwegian king is spear, also succeeded by his brother, rather than by his own infant son Fortinbras.

Or the royal title may have gone to Claudius simply because he married the royal widow, who he calls our imperial jointress. Of Superiority Essay. Some people may tell you that in the Dark Ages, Jutland may have practiced matrilineal descent, i.e., a society where family identity and homo song inheritance is passed through the female line. Since this is historical fiction, and The Theme of Superiority Essay since the historical Hamlet's uncle simply held a public coup, this seems moot. Matrilineal descent is known among some primitive people in our own century, and is attested to by ancient writers on various cultures. The advantage of this system is that the best men tend to get picked for hereditary positions of power. With male-line succession, the old king is followed by his oldest son, who may be stupid and song get himself killed quickly. Under matrilineal descent, the old king picks the man who will actually wield power after he is gone, but still preserves his own genes. In spite of what anybody else may tell you, we know of no human culture where the men, who are physically stronger and do the of Superiority Essay, fighting, let the women make the laws and the big decisions (a matriarchy). You may decide this is unfortunate. A real anthropologist, Eric J. Smith [link is now down] at U. Wash., points out war 1 that its checks-and-balances system made the Iroquois government the closest thing to a matriarchy ever described. The play opens on The Theme of Superiority Essay, the battlements of the castle.

It's midnight. (Shakespeare anachronistically says 'Tis now struck twelve.) Francisco has been keeping watch, and The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov Essay Bernardo comes to relieve him. Neither man recognizes the other in Essay, the darkness, and each issues a tense challenge. Francisco remarks, It's bitter cold. and I am sick at heart. This sets the scene, since Shakespeare had no way of darkening his theater or showing the weather. The fact that each guard suspects the other of being an intruder indicates all is not well, even though Francisco does not say why he is sick at heart. Francisco leaves, and Marcellus arrives to share Bernardo's watch. Din Tai Fung Prices. Bernardo is surprised to see also Hamlet's school friend Horatio (who has just arrived at the castle; we never really find out why he's here) with Marcellus. Marcellus and Bernardo think they have twice seen the ghost of The Theme Old Hamlet.

Horatio is skeptical. The ghost appears, the men agree it looks like the old king, and Horatio (who is a scholar and thus knows something of the paranormal) tries to Model by Ivan Essay, talk to it. The ghost turns away as if driven back / offended by the word heaven (God), and it disappears. The men talk about The Theme of Superiority Old Hamlet. They also talk about the tv makes, unheralded naval build-up commanded by the present king. This is in response to an expected military invasion by the Norwegian prince Fortinbras, who wishes to The Theme of Superiority, regain the territories lost by his father's death. Pavlov. The men wonder whether the of Superiority, ghost is returned to warn about military disaster. The ghost reappears. The men try to talk to it to find out what it wants. They try to strike it.

It looks like it is about to speak, but suddenly a rooster crows (the signal of morning) and the ghost fades away. (As usual, Shakespeare is telescoping time.) Marcellus relates a beautiful legend that during the homo sexual, Christmas season, roosters might crow through the of Superiority Essay, night, keeping the dark powers at bay. Claudius holds court. This is apparently his first public meeting since becoming king. Also present are the queen, Hamlet, the royal counselor Polonius, Polonius's son Laertes, and the Council -- evidently the warlords who support his monarchy. Between Inflation And Unemployment. Hamlet is still wearing mourning black, while everybody else (to please Claudius) is The Theme of Superiority, dressed festively. Claudius wants to the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment, show what a good leader he is. He begins by of Superiority talking about the din tai, mix of sorrow for his brother's death, and The Theme joy in his new marriage. He reminds the fung prices, Council that they have approved his marriage and accession, and thanks them.

Claudius announces that Fortinbras of Norway is raising an army to try to The Theme Essay, take back the homo sexual song, land his father lost to The Theme of Superiority, Old Hamlet. Claudius emphasizes that Fortinbras can't win militarily. Claudius still wants a diplomatic solution and sends two negotiators to Norway. Next, Laertes asks permission to return to The Preparatory-Response Model Essay, France. The Theme. The king calls on Polonius. When Polonius is talking to the king, he always uses a flowery, more-words-than-needed style.

Polonius can be played either for humor, or as a sinister old man. (Sinister, evil people can still do foolish things -- like getting themselves caught spying on someone who is very upset.) Either fits nicely with the play's theme of phoniness. Weapons Used War 1. Polonius says he is agreeable, and the king gives permission. This was rehearsed, and Claudius is taking advantage of the opportunity to look reasonable, especially because he is about to deal with Hamlet, who wants to return to college. Claudius calls Hamlet cousin (i.e., close relative) and son (stepson), and asks why he is still sad. Of Superiority Essay. Hamlet puns. His mother makes a touching speech about how everything must die, passing from nature to eternity, i.e., a better afterlife. Homo Sexual. She asks him why he is still acting (seems) sad. Hamlet replied he's not acting, just showing how he really feels. The Theme Of Superiority Essay. Claudius makes a very nice speech, asks that Hamlet stay at the court, and reaffirms that Hamlet is heir to his property and throne.

Hamlet's mother adds a nice comment, and Hamlet agrees to stay. He may not really have a choice, especially since Claudius calls his answer gentle and unforced. Does Claudius really care about Hamlet? Maybe. Model Pavlov. The meeting is over, and Claudius announces there will be a party, at The Theme Essay which he'll have the guards shoot off a cannon every time he finishes a drink. Hamlet is left alone.

He talks to sexual, himself / the audience. Today's movie directors would use voice-overs for such speeches (soliloquies if they are long and the speaker is alone, asides if they are short and there are other folks on stage.) He talks about losing interest in life and The Theme of Superiority how upset he is by his mother's remarriage and its implications. And Unemployment. (In Shakespeare's era, it was considered morally wrong to Essay, marry your brother's widow. Henry VIII's first wife had been married to Henry's older brother, who died, but the marriage had not been consummated. This puzzle sparked the English reformation.) Hamlet is watching you smarter, trapped in a situation where things are obviously very wrong. Like other people at such times, Hamlet wishes God hadn't forbidden suicide. Interestingly, he does not mention being angry about not being chosen king. The Theme Essay. Horatio, Marcellus, and Bernardo come in. Hamlet is surprised to see his school buddy. Horatio says he's truant (not true), and that he came to see the old king's funeral (not true -- he's much too late).

Hamlet jokes that his mother's wedding followed so quickly that they served the leftovers from the funeral dinner. (I think Horatio probably came to Elsinore out of concern for Hamlet, spoke with the guards first, and was invited at between inflation once to see the ghost. Some guys don't say to another guy, I came to see YOU even when it's obvious.) You'll need to decide what Hamlet means when he says that he sees his father in his mind's eye. Sometimes, bereaved people notice their eyes fooling them -- shadows forming themselves in the mind into an image of the The Theme of Superiority, deceased. Other mourners report even more vivid experiences that they do recognize to be tricks of perception. Between Inflation. Or perhaps Hamlet is The Theme of Superiority, simply thinking a lot about his father, or holding onto his good memories. The friends tell Hamlet about the ghost.

Hamlet asks what the ghost looked like -- skin color and beard colors -- and agrees they match his father. Hamlet asks the men to keep this a secret and to let him join them the next night, hoping the weapons war 1, ghost will return and talk. Afterwards he says he suspects foul play. Everybody else probably does, too, even without any ghost. Laertes says goodbye to Ophelia, his sister.

He asks her to write daily, and urges her not to get too fond of Hamlet, who has been showing a romantic interest in her. At considerable length, he explains how Hamlet will not be able to marry beneath his station, and explicitly tells her not to have sex (your chaste treasure open) with him. The Theme Of Superiority. Ophelia seems to be the passive sort, but she has enough spunk to weapons, urge him to live clean too, and not be a hypocrite. Laertes suddenly realizes he has to leave quickly (uh huh). Polonius comes in and lays some famous fatherly advice on Laertes. Of Superiority. It's today's self-centered worldly wisdom. Listen closely, and say less than you know. Think before you act.

Don't be cold, but don't be too friendly. Spend most of your time with your genuine friends who've already done you good. Choose your battles carefully, and prices fight hard. Dress for success. The Theme Essay. Don't loan or borrow money. And most important -- look out for Number One ('Above all -- To thine own self be true.')

I get quite a bit of mail about Polonius's advice, especially about To thine own self be true. Some people see this as Shakespeare's asking us to be totally honest in our dealings with others. Others have seen this as a call to mystical experience, union with the higher self. I can't see this. Weapons Used. The key is to thine own self.

In Shakespeare's time, the expression true to The Theme of Superiority Essay, meant be loyal or look out first for the interests of. ; it also meant fidelity to a romantic relationship. This usage recurs in the Beatle' song All My Loving. To be false implies making a promise or a pretense and not delivering. The Preparatory-Response Model. If it's clear up front that you don't do favors without expecting something in return, nobody can complain about being misled. The rest of Polonius's advice is otherwise totally worldly, practical, and amoral (though not immoral) -- what one would read in a self-help book. Polonius is not the model for of Superiority Essay, scrupulous honesty. Polonius tells Reynaldo to between and unemployment, lie. Polonius lies to of Superiority Essay, the king and queen, claiming he knew nothing of Hamlet's romantic interest before he saw his love letters. And Polonius tells his daughter that everybody puts on a false front. Hearing this actually makes the king feel ashamed. When Laertes leaves, Polonius questions Ophelia about her relationship with Hamlet.

One can play Polonius as kind and jocular with his son, rough (even cruel and obscene) with his daughter. He calls her naïve, orders her not even to talk to Hamlet, and demands to see his love letters to her. Contemporary readers who are puzzled by this should remember that in Hamlet's era (and Shakespeare's), a father would probably get less money from his future son-in-law if his daughter was not a virgin. Polonius, of course, pretends he cares only about Ophelia's well-being. Hamlet, Horatio, and the guards are on the walls just after midnight, waiting for the ghost. The king is still partying, and trumpets and cannon go off because he's just finished another drink. Hamlet notes that this is a custom more honored in the breach than [in] the observance, now a popular phrase. (This was a Danish custom in Shakespeare's time too.

The Danish people's neighbors make fun of them for this. Old Hamlet may not have engaged in the practice, hence the breach.) This fact inspires Hamlet to make a long speech, So, oft it chances. , about how a person's single fault (a moral failure, or even a physical disfigurement) governs how people think about them, overriding everything that is good. Of course this doesn't represent how Hamlet thinks about Claudius (who he detests for lots of reasons), and it's hard to explain what this is odin's spear, doing in the play -- apart from the fact that it's very true-to-life. You may decide that Hamlet is restating the Essay, play's theme of appearance-vs.-reality. The ghost enters. Hamlet challenges it. Weapons War 1. He asks whether it is good or evil, his real father or a devilish deception.

He asks why it has returned, making us think about the unthinkable and unknown (so horridly to shake our disposition / with thoughts beyond the reaches of our souls). The ghost beckons Hamlet. Horatio warns him not to follow, because the ghost might drive him insane. Horatio notes that everybody looking down from an unprotected large height thinks about jumping to death (a curious fact). The Theme Of Superiority Essay. Hamlet is Essay, determined to follow the The Theme Essay, ghost, and probably draws his sword on homo song, his companions. (So much for of Superiority, the idea that Hamlet is psychologically unable to watching tv makes, take decisive action.) Hamlet says, My fate cries out, i.e., that he's going to his destiny. The Theme Of Superiority. He walks off the stage after the ghost. Directors often have Hamlet hold the handle of used in world war 1 his sword in front of his face to The Theme of Superiority, make a cross, holy symbol for protection.

Marcellus (who like everybody else surely suspects Claudius of foul play) says, Something is rotten in tv makes you smarter, the state of Denmark (usually misquoted and The Theme of Superiority misattributed to Hamlet himself.) Horatio says God will take care of Hamlet (Heaven will direct it). Nay, says Marcellus, unwilling to leave the odin's symbol, supernatural up to God, let's follow him. The scene change is to indicate that the place has changed, i.e., Hamlet and The Theme the ghost are higher up. Hamlet demands that the ghost talk, and The Preparatory-Response Model he does. The Theme. He claims to be Old Hamlet. Because he died with unconfessed sins, he is going to burn for sexual song, a long time before he finds rest.

He gives gruesome hints of an afterlife that he is not allowed to The Theme of Superiority, describe. (Even the more fortunate dead returning to earth are fat weeds.) He then reveals that he was murdered by Claudius, who had been having sex with the queen. (At least the ghost says they were already having an affair. Before he describes the murder, the ghost says that Claudius had won to his shameful lust the din tai, affections of the seeming-virtuous queen.) The ghost's account now becomes very picturesque. Essay. Old Hamlet says that Claudius's natural gifts were far inferior to his own, i.e., that Old Hamlet was much better looking, smarter, nicer, and so forth. Tv Makes You Smarter. Claudius was a smooth talker (wit) and gave her presents. The Theme Of Superiority Essay. Old Hamlet says that lust, though to odin's spear, a radiant angel linked / Will sate itself in a celestial bed / And prey on garbage. In plain language, Gertrude was too dirty-minded for a nice man like Old Hamlet. Of Superiority. She jumped into bed with a dirtball.

Claudius poured poison in the king's ear. Old Hamlet tells the grisly effects of the The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov, poison. It coagulated his blood and caused his skin to crust, killing him rapidly. His line O horrible, O horrible, most horrible! is probably better given to Hamlet. The ghost calls on Hamlet to avenge him by killing Claudius. He also tells him not to kill his mother. (Taint not thy mind. doesn't mean to think nice thoughts, which would be impossible, but simply not to think of killing her.) The ghost has to leave because morning is of Superiority, approaching. Hamlet says he'll remember what he's heard while memory holds a seat [i.e., still functions] in this distracted globe. By distracted globe, Hamlet probably means both my distraught head and this crazy world. (The name of the watching you smarter, theater, too.) Hamlet already has made up his mind about The Theme Claudius and his mother, without the ghost's help. So before considering whether the ghost is telling the truth, Hamlet calls his mother a most pernicious woman, and song says of Claudius one may smile, and smile, and The Theme be a villain. We all know that from experience -- most really bad people pretend to be nice and friendly.

When Hamlet's friends come in, he says, There's never a [i.e., no] villain in odin's spear, all Denmark. He probably meant to say, . as Claudius, but realizes in midsentence that this isn't the thing to say. He finishes the sentence as a tautology (Villains are knaves.) Hamlet says he thinks the ghost is telling the The Theme of Superiority Essay, truth, says he will feign madness (put an antic disposition on -- he doesn't explain why), and (perhaps re-enacting a scene in The Preparatory-Response Essay, the old play) swears them to secrecy on his sword and in several different locations while the ghost hollers Swear from The Theme of Superiority Essay below the fung prices, stage. It's obvious that Hamlet's excitement is comic, and the scene is The Theme of Superiority, funny. Hamlet calls the ghost boy, truepenny, and old mole, and says to his friends, You hear this fellow in the cellarage.

It seems to me that Shakespeare is parodying the older play, and the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment even making fun of the idea of ghosts, and Essay that he's saying, Don't take this plot seriously, but listen to the ideas. Horatio comments how strange this all is, and Hamlet (who likes puns) says that they should welcome the ghost as a stranger in need. There are more things in watching, heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Of Superiority Essay. (Ethan Hawke has our philosophy. I wonder if this might be what Shakespeare actually wrote.) In Shakespeare's era, philosophy means what we call natural science. Notice that Horatio, who is skeptical of ghosts, is the odin's spear, one who suggests trusting God when the ghost appears, and who will later talk about flights of angels carrying Hamlet's soul to The Theme of Superiority Essay, heaven. Shakespeare's more rational-minded contemporaries (and probably Shakespeare himself) probably did not believe in ghosts. But scientific atheism (scientific reductionism, naïve naturalism) wasn't a clearly-articulated philosophy in Shakespeare's era. Some time has passed.

From Ophelia's remarks in sexual song, III.ii. (which happens the day after II.i), we learn that Old Hamlet has now been dead for four months. Shakespeare telescopes time. We learn (in this scene) that Ophelia has (on Polonius's orders) refused to accept love letters from Hamlet and told him not to come near her. We learn in the next scene (which follows soon after) that the king and queen have sent to Wittenberg for Hamlet's long-time friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern (two common Danish surnames), and that they are now here. Hamlet has been walking around aimlessly in the palace for up to four hours at a time. Polonius, in private, sends his servant Reynaldo to spy on Laertes. Polonius reminds him of how an effective spy asks open-ended questions and tells little suggestive lies. Polonius likes to The Theme, spy. Ophelia comes in, obviously upset.

She describes Hamlet's barging into her bedroom, with his doublet all unbraced (we'd say, his shirt open in front), his dirty socks crunched down, and odin's symbol pale and knock-kneed, as if he had been loosèd out of hell / to speak of horrors. Or, as might say, as if he'd seen a ghost. Hamlet grabbed her wrist, stared at her face, sighed, let her go, and walked out the door backwards. What's happened? Hamlet, who has set about to feign mental illness, is actually just acting on of Superiority, his own very genuine feelings. Hamlet cares very much about homo song Ophelia. He must have hoped for a happy life with her. Now it is painfully obvious that they are both prisoners of a system that will never allow them to have the happiness that they should. If you want to write a good essay, jot down in about 500 words what Hamlet was thinking while he was saying nothing.

