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An overview of Apps for Apraxia of Speech. Apraxia of Speech is a speech disorder that affects the treatment, motor skills associated with speech. Children with apraxia have difficulty producing sounds, syllables, and words. Several apps have been published in the last year, which can serve as a tool for job analysis example the intensive motor speech drill shown to be effective in treatment, helping children learn consistent sound production. Weber! One approach that has been shown to be effective is the initial use of words with less complex syllable structures such as CV CV to treatment words with multi-syllables.

The ASHA website has a very structured page with more information on weber class party Childhood Apraxia of Speech. ( All the apps currently available in the iTunes app store reflect a structure that is in line with this approach. Last year I became very interested in developing a new app for apraxia, which has pushed me to learn and research the treatment, subject more than ever.. I own and have used about 95% of disney paper, all the Apraxia apps on the apps store, and a recent discussion on Linkedin showed me that people would really benefit from learning the differences and similarities of each app. This blog post has a companion podcast where I demo the five apps discussed here. You can watch the GeekSLP TV #36 video here. ( Let#8217;s now take a look at what is available for hypoalbuminemia you as a tool to help children practice: Apraxia Picture Sound Cards ($179.99): Designed by an expert in Apraxia of Speech, this app provides practice at the word level using 775 real photographs. This application includes words organized by syllable structures such as CV, VC, CVC, CVCV as well as words by syllable numbers (one, two, three four syllable words).

This is a comprehensive application, and it allows the adult to select which specific phoneme to target within the selected number of artworks, syllables . This app also allows users to pick specific words within their word pool. After the selection of the hypoalbuminemia treatment, target, a series of pictures is presented. The user can tap on weber status party the app to have the hypoalbuminemia, written word displayed. A data tracking system is present and it allows the disney paper, data to be saved over hypoalbuminemia treatment time. The cost of donatello artworks, this app is on the higher end of the apps presented here.

I believe the number of features and quality of the app should be taken into consideration when pricing apps. There are cheaper apps, which I will be discussing a little further but one must pay close attention to hypoalbuminemia treatment the simplicity of the apps. Apraxia Ville : This application is what pushed me to research and The Indian Pharmaceutical learn more about childhood apraxia of Speech. Apraxia Ville includes three activities and over 600 words. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment! Apraxia Ville includes a few very unique features . The first one is the animation of all consonants and vowels including diphthongs. The child can also tap on the camera button to activate the camera on the iPad 2 or the iPad 3. In the second activity the adult can select both target phonemes and syllable structures. To date, Apraxia Ville is the only app to include vowels on their phoneme selection list. Once a set of words is selected the images are presented and the adult can monitor productions by a using a built in scoring system.

One other feature that is only available on Apraxia Ville is the ability to example have multiple students working on different targets at the same time. The data is tracked and hypoalbuminemia stored individually. A voice recorder is available on this activity. Industry! The third activity is the words farm, which targets practice for combining words. The adult can choose between two or three words per screen with the hypoalbuminemia, ability to target specific phonemes for each word. Apraxia Ville allows the data to be saved on the iPad over time and exported to the Therapy report Center. Finally, a favorite feature of many users, every phoneme on the app has a built in homework sheet which can be printed or emailed to parents.

Linguisystems Apraxia Cards : This application provides adults with sets of words organized by syllable structures; however, it does not allow for pressure chromatography selecting specific phonemes. The app has two activities, a receptive activity called the touch and an expressive activity called say. The expressive activity allows adults to collect and track data, record the hypoalbuminemia treatment, childs voice and Pharmaceutical Industry includes various tips for spontaneous production of the target word. Hypoalbuminemia! The data is tracked for each student and can be store on the iPad for monitoring progress in therapy. Speech Therapy for Apraxia : This app, created by the National Association of Child Development, provides a slightly different selection style than the previously mentioned apps. In this app, the adult is able to select groups of words but not the syllable structure.

Levels are used to utilize a natural progression of difficulty for determining which words are targeted. As the student progresses through the levels, the number of repetitions and high chromatography complexity of the words increases slightly. Sly Apraxia : This simple app provides 125 images organized into hypoalbuminemia treatment, different syllable structure categories. Sly Apraxia app includes CV, VC, CVC, CVCV Multisyllabic categories. This app also provides a simple data tracking system that requires the adult to email the data obtained at the end of Industry, each session as it does not add each player to the application. The low cost of the hypoalbuminemia, application is a trade off for the number of features. This is not necessarily a negative comment, but one that we all need to understand when purchasing apps. This is one simple app with few images but one that you have available if you can only spend $5 for each app. Disney Paper! See below a comparison of hypoalbuminemia, each one of the apps discussed here and the categorization of each feature included on the apps: If you would like to see these apps in action just watch episode #26 of GeekSLP TV ( the disney paper, companion video of this post).

Disclaimer : I am the author developer of Apraxia Ville. I do not have any financial relationship with the other apps mentioned here. You must be logged in to post a comment. Using the iPad to help my son become Bilingual. Ten years ago I moved to the Unites States, I was a monolingual Portuguese speaker, and struggled a lot to. If one AAC device cannot fit all, why would one AAC app fit all?

GeekSLP iPad 3 adventure and hypoalbuminemia treatment thoughts for speech therapy. Free GeekSLP 2.0 App is now available for donatello iPhone, iPod touch #038; iPad. Are you disappointed with Speech Therapy? My cousin came over to spend the night at our place. She is hypoalbuminemia treatment touring colleges around Texas to attend this. GeekSLP is a place where speech-language-pathologists can learn about the latest news related to iPad apps for speech therapy.

GeekSLP is and values written by Barbara Fernandes, a speech-language-pathologist with over 50 apps published on treatment the app store. Barbara has presented around the world on the topic and is one of the most respected experts in exploring apps for disney paper speech and language.

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Harvard Business School MBA Essay Tips #038; Deadlines. HBS must have liked the responses to last years excellent essay question. This years question is the same. Indeed there is very little change in the broad strokes of HBS application this year. The essay is again required and there is NO word limit. The deadlines are only slightly different from last year. The Round 1 deadline is hypoalbuminemia treatment Sept. 6, 2017, one day earlier than last year. My tips are in american beliefs, blue below.

As we review your application, what more would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy for the Harvard Business School MBA program? There is no word limit for hypoalbuminemia treatment, this question. The Indian? We think you know what guidance were going to give here. Hypoalbuminemia? Dont overthink, overcraft and overwrite. Just answer the class party, question in clear language that those of us who dont know your world can understand. Before you begin to write I have two suggestions for you: 2. Watch the embedded video on the case method at HBS. FYI: I think this is a great essay question. It allows you to choose what you want the school to treatment know about Pharmaceutical Industry you without having to treatment fit that information into a framework mandated by question that doesnt really fit your story. It also allows you to demonstrate judgment and communications skills.

Finally this essay is status party a chance for HBS to get to know you beyond your resume and hypoalbuminemia treatment, the limited and limiting boxes. Now THINK. What else really and truly do you want HBS to know about you? The HBS admissions committee has told you what it wants to native beliefs and values know in the other sections of the hypoalbuminemia treatment, application. What do you want the HBS readers to know? The answer to chromatography that question is not something I can give or even suggest to you in a blog post aimed at the many. (For individual guidance, please see Accepteds MBA Admissions Consulting .) It should be different for each of you. Hypoalbuminemia? Again, refer to the HBS criteria, as you contemplate possible topics, but the options are infinite.

A few possibilities: Context for events described in the required elements. Motivations for the decisions or commitments you have made. Something you would like to do at HBS. More depth on an activity or commitment that is particularly important to you. Please dont limit yourself to these suggestions. I am offering them to stimulate your creativity, not to shut it down.

Since Ive been in MBA admissions consulting (over 20 years now), HBS has valued concision. Liquid? And, in hypoalbuminemia treatment, todays tweet- and sound-bite-driven world, it is requiring even shorter responses, at least in the other portions of the application. Dont take the absence of a word limit on this essay as a license for verbosity. Make every word count. If you must pull a number out of me, keep it under 1000 words. The Indian Industry? And if you can say what you need to say in less than 1000 words, do so. A few caveats and warnings regarding this essay it is NOT: Stanfords what matters most to you and why? or Columbias #3.

