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Balance Sheet and Accounting Standards. ANSWER SHEET STUDENT’S SURNAME#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;. OTHER NAMES#8230;#8230;. ………#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;.. Engel V. Vitale Definition. STUDENT NUMBER#8230;. ………#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;. TUTORIAL DAY #038; TIME#8230;#8230;.. ………#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;. TUTOR’S FULL NAME#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;.. Test 1 – Version 2 Session 2, 2012 Course Code: ACCG 224 Course Name: INTERMEDIATE FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING Time allowed: 55 minutes plus 5 minutes reading time Total No. of questions: Three Questions Instructions 1. You must answer ALL questions in the test booklet.
No separate booklet will be provided to answer the why do break questions. . Engel. This is a closed-book test. You are not allowed to refer to any text material for the test. 3. Show all workings. Why Do Couples Up. Handwriting must be legible. 4. Non-programmable and non-text retrieval calculators may be used, but dictionaries are not to be used. Question No. Marks 1 /15 2 /15 3 /10 Total /40 Question 1 – Multiple Choice (15 marks) (Please circle the correct answer) 1. The main functions of the Financial Reporting Council include: I. II. III. IV.
V. Engel. a. b. * c. d. overseeing the process for the setting of accounting standards of the AASB. determining the AASB’s broad strategic direction. onitoring and reviewing the level of funding for the AASB. directing the legal defenses AASB in engel relation to the development or making of a particular standard. the power to veto a standard recommended by the AASB. I, II, III and V only Date Rape Essay I, II, and III only definition I, II, IV and V only II, III, IV and V only 2. The role of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission is to: I. II. III. IV. a. b. Inflation In Vietnam. c. * d. 3. I, II, III and IV I, III and IV only I, II and IV only II, and III only Regulatory capture is engel said to legal defenses occur in which of the following situations? a. b. c. Engel V. Vitale. d. Montrose. * 4. Engel V. Vitale. Enforce and administer the Corporations Act. Inform the public about Australian companies, financial markets and financial professionals who deal and advise in financial instruments.
Issue accounting standards. Improve the why do up performance of the financial system. When the v. vitale definition regulated entities ensure non-performance by the regulating body When the regulated entities co-opt the regulators into a mutually shared perspective When the legal defenses regulated entities control the engel definition regulations and the regulatory body All of the above Which of these theories could explain a move towards government control of legal defenses, accounting standards setting in Australia? a. b. Engel V. Vitale Definition. . d. Up. * 5. Public interest theory Regulatory capture theory Private interest theory All of the above The primary reasons for developing a conceptual framework is: a. * b. c. d. To enable regulators to develop accounting standards that are consistent and engel definition logical To provide guidance to accountants in areas where no standard exists To reduce the number of accounting standards needed To assist auditors 2 6. According to the AASBs Conceptual Framework an couples break up asset is: a. b. c*. d. 7. A company incurs significant costs in relation to engel a speculative project that intends to turn rocks into gold. In accordance with the AASBs Conceptual Framework the costs of this project are an: a. * b. Legal Defenses. c. d. 8. d. it is not necessary to restate the prior period comparatives; the error may be amended prospectively; it may be deferred and recognised in the subsequent period; a retrospective correction must be made. Definition. When changing an accounting policy which of the In Vietnam following has to be applied retrospectively? a. * b. c. d. 11.
Relevance, reliability, materiality, consistency, verifiability, understandability Understandability, timeliness, relevance, readability, timeliness, reliability Relevance, faithful representation, comparability, nderstandability, verifiability, timeliness Uniformity, relevance, reliability, consistency, faithful representation Where a fundamental error occurs in the recognition process: a. V. Vitale. b. c. Date Rape Essay. d*. 10. expense because there is little probability that future economic benefits will eventuate expense because the definition recognition criteria for an asset is not satisfied asset because the definition and recognition criteria for assets are satisfied asset because the company will control the future economic benefits. Couples. The qualitative characteristics for financial reporting contained in the Conceptual Framework are: a. Engel V. Vitale. b. c. 9. a contingent item depending on Date Rape Essay, another event occurs at some time in the future a future benefits controlled by an entity as the result of definition, a future transaction a future benefit controlled by an entity as the result of past transactions or events an item that has a physical existence and can be converted into cash. a voluntary change to improve the relevance of information presented a change due to the adoption of Lady Montrose, a new accounting standard a change due to the adoption of a new interpretation all of the engel v. vitale above. Lady Montrose. A company’s workforce went on v. vitale definition, strike for an indefinite period commencing on Essay Eyre Bronte, 5 August 20X1. In jurisdictions where the impairment of goodwill is not tax deductible, AASB 112 Income Taxes: a. * b. c. d. does not permit the application of deferred tax accounting to goodwill allows the recognition of a deferred tax item in relation to goodwill requires that any deferred tax items in relation to goodwill be recognised directly in equity requires that any deferred tax items for goodwill be capitalised in the carrying amount of definition, goodwill. 15.
Revaluations under AASB 116 Property, Plant and Equipment apply to: a. b. c. d. * all assets on an individual basis individual current assets only Lady Essay individual non-current assets only ssets on a class-by-class basis. 4 Question 2 Short Answers (15 marks) Part a. The ASIC Act details that one of the primary accounting standard functions of the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) is to ensure that accounting standards serve the v. vitale best interests of both the private and public sector. Why is it important that the FRC ensure that the interests of the public sector are met? (3 marks) One of the crucial roles of FRC is to assess the continued relevance and effectiveness of accounting and Date Rape Essay auditing standards to ensure that accounting standards serve the best interests of both the engel v. vitale private and public sector. Relevant accounting standards lead to required and appropriate accounting information disclosure. Accounting information serves an important public policy purpose — namely improving the flow of information to investors in a country’s capital markets.