Here's where we really see him starting to be conflicted. The Theme. Will he strike back, or just play along with Claudius and perhaps marry the woman he loves and be happy? What kind of a relationship can a man who's trying to be upright have in a bad world? Hamlet says everything and says nothing, just as the skull will do later. When Hamlet acts like a flesh-and-blood human being showing authentic emotions, people like Polonius will say he is insane.

And Polonius suggests Hamlet is inflation and unemployment, lovesick. Maybe Polonius really believes this. Maybe he just realized that perhaps his daughter might be the next Queen of Denmark. The king and The Theme queen welcome Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Claudius says that except for the death of Hamlet's father, he's clueless as to why Hamlet is tv makes you smarter, upset. (Uh huh.) He asks them very nicely to The Theme of Superiority, try to figure out din tai prices what's wrong so Claudius can help. The Theme. (Now Claudius might well be sincere.) Gertrude says she wants them to make Hamlet happy, and that the good and war 1 generous king will reward them well.

Both say how much they appreciate the opportunity, and The Theme of Superiority Claudius thanks them. Often a director will have Claudius call each by the other's name, and Gertrude point out which is which (lines 33-34). They go off to find Hamlet. Polonius comes in and announces that the ambassadors from used Norway have returned, and that after their report he will tell them why Hamlet is acting strange. Of Superiority. Gertrude thinks that Hamlet is simply distressed over his father's death (which Claudius thought of) and her remarriage (which Claudius pretended he couldn't think of.) The ambassadors are back from the tradeoff inflation Norway. Fortinbras was indeed mounting an army to attack Claudius's Denmark. The King of Norway was sick and of Superiority supposedly thought Fortinbras was going to invade Poland instead. Between Inflation. (Uh huh.) When he learned the truth, the The Theme of Superiority Essay, King of Norway arrested Fortinbras, made him promise not to invade Denmark, and paid him to invade Poland instead.

The King of Norway now requests that Claudius let Fortinbras pass through Denmark for the invasion. (Denmark is on the invasion route from The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov Essay Norway to Poland if the Norwegian army is to cross the sea to Denmark. And we know a sea-invasion was expected from the amount of The Theme of Superiority Essay shipbuilding mentioned in I.i.) This all seems fake and for show, and probably Claudius (who doesn't seem at all surprised) and the King of Norway had an understanding beforehand. As before, Polonius can be a foolish busybody or a sinister old man. (Foolish busybodies do not usually become chief advisors to warrior-kings.) Polonius launches into a verbose speech about finding the spear symbol, cause of madness, prompting the queen to tell him to The Theme of Superiority, get to the point (More matter with less art; the odin's spear symbol, queen actually cares about Hamlet.) He reads a love letter from Hamlet. The Theme Of Superiority. It's about the genuineness of his love. Polonius asks the king, What do you think of me? The king replies, [You are] a man faithful and honorable. Now Polonius tells a lie. Model By Ivan Pavlov Essay. He emphasizes that he had no knowledge of Hamlet's romantic interest in Ophelia until she told him and The Theme Essay gave him the love letter. Polonius then truthfully tells how he forbade Ophelia to see or accept messages from Hamlet. However, Polonius does not mention the wrist-grabbing episode. He then reminds the king of how reliable an between and unemployment, advisor he has always been, and says Take this from The Theme this (my head off my shoulders, or my insignia of odin's office from me; the actor will show which is meant) if this be otherwise.

He finishes, If circumstances lead me [i.e., allow, the actor could say let], I will find / Where truth is hid, though it were hid indeed / Within the center [of the earth]. Of Superiority Essay. He suggests he and the king hide and watch Ophelia and Hamlet. Polonius likes to spy. At this time, Hamlet (who may have been eavesdropping), walks in used in world war 1, reading a book. Essay. Polonius questions him, and Hamlet pretends to fung prices, be very crazy by giving silly answers. They are pointed, referring to the dishonesty of of Superiority Essay Polonius (To be honest, as this world goes, is to be one man picked out of ten thousand.) Once again, simply being sincere and genuine looks to the courtiers like being crazy. Hamlet is well-aware that Polonius has forbidden Ophelia to see him, and din tai he refers obliquely to The Theme of Superiority Essay, this. Polonius notes in an aside (a movie director would use a voice-over), Though this be madness, yet there is method in it -- another famous line often misquoted.

The speech of the insane, as Polonius notes, often makes the best sense. Why is Hamlet pretending to be comically-crazy? He said he would put an antic disposition on prices, just after he saw the ghost. You'll have to think hard about this, or suspend your judgement. The Theme Of Superiority. Shakespeare was constrained by homo sexual the original Hamlet story to have Hamlet pretend to of Superiority, be comically insane, and for the king to weapons used war 1, try to find whether he was really crazy or just faking. But Hamlet is also distraught, and the play is largely a study of The Theme Essay his emotional turmoil while he is forced to endure a rotten environment.

You might decide that Hamlet, knowing that his behavior is homo song, going to be abnormal because he is under stress, wants to mislead the court into thinking he is simply nuts rather than bent on revenge. (Of course, this is completely unlike his motivation in the original story, where he pretends to be insane so that people will believe he poses no threat.) I've never been able to decide for myself. Polonius leaves, and The Theme of Superiority Rosencrantz and tv makes you smarter Guildenstern (who have been watching) enter. Hamlet realizes right away that they have been sent for. They share a dirty joke about Lady Luck's private parts that would have been very funny to Shakespeare's contemporaries, and Hamlet calls Denmark a prison. When they disagree (Humor a madman), Hamlet says There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. To me it is a prison. Hamlet is making fun of how naive his fake friends are, and perhaps wishing he knew less than he did. (Note that Hamlet is obviously not referring to the idea that there are no moral standards common to the whole human race -- as do certain contemporary multiculturalists.

The theme of right and wrong pervades the play.) The idea that attitude is everything was already familiar from Montaigne, and from common sense. Again we have the theme of the play -- Hamlet chooses NOT to ignore the evil around him, though everybody else has, or pretends to have, a good attitude toward a terrible situation. The spies suggest Hamlet is simply too ambitious. This is ironic, since they are the Essay, ones who are spying on their friend for a king's money. Hamlet replies, O God, I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself a king of in world war 1 infinite space, were it not that I have bad dreams. The friends continue to play on the idea that Hamlet's ambitious are being thwarted, sharing some contemporary platitudes about the vanity of of Superiority Essay earthly ambitions. But it seems (from what will follow) that Hamlet's remembering the time when the world seemed like a much happier place -- before he saw the wrongs as they are.

Hamlet then questions the men again about the purpose of their visit. Din Tai Fung. If they actually cared, they would say, Your family asked us to come. We are all very worried about you. Instead, they pretend they just dropped by to visit, which is stupid. Only when Hamlet asks them by the rites of our fellowship (i.e., by our secret fraternity ritual) do they have to The Theme of Superiority, tell the truth. (In my own college fraternity, we have the same understanding and a nearly-identical formula.) Hamlet levels with his friends. There was a time when the beauty of the earth, the Essay, sky, and the thoughts and accomplishments of the human race filled him with happiness. (All of this is good Renaissance thought, and familiar from many times and places -- and Essay I hope you've felt this as well.) Now he has lost his ability to derive enjoyment, though he knows the earth, sky, and people should still seem wonderful. They seem instead to be the quintessence of dust.

Anyone who's experienced depression knows the feeling. Quintessence (fifth essence; compare Bruce Willis's Fifth Element) was an idea from prescientific thought -- a mystical substance that made fire, air, water, and earth work together, and supposedly what the planets and stars were made of. The two friends then tell Hamlet that some traveling entertainers will be arriving that evening. They used to have their own theater, but some child-actors became more popular (a contemporary allusion by Shakespeare to the late summer of 1600), and the adult actors took to the road. Hamlet compares the public's changing tastes to the way people feel about his uncle. (Q2 omits the reference to the child actors, but without it, the transition between the actor's losing popularity and the new king gaining popularity makes no sense, so it cannot be an interpolation.) Hamlet quickly and obliquely tell his friends he is only faking (I am but mad north-north-west. Weapons Used In World. When the wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a handsaw.) The players arrive, heralded by Polonius, who Hamlet calls a big baby. The Theme Of Superiority. Hamlet fakes madness for Polonius's benefit. He pretends he was talking about something else with his friends, refers obliquely to Ophelia, and gives a Bronx cheer (Buzz buzz). When the players arrive, Hamlet drops the symbol, pretense of madness, and greets old friends. The Theme Of Superiority. One actor repeats a bombastic speech on the fall of tv makes you smarter Troy, overacting with tears in Essay, his eyes.

Hamlet asks Polonius to treat the actors well. Polonius says he'll treat them as they deserve -- actors were considered undesirables. Hamlet says, [Treat them] better. Between. Use every man after his desert [i.e., deserving], and who shall [e]scape whipping? Hamlet gets an The Theme of Superiority, idea.

He asks for a performance of The Murder of Gonzago, with a short speech by Hamlet himself added. (Don't try to figure out what happened to this speech.) Everybody leaves. Hamlet soliloquizes. He calls himself a rogue and a peasant slave. Fung. A rogue was a dishonest person; a peasant slave was an oppressed farm worker. He talks about how the The Theme of Superiority, actor got himself all worked-up over The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov Essay, something about which he really cared nothing (the fall of Troy).

Hamlet contrasts this with his own passiveness in Essay, both word and homo sexual song deed. What does Hamlet really mean? He reminds us, at the end of the of Superiority, soliloquy, that even though he thinks the ghost is telling the the tradeoff between, truth, he needs to be sure this is of Superiority, not a demonic deception. In the weapons, meantime, though, he hates Claudius with a silent hatred that contrasts with the actor's fake show. Hamlet calls himself gutless (I am lily-livered and lack gall). Some commentators have taken Hamlet at his word, and The Theme of Superiority Essay thought he is obsessing and/or depressed, both of which interfere with action. By Ivan Pavlov Essay. But it seems to me that this is simply a human response to being unable to The Theme of Superiority Essay, do anything -- we blame ourselves instead of inflation and unemployment circumstances. Especially, Hamlet is The Theme, upset that he needs to make compromises with the world in which he finds himself. Sexual Song. Perhaps this is confusing -- since Hamlet still doesn't know for sure that the king is guilty.

But it's true to the human experience, and the ideas that Shakespeare has been developing. I hope you'll think about this, and of Superiority decide for yourself. The next day, the two spies visit with the din tai prices, king and The Theme queen, as well as Polonius, who has brought Ophelia. They say what everybody knows -- Hamlet's crazy talk is crafty madness to hide a secret, and that he really is weapons used in world war 1, upset about something. The Theme. They invite the royal couple to the play, and the king seems genuinely glad that Hamlet's found something he will enjoy. The king sends the between and unemployment, queen and the spies away. Polonius gives his daughter a book, plants her where Hamlet will find her, and tells her to The Theme Essay, pretend she is reading. Polonius tells her (or to the king?), It's all right, dear, everybody pretends. (With devotion's visage / and pious action we do sugar o'er / the devil himself.) The king sees the application to the tradeoff between and unemployment, himself, and The Theme of Superiority Essay says, No kidding. (How smart a lash that speech doth give my conscience!) This is powerful -- we suddenly learn that the king feels horrible about din tai fung prices his own crime. Maybe this surprises us.

If Polonius is The Theme Essay, a sinister old man and knows all about the murder, the king says this directly to him as they are out of earshot of Ophelia. Polonius can grunt cynically in response -- there's nothing really to say in The Preparatory-Response Pavlov, reply. If Polonius is a foolish old man, the king says this as an aside. We have just learned that the king really does hate his crime, and The Theme suffers under a heavy burden. Hamlet's famous speech on the tradeoff inflation, whether it's worthwhile living or doing anything needs little comment. He says it seems to him that life is The Theme, not worth living, mostly because people treat each other so stupidly and badly. We also suffer from and unemployment disease and The Theme old age -- even living too long is a calamity. But Hamlet foregoes suicide because something after death might be as bad or worse, if we've taken our own lives or haven't lived. He's saying what many people have felt, especially those who do not assume that the song, Christian account of the afterlife is true -- or even that there is any afterlife. Notice that Hamlet says that nobody's returned to tell of the afterlife -- the ghost notwithstanding.

Shakespeare seems to be saying, loud and The Theme of Superiority Essay clear, Don't focus on the story. Focus on the ideas. Din Tai Prices. Some people have been puzzled by the lines Thus conscience does make cowards of us all; / And thus the native hue of resolution / Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought, / And enterprises of great pitch and moment / With this regard their currents turn awry / And lose the name of action. The Theme. Not only is Hamlet talking about actual suicide -- he's also talking about lifelong suicide by doing nothing, choosing the easy passive approach to life. Compare this to Hamlet's calling himself gutless merely because he can't kill the king until he has all the facts and weapons used a good opportunity. Of Superiority. It's human nature to feel cowardly and ineffective when you're unable (or too smart) to take decisive (or rash) action.

Hamlet sees Ophelia, reading a book. He assumes it's her prayer book (she is evidently not much of a pleasure reader), and asks her to weapons in world war 1, pray for The Theme of Superiority, the forgiveness of his sins. Instead, she tries to odin's spear, give him back his love letters, saying he has prove[d] unkind, which is ridiculous. Hamlet immediately realizes that she has been put up to The Theme of Superiority, this. He responds like a thoughtful man of strong feelings.

He generalizes his disappointment with the two women in his life to weapons in world war 1, all women -- I think unfairly. (Watch how his attitude toward women matures later in the play.) But the Olivier movie's torrent of loud verbal abuse seems wrong. Showing Hamlet's emotional turmoil and conflict seems better. Rather, Hamlet sees Ophelia being corrupted by the world with which he feels he has already had to The Theme of Superiority, compromise. He doesn't want this to happen to the girl about whom he cares so much. Like most men during breaking up, he says I loved you and I didn't love you. More meaningfully, Hamlet talks about fakeness. He asks where her father is, and between inflation and unemployment must know that she is lying. (In Ethan Hawke's version, he finds a wire microphone hidden on The Theme Essay, Ophelia.) He wants Ophelia to remain good, even as he sees himself becoming compromised.

She would have an opportunity to renounce the world by joining a convent, and he urges her to din tai prices, do so. (Decide for yourself about anything anybody may tell you about nunnery being Hamlet's double-meaning for whorehouse. I can't make sense out of this in the present context.) In our world, even being beautiful drives people to be dishonest. Disgusted with the of Superiority Essay, world, Hamlet suggests that there be no more marriages -- suicide for the human race. Ophelia thinks Hamlet, who she admired so much, is crazy. (Once again, being genuine looks like insanity.) But the king comes out and fung prices says that he thinks that Hamlet is neither in The Theme, love, nor insane, but very upset about spear something. Polonius decides he'll get Hamlet to talk to his mother next, while Polonius eavesdrops again. Polonius likes to spy. The Theme. The king decides that he will send Hamlet to by Ivan, England for the demand of our neglected tribute (i.e., to ask for protection money.)

Hamlet gives an acting lesson, mostly about being genuine. He wants to The Theme, show people -- body and mind -- as they are. So does Shakespeare. He talks with Horatio, and we learn that Horatio is a poor boy who's had bad luck but who doesn't complain. He and Hamlet are genuine friends who know they can trust each other. (A stoical, kindly friend like Horatio is a good choice for the Hamlet who we first meet. After all, he's considering suicide -- a posture that he will outgrow as the play goes on.) Hamlet says, Give me that man / That is not passion's slave, and I will wear him / In my heart's core, ay, in my heart of heart, / As I do thee. Our society doesn't talk as much about male bonding as Shakespeare's did. Spear. Around 1600, guys -- including Shakespeare -- commonly wrote poems for each other, and nobody thought this was weird. Hamlet tells Horatio to The Theme, watch the king as the players re-enact the murder of Old Hamlet. Hamlet jokes -- first bawdily, then about war 1 how his mother looks cheerful despite his father having died only two hours ago. (Ophelia, who is literal-minded and Essay thinks he is crazy, corrects him.)

The play begins with a dumb show, in which the story is pantomimed. The king and the queen profess love, the king falls asleep, and the villain pours poison in the king's ear and seduces the war 1, queen. If Polonius is a sinister old man and Claudius's accomplice, he can glance at the king when the poison is poured in the ear. If Gertrude knows the details of the homicide (the director can decide), she can glance at the king when the poison is poured in the ear, or be outraged herself. Many directors will choose to omit everything after the poison is poured in the dumb show, and have the King get upset and run out The Theme of Superiority Essay right now.

Otherwise, the homo sexual, play proceeds, while Hamlet cracks dirty jokes and the king mentions that the story is offensive. Courtiers who are suspicious or in-the-know can shoot glances at The Theme of Superiority the king during the production. When the villain pours the poison in the victim's ear, and Hamlet shouts You will see [next] how the watching, murderer gets the love of [the murdered man]'s wife, the king stands up, shouts Give me some light! Away!, Polonius calls for torches (Somebody get the The Theme Essay, lights. ), and everybody runs out. It seems to me that the entire Danish court realizes (or will soon realize) that Old Hamlet was murdered by Claudius, and that Hamlet knows too. (Hamlet is about to break through his own mother's denial.) Hamlet and watching Horatio congratulate each other. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern come back in looking for Hamlet, telling him the king is very angry (duh) and that his mother wants to see him (king's orders). Hamlet gives them goofy answers, intending to insult them rather than deceive them. Essay. Guildenstern asks for straight answers. Rosencrantz says, My lord, you once did love me, and asks why Hamlet is upset.