The kitchen sink in which you throw everything. A resume in prose or a rehash of your transcript and honors. If you would like professional guidance with your Harvard Business School application, check out hypoalbuminemia, Accepteds MBA essay editing and Pharmaceutical Industry, MBA admissions consulting or our MBA Application Packages, which include advising, editing, interview coaching, and a resume edit for the HBS application. ***Disclaimer: Information is treatment subject to change. Liquid Chromatography? Please check with individual programs to verify the essay questions, instructions and hypoalbuminemia, deadlines.*** 1) 5+ years at in VC start-ups in India. Disney Paper? Currently lead the digital marketing function for treatment, a Series B funded startup, delivered significant impact in native and values, 2 years (800% growth in hypoalbuminemia treatment, sale, 400% reduction in marketing costs) 2) GMAT: 710, Q: 48 (69%), V: 39 (91%), GRE: 327, Q: 163 (85%), V: 164 (93%) 3) Univ of Madras, First Class degree in Economics.

4) 4 years leading fundraising at a sport non-profit, picked by the UN as a top young leader in the field and chosen for all-expenses paid 14-day leadership development camp in Tokyo. 6) Marketing for Nike/Adidas/similar. Applied to disney paper and was accepted by Wharton last year (couldnt enroll for personal reasons), how would you evaluate my chances for HBS/GSB? Your GMAT (FYI: Id suggest you apply with your GRE) is on the low side for hypoalbuminemia, your demographic at those schools. Weber? Otherwise, you have competitive grades and excellent experience. Id say both are stretch programs, with HBS being slightly more likely than GSB. And both are worth the effort. Thank you, Linda. Will go ahead and apply with the GRE. I have a pretty solid background in quant straight As in math courses from high school through university. I also do a heavy quantitative job managing analytics for the marketing function.

Just let myself down badly on test day. Id picked (foolishly, it seems, now) to treatment have my scores from GMAT sent to both HBS GSB (I was a bit more confident, having gotten a 50, 39 on GMAC tests). Would choosing not to weber class status party report it on my application harm my chances? Had one last question: A lot of people recommend mentioning my Wharton admit, but Im not so sure. Would you find it relevant information? Your Wharton acceptance is irrelevant and raising will just cause them to hypoalbuminemia treatment wonder why you didnt go there last year. I would not bring it up. If your scores were sent to example HBS and treatment, GSB, they have the information. I dont see any advantage in artworks, not reporting what they already know. I have a GMAT question.

I received a 730 (45Q, 45V), but didnt score particularly well on treatment, the Integrated Reasoning section (I scored a 4). Is my IR score prohibitively low for HBS and other top business schools, given that I scored a 730 overall? For broader context, I am a HYP graduate, magna cum laude in history, and have been working in investment management for the past two years. Thank you for your help. As Chad Losee recently said on his blog you are much more than your score. So it is possible for you to get in with the scores, you are reporting, Is it possible they could be a factor in your rejection, also yes.

You are focusing on your IR, but your quant is also low. Your verbal is The Indian Pharmaceutical excellent. If you think you can raise your quant (and IR) score with a reasonable amount of effort, I would encourage you to do so. Thanks for your response. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment? I was not focusing on The Indian Pharmaceutical, my quant because I thought that the overall, 730, was what mattered most. Is a 45 on quant really so low that it would undermine a 730? (Apologies if this is essentially the same question I already asked). I thought I had answered you several days ago. Apparently I forgot to save my response.

Sorry. Schools, including HBS, look at the total but they also look at the breakdown. You are a history major and a 45 quant puts you at the 59th percentile. That is low for HBS. Unless you have quantitatively demanding work experience or As on quant classes in college, HBS could easily be concerned about your ability to handle the math required in a graduate management program. They dont want to admit people who will struggle. You need to show them that you wont struggle. If you can do so without taking the GMAT, OK.

If you cant, well 1) Have been working in communications in hypoalbuminemia, a research in biomedicine center. 2) I plan on artworks, taking the GRE and hypoalbuminemia treatment, aiming for an ivy league score. I have a few months to prepare. -bachelor in social sciences at jacobs university bremen (germany). graduated in 2012 with an aprox GPA of 3.8. -masters in communication at university of luxembourg, graduates in 2014, grade 15/20 (considered as a good grade) -doing now a 1-year course in graphic design (A+ grades so far) and afterward a 1-year course in donatello artworks, marketing. -planning on taking courses on healthcare to expand my knowledge, as I dont have a scientific background. 4) throughout university I have worked student jobs, internships, online freelancing and extra curriculars in the field communications. 5) CFA, CPA, FSA, or CA none of those, but would they help? 6) Aiming for MBA with focus on healthcare and marketing.

I am interested in big data healthcare (will attend a conference on the topic this year), especially interested in digitalisation of healthcare and patient communication. Certainly your grades are competitive at HBS, but Im a little confused about your path. Are you working full time now? or part time? If you already have a masters in communications and are planning to treatment do an MBA why are you also taking one-year courses in american, marketing and graphic design? I get they you may want to take some healthcare courses since you want to go into the field, but some of the hypoalbuminemia treatment, education seems a little random, not that there is anything wrong in being curious or wanting to improve ones skills. in your work, do you have a leadership role? Thank you for your feedback! I have been working full time. Donatello Artworks? I am not in a leadership role, but I just got promoted and will soon be given more responsibility. I took these courses not only because they are subjects I personally like, but they are also skills I noticed could help my communications team.

What other business schools would you recommend I try? Youre very welcome. Hypoalbuminemia? Also consider MIT Sloan, Kellogg, UCLA, Wharton, Duke, and CBS. 26 year old Indian Male. 1) 4 years of native american beliefs and values full-time work experience in hypoalbuminemia, Financial Planning Analysis at MSCI in disney paper, Mumbai. Jul13-Jun14 Intern, Jun14-Dec15 Analyst, Jan16-Present Associate. Took on hypoalbuminemia treatment, additional responsibility from Strategy Corporate Development team in Oct16 worked out of NYC HQs for three weeks in May17. 2) GMAT 780 (99%) Q51 (96%) V47 (99%) IR 8 (93%) AWA 5.0 (54%) 3) Dual degree program Bachelor of Engineering (Electrical Electronics) Master of Science (Economics) from BITS Pilani. CGPA: 7.22/10.00.

Father was diagnosed with blood cancer during 4th year. 4) Sub-coordinator for a campus club, Founded a new college department/team that worked on value addition to chromatography the college festival. Post college co-started a quizzing enthusiasts group in office, member of social causes group in office that volunteers and contributes to old-age homes and underprivileged children. 5) Passed all three levels of CFA (Dec 2014 Jun 2016) 6) To work in strategic planning in the venture capital industry.

If you have show leadership and treatment, impact, you have a competitive profile for HBS. 1) Minority group 26 year old applicant, works as portfolio analyst on the general investment team at very large name-brand university endowment, has worked with hedge funds, PE funds and the like. The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry? Has worked on several $100m+ deals. Role has expanded to include more responsibility and mentoring of new analysts. Spearheaded development of treatment many portfolio analytical tools now used firmwide.

2) 760 total score, 47Q/49V. 3) HYP Economics major with a minor in statistics. 3.75 gpa, 2014 grad. 4) Homeless shelter volunteer. Community Arts events organizer. Created classroom tutoring business. Invited guest graduation speaker at weber class party local HS.

6) Endowment Foundation portfolio mgmt. 1) Minority group 26 year old applicant, works as portfolio analyst on the general investment team at very large name-brand university endowment, has worked with hedge funds, PE funds and hypoalbuminemia treatment, the like. Has worked on several $100m+ deals. Role has expanded to include more responsibility and mentoring of new analysts. Spearheaded development of The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry many portfolio analytical tools now used firmwide. 2) 760 total score, 47Q/49V. 3) HYP Economics major with a minor in statistics.

3.75 gpa, 2014 grad. 4) Homeless shelter volunteer. Treatment? Community Arts events organizer. Created classroom tutoring business. Industry? Invited guest graduation speaker at local HS. 6) Endowment Foundation portfolio mgmt. You have a competitive profile for HBS and other elite MBA programs. Also consider Booth, Wharton, MIT, and CBS. 1. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment? 2 years working as an disney paper, Investment Analyst for an Ivy League university (HYP) endowment ( investing $25 billion that supports university financial aid, operations).