Accounting information helps investors and legal defenses other stakeholders make sound economic decisions, which will enhance the efficiency of resource allocation and fairness of wealth distribution in the society. With the development of a country’s economy, the social welfare will increase. The public interest means such social welfare. 5 Part b. Definition. You have recently graduated with your Bachelor’s degree and have applied for a position with the Lady Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) as a technical adviser. At the interview, the Chairman stresses that they often have difficulties in determining whether the standards they draw up should follow a ‘principles based’ or ‘rules based’ approach.
In particular they want to implement standards to overcome creative accounting practices. Knowing that you have recently completed studies in accounting theory and engel standard setting, explain the Chairman what are the three main differences between the battle of valley ‘principles based’ approach as opposed to a ‘rules based’ approach to standard setting? (3 marks) Principles Based ? • • IASB follows a principles-based approach to standard setting. Constructed in a broad framework that is not focussed on specific rules under specific circumstances Allows for professional judgement in relation to substance rather than form Advantages of principles-based standards • Principles-based standards are simpler. They supply broad guidelines that can be applied to engel many situations. • They improve the representational faithfulness of financial statements. • They allow accountants to use their professional judgement. • Evidence suggests that managers are less likely to attempt earnings management. Disadvantages of why do up, principles-based standards • Managers may select treatments that do not reflect the underlying economic substance. • The judgement and choice involved in many of the decisions mean that comparability among financial statements may be reduced Rules-based • Currently FASB follows rules-based approach. Constructed in a framework that is focussed on specific rules under specific circumstances. • Misuse in corporate collapses means that FASB is definition reconsidering if they should move to principles-based standards. Disadvantages of rules-based standards • Rules-based standards can be very complex. • Organisations can structure transactions to battle of valley circumvent unfavourable reporting. • Standards are likely to be incomplete or even obsolete by the time they are issued. Engel Definition. • Manipulated compliance with rules makes auditing more difficult. • Rules-based standards can be confusing. Inflation In Vietnam. Part c. Explain what a conceptual framework is and what are the benefits of definition, having a Conceptual Framework for the accounting profession? (4 marks) Definition of a Conceptual Framework ? ‘A coherent system of interrelated objectives and fundamentals that is legal defenses expected to lead to consistent standards’; ? Also, it is an attempt to provide a structured theory of accounting that prescribes practice. ? establishes concepts/ideas that underlie the preparation and presentation of financial reports; ? assists standard setters, preparers, auditors, users and definition those interested in the work of standard setters How the framework is used for the accounting profession?
Explains the concepts/ideas that underlie the preparation and presentation of financial reports for external users What is the purpose of financial reporting? For whom should financial reports be prepared? What qualitative characteristics should financial information possess? What are the elements of financial reporting? What measurement rules should be employed? It provides guidance to the accountants when there is no specific guidance given in the accounting standards. It also assists the accountants when they cannot understand the Date Rape Essay application of v. vitale, certain IFRS due to the complexity involved. Inflation In Vietnam. 7 Part d. Barton Ltd uses tractors as a part of its operating equipment, and it applies the straight-line depreciation method to depreciate these assets.
Barton Ltd has just taken over Deakin Ltd, which uses similar tractors in its operations. However, Deakin Ltd has been using diminishing balance method of depreciation for these tractors. The accountant in Barton Ltd is definition arguing that for both entities the legal defenses same depreciation method should be used for tractors. Provide arguments for and against this proposal. 2 marks) Para 50 of AASB 116 notes that depreciation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life..
Arguments against definition, the Proposal ? Depreciation is measuring the Montrose change in value due to the use of an asset over the period. It is possible that Deakin Ltd has been using the diminishing value as it was going to use the tractor more in the early years of the economic life and hence the choice of the depreciation method is justified. Arguments in engel v. vitale definition Favour ? It is important that there is consistency in the type of the asset and depreciation method applied. Part e. a. Explain the difference between the cost model and revaluation model under measurement subsequent to initial measurement. (3 marks) Cost Model AASB 116 requires that measurement subsequent to initial measurement of assets could be carried at cost less any accumulated: depreciation; impairment losses. Revaluation model As an alternative to Lady Montrose Essay the cost model AASB 116 allows the revaluation model to be used for classes of assets. Revaluation is an adjustment of PPE’s carrying amount so that it reflects its current fair value.
Measurement basis is fair value (FV). Engel. Frequency of revaluations is not specified, but must be performed with sufficient regularity such that the carrying amount of assets is not materially different from their FV. Why Do Break. Revaluation performed on a class basis. Accounting performed on an asset-by-asset basis. 8 Question 3 – Practical (10 Marks) Bravo Ltd began operations on 1 July 2011 and v. vitale definition has provided the following information: 1. 2. 3. Couples Break Up. Pre-tax accounting profit for engel the financial year ended 30 June 2012 is $150 000. The enacted tax rate is 30%. Differences between the 30 June 2012 income statement and tax return are listed below: (a) b) (c) (d) (e) 4. Of Valley Forge. Annual leave expense accrued for financial reporting purposes amounts to $15 000. The employees were not allowed to take annual leave in the first year of engel v. vitale definition, operation. Depreciation of property, plant and equipment for accounting purposes amounts to $120 000.