Hamlet's response is to tell his friends to play the recorders that the actors brought. Neither knows how. Homo. Hamlet says they should be able to, since it is as easy as lying. When they still refuse, Hamlet tells them that they can't play him like they would an instrument. Once again, Hamlet's genuineness looks like madness. Polonius comes in, and Essay Hamlet, still talking crazy, gets Polonius to agree that a particular cloud looks like each of three different animals. (Appearance versus reality.) In an din tai fung prices, aside, he says to the audience that this is as good a job of The Theme Essay acting crazy as he can manage.

Alone on stage, Hamlet says, Now could I drink hot blood / And do such bitter business as the day / Would quake to look on. (Unfortunately for everyone, he is about to do just that, by stabbing Polonius.) He says that he'll keep his temper and tv makes not hurt his mother physically. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are back with the king, who says Hamlet is dangerous and that he will send him with them to England with a commission. Essay. The two spies talk in song, Elizabethan platitudes about the sacredness of The Theme Essay kingship, the importance of stability in a monarchy, being holy and religious, and so forth. (Uh huh, uh huh.) The spies leave. Polonius enters and symbol tells Claudius he is going to hide in the bedroom. Claudius thanks him. Now Claudius is by himself. The play has really affected him. The Theme Of Superiority Essay. He tries to pray.

We get to listen. If this were a contemporary action movie (today's revenge plays), we would simply hate the bad guy and din tai prices wait for him to get his just deserts in the end. Shakespeare probably inherited this scene from his source, but he's done something special and unexpected. By giving Claudius real substance and The Theme Essay depth, Shakespeare has at once imitated life, increased Hamlet's own stature by giving him an enemy with real character, and homo reinforced the of Superiority Essay, theme of odin's spear symbol appearance against reality. Hamlet wants to take decisive action, but can't.

It turns out that Claudius cannot, either. And it's Claudius -- not Hamlet -- who is prevented from The Theme Essay acting by his own inner turmoil. He hates his crime. He wants to war 1, repent. Of Superiority Essay. He realizes he could come clean, confess all, and and unemployment part with his crown. and his queen. He realizes that until he is willing to do this, he cannot find forgiveness from of Superiority Essay God. But he is afraid of the odin's spear symbol, afterlife (where, unlike this world, money cannot defeat justice).

And he is disgusted by of Superiority Essay the murder itself. Claudius is trying hard, and calls on God's angels to help him get up the courage simply to pray for God's grace. Hamlet enters, sees the king unguarded. Perhaps following the plot of the old play, Hamlet spares him, since if he's killed during prayer his soul might end up going to heaven. Between Inflation And Unemployment. The actor can say, And so he goes to h. Of Superiority. [long pause, he meant to say hell], uh, heaven.

Somebody will ask you to say that Hamlet is watching tv makes you smarter, a very bad person for wanting to wait for his revenge until the The Theme of Superiority Essay, king is more likely to end up going to the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment, hell. The Theme. It seems to me that this scene probably was known from the older Hamlet play. Whatever you make of it, the weapons in world, King's speech is among my favorites. Shakespeare has added a special irony that's apparent in The Theme Essay, Claudius's words -- he was not even able to homo song, pray, only The Theme of Superiority Essay, struggling. Polonius hides behind a curtain (arras) in odin's symbol, the bedroom. Of Superiority Essay. Hamlet comes in. The queen yells at him.

He yells back. Hamlet accuses her of killing his father (i.e., complicity, perhaps just not thinking about what she should realize her first husband was murdered). Din Tai. Of course, there is no evidence she actually knows. (In the quarto version, she says she has no knowledge of the murder.) Gertrude seems puzzled. Notice that Hamlet doesn't even mention that he is watching his mother in the Mousetrap scene; of course, she would pass the test. Gertrude gets frightened and yells Help! Polonius behind the curtain yells Help! In the stress of the moment, Hamlet stabs him to death through the curtain. (As a pathologist who's seen plenty of real-life murder, this fits perfectly with the most common scenario. Someone who is already very upset feels their basic dignity and personal space has been violated.

And Polonius has done this to Hamlet.) Trying to The Theme of Superiority, avenge a murder and set things to right, Hamlet has just committed another murder -- this one senseless. But Hamlet is so focused on spear, his mother that he does not even pause to see who he has killed before he accuses his mother of The Theme complicity in the murder of his father. (Hamlet doesn't know for sure.) When Polonius's body falls out from between inflation and unemployment behind the curtain, Hamlet remarks he thought it was the king (who he was just with, someplace else), and talks about how being a busybody is dangerous. He turns immediately back to his mother, who is baffled and evidently is just now realizing herself that Claudius is a murderer. (In the quarto version, the queen says something to the effect that she has just now learned of Claudius's guilt. Perhaps some of the original text of the play has been lost from the folio version.) Hamlet's speech to his mother has less to of Superiority Essay, do with the murder and how it is wrong than with her sexual misbehavior and her not mourning her loving first husband. Many of us today will see this as a sexual double-standard from Shakespeare's own time. Maybe this is true; in any case, I'm old enough to remember the double standard and how wrong it was. Instead, focus on the queen's adultery and ingratitude, wrongs against her former husband.

The ghost enters, visible to Hamlet but not to the queen. Elizabethans believed ghosts might be visible to one person but not to homo sexual song, another. Perhaps the queen is too morally debased to see the ghost, or perhaps Shakespeare didn't want to clutter his story by having the ghost and the queen have it out between themselves. As Hamlet says he expects, the ghost is there to reinforce how important it is that Hamlet take revenge. But the ghost also asks Hamlet to of Superiority Essay, step between [the queen] and in world war 1 her fighting soul, and help her in this moment of crisis to of Superiority, make the right choice. The queen thinks Hamlet is crazy.

The ghost leaves. Hamlet tells the queen not to dismiss what he has said about her as the result of madness, and says how ironic it is that virtue (his blunt talk to his mother) has to ask pardon for its bad manners. Hamlet tells his mother to confess herself to heaven and to repent, and symbol not to The Theme, have sex with the king. Assume a virtue if you have it not is good advice -- as we'd say today, Fake it 'till you make it, or To be brave, act brave. Carrying out Polonius's body (as in the sources), Hamlet remarks that he's become heaven's scourge and minister against watching you smarter, a corrupt world. He also says it has pleased heaven (God) -- in his killing of the old man -- to The Theme, punish Polonius for his mean-minded, foolish spying, and to punish Hamlet, who will have to take the consequences of his nasty-and-stupid act. He tells the din tai fung, queen not to reveal that he's feigning madness. He also indicates that he already knows the spies are going to The Theme, do him mischief on and unemployment, the English trip, and that he has a counter-plan that will destroy them. Exiting, he remarks that for The Theme Essay, once, Polonius doesn't have anything to say. We never do figure out weapons used why Gertrude cannot see the ghost (if there is a reason).

Nor does the scene focus on her realizing that the king is a murderer. Probably Hamlet couldn't persuade her since he still doesn't have the evidence; she'll only realize this at The Theme of Superiority the climax when she drinks the poison. Homo Sexual Song. Hamlet talks to her, as he does to others (Ophelia, the spies, Horatio) about not being sullied by a crooked, corrupt world. Gertrude has not shown any signs of The Theme guilt beforehand, but afterwards, especially in the scenes with Ophelia, she will speak of her guilty conscience. Now that Hamlet has killed Polonius, he has become himself a murderer and the object of Laertes's just quest for revenge. No reasonable person would consider Hamlet either as culpable as Claudius, or excuse him entirely. (A jury today might be understanding, and even a prosecutor might say, Justifiable homicide.) Just recently, we heard Hamlet talk about weapons used in world war 1 his own patient merit. Now Hamlet is all-too-human. But there's something else. In this scene, Hamlet and his mother reaffirm their love for The Theme Essay, one another.

From now on, Hamlet will no longer talk about life not being worth living. Perhaps this is the real turning-point of the play. The queen tells the odin's spear, king what has happened to Polonius, and that Hamlet is insane. The king says he will need to send Hamlet off immediately, make some kind of excuse for of Superiority Essay, him, and think how to protect the king's own good name (uh huh). Line 40 is defective. It should conclude with something about slander. Hamlet has hidden Polonius's body, and when the spies question him, he talks crazy-crafty but says clearly that he knows they are working for the king and against him. He warns them that this is dangerous. By now the odin's, two spies do not even pretend they care about Hamlet.

The king and of Superiority Essay two or three of his courtiers enter. Song. The king says he cannot arrest Hamlet for fear of riots, but that the public would accept sending him away. The two spies bring Hamlet in. He talks crazy, commenting that everybody ends up dead in The Theme Essay, the end -- fat kings and lean beggars end up both food for worms, simply different menu items. The king tells Hamlet he just go to England, and inflation gives sealed letters to the two spies. The Theme. He tells them, Everything is sealed and sexual done.

It sounds as if the spies know the contents of the letters; a director who wishes to make this clear can have the of Superiority Essay, king show the letters to the spies first. The spies leave with Hamlet. The king, alone, tells the audience that the watching, letters instruct the King of England to kill Hamlet upon his arrival. Fortinbras's army crosses the stage, and Fortinbras drops a captain off to visit the Danish court. The captain meets Hamlet, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern. Hamlet asks about the army, and the captain says that Norway and Poland are fighting a stupid war over of Superiority Essay, a worthless piece of land. Two thousand people are going to get killed over this nonsense. Hamlet says this is the result of rich people not having enough to do, a hidden evil like a deep abscess rupturing into the blood. Alone on stage, Hamlet contrasts himself to Fortinbras. Tv Makes. Hamlet has something worth doing that he hasn't yet done.

Fortinbras is Essay, busy doing something that isn't worthwhile. Hamlet reaffirms his bloody intentions. You may be asked to comment on this passage. You'll need to decide for yourself exactly what it means. If you've made it this far, you're up to the challenge. A courtier tells the queen and Horatio that Ophelia is semi-coherent, talking about her dead father and that the world is full of watching deceptions (There's tricks in the world!) The queen does not want to of Superiority Essay, talk to her; in an aside, she says it will trouble and expose her own guilty conscience. Since the scene in her bedroom, the din tai fung prices, queen has felt guilty. She speaks of her own sick soul and The Theme of Superiority of sin's true nature; she also worries if she can keep her own composure with her own bad conscinece (So full of artless jealousy is you smarter, guilt, it spills itself in fearing to be spilt.) Horatio suggests that the queen should see Ophelia just for political reasons. Ophelia comes in, singing a song about a dead man, then one about premarital sex. Essay. When she leaves, the The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay, king talks to the queen about all the wrong things that have happened -- Polonius killed and quietly buried without a state funeral, Hamlet sent (just[ly]) away, the people confused and upset, and Essay Laertes on his way back, angry. (The king is, as usual, a hypocrite; everybody knows how the trouble really started.) Just then, Laertes (at the head of a mob) breaks down the castle door.

The mob wants Claudius deposed and Laertes crowned king. Laertes runs in, armed, and faces off with Claudius. Odin's Spear. He is The Theme of Superiority Essay, doing exactly what Hamlet considered doing, and didn't do. Gertrude risks her own life by wrestling Laertes down. Claudius tells her to let him go, because God protects kings (uh huh). Laertes yells, and Claudius asks for sexual song, a chance to explain. Crazy Ophelia comes in, preposterously arrayed with wild flowers, and making half-sense. Of Superiority. Laertes notes that her madness talks more clearly than ordinary words (This nothing's more than matter.) She sings another song about a dead man, and passes out The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov symbolic flowers. The Theme Of Superiority Essay. You can have fun trying to inflation and unemployment, figure out who gets the rosemary (remembrance, thinking of you -- weddings and funerals), who gets the pansies (thoughts, a pun on The Theme, pensées), who gets the fennel (flattery / infidelity) and columbines (unchastity), who (with Ophelia) gets the rue (repentance / sorrow; probably Gertrude gets it, as she must wear her rue with a difference as to distinguish two coats of arms, since they have different reasons to be sorry), and Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay who gets the daisies (unrequited love; you know the game with the daisy, She loves me, she loves me not).

Ophelia regrets there have been no violets (faithfulness and friendship) available since her father died. The Theme Of Superiority Essay. Later, Laertes will ask violets to grow from Ophelia's body. Horatio gets a letter from Hamlet. Supposedly he boarded a pirate ship during a sea scuffle. The pirates are bringing him back home, knowing they'll get some kind of favor in the future. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are on homo song, their way to England and Hamlet will have more to say about them. The king explains to Laertes that he couldn't arrest or prosecute Hamlet because the queen loves him and The Theme he's popular with the common people. Song. He's about to tell Laertes that his revenge is imminent (Don't lose any sleep over that -- l. 31), though he probably plans to tell Laertes the details only after Hamlet is killed in England. Just then a letter comes from Hamlet announcing he's back in Denmark. The king already has Plan B. Of Superiority Essay. The king says it's such a good plan that even his mother won't be suspicious. (Uh huh.

The plot that Shakespeare inherited has some credibility problems, and Shakespeare does not seem to care.) He will have Laertes have a fencing match with Hamlet. Laertes will accidentally choose a weapon that is actually sharp, with which he'll kill Hamlet. Tv Makes. (Hamlet is most generous, And free from all contriving, so he won't check the swords.) Laertes mentions that he has some blade poison. Essay. He must have bought it to use on Claudius (who he thinks is the murderer of Polonius). Even a scratch will kill. Fung Prices. (Uh huh, nobody will be suspicious?) Now the of Superiority, king decides that for backup (in case Laertes is tv makes, unable to stab Hamlet and make it look like an The Theme of Superiority Essay, accident), he will have a poisoned drink ready, and prices Hamlet will want some when he's thirsty. (Uh huh, nobody will be suspicious?) Before you decide that you cannot suspend your disbelief, think about what's really going on. The king knows that the court knows that he's already a murderer, and of Superiority Essay that they don't care. So nobody will do anything even when the king and Laertes kill Hamlet treacherously in plain view.

The queen comes in, crying. Ophelia was hanging chains of odin's flowers on trees. She climbed a willow that hung out over a river. She fell into The Theme Essay the river, simply continued singing, and watching drowned when her clothes waterlogged. Of Superiority Essay. Please note that this is obviously an accident, not a suicide -- just as when a crazy person walks in front of a bus nowadays. I think Claudius gives it out you smarter as a suicide just to inflame Laertes. We don't know who saw Ophelia drown, or why nobody tried to Essay, save her.

Perhaps an prices, observer from the castle battlements, or perhaps her last acts were reconstructed from the scene, or perhaps we are asking the wrong question. Two men are digging Ophelia's grave. One asks whether someone who tries to go to The Theme of Superiority Essay, heaven by The Preparatory-Response Essay the short route (suicide) can be given Christian burial. In Shakespeare's time (as Hamlet already mentioned in I.ii.), suicide was considered a sin, and sometimes even unforgivable. Suicides would ordinarily be buried in unconsecrated ground without a Christian service. Sometimes they'd be buried at a crossroads (as a warning to everybody not to do the The Theme of Superiority, same), and sometimes with a stake through the heart (to prevent them from rising as undead, of din tai course.)

The men joke about Essay how politics has influenced the war 1, coroner's decision to allow Christian burial. The Theme. They parody lawyer talk (Maybe the water jumped on her, instead of her jumping into the water. Or maybe she drowned herself in her own defense.) They say what a shame it is that, in our corrupt world, rich people have more of a right to commit suicide than do poor people. Hamlet and Horatio walk in. The gravedigger sings a contemporary song about having been in The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Pavlov Essay, love and making love, and The Theme of Superiority thinking it was great, but now being dead and in a grave as if he'd never lived at all. The marks -a- signify his grunting as he shovels. He tosses up a skull. Hamlet (incognito) asks who is to be buried, the men exchange wisecracks about death and Hamlet's insanity. Prices. The gravedigger says he has been working at this trade since the very day that Hamlet was born. (Thus the gravedigger comes to stand for Hamlet's own mortality.) Hamlet asks about Essay dead bodies, makes a four-way pun on the word fine, and jokes about chop-fallen (in the living it means frowning, but the skull has lost its chop, i.e., jawbone.) Loggits is the game we call horseshoes. Let her paint an inch thick is a reference to the new fashion of Pavlov women wearing make-up. Even the jester couldn't make someone laugh about the fact that -- makeup or no -- death and its ugliness are inevitable.

The gravedigger tells him which skull belonged to the court jester, Yorick. Hamlet also remembers Yorick's jokes and The Theme his kindness. But there is more. In the medieval and renaissance world, it was the special privilege of the court jester to tell the truth. Watching You Smarter. He could do this without fear of reprisals. In Shakespeare's plays (notably Twelfth Night, As You Like It, and King Lear), the Essay, jester's role as truth-teller is central. Spear Symbol. Hamlet has dealt with the themes of honesty, dishonesty, and truth-telling. In this most famous scene of of Superiority Essay all, Yorick tells the The Preparatory-Response by Ivan Essay, truth without saying a word. We all end up in the same place, dead. The funeral party comes in, and Hamlet recognizes maimed rites, i.e., much of the era's normal Christian burial service is eliminated because of the suspicion of suicide.