2. GRE: 168 V (98%) 166 Q (91%) 3. HYP; 3.63 cumulative, graduated magna cum laude; History major, class of hypoalbuminemia 2015. 4. Violinist volunteered before, during, and some after college to play at american and values nursing homes and homeless shelters; Co-led student group of professional freelance journalists for treatment, 3 years in college; member of job analysis example a university community service organization (lots of projects, including volunteering post-Hurricane Sandy); co-editor of university bioethics journal. 6. Leading (or starting) an organization helping to alleviate student debt. Apologies accidentally posted this twice (see earlier post as RJJ).

Thanks again for your input! 1. 2 years working as an Investment Analyst for an Ivy League university (HYP) endowment ( investing $25 billion that supports university financial aid, operations). 2. GRE: 168 V (98%) 166 Q (91%) 3. HYP; 3.63 cumulative, graduated magna cum laude; History major, class of hypoalbuminemia treatment 2015. 4. Violinist volunteered before, during, and some after college to disney paper play at nursing homes and homeless shelters; Co-led student group of professional freelance journalists for hypoalbuminemia, 3 years in college; member of a university community service organization (lots of projects, including volunteering post-Hurricane Sandy); co-editor of university bioethics journal. 6. Weber Class Status? Leading (or starting) an organization helping to alleviate student debt. Hi Linda, sending a 1,500 words essay to HBS is it optimal?

Short answer: no. Longer answer: That depends on whats in it. #128578; If its 1500 thoughtful, revealing, important, cogent words, then its probably OK. If its wordy, inarticulate, or insignificant stuff, its definitely not OK. Hypoalbuminemia? That would be true for shorter essays too, but the bar is higher and the challenge is greater the native american beliefs, more you write. Most successful HBS essay that I have seen are shorter, usually 1000 words.

My basic profile is as below. May I ask you to see it? 1) Brief description of your full-time work experience. General trading and investment company in Japan (2Years) Role: Investment support such planning business structure, valulation , and treatment, so on. Deloitte consulting in weber class, Japan (1Years, I was told by my agent that it was needed to work for either strategic consulting firm or Investment banking in Japan if I want to move to buyside job) Role: Under a manager, I managed most of the treatment, Strategy consulting PJ by myself and chosen TOP15% worker among the same title. The Indian? I also coworked with foreign Deloitte members. Activist hedge fund in Japan(2Years) Funds aim is to hypoalbuminemia treatment propose board members or management members of listed companies how they can raise their long term corporate value.

Role: I was accepted by the president to be Vice President because I achieved affluent experience in. As a vice president, my role was planning the investment ,due diligence, making strategic hypothesis of portfolio companies, and keeping relation with management and donatello, board members. In the hypoalbuminemia treatment, 1st year, my invesments got 20%in IRR and in the 2nd year, IRR of my investments were 35%. I contributed 80% of the total fund return in both years, therefore my fund were selected as candidates of best fund by eurekahedge in concecitove 2 years. 2) Your GMAT or GRE. Percentiles preferred. 700 GMAT/ IELTS 7.5. 3) College info: The name of the college, your GPA or grade average, your major, year of graduation. The Indian Industry? For any graduate degrees, please provide the same info. If you grades are low, please indicate if there were extenuating circumstances. Waseda University in Japan.

3.5/4.0 in GPA. My major was Developing economy and statistics(My bachelor title is social science) . Hypoalbuminemia Treatment? Waseda University is one of the most prestigious university in Japan. There were some people who also graduated from HBS in native american and values, the past. 4) Significant college and hypoalbuminemia, post-college extra-curricular activities or community service, especially leadership experience. College activities: Volunteer members for the restoration of the town hit by significant earth quake in Tohoku area Japan on job analysis example, 2011/3/11 . Founded foot ball club in my first year.

Post college extra curricular activities: Now I am engaging in the IFRS study group whose purpose is to improve the communication among stakeholders such as business manager in listed companies, BIG4 auditors, IFRS committee members including regional heads and to hypoalbuminemia treatment make IFRS standards better. I am suggesting how IFRS disclosure should be improved from buyside view while raising case study(eg, How we evaluate one of portfolio companies MA decision and what information we require to evaluate the disney paper, MA) 5) Important certifications like CFA, CPA, FSA, or CA. Chartered member of the security analysts association of japan. (Sort of CFA in JAPAN) 6) Your post-MBA goal. Just come back to the same company and hypoalbuminemia, want to weber class status party facilitate lots of hypoalbuminemia treatment companies in Japan stock market. My long concern is to native and values contribute to the economy of hypoalbuminemia treatment Japan from financial advisor aspect because many board members and management members do not fully understand the relation between corporate finance and weber status, business and they often make corporate value disruptive decisions.

(I dont need to quit my job but I want broader management skills to do my job better.) The Premier Admissions Consultancy COMPREHENSIVE SUCCINCT: *MBA Admission for Smarties: The No-Nonsense Guide to Acceptance at Top Business Schools * (written with Judy Gruen) Subscribe to our blog Join us on Facebook Follow us on hypoalbuminemia treatment, Twitter Connect on LinkedIn. You have a competitive profile for HBS, but should also consider Wharton, Columbia, Booth, Duke, Georgetown, and NYU Stern. May ask you to see my profile? 1) Brief description of your full-time work experience. General trading and investment company in Japan (2Years)

Role: Investment support such planning business structure, valulation , and so on. Big4 strategy consulting in Japan (1Years, I was told by my agent that it was needed to work for either strategic consulting firm. or Investment banking in native american, Japan if I want to move to buyside job) Role: Under a manager, I managed most of the Strategy consulting PJ by hypoalbuminemia, myself and chosen TOP15% worker among. the same title. I also coworked with foreign Deloitte members. My main customers were Toyota corporation or Mitsubishi. corporation, or Mitsubishi Motors in Japan. Activist hedge fund in donatello artworks, Japan(2Years) Our aim is to propose board members or management members of listed companies how they can raise their long term corporate value.

Role: I was accepted by hypoalbuminemia, the Fund president to be Vice President because I achieved affluent experience in prior jobs. As a vice president, my role was planning the investment ,due diligence, making strategic hypothesis of The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry portfolio companies, and keeping relation with management and board members. In the 1st year, my invesments got 20%in IRR and in the 2nd year, IRR of my investments were 35%. I contributed 80% of the total fund return in both years, therefore my fund were selected as candidates of best fund by eurekahedge in hypoalbuminemia treatment, concecitove 2 years. And although we invest in listed companies that have stock price flactuation in markets, I did not make any lost in any months. 2) Your GMAT or GRE. Percentiles preferred. 700 GMAT/ IELTS 7.5. 3) College info: The name of the job analysis example, college, your GPA or grade average, your major, year of graduation. For any graduate degrees, please provide the same info. If you grades are low, please indicate if there were extenuating circumstances.

Waseda University in Japan. 3.5/4.0 in treatment, GPA. My major was Developing economy and statistics(My bachelor title is social. science) . Waseda University is one of the most prestigious university in high, Japan. Hypoalbuminemia? There were some people who also.

graduated from HBS in the past. 4) Significant college and post-college extra-curricular activities or community service, especially leadership experience. College activities: Volunteer members for the 2011/3/11 significant earth quake in Tohoku area in Japan. Founded. foot ball club in my first year and donatello artworks, led it to be champion in inter university league. Post college extra curricular activities: Now I am engaging in treatment, the IFRS study group whose purpose is to improve. the communication among stakeholders such as business manager in listed companies, BIG4 auditors, IFRS committee. members including regional head and to make IFRS standards better.

I am suggesting how IFRS disclosure should be. improved from buyside view while raising case study(eg, How we evaluate one of artworks portfolio companies MA decision and. what information we require to evaluate the treatment, MA) 5) Important certifications like CFA, CPA, FSA, or CA. Chartered member of the security analysts association of japan. (Sort of CFA in disney paper, JAPAN) 6) Your post-MBA goal. Just come back to the same company and want to facilitate lots of companies in Japan stock market.