Depreciation of these assets amounts to $80 000 for the tax return. Couples Break. Entertainment expenses of $6 500 were included in computing pre-tax accounting profit. Tax free government grants of $5 000 were recognised as income. V. Vitale. As a small business, Bravo Ltd chose for taxation purposes cash accounting for their sales revenue. Accounts receivable regarding sales show a balance of $20 000 at year-end. There was no need to recognise any allowance for doubtful debts. Taxable profit is expected for the next few years. Required (a) (b) (c) Calculate taxable profit for the financial year ended 30 June 2012. (4 marks) Prepare the Inflation journal entry to record income tax expense, deferred tax and income tax payable for the financial year ended 30 June 2012. (4 marks) Draft the v. vitale definition income statement beginning with ‘Profit before income tax’. (2 marks) (a) Pre-tax accounting profit $150 000 Permanent differences: Entertainment expense. Tax-exempt revenue Adjusted accounting profit 6 500 (5 000) 151 500 Originating temporary differences: Annual Leave Provision Accounting expense Tax deductible Excess depreciation expense Accounting expense Tax deductible Excess Revenue Taxable profit (b) $ 15 000 (0 ) 15 000 DTA 4 500 120 000 (80 000) 40 000 DTA 12 000 (20 000) DTL 6,000 $186 500 Income tax payable 55 950 Income Tax Expense 45 450 Deferred Tax Asset 16 500 Income Tax Payable 55 950 9 Deferred tax liability 6 000 DTA = 4 500 + 12 000 (c) Profit before income tax Income tax expense Profit for the period $150 000 45 450 $104 550 10. Haven’t found what you want?
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On the engel v. vitale Life of Augustus: Cassius Dio. The Roman History is a huge and famed work concerning the break up development of the Roman empire from the early republic to his own day in the post Antoine world. V. Vitale? It is history’s main source of information on many central issues in Roman politics and intellectual history. It is divided, according to couples up Dio, into the familiar divisions of Roman history that remain today. The period of the Republic, where all political and social power rested with the senate and the population at large, then the takeover of Augustus, leading to the death of the Stoic emperor Marcus, then, lastly his own day. Hence, the order of the work is clear, and remains the standard ordering of Roman history today. The work is not pleasant reading since he has the tendency to merely recite events.
He appears at the opposite of Herodotus in this respect. Dry facts and dates, while meticulously put together, make for engel v. vitale, very tedious reading. Why Do Couples? Nevertheless, one has the worst of both worlds when, usually out of nowhere, he uses what Philip Cary calls “rhetorical commonplaces” (“Introduction” xiv), where the engel v. vitale definition really useful details of warfare are left out in Essay order that the v. vitale typical and cliche Roman rhetorical devices can be dusted off. Need essay sample on On the Life of Augustus: Cassius Dio ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for legal defenses, only $12.90/page. What needs to definition be noted early on is that Dio was a senator. Essay On A Rough Childhood Eyre By Charlotte Bronte? He is from v. vitale, a senatorial family from Greece, and he himself held that office. He was a historian and a lifelong civil servant. Hence, there are two biases from his state: a Greek background and, importantly, a class status of high patrician, or a Senator, that one might expect to lead him into anti-empire descriptions, since the empire was built on the increasing irrelevance of the Senate. Octavian, soon to be Augustus, became the adopted son of the wildly popular Julius Caesar. In the literature, he is referred to as Caesar, Octavian, and, when taking power, Augustus. This can be confusing to the reader.
He very quickly sought to take action to claim the throne. His only threat was Antony, one who made himself unpopular with the population because he did not take action against Julius’ assassins (Dio 45: 417). Dio makes the claim that, fairly early on, Julius adopted the young Augustus and began training him as a successor (Dio 45: 419). Legal Defenses? Antony moved equally as quick, attempting to buy off the army with grants of land. It was clear that, no matter the public face of v. vitale, events, Antony and Octavian were enemies. Only one man could run the legal defenses empire over the long term. He approached the army clumsily, and apparently, did not bribe them enough (45: 431). Most soon tool Caesar’s side against Antony. Engel? Brutus, the murderer of Julius, was governor of Gaul. He did not trust Antony, and hence, Antony’s pleas to him went unheeded. Ultimately, it was the speech of the famed lawyer Cicero that turned many more against Antony (46: ch.
5). Date Rape Essay? Nevertheless, Antony still had powerful supporters. Antony’s plan was to make certain the most powerful African provinces were under his control. Brutus in Gaul, however, was backed by the Senate. Definition? The Senate will be shown to couples break up be extremely fickle, oppositionist one minute, slavish the next.
This becomes one of Dio’s most harsh condemnations of engel v. vitale, his own class. The wording of Dio’s attacks speaks of a highly emotional appeal. He views his own Senatorial class back then as corrupt and, worse, vacillating. He sees no patriotism, no love of country, but mere self-serving activities. Antony, Caesar and Lepidus (the triumvirate) entered Rome and began to destroy elements of the population that might be hostile to them. They sought to appear friendly, but everything about them was aimed at enmity. The murders were of the wealthy, the powerful, those who might turn on them in the future, though Dio makes it clear that Antony was the chief leader of the murder bands, since he was less powerful (47: 129). This was aimed at decimating the senatorial class so as to smooth their way to power. Dio mentions the Date Rape Essay military leader Sulla and his own decimation of v. vitale, this class acting as a precedent for their actions. Roman politics can be reduced to battles between the In Vietnam senatorial class and the emperor, supported by the army.