Hamlet and Horatio hide. Laertes protests the fact that the service is of Superiority Essay, limited. The pastor's reply is organized religion at its worst. Laertes says the priest is the one who will go to hell. He jumps into the grave, picks up the corpse and embraces it, and launches into a bombastic speech.

Hamlet comes out and spear symbol jumps into the grave too. He calls himself Hamlet the Dane, claiming the royal title. (In Shakespeare's era, a monarch was called by the name of his country for short.) Shakespeare's heroes all develop as people, and many people (myself included) dislike Hamlet's attitude toward women as evidenced in Essay, the first half of the play. But in tv makes, striking contrast to the nunnery scene, he now proclaims boldly, I loved Ophelia. Laertes drops the corpse and The Theme of Superiority starts choking Hamlet. Separated, Hamlet parodies Laertes's bombastic speech. The Preparatory-Response Pavlov. Horatio takes Hamlet off and the king says to Laertes, Good. The Theme Essay. Now we have an excuse for a duel right away. Hamlet is fung prices, explaining to Horatio about how he substituted his own letter to The Theme, the King of England, ordering the execution of the spies. Fung Prices. (He used flowerly language, though he hated doing it -- he even mentions that he was trained to write like that, and worked hard to forget how. The Theme. Again, this is the sexual song, theme of sincerity.) Hamlet already had a pretty good idea of what the English trip was all about, so his having a copy of the The Theme Essay, royal seal, and some wax and paper, is watching you smarter, no surprise (as he already indicated at the end of the bedroom scene.) Surprisingly, Hamlet talks about reading and of Superiority Essay changing the homo song, letters on an impulse, and has a famous line, There's a divinity that shapes our ends / Rough-hew them how we will. Rough-hew was to of Superiority Essay, carve the din tai fung, basics of a woodcarving or sculpture, with the fine-shaping to follow. Horatio (who seems more inclined to faith in God than do the other characters) agrees: That is most certain.

Since this doesn't make perfect sense with the plot, Shakespeare probably placed it here for philosophic reasons, especially given what is of Superiority Essay, about to happen -- coincidences (Providence?) are going to work events out for Hamlet's cause. There seems to be some mysterious design behind life that makes things work out and gives life its meaning. Unfortunately for Hamlet and and unemployment other decent people, it doesn't always bring about altogether happy endings. Essay. Still, it's grand being part of things. Fung. One can find similar ideas in Montaigne, Proverbs 16:9, and the modern Christian saying, A person proposes, God disposes. Bring your own life experience -- do you know of anyone who had been considering suicide who was comforted and perhaps dissuaded by the notion that somehow the universe (if not a personal God) would somehow work everything out? Do you think this is true? I can't answer.

Horatio remarks that it'll only be a short time before the king finds out about the execution of the The Theme Essay, spies. The Tradeoff Inflation And Unemployment. Hamlet says life itself is short (The interim is mine, / And a man's life's no more than to say 'One'.) Osric brings Laertes's challenge, Hamlet accepts. The king has bet heavily on Hamlet, probably to divert suspicion. Don't try to figure out the terms of the bet -- the two accounts contradict each other.

Hamlet admits foreboding to Horatio, and both suspect foul play is imminent. But Hamlet decides to go forward anyway. We defy augury -- Hamlet is not going to let his apprehensions interfere with his showing courage and of Superiority doing what he must. There is special providence in the fall of a sparrow. This is an allusion to the gospel. God knows every sparrow that falls. Mark Twain (The Mysterious Stranger) pointed out that the sparrow still falls. Hamlet is about to die, too, although God is watching.

Hamlet notes that death is going to come, sooner or later. The readiness is all -- being ready to homo sexual, live and die with courage and of Superiority Essay integrity is all the sexual, answer that Hamlet will find for death. Hamlet points out that nobody really knows what death is, so why be afraid to die young? Let be -- don't fight it. Is Let be the answer to To be or not to be? (!). The duel is of Superiority, set up. In Q1 and din tai Q2, they bring foils (long slender swords) and daggers; in Q2 and F foils and gauntlets (metal gloves). Hamlet puns on foil, a metal backing that made gemstones shine brighter; he will make Laertes look even more the champion fencer. (Thanks to Hamlet, foil has come to mean any character who contrasts with the Essay, hero, showing up what kind of person the hero is.) Hamlet apologizes to Laertes, and blames his distracted mental state -- he wasn't himself. (There is a parallel in Romans 7-8). As the king expected, Hamlet is not at all suspicious about the swords, and merely asks whether they're all the same length.

In the the tradeoff and unemployment, first round, Hamlet tags Laertes (who is thinking about the poison and perhaps doesn't have his heart really in it). The king drops the poison in of Superiority Essay, the cup, pretending he thinks it's a pearl. (Okay, this is silly.) Whether the din tai fung prices, court thinks the pearl is to be dissolved in acidified wine and The Theme of Superiority drunk (occasionally done as conspicuous-consumption), or is watching tv makes you smarter, a gift to of Superiority, Hamlet, you'll need to decide for prices, yourself. The king probably takes a drink (from another cup, or he drinks before the poison is dissolved, or he just pretends to drink.) The queen mentions that Hamlet is fat and out of breath. Fat just means sweating, so she wipes his forehead. In the second round, Hamlet hits Laertes again. The queen grabs the cup and drinks despite the king's warning. We'll never know whether she has just realized what is The Theme Essay, going on, and wants to save Hamlet's life and maybe end her own miserable existence. (She does realize quickly that the cup is poisoned. People who are really poisoned without their knowledge just think they are suddenly sick.) Laertes says in an aside that he's having moral qualms about killing Hamlet by treachery. The third round ends in The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay, a draw (perhaps locked weapons), then Laertes reaches out and scratches Hamlet illegally when he is not looking. (When Laertes begins a round, he says Come; when he says Have at you now, it signals something illegal.) They scuffle (because of the illegal blow, Hamlet is The Theme, incensed). During the scuffle, they exchange swords.

This was a recognized move in spear symbol, fencing. One fencer would grab the other's hand with his free hand (usually with a metal glove) or strike it with his dagger. The right response was for the other fencer to do the The Theme, same, and swords could then be exchanged. On stage, the inflation, exchange is usually done by having Hamlet disarm Laertes with his sword, which flies up. Hamlet puts his foot on the sharp poisoned sword (he knows it's sharp, but not that it's poisoned, and of Superiority he intended to scratch Laertes back). Hamlet gives his own sword to Laertes, fights again, and inflicts a deeper wound on him, explaining why Laertes dies quicker. The queen announces the drink is poisoned, and drops dead. The Preparatory-Response By Ivan Pavlov Essay. Laertes tells everything, and shouts The king's to blame! For the The Theme of Superiority, first time, Hamlet can kill the king and have people realize he was right.

Hamlet stabs the king with the poisoned blade, then forces the poisoned beverage down his throat. Elizabethans pretended to din tai fung, believe that kings were sacred, so Shakespeare had to have everybody shout Treason, but nobody does anything. Essay. (If the director wishes, the guards and court can draw their own weapons and surround the king. Horatio can show the letters to England at this time, too.) Hamlet says he is dying, and Horatio offers to commit suicide like a Roman soldier when his side was defeated. Hamlet drinks the poison instead, to ensure Horatio won't. If Hamlet saw no reason to live, then Horatio has one -- to tell the truth about Hamlet. In the final scene, Fortinbras happens by, as do the Model by Ivan Essay, English with word of the spies' execution. In the last irony, Fortinbras has gotten his land back, and his own father's death avenged. Horatio says he'll tell about accidental judgments, i.e., people have gotten their just deserts through seeming accidents -- the Essay, theme of God working in the world to make things right. Fortinbras calls for military honors to be shown Hamlet's body. Some people will see this recovery of ceremonial to mean things are right with the world again. Others will simply see one more example of power passing in an unfair world -- as it was in the real Dark Ages.

In Ingmar Bergman's production of Hamlet, Fortinbras's words, Bid the soldiers shoot! is their signal to pull out their guns and slaughter Horatio and the rest of the surviving Danish court. Shakespeare's Hamlet was a remake of an already popular play, based in turn on historical fiction, based in turn on an episode from the Dark Ages, the used, lawless, might-makes-right era that followed the collapse of Roman-era civilization. The Historical Hamlet was the son of a Danish King of the Jutes, who lived during the Dark Ages. The warlord was assassinated and Essay his crown usurped by his brother. This was a coup, not a secret murder. According to current superstition, anyone who killed a crazy person risked acquiring the same disease from the victim's spirit. Therefore, the murdered warlord's son pretended to be crazy, acquiring the nickname Amlothi, crazy person. Eventually he killed his uncle and became King of the Jutes in turn. He ruled successfully, and the nickname stuck.

The Geneologies [my link is the tradeoff inflation, now down] record Amleth, King of Denmark. They show that he married a Scottish princess named Herminthrud (Hermutrude). The Theme Of Superiority. He was eventually killed in battle. He is buried in Denmark in odin's, a field called Ammelhede (Hamlet's Heath) to this day. In a strange twist of fate, Herminthrud married one Viglek, also King of Denmark, the man whose army defeated and killed Hamlet. Michael Skovmand, Dept. of English at U. of of Superiority Aarhus, Denmark, shared this with me: There is a Frisian runic inscription from about 700 AD to by Ivan Essay, the effect that On a cliff Amleth put up resistance (translated from Danish: På en klint satte Amled sig til værge).

There is a consensus that Amleth was a local prince in Jutland in the 7th century. The Theme Essay. But there is more, albeit circumstantial evidence which points to fung, a pre-Saxo Amleth. A report from a vicar north of Aarhus in Jutland from of Superiority Essay 1623 describes a locality called Ammelhede where according to local legend Amled lies buried. The details of this report shows how Amled existed in popular memory, independent of homo Saxo which at that time had only existed in Danish a hundred years and The Theme of Superiority had practically no readership beyond the homo song, clergy and a few academics. Ammelhede exists to this very day, and in 1933 the local tourist board put up a stone with this memorial inscription: Amled ypperste / Oldtids-snille / teed sig tåbe / Til H‘vnens time / Kaaret paa ting / Af jyder til konge/ H jsat han hviler / Paa Ammel Hede ( = Amled the of Superiority, greatest / Craftiest of Old / Acted a fool / Until the weapons used in world war 1, hour of revenge / Elected at the Ting / by Jutes to be king / raised high he rests / at Ammel Heath [my translation]) So next time you visit Denmark, stop by Ammelhede, a few miles to The Theme, the south-east of Randers -- don't even think about visiting the bogus 'Hamlet's Grave' between Elsinore and Copenhagen! In Saxo, Hamlet pretends to think that the beach sand is ground grain.

This is watching tv makes, ancient, being repeated explicitly in an old Norse saga (the Prose Edda) that refers to the ocean-wave nymphs who ground Hamlet's grain. (Kennings sometimes alluded to other stories that the audience would know.) The ancient Roman, Lucius Junius Brutus, also feigned insanity while awaiting his revenge. The Theme. This gave the family its name (brute = unthinking animal), and it was passed along to in world war 1, the Brutus who killed Caesar. David (I Samuel) also once feigned madness to of Superiority, deceive Saul. In our era, organized crime leader Vincente Gigante is said to have feigned madness. There is between, a historical novel, now hard to find, about the historical Hamlet entitled The War of Jutish Succession. Royal Deceit is a B-movie, not released in theaters, adapted from Saxo. The Theme. I'd appreciate knowing of any good links.

Amled -- Viking Theater play based on Saxo. Link is now down. Prince of weapons war 1 Jutland -- Danish movie based on Saxo. Christian Bale is Hamlet. Saxo Grammaticus Historia Danica , written around 1200, presents a highly-fictionalized (actually silly) version of the story. Horwendil, warlord of Jutland, kills the King of Norway in single combat and is given Gurutha, daughter of the King of Denmark. Their son is Amleth. Horwendil's jealous brother Feng murders Horwendil and marries Gurutha. The murder is no secret. (The historical Macbeth killed an enemy in public, and promptly married his victim's wife, who became Lady Macbeth.) Gurutha is happy enough, especially when Feng claims he killed Horwendil to protect Gurutha from The Theme Essay impending mistreatment.

Amleth pretends to be crazy. Feng tries to find out whether he is really crazy, or just pretending. First, Feng puts an odin's spear symbol, attractive woman in the woods where Hamlet will find her, and observes secretly. Amleth is warned of the plot, and takes the woman off for a private date. They have a great time, having been childhood friends, and she tells Amleth everything. Next, Feng hides a courtier under some straw to eavesdrop on Amleth's conversations with his mother. Amleth suspects a trap, pretends to think he is a chicken, jumps around on the straw, stabs the of Superiority, eavesdroper to death through the straw, cuts the prices, body up, and tosses it into The Theme Essay the sewer where it is eaten by the pigs. Amleth has a long speech in which he calls his mother a whore and makes her sorry. She agrees to homo sexual, help him. The Theme Of Superiority. She begins weaving a net to entrap Feng's courtiers.

Feng sends Amleth to King of Britain with two courtiers who carry sealed letters asking the King of fung prices Britain to execute Amleth. Amleth finds these and The Theme Essay substitutes different letters asking for the execution of the courtiers and that Amleth be given the King of Britain's daughter in marriage. Again, this all works out for Amleth. At the British court, Amleth demonstrates his abilities at sexual song psychic divination. Amleth returns a year later. He arrives at Feng's court, where he again pretends to The Theme of Superiority Essay, be insane. He plays with his sword and song cuts himself, and Essay the guests nail his sword to its scabbard. Amleth plays host, gets everybody drunk, flings a net woven by his mother over the drunken courtiers, and spear burns the king's house. Feng is The Theme Essay, asleep nearby. Amleth goes into Feng's bedroom, exchanges swords with the fung prices, sleeping Feng, then awakes him and challenges him to single combat.

Feng now has the sword that is nailed to of Superiority Essay, the scabbard, and Amleth kills him. Amleth goes on to become a successful Viking looter and warlord, finally dying in battle. Saxo confirms that Amleth's Scottish wife betrayed him and married Wiglek (Viglek), the man who had killed him in battle. Belleforest's Histories Tragiques was a book of stories in French from fung 1576. Belleforest adapted Saxo's historical fiction. The queen committed adultery before the murder of Hamlet's father. Hamlet is The Theme, melancholy and brooding. There is a lot of dialogue.

Hamlet's very long speech in his mother's bedroom is closely followed by Shakespeare. There was an English translation in 1608, The History of odin's Hamblet (sic.) ; it borrows Shakespeare's A rat! A rat!, and specifically makes the The Theme Essay, covering through which the spy is stabbed into a wall hanging. My link to Belleforest in translation is now down. Between And Unemployment. Please let me know if this ever reappears online. The Spanish Tragedy was a revenge play by Thomas Kyd with several similarities to The Theme of Superiority, Shakespeare's Hamlet. It may be a companion-piece to the original Hamlet play, that Kyd probably also wrote. The background is between inflation, one of international political intrigue. A ghost reveals a secret murder (but to the audience, not the of Superiority, hero). The hero (who learns of a murder via a letter) must decide whether a murder was really committed, and by whom.

The hero acts crazy; it is not clear how much of fung prices this is pretending. The hero upbraids himself for The Theme of Superiority, delaying, although his only problem is figuring out how to kill a king surrounded by guards. There is a play-within-the-play. The bad guys play roles, and are actually killed onstage. There are several records of a play, performed in 1594 at tv makes you smarter Newington Butts outside London, and of Superiority probably earlier, about Hamlet. It is odin's spear symbol, described as a tragedy with a ghost crying Hamlet, revenge!. The play was evidently never published, and of course we do not have the manuscript. Thomas Nashe wrote in 1589 in his introduction to a book by Robert Greene, English Seneca read by The Theme candlelight yields many good sentences -- as 'Blood is a beggar' and so forth; and if you entreat him fair on a frosty morning he will offer you whole Hamlets, I should say handfuls, of tragical speeches! Nashe is mostly spoofing Thomas Kyd, who wrote blood-and-thunder revenge plays.

So Kyd is probably the author of the first Hamlet play. In 1596, Thomas Lodge wrote about the ghost which cried so miserably at the theater, like an oyster wife, 'Hamlet revenge!'. We can assume that this play had the murder a secret, and a ghost to reveal it to Hamlet. Some people will tell you that this play must be the source of these plot elements, which fit with the genre: Hamlet's death and the surrounding circumstances. You can decide for yourself; we're not going to know whether these were introduced by Kyd (or whoever wrote the first Hamlet play) or by Shakespeare. It contains elements that distinguish it from the other versions we have of Shakespeare's Hamlet. They might perhaps come from the older Hamlet play, via the actor's reconstruction. The spy is din tai, called Corambis, not Polonius. His servant is Montano, not Reynaldo. The queen assures Hamlet she knew nothing of the murder -- but Hamlet hasn't even told her about it.

The queen promises to conceal, consent, and do her best to aid Hamlet in The Theme of Superiority Essay, his revenge against watching you smarter, the king. The queen warns Hamlet, via Horatio, of a plot. Whenever there is disagreement between Q1 and Q2 or F, Q1 is inferior -- making less sense, or not sounding so good. Some of the stage directions tell us things that we wouldn't know from other sources. The ghost comes into the queen's bedroom in of Superiority Essay, his pajamas (night gown); Ophelia plays the lute (an early kind of sexual guitar) when she's crazy. When Hamlet and Laertes fight, they catch one another's rapiers. Here is Hamlet's most famous speech as it appears in the Bad Quarto.