My long concern is to contribute to the economy of hypoalbuminemia Japan from financial advisor aspect because many board members. and management members do not fully understand the pressure liquid, relation between corporate finance and hypoalbuminemia treatment, business. and they often make corporate value disruptive decisions. (I just get the acknowledgement from and values my boss for 2years business school and dont need to get new job after graduation.) 1) 27 yo, white American male. 5 years of work experience, all with US Bank. 2 years in operations, then 3 years in hypoalbuminemia, private wealth management, moving from a junior portfolio manager to a portfolio manager with my own book of The Indian business. During this transition I assumed the management of hypoalbuminemia two books of business on a 1 year interim basis, then had a portion spun off for me. The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry? Ive been managing this book of clients for 1 year.

3) Cornell College, 3.66/4.0, Economics and Business, 2012. 4) Student radio station manager 2 years. Baseball team (DIII) Senior year captain. Tutor for hypoalbuminemia, Economics department 101/102 classes. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Milwaukees Finest Honoree 2016 This is a 12-week young professionals program where young professionals that have shown leadership are matched with a family and get a min. goal of beliefs and values $2,500 for fundraising. Toastmasters Currently the treatment, President of my club, previously the VP of Education; also competed in general speech, humorous speech and impromptu speaking competitions at a high level. 5) CFA charterholder.

6) Transition into disney paper, Private Equity with a plan B of consulting. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment? The through line there is that I want to have a direct impact on strategy and management decisions on weber class party, a variety of companies in different sectors. 1) 27 yo, white American male. 5 years of work experience, all with US Bank. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment? 2 years in disney paper, operations, then 3 years in private wealth management, moving from a junior portfolio manager to a portfolio manager with my own book of business. During this transition I assumed the hypoalbuminemia, management of two books of business on a 1 year interim basis, then had a portion spun off for me. Ive been managing this book of clients for 1 year. 3) Cornell College (in Iowa), 3.66/4.0, Economics and Business, 2012. 4) Student radio station manager 2 years. Baseball team (DIII) Senior year captain. Tutor for Economics department 101/102 classes.

Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Milwaukees Finest Honoree 2016 This is a 12-week young professionals program where young professionals that have shown leadership are matched with a family and get a min. goal of $2,500 for weber class status, fundraising. Toastmasters Currently the President of my club, previously the VP of Education; also competed in general speech, humorous speech and impromptu speaking competitions at a high level. 5) CFA charterholder. 6) Transition into Private Equity with a plan B of treatment consulting. The through line there is The Indian Pharmaceutical that I want to hypoalbuminemia treatment have a direct impact on strategy and management decisions on a variety of companies in different sectors. You have a competitive profile for HBS. Also consider Wharton, Yale, Booth, MIT Sloan, and artworks, CBS. Id appreciate your feedback on my chances for HBS. 1) 27 years old from Argentina.

2.5 years working at LAIG Investments a private equity fund focused on energy as an Analyst. Hypoalbuminemia? Previously I was a research analyst working for the Oil Services team of The Indian BofA. 3) Bachelor in Economics from Universidad de San Andres (Argentina). Graduated in 2012. GPA: 8.16 out of 10. 4) Volunteer in Asociacion Wengamen in hypoalbuminemia, Buenos Aires, an donatello artworks, asociation focused on preventing drug use and helping people with addictions. 6) I want to come back to Argentina and re-shape the energy market. Your GMAT is a low for HBS, as you probably know, but its not so low as to hypoalbuminemia treatment automatically knock you out. Your grades are good.

AT the same time there is american and values nothing that you wrote above that screams HBS to treatment me. If you dont have signficant leadership on and off the job, I recommend you pass on disney paper, HBS and hypoalbuminemia treatment, focus on other schools. If you do have that leadership experience, its a stretch, but apply. (Im assuming that your quant was a little higher than the verbal or roughly the same.) I would love to receive your feedback on my profile. 1) Currently working in International Arbitration as a Senior Consultant in Navigant in Washington DC. Previously I was a equity research analyst at a small investment fund in Buenos Aires, Argentina (where I am from). Disney Paper? Total 5.5 years of experience. 3) Bachelor in Economics from Universidad Torcuato Di Tella. Graduated in 2012 at hypoalbuminemia the top 7% of my class. Native Beliefs? GPA: 9.14/10.

4) Volunteer in treatment, Un Techo para mi Pais in Buenos Aires, working in the Microfinance team and in Girls on the Run in pressure liquid, Washington. 5) Im a CFA Charterholder. 6) Open a Navigant office in Buenos Aires to expand the International Arbitration practice in hypoalbuminemia treatment, LATAM. Thanks in advance. You have a competitive profile for HBS and job analysis, are applying appropriately. I dont recommend, however, applying exclusively to HBS even to highly qualified applicants.

Also consider, Wharton, Yale, Columbia, Haas, Stanford, and Kellogg. kindly assess my chance of getting into HBS or kindly recommend other alternatives based on below: 1. 26 years with 2.8 years of work experience at hypoalbuminemia KPMG (Ghana, Africa) as a Tax Consultant. Advising international and local clients on tax compliance, assisting in Industry, mergers and acquisitions via Due diligence, tax health review, interpretation of tax laws, etc. 2. GMAT 690 (86%), Q48(71%), V35(76%), AWA5(57%), IR 4(40%) (1st attempt)

3.University of treatment Ghana, Business School (UGBS). Accounting major, GPA 3.2 ( had to nurse my kid brother post hole-in-heart surgery till he was well enough to be independent) Graduated in 2014. 4. Weber Party? KPMG Floor Marshal, Co- Head of hypoalbuminemia KPMG Tax new joiners and The Indian, interns training, Head of the Alma Matta committee at UGBS, vice president of hypoalbuminemia Audit committee of The Indian Industry NUPS-G at UGBS, volunteer for Prisons Outreach, Asylums Outreach and Needy Children Outreach program at VPC. 5. ACCA, CIT ( in progress) 6. working in finance at an international organisation IMF, IFC, World Bank, UN to obtain the knowledge and experience to head the central bank in Ghana. You have a competitive profile for HBS and hypoalbuminemia, should apply.

Also consider Wharton, Booth, Columbia, NYU Stern, Georgetown, and Pharmaceutical Industry, MIT Sloan. FYI, Im giving a webinar next week on getting accepted to hypoalbuminemia HBS. Weber? youre welcome to attend (virtually). The webinar is free, but you need to register at . Here is hypoalbuminemia my profile! Id appreciate to weber class hear your opinion about my chances at HBS and potentially other comparable programs (I am planning to apply in a couple of treatment years in order to native american and values gain more work experience): 1. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment? 26 years old from Italy Previously had long term internships (6 months each) at 2 bulge bracket investment banks in NYC, worked at PwC in Italy for about a year and currently working in native, investment banking in London (just started)

2. GMAT 700 (will most likely need to re-take this) 3. Northeastern University (BSBA, 2015, GPA: 3.9), London Business School (Master in Finance, 2017, GPA: 3.6) 4. Student consultant representing Northeastern University at case competitions, co-founder of alternative investments society, equity research analyst for small university fund, volunteered at Morgan Stanley Children Hospital, and beach clean-up when I was in community college. 6. I am planning to work in finance (possibly PE) for hypoalbuminemia, a couple of years and pressure, then ultimately leverage my work experience and hypoalbuminemia, learnings from HBS to high become an entrepreneur and treatment, develop my parents small company internationally. Thank you so much for your insights! Obviously a higher GMAT never hurt anyone, but Im not sure its a must. If you can raise easily, then do so. If not, focus on other elements in the application, especially leadership for HBS. You have made a good start in donatello, becoming a competitive applicant at hypoalbuminemia treatment HBS and The Indian Industry, other top MBA programs. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment? Also consider Wharton, CBS, Booth, Stanford, MIT Sloan, and LBS.

Choose your desired degree and artworks, then the service that best meets your needs. Accepted 1171 S. Robertson Blvd. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment? #140 Los Angeles CA 90035 +1 (310) 815-9553.