Dio does not attempt to downplay the violence, but, as the description goes on in Book 47, he makes it clear that Octavian was not really a part of the violence. It is v. vitale definition, possible that this was an afterthought on Dio’s part, making certain that Octavian remains innocent, though this is not clear at the beginning of the description. Caesar saved as many as possible during the massacre, as Dio is attempting to save his reputation–or so it seems. Antony was to Essay on A Rough Childhood in Jane Bronte gain power by any means necessary, this Dio makes clear. So while Octavian has the right of succession as being Julius’ adopted son, Antony is then depicted as conniving to gain power illegally, or at least, immorally. The Senate had declared him an outlaw, and Antony had created an definition Gaulish army that he thought might win him the Inflation In Vietnam Roman power. Nevertheless the engel definition destruction of so many wealthy patrons meant that the new rulers, Octavian and Lady Montrose Antony in particular, could control the body in the future, replacing dead members with new ones loyal to them. This is always the upshot of the attacks on engel definition, the Senate, whether physical or legislative, making the oligarchy subservient to the emperor’s (and the army’s) plans.
Much of the property confiscated went to allies, and especially, the army. Inflation In Vietnam? This is yet another recurring theme: paying off the army with lands from conquered peoples is central to effective political rule in definition Rome. Dio is honest about the implications of this all-important policy. They also outdid each other in magnifying Julius Caesar, hoping by legal defenses, this method to gain the trust of the frightened populous. Definition? Antony and Caesar went out on campaign, as emperors should do, while the consul Lepidus, the third in the triumvirate, remained in the city. This latter was basically a nonentity, but was effective in legal defenses the short run as administering the long neglected city of Rome. The senate was suspicious of Caesar, since he was growing in popularity.
Brutus of engel, Gaul, himself popular in the Greek provinces, sought an alliance with the Senate (47: 163). After the on A Rough Childhood in Jane Eyre by Charlotte campaign, both Caesar and Antony sought to engel v. vitale placate their men by grants of land. In Vietnam? Only the consul was nervous, and he was soon to be dispatched. Brutus and Sextus of definition, Sicily, sensing the divisions in the executive, sought to create their own alliances so as to take power. This will be dealt with later. Socially, Dio is Date Rape Essay, a Senator, that means that one might expect him to support the engel v. vitale political claims of his class, which were, in general, control over the Roman emperor and a stronger stress on oligarchy.
In Dio’s case that is not true: he holds to the dignity of the emperor as something truly Roman, he stresses strength and patriotism over the weakness that his own class might be expected to support. His hostility to battle of valley forge Cicero is legendary, and yet, Cicero is the hero of the engel v. vitale Senate and the republican cause in general. It was the empire, rather than a class or office, that Dio seems to support more than anything else, and, since he is couples up, going against his class much of the time, it might be said that this magnifies his reliability as a historian. The notion of the empire being in a constant dialectical motion with regard to the senate is also of Dio’s devising, a schema that most historians use today in dealing with all things Roman. As for his writing style, it is v. vitale, rather dry and battle of valley descriptive, but his meaning is clear. In his dealings with the killing of Brutus (48: pg. 221), he believes it the will of heaven that such a thing happened, since Brutus himself was a murderer. Definition? The army is shown as basically fickle, demanding money and land above everything else, remaining apolitical so long as the bribes come through on time. In Augustus’ case, the army was a problem in the early years of the battle forge diumvirate with Antony, since the Senate backed Caesar rather than Antony, rightly viewing the future Augustus as being less bloodthirsty that his rival, now taking over Africa, a place that Antony will soon make his base, and the food source of the empire itself.
The story Dio tells between Octavian and Antony is occasionally difficult to follow. V. Vitale Definition? Antony, at first dismissive of Octavian as a younger man, was forced, given his rival’s behavior at Rome, to make peace with him. They both had substantial power bases, both had some claim to power, and Essay Rough Childhood in Jane the senate, realizing this, reversed their earlier decree against Antony. There was substantial moves to create pease between the two warriors so as to save the city any future bloodshed. Nevertheless, Octavian needed to continually placate the engel v. vitale army, the “bad guy” in Dio’s narrative, and in Essay on A Rough Childhood in Jane order to do this there must be an eviction of many Italians to make way for the land allotments for engel, 10,000 former soldiers. Antony made some use of this to attempt to turn the population from Octavian. Nevertheless, Octavian remains in Rome while Antony moved against the ever threatening Parthian empire in why do up the east. Soon, Octavian will destroy yet another rival in Sextus, a rival who had dominated the wealthy island of Sicily,, after losing several naval engagements.