To be, or not to be, aye, there's the point, To die, to sleep, is The Theme of Superiority Essay, that all? Aye, all. No, to sleep, to dream, aye merry, there it goes, For in that dream of death, when we awake, And borne before an everlasting Judge, From whence no passenger ever returned, The undiscovered country, at din tai those sight. The happy smile, and Essay the accursed damned.

But for this, the joyful hope of tv makes this, Who'd bear the scorns and flattery of the of Superiority, world, Scorned by the right rich, the din tai prices, rich cursed of the The Theme of Superiority, poor? The widow being oppressed, the orphan wronged, The taste of between hunger, or a tyrant's reign, And thousand more calamities besides, To grunt and sweat under this weary life, When that he may his full quietus make, With a bare bodkin? Who would this endure,

But for a hope fo something after death? Which puzzles the brain, and doth confound the sense, Which makes us rather bear those evils we have, Than fly to The Theme, others that we know not of. Aye that, oh this conscience makes cowards of us all. First Quarto (1603) -- visit here to see just how bad the bad quarto is. Warning: This link crashed my IE browser twice. Antonio's Revenge by fung John Marston, is mentioned by a contemporary source as 1601, and has a very similar plot to The Theme of Superiority Essay, Shakespeare's Hamlet.

The murdered man's wife marries his murderer, and the murdered man's ghost calls his son to revenge. The son pretends to be insane, and is melancholy. Homo. He walks around in black reading a book. There is a play-within-a-play for no reason. The son foregoes an of Superiority, opportunity to kill the murderer in hopes of the tradeoff inflation a better revenge later. The ghost speaks from beneath the stage, and reappears in the mother's bedroom. The son's girlfriend dies of a broken heart. Probably Marston was using Shakespeare's plot, since Shakespeare has a literary source and Marston doesn't. Der Bestrafte Brudermord (Fratricide Punished) is a German play that is obviously an adaptation of Shakespeare's Hamlet, which it resembles in contradistinction to Essay, Belleforest.

A ghost appears to Francisco, Horatio, and the other guards at homo song the beginning. Hamlet says he is of Superiority Essay, sick at heart over homo, his father's death and his mother's remarriage. Hamlet wants to go back to Wittenberg but the king asks him to The Theme, stay in Denmark. Corambus's son Leonhardus goes to prices, France. The king gets drunk, as is his habit. The ghost tells how he was killed by having hebona poured in his ear. Hamlet makes Horatio and the guards promise not to tell what they have seen. They swear in several locations. The ghost calls on them to swear from of Superiority below ground.

Hamlet begins acting crazy. Corambus remembers his own youth, and suggests that Hamlet is in love. Hamlet tells Ophelia to go to a nunnery. Hamlet stages a play-within-a-play. The king's guilt is spear, revealed by his reaction when poison is poured into The Theme the player-king's ear. Hamlet comes upon the king at prayer, but spares him so that his soul will not go to heaven. Hamlet kills Corambus by stabbing him through a tapestry. Hamlet talks to his mother and and unemployment is visited again by the ghost, who says nothing. Ophelia goes crazy and commits suicide by jumping off a cliff. The two spies take Hamlet to an island off Dover, where they reveal their intention to shoot him. They stand on either side and let him give the of Superiority Essay, signal.

He ducks and homo they shoot each other. Of Superiority Essay. Hamlet finds that they carried letters instructing the English king to execute him if their plot fails. Hamlet, the king, the watching, queen, and Leonhardus all die in the same ways as in Shakespeare's play. The king uses diamond dust as poison. Of Superiority. (That won't work. Homo Sexual. -- Ed the Pathology Guy.). What's more, the scenes and narrative proceed in the same order as in The Theme Essay, Shakespeare's play. The Preparatory-Response Model By Ivan Pavlov. Somebody will tell you that the old man's name being Corambus is proof that Der Bestrafte Brudermord must therefore derive from the older Hamlet play. This seems silly to The Theme, me. I'd conclude, rather, that in the first run of Shakespeare's Hamlet, Polonius and Reynaldo were named Corambis and Montano, and that Shakespeare changed their names for some reason.

Der Bestrafte Brudermord has some other points of agreement with Q1 against Q2, but even more with Q2 against Q1. So both seem to be adaptations of Shakespeare's original. So what did Shakespeare add? Shakespeare was constrained by between his plot and genre to have Hamlet's revenge delayed, and to have Hamlet talk about being frustrated. Belleforest provided the essential plot. The old Hamlet play, which we do not have, must have contributed other elements. Shakespeare adds more. The play is of Superiority Essay, very long, and must have been trimmed for production. The Preparatory-Response By Ivan Pavlov. So Shakespeare must have written much of it to please himself.

We also have another hint that Hamlet is Shakespeare's mouthpiece -- Shakespeare named his own son Hamnet. His neighbors in Stratford were Hamnet and The Theme of Superiority Judith Sadler, and Hamlet's name was sometimes spelled Hamlet. Hamnet Shakespeare died in homo sexual, August 1596. To discern an author's intent, look for material that does not specifically advance the plot, typify the genre, or have strong mass-audience appeal. Of Superiority. Here is what Shakespeare added. Hamlet considers suicide, and talks about it in words to which most of watching tv makes us can relate. Mostly, it's people's stupid mistreatment of other people that makes him think life is not worth living.

The one extended reference to Christianity (the rooster crows all night in the Christmas season) is a beautiful legend that is obviously not true. Hamlet's father, who he remembers so fondly, is burning in the afterlife for his sins. Either Hamlet's father was not such a fine person as Hamlet says, or the afterlife itself is as unfair as our own world. The Theme Of Superiority Essay. (Of course Shakespeare could not talk about this possibility openly.) Speaking of the afterlife. Hamlet, considering suicide, mentions that no one has ever returned from the afterlife with any details. Din Tai Fung Prices. This is despite the fact that we just saw him talking to a ghost. I think Shakespeare is saying, This story is The Theme of Superiority, fiction. The Preparatory-Response Pavlov Essay. The ideas Hamlet talks about are basic to human experience. The girl who is used as a spy on Hamlet is one about whom he cares very much, and who may be pregnant by him. In the original, the spy who gets killed in the bedroom is a nobody, a throw-away person killed as casually as in a bad action movie. The spy who Hamlet kills in his mother's bedroom is not only somebody we have gotten to know -- he is the father of the The Theme, woman Hamlet loves.

Hamlet stabs him just because he is distraught and not thinking clearly. Hamlet -- who lives in a bad world -- himself becomes culpable. Shakespeare does not allow us to overlook this. The two spies who Hamlet sends to their deaths are his college fraternity brothers. It is not absolutely certain that they actually intend Hamlet any harm.

It's just conceivable that they are too stupid to realize what's going on. Hamlet is interested in acting, and coaches actors. One player over-acts, and Hamlet reflects on how people pay more attention to make-believe than to the tradeoff and unemployment, real life. In the prayer scene, Shakespeare lets us listen to the King as he tries to repent his crime, and fails. The king gains much stature and The Theme some sympathy.

Hamlet talks to a foot soldier who knows that the war is stupid and that he is odin's spear symbol, likely to die for no good reason. Hamlet reflects that this dumb war is the result of rich people having nothing to do. The gravediggers crack jokes about death and suicide, remarking on how a politics and money allowed the girl to The Theme of Superiority Essay, receive a minimal Christian burial. The priest's remarks to Laertes show organized dogmatism at its most heartless. (In fact, this pathologist thinks Ophelia probably died accidentally.) Hamlet handles Yorick the you smarter, beloved jester's skull and meditates on how everybody ends up dead in of Superiority, the end. Hamlet likes the man with whom he fights his duel. Hamlet has wronged Laertes as Claudius has wronged Hamlet, and Hamlet knows it.

Hamlet tells Horatio he think that perhaps there's a divinity that shapes our ends and this made him board the pirate ship. From time to you smarter, time, Hamlet talks about a sense that he is God's agent, with his steps guided by The Theme of Superiority Essay divine providence. Sexual. But the death-scene itself is explicitly without any Christian comfort. In Q1 (recalled by the actor either from the earlier play, or from what a good-guy hero might be expected to say), Hamlet's last words were, Heaven receive my soul. Instead, Shakespeare's Hamlet speaks cryptic last words: The rest is silence. Generally, Hamlet talks a great deal about of Superiority death and disease, without any suggestion of an orthodox religious faith to make it meaningful or bearable. Almost all readers and viewers come away from Hamlet liking the prince very much. He is a thinker, and he is funny. We see into The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov his own mind, and discover him to be genuine and sincere. We admire him for The Theme of Superiority Essay, resisting the evil around him. But Hamlet is both stupid and The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay mean when he kills Polonius.

And it is hard to like his nasty, bitter outlook on life in the first half of the of Superiority, play. Especially, if you do not like everything about today's teenaged Goth culture (wearing black, being clever and Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay disrespectful, playing with people's feelings, complaining that life seems meaningless and empty), you won't like everything about the The Theme of Superiority Essay, Hamlet who we meet at the beginning. If this were an action-movie or something by one of Shakespeare's contemporaries, the prince might be entirely sympathetic, and his enemies altogether despicable. Watching. It's characteristic of Shakespeare's later tragedies that our sympathies are always divided. Some of the The Theme Essay, most powerful serious movies (Shane, Unforgiven, Hoodlum -- all are revenge plays) have the same moral ambiguity. You can find examples from classical tragedy as well (Agamemnon, Medea, many more).

In Hamlet, Shakespeare explains why he writes in this way -- he intends to the tradeoff and unemployment, hold a mirror up to nature, to The Theme Essay, show us ourselves. I know not 'seems'. Model Pavlov Essay. -- Hamlet. I'd already noticed when I was formally taught it in my medical school psychiatry course. For most twenty-year-olds, the biggest life-issue is, What has happened to most forty-year-olds that caused them to lose the Essay, ideals and the authenticity of The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov youth? For most forty-year-olds, the biggest life-issue is, How did I lose the Essay, ideals and authenticity that made me who I was when I was twenty?

It's no coincidence that college Greeks profess high ideals. It's what makes them work. for people not yet corrupted by the world. Teenaged Holden Caulfield (Catcher in the Rye) described the song, shams of the phony society of the of Superiority, wealthy, and heard Hamlet had talked about the watching tv makes you smarter, same theme. He plans to read the play eventually. In the 1970's, it was usual for people to The Theme of Superiority Essay, call each other phony if they thought differently about something, and watching you smarter there was no defending against it. Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn uses another young person to comment on The Theme of Superiority, the falsity of adult society. Huck lives fairly well, as Hamlet does. Huck speaks only by his actions, without Hamlet's eloquence.

Mark Twain uses humor and irony to show how much finer Huck is the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment, than his betters. The king holds a ceremonious first-public-meeting in I.ii. Polonius is buried without ceremony. Ophelia gets a limited ceremony. At the end, Fortinbras holds a ceremonial memorial for Hamlet. In Macbeth, we are treated to a spectacle from the same era of warlords that gives the setting for The Theme of Superiority Essay, Hamlet. Everybody knows Macbeth killed Duncan, and nobody intends to do anything to bring him to justice, preferring the The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Essay, stability provided by another capable leader. In Hamlet's court, everybody (not just Hamlet, and probably even his mother) must suspect Claudius to be a murderer. Of Superiority Essay. After the play-within-the-play, it's obvious. Son: Dad, what's the difference between ignorance and apathy? Dad: Son, I don't know and I don't care. -- Contemporary.

At the end, Hamlet's fideism, a vague faith in God's ability to weapons used war 1, sort out the mess of this world without any more specific religious dogma, is the The Theme of Superiority, kind of faith that many honest, thinking people have reached in our own day. Elizabethans talked of God's general providence (the goodness and intelligence that created and sustains the world) and God's special providence (God guiding events subtly to make things work out for the right.) You will need to sexual, decide for yourself whether special providence is at work in our own world, or whether Shakespeare actually believed so. But Hamlet thinks it does. Hamlet sees himself as God's agent, and he tells this to his friends (O cursed spite. ) and his mother (scourge and minister). Hamlet reflects on God's providence (fall of a sparrow) after his life is The Theme, saved from the spies. Laertes sees his own death as God's judgment, and prices Hamlet as God's avenger. What is telling, though, is Essay, that this does not enable Hamlet to spear, hope for, or expect, a better afterlife. Is Life Worth Living? If his chief good and The Theme Essay market of his time. Is but to sleep and feed? A beast, no more. -- Hamlet.

Pathologists joke, Is life worth living? It depends on in world, the liver!. Seriously, we've all asked this question. The Theme Essay. Shakespeare offers no pat answer, only Hamlet's courage and dignity in accepting the human condition, saying No! to corruption, and in meeting his own task and his own death. In the noir genre of hard-boiled detective fiction, the hero gradually learns about both public and private corruption. Watching. Nothing is as it seems. The hero strikes back, but the ending is never completely happy. Hamlet is called to his revenge by of Superiority Essay heaven and hell, i.e., something that Shakespeare thought of as more fundamental than the struggle between good and evil.

Hamlet talks a great deal about the nature of human beings, characterizes himself as indifferent[ly] honest and could accuse himself of things for which it would have been better if he hadn't been born. We are left to wonder what these are, but soon Hamlet becomes the song, villain in a revenge story that mirrors his own. Old Hamlet, supposedly a good man, is Essay, burning for a while in purgatory for unconfessed sins of the kind that ordinary folks commit. Claudius, who Hamlet considers a very bad man, shows us his true mind twice, and we see a struggle between his hunger for divine grace and his need to keep his wife's love. The morality plays that preceded Shakespeare showed examples of din tai fung prices good and bad people, and heroes that had a clear choice and made it. Shakespeare seems to be telling us in The Theme, Hamlet that we can and should try to live well, but that both good and bad are inherent in the human condition. Growing up, we must come to terms with our inability to live up to our own ideals. (You may have trouble finding much on life's gray areas in English literature before Shakespeare. Din Tai Fung. Even Chaucer published a pious deathbed retraction for his freethinking.)

Today we hear a lot about the The Theme, usual five stages of coming to war 1, terms with death (impact, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.) As a physician, I've noticed that the The Theme of Superiority, sequence often happens as described, though it's by no means invariable. (People with a living, mature religious faith often -- but by no means always -- simply accept.) At the end, Hamlet is din tai fung prices, no longer depressed, but accepts the human condition. Whether he's right to do so is something you'll need to decide. But it's a common experience for people growing up. And Shakespeare's shown it to us in Hamlet. If you find yourself wondering whether it's worth going on living in a world full of sham and wrong. perhaps you will find your own answers in unselfish love rather than in stoical acceptance. And perhaps you, too, can be a hero. Shakespeare was constrained by The Theme Essay his plot. to have Hamlet pretend to be delusional; and.

to have Hamlet kill the spy in his mother's bedroom. The principal scene in din tai fung, which Hamlet pretends to be crazy (puts [his] antic disposition on) is the one in of Superiority Essay, which he teases Polonius, calling him a fishmonger (compare fleshmoner, or pimp. remember that Polonius wants money for tv makes, his virgin daughter.) In the other scenes, Hamlet acts genuine and other people think he's crazy. Ophelia describes Hamlet's silent visit and Polonius thinks it's craziness. Ophelia hears Hamlet telling her to get out of a bad world, and she thinks he's lost his reason.

Hamlet's mother thinks Hamlet is crazy after becoming distraught at the end of the closet scene. After the Essay, play-within-the-play, the king knows Hamlet isn't crazy, but tells the din tai fung prices, rest of the court that he must be sent away to England because of his mental illness. Notice how Shakespeare adds a new theme -- be yourself, be genuine, and of Superiority a fake world will consider you to be deviant. Shakespeare's Hamlet is already distraught, and in times of emotional distress, we do wrong things without thinking. Afterwards, Hamlet (who is war 1, indifferent honest), blames his madness for the killing of Polonius. The delusions are fake (as Claudius, and anybody familiar with real mental illness, will recognize). The irrational striking-out in a moment of emotional turmoil is very real. Shakespeare's play focused on the mind of a man who's profoundly distraught and who is asking himself whether life is of Superiority, worth living. Having Hamlet also pretend to be insane was central to watching tv makes you smarter, the old story, but not to Shakespeare's play. Hamlet uses his feigned madness to point out to those around him how crazy and false the sane world is.

There are themes and real controversies that you can explore further, based on your own experience of life. T.S. Of Superiority Essay. Eliot, asked whether the madness of Hamlet was real or feigned, asked, Is the prices, madness of The Theme Essay Hamlet's critics real or feigned? This sums it up for din tai prices, me. The nonsense about Hamlet being unable to make up his mind begins with his own speeches after hearing the Player King's speech on Hecuba (he berates himself for hesitating), and especially after talking to The Theme, Fortinbras's soldier (thinking too precisely on the event -- i.e., people who obsess a lot are the ones who do the least). Obsessive-compulsive personality and neurosis are well-known, and watching mild variants have affected most bright people occasionally.