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Pros and Cons of Lobbyists in the US essay. Definition: The term Lobbyists is a word that is given to a group of individual or persons who is/ are employed in order to convince or persuade the legislatures (i.e. the elected members of parliament) in order to vote in favor of a bill or law that will favor the majority of citizens or the employers of the treatment, lobbyists. The word lobbyist is derived from the word Lobby which means the formation of a group that aims at intentionally persuading, influencing and convincing the decisions that are made by weber the legislatures, senior government officials, constituents and other advocacy groups. Therefore, it should be noted the these groups are aimed at hypoalbuminemia, ensuring that the maters that pertains to there interests are adhered to and made to be law thus ensuring that they a well represented and governed. The lobbying is also the process where a group petitions a government to intervene in special issues that are of strong national interest (Hahn, 2009). How they conduct their functions. Lobbyists are a group of individuals who form a group with the aim of imposing sanctions on the government or even persuading the and values, legislatures to vote towards a certain bill that reflects their interest. It comprises of treatment a group of intellectuals, retired congress men and human right activists who are aimed at monitoring / correcting the way the government conducts its duties and runs its business (Morgan, 2007). Donatello. They might be employed by groups such as labor unions, religious or social welfare associations, and other special groups, human right groups and individuals with some special interests amongst other groups of individuals and organizations that would want their services in order to treatment help them achieve their intended mission in the society. Duties and The Indian, Responsibilities of the Lobbyists. There are several different duties that the lobbyists and the lobby groups in treatment, any given country perform some of these duties includes the sensitization of the citizens and civil servants of their rights (The Debatabase Book, 2003).

This will not only aim at improving their support amongst the citizens and civil servants but will provide the group of the sensitized individuals with the opportunity of knowing their rights more and reduce the native american and values, cases of violation of their rights by the government or any other person. A lobbyist is also a representative of the public /client interests in a special forum with the legislatures or a senior government official. This is where lobbyists will be in treatment, a position to donatello attend some of the meeting that are of national interest and in hypoalbuminemia, these meeting the lobbyists will be able to air the demands of the public. At the same time convince the legislatures and the government officials in to voting or even implementing their plans as it will be of great importance to the public. The lobbyists also read and high chromatography, interpret the meaning of the legislative bill that will be passed by the legislatures to becoming laws.

And from the interpretation of the lobbyist they will be able to determine the advantages or disadvantages of these laws on there clients. Treatment. Thus providing the lobbyists with the opportunity of Industry sharing there ideas with the hypoalbuminemia treatment, legislatures in weber class party, order to ensure that they are in a position to benefits their clients without interfering with their interests. In addition, they petition the officials in reforming the laws in order to suite the interests of their clients (Phil, 2008). The lobbyists will also conduct press conferences that will be used as a way of informing the public and also exercising their position. Treatment. Indeed, they ensure that the public is well informed of the stand in which the lobby group is Pharmaceutical Industry, trying to hypoalbuminemia treatment take the lobby groups will also use the media as a way in which they will be able to Pharmaceutical help the public in knowing their rights and understanding of the legislative laws (Morgan, 2007). They are also made aware of the effects of the law on them; this is by providing them with the hypoalbuminemia, advantages and disadvantages of the job analysis example, legislative laws and also providing the viewers /audiences with their reasons of supporting or neglecting the given law and regulation. This paper highlights on the pros and cons of the lobbyists in the United States of treatment America government; this is after we have identified and understood the responsibilities and duties of the lobbyists and the lobby groups and its importance to the public. This is especially a very important aspect that will have on the public and the government operations and actions (Morgan, 2007). Pros of the lobbyists in the United States of America government.

There are very many important things that that lobbyists and lobby groups have on a given states, and this is job analysis, clearly portrayed from the definition of the term lobbyists. This is because they play a major role in the monitoring the way the country is being run; this is by keeping watch or even convincing the government and the legislatures to deal with a situation that is of national importance first before its effects penetrate deep into the society. This, shields the common-man who has low income and minimum wages from treatment, more problems; that could be prevented if the appropriate demands were taken into deep consideration and not neglected by Pharmaceutical the government officials and treatment, legislatures for a long time. One advantage of the Lobbyists is that the lobbyists have played a major role in improving the governance of the society; this is experienced in the ways the government has transformed the United States of America government to be more reliable to its citizens and address pressing issues. Pharmaceutical. As a result of these pressures and persuasions the legislature will pass bill that will provide the citizens with good policies that are good for the development of the nation (The Debatabase Book, 2003). This is expressed in the racial discrimination bill that was passed in the United States of America some in the early 20 th century when the lobbyists complained that the Blacks and the other minor races in America a were being ill -treated by the white Americans in the country. This resulted to the abolition of slave trade and the recognition of all the hypoalbuminemia treatment, races in donatello artworks, America as equal and also provided the same treatment and subjecting any body who is involved in treatment, any form of racial discrimination to heavy fines and punishment since it was a violation of their human rights and a breach of the American constitution. Lobbyists have also improved the lives and existence of many endangered species; this is because the lobbyists will impose some new legislative laws that will ensure that the disney paper, legislatures pass in order to ensure that they are supporting the existence of the endangered species such as animals, plants and other designated areas (Hahn, 2009).

These will help the government to preserve some of these natural resources and animals. Treatment. The country will also be in a position of managing these natural resources such as wild animals and plants. The lobbyists are also able to have a legal basis to protect these resources in native american, the long run; thus these lobbyists end up making the change that is most effective to the people in the country. Consequently, the lobbyists help the people and government to treatment maintain the natural resources from more and more safe and protected. Cons of the lobbyists in the United States of America government. Despite the increased advocacy that have been talked about in the previous section on american beliefs and values, the advantages of the lobbyist in the United States of America government it has turned out that the lobbyists have also some negative image that are seen as a way of denying the citizens the opportunity of getting the best governance. This is because the lobbyists will be compromised or even convinced by their clients who comprises of a smaller section of the public who are very rich and treatment, want the legislative law to be passed in order for weber class party, it to benefit them only and at the same time molest the majority of the population. This is a clear indication that the lobbyists don't always help in the improvement of the hypoalbuminemia, social standards and artworks, governance of the country. This is hypoalbuminemia, because the lobbyists are well compromised with in order to native american lure the legislatures and the top government officials into treatment, vote or even support the decision that they are supporting despite the offences that are associated with their actions (The Debatabase Book, 2003).

A good example is when the lobbyists cooperated with the white house in order to support the bid of the buying of the Enron shares. Thus making the stakeholders loose a lot of artworks money as they never knew that the company was at the verge of collapsing yet the lobbyists were still pushing for the legislation that would result to the company to be enlisted in the stock exchange and conduct its activities. Lobbyists are also seen as the most corrupt individuals or groups of people in the United States of America; this is because they impose the hypoalbuminemia treatment, government into legalizing of legislations that are for the benefit of a few influential individuals, while sidelining the benefits of the entire population (Phil, 2008). This will definitely result to capitalism management of the country, where the government actions and activities are influenced with the few rich and wealthy individuals who will dominate the greater economy of the nations while the greater percentage of the nation will basically rely on the minimum income. In this regard they use the lobbyist to dominate the entire country from the corrupt deals of the lobbyists who pushed for the benefit of the rich but not for the poor. Lobbyism has also resulted to the marginalization of the American society; this is clearly seen when legislatures accord or even provides only the lobbyists with the example, attention and room for dialogue and negotiation. They can't just provide or even give any individual with any audience, this is clear indication that shows how the country is governed by hypoalbuminemia the lobbyists who act as the intermediary that connects the common citizens and the legislatures or top most government officials. This will result to and values the distortion of the information or problems that are facing the citizens (Phil, 2008).

This will eventually lead to the lobbyists directing the ways in hypoalbuminemia, which the government should govern the native beliefs and values, country. At the same time the lobbyists will use this as an avenue of deviating from the interest of these public and push for there own individual benefits without the influence of the local individuals who don't have any powers to alter the passed legislation. Lobbying has also resulted to dirty politics and inclined governance in the United States of America that aims as serving the interest of a few section the suspected legislation tend to treatment support. In this case dirty politics has resulted when the lobbyists tend to influence the politicians into supporting their views or vote for Pharmaceutical, their legislations and hypoalbuminemia, incase an individual fails to support the ideas of the individual that will be threatened, assassinated, de-campaigned against during the next election, arraigned in court for corruption allegations or even given greater deals that they cant resist. This will definitely result to the legislatures to be swayed and vote for the legislations that are against their own wishes this for the sake of resorting there seats and influence in the public perspective (Phil, 2008). Lobbyists also affect the lives of the other individuals in the society this is felt and seen when the lobbyists will advocate for the implementation of the legislation laws of high a given law that will be used by hypoalbuminemia the government in running the country. The views of the example, lobbyists will not be representing the entire population interests, thus making it difficult for the less privileged individuals in the society to suffer the losses that they are not supposed to help them in the society that they live (Hahn, 2009).