When Octavian was master of the west, it was no just Antony and v. vitale Octavian, the legal defenses Sextan threat was gone. (49: 15) The defeat of Sextus led to the Senate considering Octavian to be the war leader par excellence. Engel Definition? Generally, it was clear that Sextus was considered an outlaw, as Antony once was, and his defeat was generally considered popular by couples break up, the Roman population. Sextus was using the powerful and strategic island of engel v. vitale, Sicily in order to control Rome thourgh the manipulation of grain supplies coming from Egypt. In fact, this method of control led Augustus to late begin building the port cities of southern Italy, such as Ostia, so as to bypass Sicily. At the same time Antony was losing against the Parthians and their sometime enemy the Armenians (49: 19). While this was happening, Octavian took over the government of Rome, using his talented ally Aggripa as local satrap, providing necessary services to the Roman state, incuding the all-powerful city of Rome itself. Antony began creating an “eastern empire” for legal defenses, himself–and is now married to Cleopatra–still, it should be noted, while married to Octavian’s sister, something that caused some problems with the always self-righteous Senate. Antony even went so far as to create his own “anti-senate” in Egypt, while at the same time his rival had formally denounced him to the actual Roman Senate in the city itself. Antony’s followers, knowing of the violence his rival could do, fled eastward. The Roman world was apparently split in two.
It could not have been a popular move to create an anti-empire in the east with a “foreign” queen given august titles and power beyond her abilities. (50: ch 3) Dio’s writing style emerges from dry description, and, seemingly animated by the idea of engel v. vitale definition, a split Roman world, begins to write more as a novelist than a historian. This is a change for Essay, the better. Naval warfare won the day for Octavian. V. Vitale Definition? While massive forces were arrayed in Greece, the battle of Acitum led to Essay on A Rough Childhood in Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte an victory for Octavian’s forces, since the definition fleet of Antony, not inconsiderable, was trapped, and their attempt to move outward was defeated by Octavian. Antony’s forces on land, seeing the legal defenses defeat of their boss’ naval forces, defected to that of Augustus, and Actium was considered the turning point in Roman history. (Dio 51). This was the last gasp of the engel republic, and saw, oddly enough, an alliance of Octavian with the Date Rape Essay Roman senate.
Maybe not so odd, since the Roman population as a whole was outraged by engel v. vitale, the creation of an anti-empire, giving the eastern lands away to a Grecian queen, Cleopatra. It was only when Antony married, however, that permitted the Senate to declare war. The dismembering of the empire was not a problem, it only was the marriage alliance that roused them to action. Dio here has no mercy on legal defenses, his fellow senators. Octavian as a military leader is laid out in some detail in book 53. He stressed experience over numbers, slow cutting away at his rivals rather than glorious sudden engagements. Being the ward of Julius Caesar paid off. The naval forces of Octavian were smaller, but loaded with former veterans, seasoned soldiers and sailors who made mincemeat of engel v. vitale definition, Antony’s larger but less experienced forces. The very fact that they so quickly abandoned Antony says something about Rough in Jane Eyre, their dedication.
The point now was to take the power given to him, and use it wisely. Engel Definition? Few thought the republic was worth saving, and, given the divisions in the empire, it was time to heal, and to create a unified state where the legal defenses wealthy would have a check placed on engel v. vitale definition, their ambition. (Dio, 53 chapters 1 and 2). Octavian feigned a lack of interest in rule, and the Senate sought him out, attempting to on A Rough Eyre by Charlotte convince him of his necessity to engel v. vitale the city. He took power at their suggestion and began to In Vietnam appoint governors for the most powerful provinces in the east–Egypt and engel definition Syria–and the west, in Gaul. In Chapter 53, Dio deals with the conspiracy against Augustus and Lady Montrose Essay how this was used as an excuse to begin destroying opposition, something depicted as an unfortunate necessity given the definition former split in the empire. Unfortunately, the legal defenses reader is forced to v. vitale definition agree with Dio’s assessment, as Roman politics is never a smooth game, Dio is convincing and eloquent here. Augustus took over all foreign and domestic roles as Emperor, and created what one might call today a “new order. ” He was, using stealth, slowly concentrating power to himself with the senate’s assistance, but ultimately at their expense. In book 53 (chapters 1 and 2), Octavian is shown taking more and more power, while all the time he posed as a passive participant. His wild popularity with the people made it possible for him to take full power while retaining the trappings of republicanism, and it is in their ruse that Dio makes the single most famous element of Octavian’s rule.
It is in battle forge this description that gave later historians all the ammunition they needed to judge the Roman Augustus. Dio writes: In this way he had his supremacy ratified by the senate and by the people as well. But as he wished even so to be thought democratic, while he accepted all the care and oversight of the public business, on the ground that it required some attention on his part, yet he declared he would not personally govern all the provinces, and that in engel the case of battle of valley, such provinces as he should govern he would not do so indefinitely; and he did, in v. vitale definition fact, restore to the senate the weaker provinces, on the ground that they were peaceful and free from war, while he retained the more powerful, alleging that they were insecure and precarious and either had enemies on their borders or were able on their own account to begin a serious revolt. His professed motive in this was that the forge senate might fearlessly enjoy the finest portion of the empire, while he himself had the v. vitale hardships and the dangers; but his real purpose was that by this arrangement the senators will be unarmed and unprepared for battle, while he alone had arms and maintained soldiers (53: 220). Augustus reformed the army, creating a more regular division of men with a regular salary. Lady? This was a central reform. He also moved them to the ever porous frontiers, where they could do useful work and, importantly, can be kept out of politics. The Senate was put in engel v. vitale definition its place.
It was clearly a second rate entity under the Augustinian monarchy. Why Do Couples Break Up? Being an engel v. vitale intelligent statesman, he treated the senate with decorum, and it was almost like the Essay on A Rough Eyre by Charlotte senate was not losing power at all. New offices were created where wealthy supporters of Octavian’s order can take some share of power. A new bureaucracy was developing where Octavian can staff it with his own friends, crating a new clientele. V. Vitale? The provinces were treated well, and the governors were chosen not merely for their support of the new state but for their competence. Essay On A In Jane Eyre By Charlotte? Client kingships were permitted to continue. He treated the provinces the say he treated the senate. In chapter 17 of engel, Book 53, Dio writes: In this way the power of both people and senate passed entirely into the hands of why do couples, Augustus, and from his time there was, strictly speaking, a monarch; for monarchy would be the truest name for v. vitale, it, no matter if two or three men did later hold the power at the same time.