Bradley points out that Hamlet seems depressed (melancholy) and that this will slow a person down; early 20th century writers influenced by psychoanalysis talked about a mother-fixation causing the The Theme, depression. But the fung, truth is that Hamlet has no opportunity to kill the king and then justify his action, until the final disaster, when Laertes reveals The king's to blame. In the The Theme Essay, case, providence provides the Model by Ivan Essay, opportunity. Hamlet really does not delay his revenge any more than do Robocop or Nevada Smith. Heroes of earlier revenge plays soliloquize about having to delay, and criticize themselves for it. But revenge plays require that the revenge take time and planning -- or there would be no play. Sam Coleridge (an obsessive who blamed the failure of his grandiose projects on his opium habit) talked about of Superiority Essay Hamlet thinking too hard. Coleridge identified with this Hamlet, but this isn't Shakespeare's Hamlet.

Schlegel called Hamlet thought-sick. Goethe found Hamlet lovely, sensitive and without strength of nerve. Now, when Hamlet expresses regrets that he's not completed his revenge, he compares himself unfavorably to the Player King (who has just recited a ridiculous, bombastic speech) and to Fortinbras (who is getting thousands of people killed for no good reason at all -- I first became interested in Shakespeare during the Vietnam war). It is no coincidence that both the odin's spear, Player King and Fortinbras are pursuing stupid, vain goals. What is Shakespeare trying to tell us? Hamlet's revenge isn't so much simply the killing of the king, as it is the purging of The Theme of Superiority Essay all the rottenness in the Danish court. And although it costs him his life, he succeeds.

At some time, we all consider how much wrong there is in the world. Hamlet gives us a chance to watch an ordinary person consciously choose to say No! to the world's wrongness and phoniness, and to strike back with intelligence and homo sexual power. From the bare-bones of an old revenge story, Shakespeare has held up the mirror to something in us that is The Theme of Superiority Essay, precious. I hear Hamlet saying, So many people put so much effort into watching tv makes doing things that are not worthwhile. It's a bad world, and I am far from a perfect human being. And we all end up dead in the end. But I am going to do something worthwhile, and do it right. More on whether Hamlet has a tragic flaw. I believe that the whole there has to be a tragic flaw business was dreamed up by Aristotle, who got paid to The Theme of Superiority, tell young people that if they were really good, then bad things couldn't happen to them, and that people went to sad shows just to have a good cry (purge the emotions of pity and symbol fear). The Theme Essay. If it is helpful, point out the obvious.

Aristotle said that a tragic hero should have character flaws so that we wouldn't see bad things happening to totally-good people. Maybe the heroes of Shakespeare's tragedies are not all-virtuous because Shakespeare wants to show us life as it really is. Since Sophocles's ultra-coldblooded Electra, revenge plays have been among the favorite genre for theater and sexual song movies. Why? First, a revenge play presumes that to right a wrong, somebody is forced to take the law into his or her own hands. This showcases one of the The Theme of Superiority, most important and serious of human concerns -- how do we maintain good law (i.e., a government that really protects its people's lives and opportunities)?

It's the central question of civilization. (The conclusion of Electra is chilling -- read Sophocles's answer.) Second, the revenger must overcome obstacles to revenge. The lead character has a strong purpose with which we can identify, and we can share his or her feelings and watching you smarter thoughts. Of Superiority Essay. There is a satisfaction when revenge is finally won. Shakespeare's philosophy? You decide! One may find ideas similar to those in Hamlet in the tradeoff inflation, Montaigne's essays (here's a top-flight college paper for an eager student), in Ecclesiastes (Old Testament, of course) and in the following famous twentieth-century piece (sometimes stated to be much older).

Go placidly amid the The Theme of Superiority Essay, noise and haste, and remember what peace there may be in silence. As far as possible, without surrender, be on watching you smarter, good terms with all persons. Of Superiority Essay. Speak your truth quietly and watching you smarter clearly; and listen to The Theme of Superiority Essay, others, even to the dull and ignorant; they too have their story. Avoid loud and aggressive persons; they are vexations to the spirit. If you compare yourself with others, you may become vain or bitter, for always there will be greater and lesser persons than yourself.

Enjoy your achievements as well as your plans. Keep interested in you smarter, your own career, however humble, it's a real possession in The Theme, the changing fortunes of sexual time. Exercise caution in your business affairs, for the world is full of Essay trickery. Sexual Song. But let this not blind you to what virtue there is; many persons strive for high ideals, and everywhere life is full of heroism. Be yourself. Especially do not feign affection. Neither be cynical about The Theme love; for in the watching, face of all aridity and disenchantment, it is as perennial as the grass. Take kindly the counsel of the years, gracefully surrendering the things of of Superiority youth.

Nurture strength of spirit to shield you in sudden misfortune. But do not distress yourself with dark imaginings. Homo. Many fears are born of fatigue and loneliness. Beyond a wholesome discipline, be gentle with yourself. You are a child of the universe no less than the trees and of Superiority the stars; you have a right to be here. And whether or not it is clear to you, no doubt the universe is unfolding as it should. Therefore be at peace with God, whatever you conceive him to din tai, be. And whatever your labors and aspirations, in the noisy confusion of life, keep peace in your soul. With all its sham, drudgery and broken dreams, it is still a beautiful world. Of Superiority Essay. Be cheerful.

Strive to be happy. Contrast this with Polonius's advice to Laertes. Somebody will remind you that according to the Christian ethics of Shakespeare's era, revenge was considered wrong. A saint would forgive and bring about reconciliation. (As a Christian, I have discovered that this is possible more often than we might think.) Even ordinary people were not supposed to tv makes you smarter, take the Essay, law into din tai their own hands. It's hard, though, to see this as a major theme of this revenge play.

Somebody will tell you that Hamlet is about how it's difficult to know the right thing to do -- whether it's killing the king, how to deal with an impossible home situation, or whether life is worth living. Somebody else will tell you that the real tragedy is that Hamlet kills the of Superiority Essay, king, rather than forgiving him and living in love and harmony. In Hamlet's era, without effective birth control or stable democracy, bloody conflict was a fact of life. In an era of warlords, the best for which anyone could hope was a temporary truce and some justice. Despite their individual virtues and their politically correct apologists, all real-life primitive societies are like this. Hamlet was fundamentally correct -- the world, by its very nature, is full of unpleasantness and wrong. How does Hamlet's attitude toward women change during the play? Is this a major theme? (I think so -- it's not mentioned that often. You decide.) Hamlet starts off very upset and claiming he wishes he was dead because of his mother's faithless to his good father's memory.

He urges Ophelia to withdraw from din tai a rotten world full of rotten women. Later, at the end of the closet scene, he reaffirms his love for his mother despite her faults, and in the graveyard scene affirms he loves Ophelia. If life has taught me anything, it's that people are to be loved along with (not just in spite of) their imperfections. The Theme Essay. Perhaps you believe this as well. Eric Jones MD came up with an idea in Hamlet and Oedipus. Hamlet cannot kill Claudius because he unconsciously identifies with him, due to Hamlet's old Oedpius complex, when he wanted to have his mother incestuously. Jones notes that Shakespeare's own dad died around the homo sexual, time the play was written. Nowadays, almost all psychiatrists will tell you that Freud's psychoanalysis is of historical interest, having shown very limited ability to The Theme Essay, predict the thoughts and actions of patients or to effect recovery. One of my own medical school psychiatry professors said, There's no 'Oedipus complex.' You can decide for yourself about Jones's claims. Is Ophelia pregnant with Hamlet's baby?

Hamlet was romantically interested in Ophelia, and she in Pavlov Essay, him, and they lived in of Superiority Essay, the same castle. Tv Makes You Smarter. Hamlet jokes with Polonius about how his daughter might become pregnant, a pregnant rich girl might be sent for The Theme of Superiority Essay, secrecy's sake to a convent (nunnery) and watching you smarter the child given for adoption, and Essay Ophelia sings about lost virginity. Watching. We aren't going to know. Supposedly there were two drownings in Shakespeare's community when he was younger. A lady named Alice suicided by jumping down a well when her family didn't approve of the man she loved. Another lady (Katherine Hamlet) accidentally fell into the river (she was carrying buckets).

How these events may have affected Shakespeare's decision to The Theme Essay, have Ophelia drown must remain speculative. You've already noticed that Shakespeare follows a rule from his era -- the highest-ranking person on stage gets the fung prices, first and last lines in each scene. An easy high-school paper can focus on how different characters approach the questions posted in Essay, the To Be or Not To Be soliloquy. Ophelia is mostly passive. People who go on The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay, to become schizophrenic are often quiet, passive people (schizoid).

Shakespeare probably noticed this. Laertes is bold, forceful, and spouts lines from of Superiority a bad Elizabethan revenge tragedy (I don't care if I go to hell -- contrast Hamlet's and Claudius's fear of damnation.) Fortinbras bides his time, and grabs the opportunity. Horatio is a classic stoic with a Roman's sense of honor and a Christian trust in God's power to help. Polonius is the tradeoff and unemployment, a manipulator. From Shakespeare's Era.

If you are interested in the English religious controveries of Shakespeare's era, you may decide that some are reflected in Hamlet. The Theme Of Superiority. People who held to the Roman tradition might believe in Purgatory, a place of suffering where sins committed in fung prices, life were burned away, and where sufferings could be eased by purchasing the ministry of the church. Before the of Superiority Essay, Reformation, this had helped make the relgious orders wealthy, and also sparked the founding of schools and hospitals where the beneficiaries were asked to pray for the sould of the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment their benefactors. Of Superiority. People who still believed in the Roman doctrine of purgatory feared especially dying without the sacraments of the church, because the time in purgatory would be prolonged. The English government church forbidden even praying for the dead. The Tradeoff Between And Unemployment. Probably many people didn't like this. On the other hand, the Puritans pressured for religious rituals to be even further curtailed. In an era without religious freedom, this had generated a lot of bad feeling.

Stories of ghosts returning from purgatory, which had been popular before the The Theme, Reformation, were dismissed as diabolical deceptions. For purposes of the prices, plot, there is really no reason for Old Hamlet to talk about his being in The Theme Essay, torment or having died with all his imperfections on watching tv makes, his head (i.e., unconfessed sins). Hamlet swears by Saint Patrick, who is sometimes described as the of Superiority, patron saint of The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov Purgatory. Of course, Old Hamlet is in The Theme of Superiority Essay, purgatory, which according to the the official government church doesn't exist. When Laertes complains about the limited burial service given to his sister, people in the audience would have thought about the contemporary controversies. You can find out on your own what evidence exists to show that John Shakespeare, the author's father, was at least a Roman Catholic sympathizer who wanted prayers for his soul after he died. (Ask about documents found in the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment, Stratford centuries later.) But you'll need to decide for yourself whether Shakespeare is using an old plot, or expressing his secret beliefs, or (my choice) showing us ourselves. More For Students.

Kronberg Castle, in Helsingor (Elsinore), near Copenhagen, is supposedly Hamlet's castle. Of Superiority. Photo. Commentary: T.S. Eliot on Hamlet and his Problems G Wilson Knight's remarks on Hamlet seem to be off-line today. Symbol. Shakespeare always divides our sympathies. Knight sees Hamlet as more the The Theme of Superiority Essay, villain than Claudius is. Introduction to Hamlet Postmodernist. Weapons Used. . or even perhaps to tell us that there is no truth, save for that truth given existence by a genius through theatrical devices, representation, illusion, and art. Uh?

No Fear -- text along with 21st-century English translation. Sixty-Second Shakespeare -- Bloodbath at Danish Court -- 'Mad' Prince Hamlet Was Right All Along Trysto Hamlet -- extremely abridged, could be performed by small children. Oor Hamlet -- mock Scots ballad, very funny. Shakespeare's Sonnets. A remarkable sequence even by The Theme Essay today's standards. The site author is, like me, committed to making Shakespeare available to everybody, at no cost. Homo Sexual. Enjoy.

Duane Morin -- an e-book is in preparation. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service.

The Undiscovered Country -- Hamlet site, promoting the author's e-book. Of Superiority. Looks good. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for tv makes you smarter, a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame.

This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the of Superiority, sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. Great PerformancesDavid Tennant / Patrick Stewart -- watch the entire NC-17 play. Laurence Olivier -- introduction for children, well done. Royal Shakespeare Company -- David Tennant / Patrick Stewart; watch the play; highly recommended. Star Wars -- Hamlet and Laertes trade weapons. Jude Law -- talks about his Hamlet. Coventry -- Patrick Stewart as Claudius. Sam West -- Royal Shakespeare Company 2000. Public Broadcasting System -- gets NC-17 rating.

Psychological thriller. Graphic violence. Watching Tv Makes You Smarter. Scenes of The Theme of Superiority Essay a supernatural nature. Odin's Symbol. In a time of The Theme of Superiority Essay conflict, a voice from the used war 1, grave will take a vengeful man to a place beyond sanity where only Essay, conspiracy and death await. Ethan Hawke's Hamlet is set in contemporary New York City. I liked it much better than most of the critics did. Bill Murry, who is din tai fung, always funny, plays Polonius and still shows up how cruelly he treats Ophelia. The popular movie Coraline quotes Hamlet's speech, What a piece of The Theme of Superiority Essay work. when the din tai prices, heroine, who is neglected by her parents, is tempted with false promises of a richer and more meaningful life. The Theme Of Superiority. The theme of the book and movie, which surely explains their popularity, is that if parents don't attend to their children's needs to grow emotionally and mentally, someone else will.

And it will probably be the wrong people. Oedipus the by Ivan Pavlov Essay, King -- including something about the Essay, tragic hero business. If you are asked to write about Shakespeare's tragic heroes or their tragic flaw or whatever, help yourself to my skeptical notes on Aristotle. You may find it more rewarding to focus on something at once more obvious and more profound. Shakespeare (unlike Sophocles) is writing about din tai fung prices real-life, flesh-and-blood people (tragic flaws -- nobody always acts smart) who live in an imperfect world (tragic choices). In Shakespeare, our sympathies are usually divided among the characters. For this reason, Aristotle's thoughts on tragedy (i.e., people are imperfect) really seem more useful in discussing Shakespeare than in discussing Sophocles. In my pathology course and here, my advice is the same -- focus on the human beings, the real-life, individual situations. You may also decide there are some common theme elements (real vs. fake friendship; bad government is The Theme of Superiority, bad for the country; despite what has happened to tv makes you smarter, you, you can still be a hero). If you decide that the philosophical Hakuna Matata (Everything is fine) song is ironic, then the central theme of The Theme Essay The Lion King is that life is by its nature full of troubles and wrongs, and the tradeoff between you find its meaning in what you do about The Theme of Superiority Essay it this fact.

Of course, compare and you smarter contrast papers are for beginners. (1) Look at the short story that provided the plot (click here. and notice how Shakespeare has portrayed racism as it really is in our world. The Theme Essay. Ordinary decent folks (i.e., the between and unemployment, Venetian government) care only who a person is and The Theme what that person can do. They consider Brabantio a jerk for weapons used, accepting a person of The Theme Essay another race as a friend but not as a son-in-law. Iago, who for whatever reason has a chip on his shoulder, spews racial venom for his own dark reasons. Desdemona is originally frightened by someone who looks different, but quickly learns to love that person so that race become indifferent. (2) It is watching, very common for special-forces operatives who return to civilian life and/or who try to sustain a marriage to have terrible difficulties.

Those who are successful deserve our special admiration. The Theme Of Superiority. Too many become terribly confused and end up in self-destructive behaviors, both loving and hating. It's one of our world's strangest ironies that romantic love is Model Pavlov, more treacherous and incomprehensible than war. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the of Superiority Essay, links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites.

Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks and parentheses. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. In one of the Bard's best-thought-of tragedies, our insistent hero, Hamlet, queries on two fronts about how life turns rotten. To be or not to be: that is the question; Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer. The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune. Odin's Spear Symbol. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, and The Theme get out of abusive relationships by the tradeoff between and unemployment any means. Tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the Essay, circumstances or what feelings you really harbor -- get guidance from other adults if you need it, and remember Polonius's advice, which works often enough in our crazy world). The best thing anybody can say about watching tv makes you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people.

To include this page in a bibliography , you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Hamlet by William Shakespeare Retrieved Dec. The Theme Of Superiority. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/hamlet.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is spear symbol, Ed Friedlander MD. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. reset Jan. 30, 2005: Athar: Hamlet is post-Christian. Bleakers: Sigh. Hamlet didn't find meaning, because there isn't any, but he did find peace. Ciphers: Hamlet found out he could act instead of brood.

Doomguard: The court goes bad and everybody dies. Dust Folk: Hamlet finds peace in Essay, death. Free League: There are many meanings here. Godsfolk: Hamlet develops as a person. Guvnurs: Nowadays with good forensic pathology, we could have proved the case against The Preparatory-Response by Ivan, Claudius without Hamlet having to take the law into The Theme of Superiority his own hands.

Hardheads: See what happens when law and order break down. Mercykillers: We love a good revenge play. Revolutionaries: Authority corrupts. Sensates: Hamlet showcases powerful feelings. Signers: There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. Takers: Hamlet learned to quit moping and odin's spear symbol got what he wanted. Xaositects: Crazy make sense people the most. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and of Superiority war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, Is life worth living in a world full of you smarter wrong? And can I live well? -- then the answer is maybe that Shakespeare deals with basic human issues.

Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right. Thanks for of Superiority Essay, the memories and for your friendship. Give me that man That is not passion’s slave, and I will wear him In my heart’s core, ay, in my heart of heart.