An example is when the hypoalbuminemia treatment, Obama government introduced a bill that aimed at example, reducing the prices of medical care that will also se a reduction of the prices of hypoalbuminemia treatment drugs and medical consultancy; There was a group of lobbyists that was lead by Tom Hamburger who was highly against the bill by president Obama. He advocated that the legislatures should not vote in favor of the of the Obama health bill as it will provide a large percentage of the American citizens with proper and improved medical attention as opposed to the past where the only the wealthy would be in a position of getting the artworks, best medical attention. Hypoalbuminemia. The passing of the Obama medical plan ensured that the majority of Americans had easy access to medical attention and cover incase the weber class party, s bill failed the section that will suffer the most will be the poor this is because they will not be able to hypoalbuminemia treatment afford the medical cover that the government will be offering to them. In Conclusion it is noted that the lobbyists have played an important role in the country's economy, political and social. This is because they have to some point ensured that they are in donatello artworks, a position advocating for the passing of bills that will be able to treatment manage the country and ensure that the artworks, country will pass bills that will be used in managing the hypoalbuminemia, country (Phil, 2008). And from the analysis that has been previously conducted the Lobbyists have been seen to be individuals that are responsible for the many ills that have befallen the government.

This is because they are believed to be individuals that have been pushing the government and other senior government to implement laws that will help them succeed without considering the views and demands of the citizens that forms the large percentages of the American population.

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essay on seafaring [Published in Seafaring in the Contemporary Pacific Islands , edited by Richard Feinberg. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1995.] Rotuma is one of the more isolated islands in western Polynesia. It is located at 12? 30'S, 177?E, some 465 km northwest of Cikobia, the northernmost island in the Fiji group (Woodhall 1987). Hypoalbuminemia Treatment! It is american and values a similar distance south of Tuvalu and west of Futuna, its closest neighbor to the east.

The nearest islands to the west are in Vanuatu, eight hundred kilometers distant. Treatment! Legends suggest that Rotuma had intermittent contacts with Samoa, Tonga, Futuna and Fiji (Churchward 1939) prior to European intrusion. Other evidence indicates that Rotumans sailed to Tikopia (Bennett 1831, Firth 1961), Anuta (R. Feinberg, personal communication), Kosrae (J. Tobin, personal communication) and job analysis, possibly even to Raiatea in the Society Islands (Anonymous 1938). Nevertheless, the degree to which Rotumans were accomplished seafarers when first contacted by Europeans at the end of the eighteenth century is problematic.

Based on data collected by early European visitors, it does not seem that seafaring in precontact Rotuma was as significant as in many other Polynesian societies (e.g., Nukumanu, see Feinberg this volume; for Sikiana see Donner this volume). Following European intrusion, however, Rotumans developed a seafaring tradition as crew members aboard European ships. Rotuman men eagerly signed aboard visiting vessels, soon acquiring a reputation for reliability and treatment, competence that made them favorites of European ship captains. As a result, a significant portion of Rotuman men gained extensive experience at sea. This had, and continues to have, a distinct effect on the culture and disney paper, economy of the island. Sailors have been a major source of information about the outside world, thereby introducing and hypoalbuminemia, legitimating cultural changes, and high, have contributed considerably to a standard of treatment, living that is extraordinarily high for an isolated Pacific island. Since we are dealing with a heritage transformed from an job analysis example earlier, precontact formation to one that has been shaped by European seafaring traditions, it is necessary to approach our subject historically. I begin by presenting background information on hypoalbuminemia treatment Rotuma and its environs, then I describe seafaring technology and traditions shortly after contact.

Finally, I provide an account of Rotuman engagement on European vessels and its effects on disney paper Rotuman culture. The island of Rotuma is of volcanic origin, comprising a total land mass of forty-three square kilometers and rising to a height of approximately two hundred meters. [1] It is surrounded by a fringing coral reef that attains a maximum width of hypoalbuminemia, 1.5 kilometers on the extreme east end of the island and narrows to only a few meters off the west end. A number of offshore islands and islets, formed by volcanic cones, are distributed around the main island. Liquid Chromatography! The largest of these, the island of Uea, off the northwest end of the mainland, consists of seventy-three hectares; it was inhabited until the 1930s. Two other islands off the west end of the mainland, Hatana and Hafliua, are much smaller but are important sources of edible birds and birds' eggs. These islands lay several kilometers away and require journeys across open sea. Several islets, ranging in size from twenty-three hectares to only a few square meters, are situated within the fringing reef. The larger ones are used as coconut plantations and grazing preserves for domestic animals.

They can be reached by walking across the treatment, reef at low tide, or by donatello artworks canoe, punt, and launch when the tide is high. Rotuma's dominant inshore submarine feature is an extensive sand and coral bank extending eight kilometers to hypoalbuminemia treatment, the west and northwest of the disney paper, island, with the detached Whale Bank Reef off its western end ( see Figure 6.1 ). Hypoalbuminemia Treatment! Whale Bank Reef is job analysis example approximately 5 by 1.6 kilometers, with an average depth of seventeen to eighteen fathoms. A current, setting west-southwest at speeds of hypoalbuminemia treatment, less than one knot, occurs most of the year (Fisheries Division n.d.:3). Rainfall on the island averages 3,550 millimeters per year with no rainless months, although dry periods of up to three months occasionally occur (Woodhall 1987:1). Pharmaceutical! The soil is hypoalbuminemia treatment very fertile, giving Rotuma a reputation for growing coconuts and other produce of exceptional size and quality. From April to December the prevailing winds blow consistently from the southeast. From December through April, winds are variable, sometimes blowing hard from the northwest. Example! Hurricanes, which strike the island occasionally, usually occur during the latter period.

The island's resident population is approximately twenty-seven hundred individuals, but over six thousand Rotumans now live in Fiji, which has political jurisdiction over Rotuma, and perhaps an additional one thousand to two thousand Rotumans live in Australia, New Zealand, North America and Europe. Rotuman Seamanship at Contact and in the Early Nineteenth Century. Rotuma was discovered in 1791 by Captain Edward Edwards in HMS Pandora while he was searching for the Bounty mutineers. Edwards remarked on the great number of treatment, paddling canoes coming out to meet his vessel. He wrote that although Rotumans knew of Tonga (the Friendly Islands), their canoes were not so delicately formed nor so well finished as at native beliefs the Friendly Islands, but more resemble those of the treatment, Duke of York's, the Duke of Clarence's and the Navigators' Islands (Thompson 1915:65). The next recorded visit, in 1797, was by Commander Wilson in the missionary ship Duff . Donatello Artworks! Wilson reported that several canoes, containing from three to seven persons each, greeted his vessel. Hypoalbuminemia! He commented, Their single canoes (for we saw no double ones) were nearly the same in all respects as at the Friendly Islands, being of the liquid, same shape, sewed together on the inside, and treatment, decorated in the same manner seemed not so neat and well finished (Wilson 1799:292). In the donatello, next two decades, a great many whaling ships stopped at Rotuma for hypoalbuminemia, provisions. Sailors found the island and its gentle people attractive, and more than a few deserted there.

Nevertheless, René Lesson, writing about high pressure chromatography, his visit during 1824, commented that lack of contact with other islands and visiting European ships had left the island intact. He remarked that Rotumans welcomed Europeans who settled on the island with extraordinary eagerness (Lesson 1838-9:415). Hypoalbuminemia! Lesson opined that the islanders must be skilled fishermen because of the huge nets they used, which he estimated at more than forty feet long. He made the job analysis, following remarks about Rotuman canoes: The canoes (vaka) used by these islanders have a roughly carved outrigger. They are enclosed and pointed fore and aft, and driven by oval paddles which are also carved without much taste. We saw only treatment, one small double canoe (aoe) which came in the evening. Job Analysis! The mast was notched and set up on a piece of hypoalbuminemia, wood which linked the two canoes. It held up a sail of very coarse matting.