The name of monarchy, to be sure, the Romans so detested that they called their emperors neither dictators nor kings nor anything of the sort; yet since the final authority for the government devolves upon them, they must needs be kings. The offices established by the laws, it is true, are maintained even now, except that of censor; but the entire direction and forge administration is absolutely in accordance with the wishes of the one in engel power at the time. And yet, in order to preserve the appearance of having this power by virtue of the of valley laws and not because of their own domination, the emperors have taken to themselves all the functions, including the titles, of the v. vitale definition offices which under the republic and by the free gift of the people were powerful, with the single exception of the dictatorship. He sought to reform the battle morals of the v. vitale definition elite, something important for Inflation In Vietnam, the maintenance of social stability. He sought to limit divorces and to reward child rearing, He became a patron of the arts and literature. In book 53, it is clear that our writer is a fan of Octavian.
He explains that the celebrations of his victory and his coming to engel definition power were based on his own wealth; he refused to use public money to celebrate his victories. At the same time, he abolished many new laws that had been made by the triumvirate, which made him more popular, since Antony by this time was loathed in Rome, and the latter’s suicide was considered a loss of minor importance. In chapter 19, Dio writes “In this way the legal defenses government was changed at that time for the better and in the interest of greater security; for v. vitale, it was no doubt quite impossible for battle forge, the people to be saved under a republic. ” What is the most interesting is Augustus’ address to the Roman people. He makes significant points that solidify his rule, he provides a constitution of engel definition, sorts that would typify the sort of state that was slowly coming into being. He first, without surprise speaks of his army reforms, making a stronger and more rationalized force to deal with the frontier problems that will beset Rome until the end of Lady, her life. Since Dio well knows of these problems, he begins here a foreshadowing technique, attributing to Octavian a substantial amount of prophetic insight, of a sort.
The army, by being mentioned first in engel definition his long speech, shows that army reform was primary in Octavian’s mind, since the Inflation loyalties of the army are necessary for any kind of social reform to engel v. vitale definition take place, in fact for any monarch to Inflation successfully rule Rome. Then, he speaks of engel v. vitale definition, mercy, the desire to unify the Date Rape Essay empire and spare the lives of his former enemies. The fact that these two subjects are juxtaposed is significant, since army reform speaks of violence and defense, while mercy, of the opposite. The structure of this speech (one can presume Dio edited some of it) is very telling, and skillfully placed together. Many of them had fled anyway, but the city of Rome itself was to be unified, and again made the heart of the empire.
This makes sense since the real reason Antony was hated was is desire to create a new Rome in Alexandria. Hence, he is appealing to Roman patriotism, something always central to Dio. He speaks of giving up his own office, of giving power back to the people, with the notion, though unstated, that it would be given back to him in trust. He did not want power, so he says, and engel definition is even willing to give the peaceful and wealthy provinces to the senate, while he alone takes the strife-filled ones. The point here is that he will take the provinces that are filled with troops, while giving the Senate wealthy and peaceful provinces, but provinces without any men. Legal Defenses? It was a brilliant tactic, met with approval by Dio. He speaks of himself as a lover of engel definition, peace, and goes through great pains to connect himself to Julius Caesar, the battle bringer of peace and plenty to the citizens of Rome (and ton of booty from foreign conquest, distributed to v. vitale definition the Roman population). The fact that the battle civil war is over means the engel definition society can be unified again, bringing peace back to the strife-torn Roman state. He speaks of cooperation and the unity of all classes within the empire and Inflation the city of Rome itself. In order to do this, he says, the ancient laws of Rome should be guarded. Engel V. Vitale? The populace is couples up, interested, apparently in two things, revolution and tradition.
Opposites? Not according to Dio: he speaks of revolution, he speaks of a radically altered constitution, but he also speaks of the placating of popular opinion by at least using rhetoric that is traditional, and holding that the ancient Roman traditions need to be revived and guarded so as to ensure the stability of the people and the city. Dio reports Octavian to say: And yet, after all, I feel no hesitancy about suggesting to you in a summary way what ought to be done in each of the leading departments of administration. And what are these suggestions? In the first place, guard vigilantly the established laws and change none of them; for what remains fixed, even though it be inferior, is more advantageous than what is always subject to innovations, even though it seems to be superior. Next, pay strict heed to do whatever these laws enjoin upon you and to refrain from whatever they forbid, and do this not only in word but also in deed, not only in engel v. vitale public but also in private, that you may obtain, not penalties, but honors.