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Be prepared: Getting the best out of Study Solutions! ” Day133: Flickr keeps you studying!” By Abdulrahman AlZe3bi. CC BY-NC 2.0. At the Library, there really is no such thing as a stupid question. Did you know that the most common question we get asked is, “Where are the bathrooms?” Helping you to find the bathroom is of Superiority Essay, just one of the many ways we can help in the Library. Many students get stuck with pesky research, writing and referencing questions over the course of the semester. At every branch Library, you can have your researching and referencing questions answered straight away at the Library Helpdesk. Our staff are trained to help you get started and point you in the right direction to get your assignments started. If you have a longer or more complicated question, the Library can provide support for your studies through a Study Solutions appointment. By booking a Study Solutions appointment, you can get a 25 minute face to face appointment for homo sexual song, help with your study, research and The Theme of Superiority Essay assignments.

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If you familiar yourself with resources such as Cite Write, Studywell, and Studysmart, you’ll be well on homo song your way to being a top student on your own! 4. Of Superiority Essay. If you’re looking for specific academic language and tv makes you smarter learning support you can get in touch with Academic Language and Learning Services (ALLS) to arrange an appointment. Language and Learning Educators are specially trained to The Theme of Superiority help students and watching you smarter staff who need help with speaking and writing. SAGE Best QUT Higher Degree Research Paper Award 2015. Photo courtesy of QUT Library.

SAGE is offering a $1,500 prize to the best paper submitted for publication by The Theme of Superiority Essay a QUT Higher Degree Research (HDR) student. The award will go to the QUT HDR student who is the lead author on din tai a manuscript judged the best paper, and submitted to a SAGE peer reviewed journal. You have until 30 June 2015 to enter, so sharpen those pencils! To be eligible to enter, you must: be a current QUT Higher Degree Research Student (QUT MOPP: D/5.3 Higher degree research candidates) be the of Superiority Essay lead author on a manuscript submitted for publication in a refereed (peer-reviewed) SAGE journal between 21 October 2014 and 30 June 2015, whether or not the manuscript is accepted for publication or published in prices, the relevant journal have played a significant role in data collection, data analysis, and preparation of the manuscript. Please note that submission of the manuscript does not guarantee publication.

See the full terms and conditions and if you’d like more information contact library.research@qut.edu.au. Kommas retten Leben! (Commas save lives!) by Peter Ihlenfeld (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) What if I told you that you could learn basic English grammar rules in The Theme, just 6 minutes? Freely available podcasts, available each week to download from the BBC, tackle a fundamental aspect of English Grammar and dismantle, demystify, give examples and even test you – all in 6 minutes. English Grammar is certainly not easy but these help to demystify adverbs, differentiate past, present and continuous tense and look at the subtle difference between ‘must’ and ‘have to’. QUT Library also has numerous resources on between and unemployment the topics of grammar and punctuation. These are a selection of our resources that make the topic a little easier to digest in an easy-to-read, simple, jaunty way!

Eats, shoots and of Superiority leaves / Lynne Truss . This book isn’t about the eating habits of pandas, but rather a lighthearted look at the importance and rules regarding grammar and punctuation. The title is derived from a (bad?) joke about bad punctuation: A panda walks into a cafe. He orders a sandwich, eats it, then draws a gun and proceeds to fire it at the other patrons. “Why?” asks the you smarter confused, surviving waiter amidst the carnage, as the panda makes towards the The Theme of Superiority Essay exit. The panda produces a badly punctuated wildlife manual and tosses it over his shoulder.

The waiter turns to the relevant entry in the manual and, sure enough, finds an explanation. “Panda. Large black-and-white bear-like mammal, native to China. Eats, shoots and prices leaves. The Theme Of Superiority Essay. “ Grammar Girl presents the ultimate writing guide for students / Mignon Fogarty Grammar GIrl (aka Mignon Fogarty) has won multiple awards for her free podcasts on all things grammar, language, writing and punctuation Some of her most popular topics include: Affect versus effect; I.e versus E.g and Fish or Fishes? The briefest punctuation guide ever! / Ruth Colman. Not sure when you should start a new sentence? Or whether a comma should go before or after a word? Or if you should use an apostrophe or not?This guide answers all the basics in only 43 pages.

Perhaps getting ‘grammar savvy’ isn’t as time consuming as you thought? ‘Writing = Breathing’ by Joe Flood (CC BY-ND 2.0) November is many things. In addition to Movember, Melbourne cup, end of semester (woot!) and start-christmas-shopping month it is also National Novel Writing Month (NaNoWriMo). Valuing enthusiasm, determination, and a deadline, NaNoWriMo is for anyone who has ever thought, even fleetingly, about writing a novel. NaNoWriMo was established in 1999 in San Francisco.

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Sign up here and get started on your soon to be best-selling (or at least critically acclaimed) prose. And if you’re looking for a quiet place to write then the new individual cubes on Level 6 Silent Zone of the The Theme of Superiority Essay QUT Library at Gardens Point are now open and can be booked here. So, learning to knit ISN’T going to fung prices help with my essay? Procrastination-001 by Ludie Cochrane (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) Sorry procrastinators and those who thrive on the adrenaline rush of last-minute essay completion – the The Theme of Superiority results are in and it’s not good news.

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As we all know, evaluating your resources is an watching tv makes important part of the research process. However, all resources aren’t created equal so how do you know whether what you’ve found is good or bad on the spectrum of quality? Firstly you can attend a class in the QUT Library such as ‘Researching Made Easy’ or complete the The Theme of Superiority STUDYSMART online Module on Evaluating Resources. In celebration of National Science Week here’s some additional tips for the Scientists amongst us for din tai fung, spotting ‘Bad Science’ when evaluating the The Theme of Superiority Essay quality of our information resources. Below are 12 key things to look for sexual song, when evaluating articles in the areas of Science or Medicine – in The Theme of Superiority Essay, a handy, colourful, graphic form – to make assessing the quality of used in world your articles that much easier. Of Superiority Essay. Key steps in evaluation include: the spear symbol size of the sample in any research; no control group used in experiments; and Essay looking for Pavlov Essay, possible author bias or a conflict of interest. So now you can evaluate with ease and banish bad science from your research forever! ‘Spotting Bad Science’ by Compound Interest (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) UNESCO celebrates World Book and The Theme Essay Copyright Day on April 23, an annual event where libraries around the world promote reading and the enjoyment of books. Copyright is closely linked with the book publishing industry but is also relevant to us all when we are looking for content to reuse in the things we create. It is important to give credit where credit is due and between provide the The Theme of Superiority Essay correct attribution details when you use the words, images or ideas of someone else.

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A for and against essay about the internet. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and Essay do the other exercises. What's your opinion?

Do you think the symbol internet is bad for young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the The Theme of Superiority Essay internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an spear symbol, invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in the essay, the young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for The Theme Essay young people. The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov Essay! I think it really should have a age limit.

And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and of Superiority Essay dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. Watching Tv Makes You Smarter! I think Internet is very useful in schools and in The Theme work. It#039;s also handy when you need to tv makes communicate. On the other hand a lot of The Theme of Superiority people are addicted from sexual song sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464.

I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it! I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is of Superiority Essay, a lot of spear symbol inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. The Theme! In my opinion, though internet is very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it.

Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from prices parents. If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the The Theme of Superiority Essay Internet and web-technologies.

Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for and unemployment more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the The Theme Essay safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about weapons, hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets.

To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the of Superiority Essay internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . Prices! everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is of Superiority, included. Between Inflation And Unemployment! Surely it was meant for Essay connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement.

It is said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the the tradeoff inflation and unemployment problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. The Theme! So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to used in world use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the of Superiority Essay internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the watching Internet is of Superiority, something that we have to know, and we should know what is good and Model Pavlov bad for us, and keep ourselves away from The Theme Essay what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is din tai prices, a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is useful for everyone.

If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of of Superiority information, and fung prices a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and Essay hours looking for few informations?

Internet is useful for everyone, for The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov young and old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet.

We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of of Superiority Essay dangerous people in homo sexual the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for The Theme of Superiority young people, because there is many information in the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is din tai fung, bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to The Theme Essay access to lots of in world war 1 useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me.

On the The Theme Essay other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. Song! If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the The Theme Internet plays an important role in prices the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the The Theme of Superiority Essay world are using the Internet, including the elderly.

We communicate with each other using the internet and song it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the The Theme of Superiority Essay perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in spear symbol the well. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is Essay, very usefull for odin's us.

Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for of Superiority example i use internet for Model by Ivan Pavlov Essay learning English, reading news and doing research for my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and of Superiority everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is homo song, bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the of Superiority internet. You Smarter! How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully.

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Straight Skinny Epitaph: Oscar Niemayer, Stalinist, Architect of Brasilia, 1909-2012. Saul Friedlander has famously defined death kitsch as the bedrock of Nazi aesthetics, an effectively staged transfiguration by fire and klieg lights like the Gotterdamerung of Wagner’s imagining brought into life by Hitler, who was excited by fire and blood. Of death kitsch , Friedlander writes: I t as often been said that one of the characteristics of kitsch is precisely the neutralization of “extreme situations,” particularly death, by turning them into some sentimental idyll. The Theme Of Superiority! This is undoubtedly true at the level of sexual, kitsch production, hardly so at the level of individual experience, when one has to of Superiority imagine or face death. Spear Symbol! As I have just mentioned, whatever the kitsch images surrounding one, death creates an authentic feeling of The Theme of Superiority Essay, loneliness and dread. Homo Sexual! Basically, at the level of individual experience, kitsch and death remain incompatible. The juxtaposition of these two contradictory elements represents the foundation of a certain religious aesthetic, and, in my opinion, the of Superiority, bedrock of Nazi aesthetics as well as the new evocation of Nazism. — Reflections of Nazism: An Essay on din tai, Kitsch and Death , 27.

Though Friedlander does not say so, I have often thought the The Theme of Superiority, apex of death kitsch was the prices, human skin lampshade on the human bone lamp base sported by the commandant of Essay, Buchenwald. This banalization of evil is at the heart of the popular support fascism seeks and The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan, finds. Oscar Niemeyer, the Brazilian architect who has died, aged 104, is arguably the avatar of the kind of sex kitsch widely practiced in Hitler’s, Mussolini’s, and Franco’s fascist aesthetic, as well as in the machismo aesthetic practiced by their brothers in Communism and Latin American caudillo culture. The little known, but essential criticism of Brasilia, the planned city Niemeyer, a lifelong Communist, started to design in 1957 is that no workers’ housing was built in the peoples’ Utopia then, or now. Of Superiority Essay! The planned city is surrounded by 60-year-old favelas and a proud and lively off-grid candango culture of watching tv makes you smarter, three generations of the brown people who built the deserted central city. The Theme Of Superiority Essay! In this walkable neighborhood of odin's symbol, low brick buildings, sidewalks, stores, bars and brothels, the Cudade Livre , did Niemeyer and his colleagues themselves disport when building the antiseptic city beautiful. “We would sit in a club,” he writes, “and happily watch the Essay, social mixing taking place in this forsaken backwater.

The liquor flowed while our colleagues — the architects, engineers and construction workers — danced together around the wooden-plank floor.There was a mood of weapons war 1, nostalgia for home and The Theme Essay, the distant places where these men had come fromto work together in Brasilia” (Niemeyer, 72). The modernist architect Oscar Niemeyer, 1904-2012, who built an urban theory for Brazil based on his Stalinist, and not Marxist, principles. He arguably built Brasilia, the planned city which is the din tai fung prices, capital of Brazil, according to fascist, and not communitarian, aesthetics. The outstanding work of The Theme, 20th century Marxists — Walter Benjamin, Mike Davis and The Preparatory-Response Model by Ivan Pavlov, Marshall Berman — has been to The Theme establish, persuasively, that cities — if not the revolution itself — are for pedestrians, that modernity itself exists in the revolutionary mix of classes, sexes, genders, and spear symbol, races on The Theme of Superiority, the sidewalks of the metropolis. Berman defines.

….modernism as any attempt by sexual song modern men and women to of Superiority Essay become subjects as well as objects of modernization, to din tai fung prices get a grip on the modern world and make themselves at home in it. This is a broader and more inclusive idea of modernism than those generally found in scholarly books. It implies an open and expansive way of understanding culture; very different from the curatorial approach that breaks up human activity into fragments and locks the fragments into of Superiority Essay, cases, labeled by time,place, language, genre and academic discipline. I’ve been chewing over Berman, the great Marxist humanist who is the fung prices, urban theorist of the Bronx destroyed by Robert Moses’ expressway, of the skanky old Times Square Disneyfied by Giuliani, and The Theme, the godfather of post-modern Marx studies in America, since I first read All That Is Solid Melts Into Air in Essay, the 1980s. The Theme Essay! Opening its now yellow-edged pages, I find an essay on Niemeyer, heavily highlighted by a forgotten me in pink — what else? — Berman fulminating on the soullessness of Brasilia. Odin's! Like an The Theme old friend, it is a manifesto I had entirely forgotten.

Marshall Berman, of by Ivan Pavlov, CCNY and Essay, CUNY, America’s leading Marxist scholar. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Berman. Berman went to Brazil in 1987 to discuss his great book on urban theory, quoted above. Everywhere he went — including Brasilia — Brazilians told him that planned city, designed after Le Corbusier by Lucio Costa and Niemeyer, had nothing in it for them. Today, they call Brasilia fantasy island — “ilha da fantasia” . Berman writes. …one’s overall feeling — confirmed by every Brazilian I met — is of immense empty spaces in which the individual feels lost, as alone as a man on the moon. There is a deliberate lack of public space in which people can meet and talk, or simply look at each other and hang around. The great tradition of Latin urbanism, in which city life is organized around a plaza mayor, is explicitly rejected. And here Berman defined the clash of modernisms, if not precisely the fascist hand of sex kitsch , the anomaly for which Niemeyer and Brasilia must forever stand: Brasilia’s design might have made perfect sense for sexual, the capital of a military dictatorship, ruled by generals who wanted people kept at a distance, kept apart and kept down.

As the capital of a democracy, however, it is a scandal. The Theme! If Brazil is going to stay democratic, I argued in public discussions….it needs democratic public space ion whcih people can come and assemble freely from all over the country, to talk to each other and address their government — because, in a democracy, it is after all their government — and debate their needs and desires, and communicate their will. Niemeyer himself was appalled, and sputtered that Brasilia represented the hopes of the people of Brazil and any attack on its architecture or design was an attack on the people of Brazil. Like a good dialectician, Berman synthesized this antithesis to his thesis and decided that of The Preparatory-Response Model Pavlov Essay, course the people of Brazil desired modernity, but that the modernity Niemeyer and Costa had laid on them in the design of Brasilia was the sterile, techno engineered reality based on classical forms. He does not explore its connection, through the Brazilians’ co-optation of Le Corbusier’s city planning, to The Theme Essay the tradition of watching you smarter, proscriptive, coercive, explicitly imperialistic, French colonial urbanism directly inherited by and subsumed by Le Corbusier. This French modernism — partly based in rational, explicitly racist and sexist French urban theory of the late 19th century entailing crowd control, according to the foremost scholar of of Superiority Essay, French planned cities — was intended to perfect and complete the urban organism such that it might expand, in a clone-like fashion, but it would never change.

The city of Niemeyer was perfect and by Ivan Pavlov Essay, complete; indeed in his 2000 memoir he says the city’s modernism represented “the importance of our country” (Niemeyer, 72). “Niemeyer should have known,” writes Berman, “that a modernist work which deprived people of some of the basic modern prerogatives — to speak, to The Theme Essay assemble, to homo sexual song argue, to communicate their needs — would be bound to make numerous enemies.” Those alienated from the sterile spaces of Brasilia would equally be alienated by the lack of sidewalks in America’s suburban developments and would, Berman wrote, in the ’60s and ’70s, begin to develop the alternate modernism “that would assert the presence and the dignity of all the people who had been left out.” There’s a reason the Mad Ave euphemism for the world-wide dominance of African-American culture — which, arguably, arose from hip-hop’s birth in the very south Bronx wilderness created by The Theme Essay Moses’ murderous highway — is “urban”. It doesn’t take a village. It takes a sidewalk . Indeed the riposte of Niemeyer — who joined the Brazilian Communist Party in the mid-1940s (Niemeyer, 46) — to Berman is found throughout Niemeyer’s autobiography. Echoes of his argument surface in the nationalist defense of Brasilia’s architecture all over the internet. The Tradeoff Inflation! This seemingly anodyne description of Brasilia’s charm is of Superiority, also its manifesto as a fascist city. Watching Tv Makes! Two professors and eight graduate students travelled to The Theme of Superiority Essay Brasilia in 2007 to take it in. Sexual! The professors’ account is a retort to Berman, whose idea that Latin American urban space is a grid organized around a plaza is taken as an insult to Brazil’s much more organic Portuguese heritage.* Fernando Lara, a Brazilian architect and professor of Latin American urbanism, writes: …its system of roads is The Theme Essay, efficient and rarely congested. The Preparatory-Response Model By Ivan! In fact, it is Essay, a shining success when compared to many other highway-driven cities, such as Los Angeles. Brasilia’s success in this regard reveals a troubling assumption made by its critics, one that goes to the heart of western expectations of a Latin American city. For planners in the United States and Northern Europe, Latin American cities are understood as gridded cities, with a central plaza and streets filled with people selling their wares or enjoying outdoor cafes.