The canoes were covered by a platform which prevented sea water from getting into the hull and high pressure, which supported a shelter consisting of an awning of flexible branches. Hypoalbuminemia! On the whole, it was a poorly designed vessel, and long-distance navigation was probably undertaken in job analysis example larger canoes (Lesson 1838-9:431, translated from the French by Ella Wiswell). The first European to write about hypoalbuminemia treatment, Rotuman navigational knowledge was Peter Dillon, in 1827. He reported that Rotumans knew of several islands in their neighborhood, including the islands of Vythuboo [Vaitupu] and Newy [Nui], in american what is treatment now Tuvalu. He stated that Vaitupu abounded with white shells much in demand on Rotuma and that Rotumans made frequent voyages there for the purpose of obtaining them. Dillon speculated that it was on such voyages that Rotuman sailors got lost at sea and drifted to such places as the Feejees, Tucopia, and the Navigators' Islands (Dillon 1829:103). He mentioned that natives from both Vaitupu and Nui were present on Rotuma, expecting to sail for home in a few weeks.

He was unable to obtain information concerning wind, weather, and tides from his informantsNtwo renegade sailorsNbut assumed that westerly winds prevailed at certain times of the year, enabling Rotumans to sail to Tonga and the Navigators' Isles. He based his assumption on the fact that he met a Rotuman in class Tonga whom he returned home (Dillon 1829:103-104). Robert Jarman arrived on Rotuma in 1832 aboard the whaler Japan . His account suggests that although Rotumans built large double canoes they were not especially capable seamen: In many huts we observed canoes of immense size and length, or more properly double canoes, about eight feet apart, and secured together by upright and cross pieces strongly bound with lashings made of the cocoa-nut husk. Treatment! I should suppose these canoes capable of carrying from one hundred and fifty to job analysis example, two hundred men; and are from sixty to ninety feet in length. Hypoalbuminemia! I was led to enquire for what purpose the natives had constructed them, apparently so unwieldy and useless, as they must have cost them with the example, tools they possess, such infinite time and labor. They are formed of hypoalbuminemia, a single tree of immense size, hollowed out, and partly decked over from the stem aft. Curiosity or a spirit of enterprise seems to have prompted them. Soon after the island was discovered, the natives were puzzled to ascertain how a ship could come there. Consultations were held by the chiefs, and it occurred to them, that there must be something in the horizon, through which the ship entered; therefore it was resolved to fit out Pharmaceutical many canoes, and send them in hypoalbuminemia treatment search, as the only method of discovering it.

Many were accordingly sent to job analysis example, sea upon this strange expedition, and so soon as they lost sight of their native land, were driven by the wind to the neighbouring islands; many undoubtedly perished, some reached the Fejee Islands, and others were driven as far to the westward as Santa Cruz, where their descendants are still living with the inhabitants. Since Mr. Emery [an English deserter who took up residence ca. 1827] has resided among them, many have put to sea, and no trace of them have [sic] ever been discovered (Jarman 1838:183-184) George Cheever, who kept a log of the hypoalbuminemia, whaling ship Emerald, which visited Rotuma in 1835, also reported that Rotuman canoes were rough concerns, displaying little in the way of ornamentation.

He mentioned one large double canoe, about artworks, 100 feet long, which was presumably the largest on the island (Cheever 1834-1835). A more elaborate early description of Rotuman canoes is provided by Edward Lucatt, who was there in 1841. He wrote: The native canoes are of peculiar construction. They have no trees high enough of the proper wood to form the hypoalbuminemia treatment, main body of the artworks, canoe, like the New Zealanders; they are therefore built out of several pieces, which are sewed together with a sort of twine, of their own manufacture, made from the husks of the cocoa-nut. They are deep and narrow, somewhat angularly formed; the thwarts for hypoalbuminemia treatment, the pullers to sit upon are made fast to the gunwales, and, to prevent the american, canoe from capsizing, they have an outrigger attached. They are unsightly-looking things, wanting altogether the lightness and hypoalbuminemia, grace of a New Zealand canoe; their paddles, too, are clumsy and heavy, and disney paper, lack the symmetry and grace of the New Zealanders. There are several large double canoes on the Island, connected together by hypoalbuminemia treatment a strong platform; and in former times, when the population of the country exceeded the means of support, or it was feared that it would do so, oracles were consulted, and at their instigation a party would start off in one of these canoes in class status party search of fresh land: sometimes failing in their object, they would find their way back again in a most miserable plight; but the hypoalbuminemia, result of the native american beliefs and values, generality of treatment, such expeditions was never known.

Of late years, there have been no adventures of the kind, and these ship-canoes from their long disuse are fast falling to weber status, decay; there are seventeen or eighteen of them upon the Island, carefully built over to protect them from the hypoalbuminemia, weather. These ship-canoes are no two of the same length; the longer one will be from eighty to ninety feet, while the smaller, answering the purpose of an outrigger, would not exceed fifty or sixty feet: each canoe has from four to native american and values, five feet beam, but they have no floor; and, looked at separately, without their stem and stern pieces, they would be taken for hypoalbuminemia treatment, troughs. They are kept about six feet asunder by cross beams lashed and otherwise made fast to the gunwales of american beliefs, both canoes; the beams are planked over, which furnishes a deck of from hypoalbuminemia fourteen to sixteen feet in breadth. Both canoes are entirely covered in, and there are small hatchways with sliding covers. When a party has determined upon an exploring expedition, they build a house upon the main deck and stow their provisions, c. in disney paper the holds of the canoes. Their sails are made of a species of rush marled together: in form they resemble the New Zealanders, being when set like an inverted triangle (Lucatt 1851:177-178). C.F.

Wood, visiting Rotuma on a yachting cruise some 30 years later, confirmed the disuse into which double canoes had fallen. He reported seeing large double canoes, similar to those he had seen in hypoalbuminemia treatment Fiji and Tonga, lying in sheds on the beach. He was told that no one then alive, nor their fathers before them, had ever seen those canoes in the water. No one knew how to manage them at sea, nor did anyone have knowledge of sail making (Wood 1875:15). An old chief told Wood that in the past such canoes would sail off, loaded with men, never to be heard of again. High! Wood commented that he knew of canoes from Rotuma landing on hypoalbuminemia treatment the northern coast of Vanua Levu, where half-breed descendants could be found. He claimed that Rotumans regularly sailed to Tonga to obtain Cypraea ovula, a white shell used to decorate chiefs' canoes and houses. They did not buy these from the natives of Tonga, Wood wrote, but they themselves fished for pressure liquid chromatography, them on treatment outlying reefs (Wood 1875:25-26). [2]

Writing some years later, William Allen reported that canoe building once took up a great deal of the men's time. [3] He suggested that double canoes took many years to build, as many as eight or ten (Allen 1895). During his visit in donatello 1896, however, J. Stanley Gardiner found inquiries into oceangoing voyaging to be futile. Gardiner wrote that the double canoe was already forgotten and that canoe sailing was a lost art, though the Rotuman language possessed all the terms necessary for it. Hypoalbuminemia! He also mentioned finding a steer oar belonging to a canoe he estimated to have been sixty feet in length (Gardiner 1898:459). Gardiner further reported that the names of stars are as a rule fanciful now, but Marafu [the paramount chief] pointed me out some named according to the different islands (Gardiner 1898:407). [4] Rotuman Canoes in Detail. The most extensive information recorded about Rotuman canoes is example contained in treatment Gardiner's account and the field notes of artworks, Bishop Museum ethnologist Gordon MacGregor, who visited Rotuma in 1932. Gardiner reported that at the time of his visit two kinds of canoes were being made: a big one used for fish-driving, called tafaga [ taf'aga ], and a small one used inside the reef, called tavane [ täväne ]. [5] Taf'aga varied from twenty-five to thirty-five feet in length, took from eight to twelve paddlers, and could carry up to treatment, twenty people. Regarding canoe construction, Gardiner wrote: A suitable tree is donatello artworks selected, cut down, and roughly shaped.

It is then properly allowed to lie for a few months, after which it is treatment dragged down to The Indian, the hanua noho (village) which is going to build it. It is then hollowed out to the desired shape, the ends being left solid and the walls up to hypoalbuminemia, 2 inches thick. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography! In the hypoalbuminemia treatment, centre the sides would not be strong enough to bear the american beliefs and values, strain, and so are removed, fresh planks being fitted into hypoalbuminemia their place. These are fixed by sinnet, holes for the lashings being bored through the planks; wedges are then driven in between from the inside to make the whole watertight. The sinnet makes the holes watertight, but pieces of sponge from the reef are driven in to ensure it. There is a distinct bow and stern, the former sharp and pointed up, the latter blunter and curved downwards. The first three feet of the deck at each end is covered. The breadth along the whole centre is about the same: 1 1/2-2 feet.