Entrust the offices both of peace and In Vietnam of war to those who are the most excellent and the most prudent, harboring no jealousy of engel v. vitale, any man, and indulging in rivalry, not to advance the private interests of In Vietnam, this or that man, but to keep the city safe and make it prosperous (53: 10). Private interest needs to be rejected, Octavian says. This is very important to Dio, since the senate is the engel v. vitale definition very nexus of private interest, and everything that was bad about the old republic. It has proven itself incompetent in Inflation In Vietnam the past precisely because it was an oligarchy, not an aristocracy. V. Vitale? The fact that Dio is Essay Rough Childhood Eyre Bronte, part of this class is telling; he is no doubt speaking the truth for he breaks rank with his own class to condemn–at least the old–senate, but clearly praising the new one since it supports the monarchy. As we have said: this senate has been purged many times, and its new members are powerful, royally minded, and need to be brought into the realm of rule, not rejected by it. Hence one can be a senator and be pro-emperor. But it is the old senate that is to be condemned as a oligarchy. He speaks of treating the provinces well. These provinces are friends and engel allies of the Roman state, and Essay on A in Jane should not be treated as cash cows. This is very important, since the empire is based around a steady stream of revenue from the engel v. vitale provinces.
His reform of the rule of the provinces is something extremely important to Octavian, and Essay on A Rough Childhood in Jane by Charlotte Bronte important to the stability of the empire. They need competent and engel v. vitale definition public spirited governors, not self-seeking senators and upper classmen. Peaceful provinces, independent of his plans with respect to Essay Rough in Jane the senate, are better for the empire than rebellious ones. It is important that public spirit be resurrected, it is central to the Roman idea, and cannot be destroyed by v. vitale definition, self-interest and battle of valley forge self-seeking. Again, this is definition, a central recurring theme throughout this work, and its influence on later generations of historians is incalculable. The literary effect is that the Inflation In Vietnam empire is a democratically ratified constitution, state and way of political life. The emperor is populist, the senate, oligarchic. Engel V. Vitale Definition? They are opposites, literary types, as it were. But not merely literary types, but rather, historic forces that will appear and reappear throughout the history of the west.
The people, according to Date Rape Essay Dio (52, pg. 219), demand royal government. They see stability and legal reform–not to mention subsidies–coming from centralized government. Engel? They have had enough of the division of the self-seeking politicians, and want the results that they are convinced Augustus can provide for them. Central state power, it seems, is only a threat to the oligarchy, to Antony’s former supporters, politicians and senators who want a free playing field for self-enrichment. The people then, demand the royal power be taken in full by Octavian (cf. 53: 12). It is clear, however, theat the senate, whether from loyalty or from fear, ratified the new position of Augustus.
Many of battle forge, them are creatures of Octavian, many simply support him because the political wind is blowing in engel v. vitale definition a certain direction. The are also mollified, as aforesaid, by the notion of having full control over peaceful provinces such as Egypt. The plan and development of rule is brilliant here, and the brilliance of it is certainly not lost on Dio. Dio has created a literary figure, the stuff of legend, in Octavian. This is not to denigrate his historical credentials, but to understand that, from a dry beginning, Dio has blossomed into a true historical novelist. Creating types, oligarchic self interest, division and patriotism, as well as populism in office, that will themselves become the very vocabulary of the historical profession right up until the 21st century.
Dio says, writing from his position many years after the fact, that the royal authority taken and created by Augustus has now “become tradition. ”(53, pg. 59) which is another way of saying that it has worked, for Inflation, something cannot become tradition unless it has delivered the goods that has withstood the engel test of why do couples up, time and created an even more powerful, peaceful and prosperous Roman state. He clearly states that this new state, created by definition, Augustus and his unprecedented situation having defeated Anthony and preserved the unity of the empire, a unity far better than in the old republic. “Such is the legal defenses number and nature of the appellations which those who possess the imperial power employ in accordance with the laws and with what has now become tradition. At present all of them are, as a rule, bestowed upon the emperors at one and the same time, with the exception of the title of censor; but to the earlier emperors they were voted separately the different times. ” So says Dio in Book 53. The emperor appears to engel v. vitale be even handed, by changing advisors every six months, so as to permit of no factionalism (53, pg 245). Factions more than anything else are odious to legal defenses the people of Rome, who view Octavian as one who has restored unity, and hence, the ability of the state to continue to achieve its aims, significantly, after army reform and transportation reform. The rebuilding of roads is significant, for it is a central service of the Roman state, and this has been left to abandonment during the long period of civil wars and unrest. The roads are also a symbol of Roman unity, and hence, their repair and engel reconstruction are emblematic of Augustus’ plans and his public image. The repair of the roads encourages commerce, but, more importantly for the Roman population, they symbolize the unity and strength of the empire.
After defeating the Alpine tribes, land in that part of the world, north-eastern Gaul, was given to members of the Roman guard, the personal bodyguard of the emperor. The praetorian guard itself. At the same time, he sought to give subsidies to the people after the pacification of the Date Rape Essay Gallic province. Dio writes at engel v. vitale definition, the beginning of book 54 that the reign of Augustus was “moderate. ” This means it maintained a mean between dictatorship on the one hand, and slavish populism on the other. He created, in this sense, a new set of political virtues. There was no grand campaigns, no tyranny, but there was–without a tear being shed–several more purges of the senatorial body.