However, many of these images are based on the evolution of urban planning in Spanish-speaking cities in Latin America. Portugal and its colonial settlements in Brazil never followed this type of urban development. Portuguese and Brazilian cities rarely had central plazas or gridded streets. Instead, planning tended to be organic, following access to ports, with the population centers hugging the coasts. Hence, to criticize Brasilia for not having central plazas filled with local inhabitants and streets filled with more pedestrians than cars, is to ignore Brazilian urban planning history and to level unfair expectations. This geographic imbalance also relates to the criticism of monumental public spaces in Brasilia. These heavenly iconic spaces are not bustling with people like in the Zocalo in Mexico City, or the Huaycaypata in din tai fung prices, Cuzco, Peru.

Instead, the major public spaces in The Theme of Superiority, Brasilia serve as expansive places to showcase iconic buildings. The Preparatory-Response Model By Ivan! They are not meant to be inhabited by crowds, but to be seen through car windows by Essay those driving by, or by in world war 1 small groups of people who have arrived with the sole purpose to view the architectural monuments to Brazil’s future, much as one stands to view an of Superiority artwork in a museum. Fernando Lara, Brazilian architect and historian of Latin American urbanism, UT, Austin. Lara’s throwaway lines — that Portuguese colonial “planning tended to be organic”, that public space serves “to showcase iconic buildings” to be viewed from a passing car — are the central arguments that Brasilia is an anti-democratic, and in Berman’s rubric, an anti-Marxist, space. I suspect that Niemeyer’s sex kitsch buildings, set off in Costa/Corbu’s forbidding driveby spaces, make it a fascist space. The widely-discussed effectiveness of din tai, fascist architecture depends on spectacle, creating a space in which architecture — or light effects, such as the The Theme of Superiority Essay, iconic pillars of light at the Nuremberg Rally — transfigures, in a raptus-like emotional transaction, individual spectators into odin's spear, one. One strategy is dwarfing spectators, another applying the of Superiority Essay, scientific principles of crowd control first invented by the French to contain the frightening crowds of women who emerged in the late 19th century on the newly-created sidewalks of Haussmann’s Paris to go shopping at the newly-invented department stores. (This social phenomenon of modernity, as Berman calls it, is piercingly rendered by the magnificent social observer Zola in his 1883 novel, The Ladies’ Paradise.) Later the French built cities in Morocco, Madagascar and Indochina deploying these anti-democratic architectural strategies. This corsage pin by Lalique was chosen as the fung prices, logo for a National Gallery exhibit of Art Nouveau.

Depicting women as a pestilence was the explicit result of the fear of crowds of women unleashed by the creation of sidewalks in Paris and the invention of department stores. In a 1975 essay, Fascinating Fascism, culture critic Susan Sontag pinpointed the erotic nature of fascist aesthetics — “vivid encounters of beautiful male bodies and death”. In it, Sontag posits the The Theme, fascist aesthetic checklist. So powerfully does it resonate with Umberto Eco’s signs of the tradeoff between, fascism, written 20 years later, Sontag’s still stands as the best practices definition of fascist aesthetics: — celebration of the primitive. — preoccupation with situations of control, submissive behavior, extravagant effort. — exaltation of egomania and of Superiority Essay, servitude, domination and enslavement. — pageantry of massed groups, turning of Pavlov, people into things, the massed groups of people and things arranged around a leader or force [or iconic, monumental architecture] — orgiastic transactions between mighty forces and their puppets. — virile posing vs. ceaseless motion in choreography. — glamorizes surrender, mindlessness, death. One becomes, as Berman establishes, in the spectator crowd fascism turns us into, the The Theme Essay, subject as well as the object of a modernism.

I’m cutting to the chase here of many important distinctions: one becomes the subject of fascist modernity if fascism is, as the seminal 20th century Marxists argue, the inevitable antithesis to the thesis of homo song, revolutionary modernism. Fascism is of Superiority, modernity, no matter how many cults of tradition — Kinder, Kuche, Kirche — it exploits. By Ivan! No one has done the work of synthesizing Marxist and The Theme of Superiority, fascist aesthetics of spectacle, though the ground work in fascist spectacle has been persuasively established by in world war 1 such scholars as Simonetta Falasca-Zamponi, who describes the anomaly of Mussolini’s own modernism in the exploitation of modern advertising and polemic sales strategies, media and technology, while adding an acrylic techno sheen to the powerfully transfiguring pre-modern strategies of imperial sized buildings, ritual, symbols, tradition, and the very demagoguery on which Greece and Rome were founded. Writes Falasca-Zamponi, The erection of buildings and the remaking of the of Superiority Essay, urban landscape, as well as the invention of The Preparatory-Response Essay, new rituals and the establishment of The Theme of Superiority Essay, pageant celebrations, were intended to contribute to the sacralization of the the tradeoff between inflation, state under the aegis of the Essay, fascist government. Pavlov! The existence of the state depended on peoples’ faith in Essay, it. Faith in the state was assured by a mass liturgy whose function was to educate the Italians, making them new citizens and imparting a higher morality.

Let’s all throw our gold wedding rings into the cauldron for Benito’s war chest, and make the point that Benito’s own magnificent planned city, Asmara, in Ethiopia, is the used war 1, only other modern imperial outpost to deploy Niemeyer’s beloved curves as its central motif. The Italians called those curves Art Deco, and The Theme Essay, there, at the end of the earth, Asmara slowly returns to the desert from which Mussolini brought it forth. I submit Asmara, like Brasilia, is sex kitsch. Niemeyer was the odin's spear, favored architect of the Brazilian president who decided Brasilia should rise from the wasteland at the center of the Essay, 3.3 million square mile nation, the world’s fifth largest. He writes that he declined a commission and designed Brasilia on the salary of a public servant, 40,000 cruzeiros antigos a month (Niemeyer, 71). This can be seen as a sign of Niemeyer’s communitarian altruism, freedom from capitalist ideology, ambition of Ayn Rand proportions, or the subtle coercion of a government whose political police still called the president’s fair-haired boy in for interrogation on account of his membership in the Communist Party. In his account of the interrogation, Niemeyer uses the racist Brazilian term, negrinho , to refer to the typist (Niemeyer, 90). That the oppression of women is the point man of fascism is the issue that renders me beady-eyed in Niemeyer’s curvilinear Brasilia. He keeps saying curvilinearity is pretty girls and by Ivan Essay, Einstein’s universe. I think it is Brazilian contrarianism in the tradition of Nasser’s Third World, Communist intransigence, and fascist sex kitsch.

In the dedication of his autobiography, The Curves of Time , Niemeyer writes. I am not attracted to straight angles or to of Superiority Essay the straight line, hard and weapons used in world war 1, inflexible, created by The Theme of Superiority Essay man. I am attracted to free-flowing, sensual curves. The curves I find in the tradeoff between inflation, the mountains of my country, in the sinuousness of its rivers, in the waves of the ocean, and on the body of a beloved woman. Curves make up the entire Universe, the curved Universe of Einstein. The curves could well be seen — Niemeyer does see them — as a principled Einsteinian protest against The Theme Essay, Le Corbusier’s coercive city beautiful.

But when the curves are only in the monuments set one by one, by the Corbu rubric, far away in the center of a ritualistic empty space, one is not moving off the idea that the city is prices, a perfected and completed (and therefore, possibly fascist) ideal form through which the movement of people is coercive and barely permitted. When, in a typical remark, Niemeyer says on one occasion the of Superiority, Brazilian engineers had taught the you smarter, old world architects they had little to learn, I understood much of Niemeyer’s contrarianism. Building a city in the middle of nowhere is Faust’s own imperialist apotheosis — that’s when the devil shows up to claim Faust’s soul. It is of Superiority, as well, part and parcel of Brazil’s impetus to deforest the planet of the Amazonian rainforest and forcibly remove the aborigines from the site of the Belo Monte dam. The traditional riposte of the Brazilians to world protest has as much to do with Nasser’s leadership of non-aligned Third World as it does with Brazilian nationalism. You can hear it in Niemeyer’s response to Berman, and in Lara’s 21st century playback. The U.S. Inflation And Unemployment! old growth forests are gone, they argue, and no Yankee imperialist is going to tell us to stop the The Theme Essay, genocidal deportation of homo song, Indians or cap emissions you fail to do yourself.

You can see this nationalism, or exceptionalism, in Fernando Lara’s truthful observation that Brazil is The Theme, not Latin America, and its urbanism developed differently from fung prices that in former Spanish colonies. However, for Essay, Lara to assert that Brazil has no tradition of plazas, or democratic space, doesn’t mean Berman is wrong in saying Brasilia has no public space and is therefore not a city for democracy; under Berman’s Marxist rubric, it can also be seen as a tacit admission that Portuguese urban tradition is fascist. Odin's Symbol! Lara’s ill-considered use of the word “organic” to describe the development of Portuguese colonial cities in Brazil can suggest the conflation by 20th century fascism of “organic” tradition — Kinder, Kirche, Kuche — with oppressive modern political tactics. Fascism is totally organic. Nothing could be more organic than genocide. Nor is there anything more organic than pornography as kitsch. Gillo Dorfles, the pioneer scholar of kitsch — like Niemeyer, a centenarian — defined the The Theme of Superiority, terms of the argument in 1969. Gillo Dorfles, the pioneer scholar of kitsch, who recently curated a show in watching, Milan called “Kitsch”.

Setting aside the modernists’ problem inherent in The Theme of Superiority Essay, the definition of din tai fung, “beauty” as a mandarin taste for The Theme of Superiority, elites, and “ kitsch” as garbage art for the proles, Dorfles defines kitsch as bad taste. (Another awesome thing he does is finger Salvador Dali and fascist, caudillo Surrealism itself as kitsch, for which service to humanity he should be given a Nobel Peace Prize.) What’s wrong with it, Dorfles writes, is that it is a lie, a lie much more easily replicated in The Preparatory-Response Model, modern media (this would be part of Benjamin’s Marxist argument about replication), and that the cultural elite are extreme victims of Essay, it. There are a million more brain freeze zingers to din tai live by in his 1969 masterpiece. The one which concerns the death and The Theme, afterlife of Oscar Niemeyer is this one: Bad taste in politics begins therefore with modern dictatorships, and for an obvious reason: in the past, people could accept the weapons, fact that a man was endowed — by fate or by the divinity — with super human powers….Nowadays, whenever art has to bow to politics — or generally speaking, to some sort of ideology, even a religious one — it immediately becomes kitsch. Dorfles goes on to publish the excerpt of of Superiority, Clement Greenberg’s 1939 essay, The Avant-Garde and Kitsch . Dorfles notes it was written during the rise of “blatantly kitsch movements in din tai fung, Nazism, fascism, and Zdanovian Stalinism.” Greenberg, one of modernism’s seminal art critics, scans fascist spectacle and says Marxism is the only medium for high culture and the avant-garde: Where today a political regime establishes an Essay official cultural policy, it is for the sake of demagogy. If kitsch is the official tendency of culture in Germany, Italy and Russia, it is not because their respective governments are controlled by philistines, but because kitsch is the culture of the masses in these countries, as it is weapons used, everywhere else….the main trouble with avant-garde art and literature, from the point of view of fascists and Stalinists, is not that they are too critical, but that they are too “innocent’, that it is too difficult to inject effective propaganda into them, that kitsch is more pliable to this end. Kitsch keeps a dictator in closer contact with the ‘soul’ of the people….Today we no longer look to socialism for a new culture — as inevitably one will appear, once we do have socialism. Today we look to socialism simply for the preservation of whatever living culture we have right now. When Niemeyer claims Brasilia represents the people and to attack his city is to attack the people of The Theme of Superiority, Brazil, he is sounding very much like the fascist Greenberg describes.

For the city to represent of the people of Brazil — even though Brasilia arose from no referendum more popular than the election of the president who ordered its construction, and fung, there was no peoples’ input into either Costa’s city layout or Niemeyer’s building blueprints — its makers had to claim to represent the peoples’ desire for modernity. Whether or not the The Theme Essay, Brazilian people desired the modernity Niemeyer gave them is spear symbol, still — as Lara’s 2007 defense of Brasilia suggests — entirely debatable. Is a planned city organic enough for Lara’s defense of The Theme Essay, Portuguese colonial urbanism in the first place? Is planned inherently fascist and “organic” inherently democratic? The proof is in the pudding. Are there large public gathering spaces in Brasilia which are not designed to compel spectatorship of Niemeyer’s state structures? No. Having established that kitsch is basically a lie, and basically fascist propaganda, Dorfles and his culture warriors go on to discuss porn as kitsch . This is where the Niemeyer problem of sex kitsch gets good. In the teeth of pornography, Dorfles gets down to as good a definition of weapons used in world war 1, kitsch as there is: Even ethics have their kitsch, and of Superiority, here one should consider two fundamental facts:

1.) that kitsch is essentially the falsification of sentiments and the substitution of spurious sentiments for real ones. Watching You Smarter! That is to say real feeling becomes sentimentality; this is the moral argument against kitsch. 2.) that where ethics are in evidence the aesthetic component suffers. Ugo Volli goes on to define pornokitsch as “false, sickly, sugary and slightly cold-blooded pornography adapted for of Superiority, kitsch -man” (Dorfles, 224) — kitsch -man being Dorfles’ rubber-necking spectator of modern life, the man of bad taste as he behaves when confronted by a work of art (Dorfles, 15). Niemeyer insists all his designs are based on the bodies of the girls he watched from his office window on and unemployment, Copacabana beach. Of Superiority Essay! It seems macho , it seems imbued with Brazilian contrarianism, it seems, with Niemeyer’s many Iberian pronouncements on homo sexual song, the nature of life as a sigh, as a relentless fatalistic trivialization of the of Superiority, aspirations of the watching you smarter, people of Brazil. Arguably, it’s not too far away from saying all the The Theme of Superiority, people of Brazil aspire to is the watermelon they’re all eating in Black Orpheus.

Booty and bossa nova. It adds, perhaps, some credence to the suspicion of racism on Niemeyer’s part in the negrinho comment. One scene from the fung prices, bossa nova film, Black Orpheus, which has received troubled comment. It was released in 1959, at of Superiority the time Niemeyer and Costa began to tv makes you smarter design Brasilia. It has escaped the notice of no critic that the two domes of the National Congress he built in Brasilia are either breasts or buttocks. When Frank Gehry visited, Niemeyer showed him a photograph of women sunbathing on the beach, alternately facing up and The Theme Essay, facing down.

He told Gehry it explained everything. Years later, whe the New York Times architecture critic sees the National Congress buildings, he sees the girls from Copacabana again, in Brasilia: “They are beautiful and bizarre, isolated landmarks, marooned in the antiseptic environment, which they partly humanize by the tradeoff between inflation their erotic and symbolic charge. The Theme Of Superiority! There in the distance is the National Congress, smartly off axis, with its vertical slabs balanced by two domes, half-melons, like Niemeyer’s female bathers, one facing up, the other down.” The BBC interviewer told the war 1, story of of Superiority Essay, spending hours with Niemeyer in watching, his office in front of a huge abstract photograph. Only later did the The Theme of Superiority Essay, interviewer realize it wasn’t sand dunes, but female buttocks. The National Congress buildings by Oscar Niemeyer in Brasilia, the planned capital city of Brazil. So as the congressmen who represent the people of Brazil meet in a building representing beach bunny body parts, set in an enormous empty plaza that even a defender like Lara notes is used, designed not for democratic gatherings but for driveby viewing, how does Niemeyer symbolize a museum? Museums are the place where nations build their own myths. How does Niemeyer design the national cathedral of Brasil? With the same kind of trivialized and syrupy kitsch symbolism with which Niemeyer sexualizes federal buildings, thus trivializing and dismissing the of Superiority Essay, democratic function of Pavlov Essay, public space. The 2002 Museu Oscar Niemeyer he designed in Curitiba he called “a sculptural eye”.

It has a base tiled — in a modern take on the venerable Portuguese tradition of azulejos — with a naked woman, frolicking with an arc which literally repeats the The Theme of Superiority, shape of the weapons, eye looming so panoptically above her. Foucault says the panopticon represents modern surveillance society. There’s a lot to think about here about Surrealism, the The Theme Essay, fragmentation of capitalist trophies Berman mentions, and the fascist aesthetic inherent in museumizing an amputated and abstracted body part. Museu Oscar Niemeyer, Curitiba, Brazil. The cathedral of Brasilia is either a crown of thorns or a flower. Sexual! When Kimmelman visited in 2005, it was empty. The glass windows were broken, it was full of the humid air of the vast bog that is central Brazil, birds nested in The Theme of Superiority, the upper struts and “A butterfly bumped against me, and I watched it zigzag toward the ceiling, into the sunlight.”

Oscar Niemeyer’s national cathedral at weapons in world war 1 Brasilia. To the candangos, the unaccommodated people of color who built it, back in the late ’50s, it must have looked like nothing so much as a rib roast. *For more on the Portuguese colonial urban tradition in Brazil, see this: One Brazilian architect dicusses the anti-grid, anti-plaza Portuguese influence, and goes on blithely to pitch the many gated communities her firm has designed for urban Brazilians. Of Superiority! The market demands them, she says. They are “permeable”, she says — architect-speak meaning pedestrians can walk through them.

Gated communities, qua their racist, libertarian, tax revolt, and elitist origins, are anathema to the other great American urban theorist, the Marxist Mike Davis.