Much of the beginning of this book is dedicated to the decadence of the Senate, of bribe taking and, barring that, servile flattery towards the emperor. Only a few were executed, but the Senate was continually rendered toothless, but could never be abolished altogether. He reformed jury trials, making trials public, and In Vietnam all deliberations available to the common folk. His moderation is v. vitale, found in the request of the senate–he always make such requests, regardless of his dominating the latter–that Rome make no further conquests. Rome had reached her natural limits, with the understanding that it was now time to rationally govern what the Romans already had, rather than seeking to paper over incompetent rule with promises of future conquests and Rough Bronte the slaves and booty that such conquests provided. This was an open challenge to the senate, though Dio is rather reserve in developing it as such. He still seeks to maintain the v. vitale fiction that the senate, though purged, was an Montrose Essay independent body. Definition? , it was not, and its independence was challenged by the demand that rule be one of forge, stewardship, rather than simply continued conquest. The senate later, as Dio well knows, was not up to v. vitale this challenge. Essay? This is what was going on in the city. Augustus administered the subject territory according to the customs of the Romans, but permitted the allied nations to be governed in their own traditional manner; and he did not regard it as desirable either to make any additions to the former or to extend the latter by v. vitale, any new acquisitions, but thought it best to be satisfied with precisely what they already possessed, and he communicated this opinion to the senate (Dio 54, 9)
On page 323, another important piece of legislation is discussed, that against bribe taking. Lady Montrose? Continual moral reform was as important as anything else in the empire, abnd both int terms of sexual fidelity, as well as financial fidelity, morals were enforced. Marriage and honest dealing were encouraged, and anyone convicted of taking bribes was given the relatively moderate punishment of being debarred from office for 5 years. He sought to continually replace senators and harm senatorial power by decreeing that any wealthy person in the empire is eligible for office. And even here, if the property qualification was not met with by a competent man, it was provided by the emperor himself. In this way, more and v. vitale more clients of the Inflation king were created, recreating the Roman state, maintaining an oligarchy, but with the v. vitale definition understanding that money was the In Vietnam true route to power, not being a part of the formerly closed senatorial class.
Here, he could split the engel upper class over legal defenses, the spoils of office. When he had done this, he purged the senatorial body. For the members seemed to him to be too numerous even now, and he saw nothing good in a large throng; moreover, he hated not only those who were notorious for definition, some baseness, but also those who were conspicuous for Inflation, their flattery. And when, as on the previous occasion, no one would resign of his own free will, and Augustus, in his turn, did not wish to incur blame alone, he himself selected the thirty best men (a point which he afterwards confirmed by oath) and bade them, after first taking the same oath, choose five at a time, relatives not to engel v. vitale be included, by writing the couples break names on tablets (54: 13) The local opposition parties were silenced by v. vitale definition, victorious missions to Gaul, where the endlessly difficult Celtic tribes of the Alpine region were pacified again and again. When things got too hot in the capital, it was easy to leave for a time, and earn some socially necessary military victories, always significant in creating popularity, though Dio does not make this inference.
Though bad in itself, the behavior of the Celtic tribes, described by Dio in almost unutterable forms, made the battle forge victories over them all the v. vitale more significant to the new reign. The Celts apparently began slaughtering their Roman captives, and Date Rape Essay even made daring raids into central Italy, having already taken the fertile and strategic Po valley in the north. These victories provided greater popularity and proved the competence of the new reign, since the Senate, time and again, proved itself incompetent to deal with military disturbances in the western provinces before. In the process, he mad many new citizens, and granted some cities their liberties under the engel v. vitale definition indirect rule of Rome. Again, all of this was good policy, both for Rome and her allies, but also for building up provincial clients for the new government and system. It is Rough Childhood in Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte, precisely in this client building measures that the new system was to last as long as it did, to “become tradition” in the words of Dio.
These measures are clearly approved by our historian, as they are the very building blocks of a newly stabilized and just Roman empire. In these cities and re-conquered provinces, he created local forms of government, maintained local customs, and attached them, via the newly reconstructed roads, to commerce with the capital. He provided them with stable currency, which did nothing but stimulate more and more trade and economic development. New classes of elites developed in the provinces which werre basically creates of the empire, for their owned their success to the Roman empire. Hence, granting liberties was doing nothing but cementing them further into the Roman state. This is an issue that Dio returns to again and again. Definition? In a daring move, Dio reports that, as senatorial families, some ancient, had lapsed into poverty, he permitted “knights” or low level soldiers of In Vietnam, distinction, to be able to take senatorial posts.
Though still a very prestigious position, life as a senator was becoming more difficult, more humiliating and more dangerous,. Hence, even among some of the older senatorial families, there were many who did not want to take seats, and used their financial ineligibility as an excuse. Many lower level soldiers, the Roman knights, were given these posts, making the engel definition same a more and more popular body with the population, the army and with the elite in the provinces, many of whom had local bodies similar in composition to the Roman senate, and all basing their legitimacy on the emperor (54- 26). By way of conclusion, by why do break, the time the reader is finished with these 10 central books of The Roman History, one comes away with an ambiguous picture. There is the creation of literary types, with their archetypal virtues and vices: the v. vitale senate, self seeking; the emperor, populist and strong; the Date Rape Essay people, wanting strong rule, basically virtuous; the army, ever fickle and corruptible. Ultimately, there is only one character in engel this description: that of the empire itself. All the Essay above types serve the empire in one way of another, some bad, others good. The army’s claim is based on v. vitale definition, its central role in creating the empire in the first place. The senate seems to have no claim at all, except by claim of descent, a claim made absurd by Dio. Dio ends by implying that the empire is best served by a connection between people, army and why do emperor, and engel v. vitale definition that the senate is far from the repository of political wisdom it was created to be. Dio’s style is reserved, occasionally religious, and, in the end, has a powerful belief in In Vietnam fate, though this is far from blind fate, and in Dio’s treatment, nothing is done by chance.
Virtue, and virtue alone, regardless of its specific institutionalization, is central to definition everything. Man makes his own luck.
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