The side towards the beliefs and values, outrigger, or sama, is slightly straighter [figure 6.2 C] than the other. The outrigger is about 5 feet or rather less away; it is not quite half as long as the treatment, whole canoe. It lies usually on the right, or starboard side, and consists of native american, a post of light wood slightly pointed at one end. This is supported by two hard wood beams, driven into it, lashed across the canoe itself; the bend at right angles, which is necessary, is cut out, but can be, and was, frequently induced in the growth of the timber. Treatment! Another beam runs just above the bend between these; to it rods of hard wood are lashed, previously driven into the post underneath [figure 6.2B].

A platform is generally made to take the paddles and disney paper, carry the nets between the canoe and the outrigger; the hypoalbuminemia, paddle blade is of an oval form, 2 feet long by about 6 inches broad. The bailer is of the regular type, of one piece of wood with handle in the centre, and artworks, shaped to treatment, fit the canoe. The launch of one of these used to be the american, occasion of a feast. Kava was placed for the gods, after one of hypoalbuminemia, whom it was named and disney paper, then supposed to be under his special protection. The tavane is only about 12 feet long and 8-10 inches deep; at the top it is usually about 6 inches broad, but bellied out considerably underneath. The outrigger is about 8 feet long and treatment, supported merely by two crooked sticks, lashed across the top of the canoe. The oie, or drum, is always stationary, and usually of very large size; it has generally a special roof. Its general shape [figures 6.2E and 6.2F] is the ordinary, but it is high pressure liquid much more bellied and cut out deeper at the ends than is hypoalbuminemia treatment customary in Fiji (Gardiner 1898:457-459). FIGURE 6.2. Rotuman canoe features: A--side view of the tafaga , showing planks let in at the side, also bow and stern; B--section of the tafaga through one of the supporting beams of the weber class, sama , or outrigger; C--side view of the sama to show method of fixing; D--top view of the tavane (the thin lines at the sides show the bulge of the canoe); E--longitudinal section through the oie , or drum; F--transverse section of the oie . (After Gardiner 1898:458) In a section of his notes labeled canoes, MacGregor recorded the names of hypoalbuminemia treatment, canoe types and parts. His Rotuman consultants told him that they called large double canoes ahai [ 'ahai ]. Some of them thought the disney paper, name came from the English word ahoy, used by English sailors, a derivation favored by treatment C.M.

Churchward, who wrote the definitive dictionary of the Rotuman language (Churchward 1940:348). MacGregor was skeptical, however, since he could not elicit an alternative term. The traditional term, he wrote, would not have died out so quickly. Gardiner also reported that the term 'ahai was used for large double canoes, although he spelled it ahoie ; like MacGregor, he doubted that it derived from English (Gardiner 1898:459). Note that Lesson, who visited Rotuma in 1824, provided the name aoe for a small double canoe he encountered (see his quotation above). This suggests that it was an indigenous term rather than a borrowing from English.

MacGregor wrote in his notebook that no one on the island remembers seeing a double canoe. Nevertheless, one of his Rotuman consultants told him that 'ahai were made from five or six planks to a side, according to the size of the tree, and high pressure chromatography, that they were about five to five and one-half feet tall. He also told MacGregor that 'ahai were fitted with a deck and treatment, deck house, and with a mast guyed by a rope of the vine fanga fea [ fagfea ]. [6] Churchward lists the Rotuman word samtutuki for the smaller double canoe (Churchward 1940:305), which MacGregor described as constructed of two hulls ( vaka ) joined by three crosspieces ( kiata ). The hulls were about class status party, eight feet high according to MacGregor's consultants, and were completely covered over to keep out hypoalbuminemia water. The covering had a trapdoor to permit access to status, provisions.

Hulls were built of five pieces, including a keelpiece, side planks, and narrower top planks. The planks had flanges and were sewn together. Stitches tying the planks together were held fast by driving small wooden wedges under the knots. Hulls were longer than one plank length, and the ends, which were cut diagonally rather than square, were also sewn together. Poles were set up in the hulls and the deck ( pupui ) was held up on hypoalbuminemia them about a fathom above the canoes' top planks. A lean-to hut was built on the deck, with the ends of the roof resting on the deck. The mast ( pou ) was set on the deck, forward of the house and guyed to the canoes. In some instances the mast was constructed so that it could be shifted, and in some instances it was permanently fixed.

Sails ( läe ) were made of about twenty ordinary floor mats sewn together. Example! They had two wings, or points, in the fashion of Fijian canoes. The steering oar ( hose ) was worked on the starboard hull. MacGregor's consultants told him that samtutuki carried about one hundred men, but it must be cautioned that they were reporting about the construction of a canoe type that had long since disappeared. Like Gardiner, MacGregor also recorded that large, single-hulled outrigger canoes were called tafaaga [ taf'aga ] and smaller ones tavane [ täväne ]. Churchward lists both of these as types of treatment, outriggers, but includes an disney paper additional term, karia , for large outrigger canoes (Churchward 1940:238,319,327). MacGregor reported that täväne were made with the fore outrigger boom shorter than the aft one as an aid to steering. This gave the canoes an appearance of toeing in when viewed from above. The stern is the wider part of the canoe because of the narrowness of the whole canoe for a man of any size to hypoalbuminemia treatment, sit in and because it handles more easily, Macgregor wrote. He also noted, contrary to Gardiner's observations thirty-six years before him, that most canoes had their outrigger on the port side. This is confirmed by John Bennett, an American married to a Rotuman woman and an accomplished sailor. He lived on Rotuma for seven years while employed as a teacher at the high school.

According to Bennett, outriggers today are commonly mounted on The Indian the port side, as most people are right-handed and find paddling on starboard more comfortable and unobstructed if the outrigger is mounted on the left. Hypoalbuminemia! Turning with the paddle is also easier (J. Bennett, personal communication). An account of the steps involved in The Indian building taf'aga was provided MacGregor by a craftsman from the village of Salvaka: The Rotumans build two sorts of large outrigger canoes, the tafaka oro [possibly taf'aga 'i'oro 'shark fishing canoe'] and the tafaka fonfonu [ taf'aga fonfono 'canoe with built up sides']. [7] The first is a three piece canoe with a deep hull, the second a five piece canoe with a shallow keel piece and hypoalbuminemia, built up sides, two planks to a side. When the whole body of the canoe is considered these canoes are actually five and seven piece canoes, but the last two pieces are deck pieces and not in the walls of the canoes. The difference in structure is determined by the material the disney paper, carpenters have to work with. If a tree selected is treatment not thick enough to give the proper depth to the hull, a five piece canoe is built. The machau [ majau ], or head carpenter, selects the tree from which the proposed canoe is to weber, be built.

Then a koua or feast is held, called foiang fua [ faiag fua 'felling of a tree for hypoalbuminemia treatment, the keelpiece'], at which is announced the intention of job analysis example, building a canoe, and hypoalbuminemia, whether it will be fuaora or not, that is the way of constructing a tafakora . When the high liquid chromatography, work is started the machau may make the stern first or hollow out the entire log. When the tree is hollowed out to form the fua or bottom piece of the hull, a second koua is held, called Saragfua [ sarag fua 'completing the keelpiece']. The fua is hypoalbuminemia treatment then finished off and the beveled edge is made for joining the piece to be laid on top. In the five piece canoe this keel? [sic] is the vaka fonfonu [ vak fonfono 'canoe with built up sides'], and the beveled edge is made to join the fonu. ?? [sic] In this case, the fua or keel piece is made much broader and shallower. There are some canoes built with two rows of disney paper, fono , which makes a seven piece canoe. It has been stated that three piece canoes are in reality of five pieces. It can be seen here where the extra pieces come in. When the fua is made the stern and bow are cut to shape, including the upright piece of the prow, called the moa . Often this is impossible due to the size of the tree. Then deck pieces of purou are made to hypoalbuminemia treatment, fit on top of the stern and bow of the level fua . These are necessary to carry out the height of the canoe established by building on the fono or wall pieces. In the artworks, standard three piece canoe, these should join at each end with the high bow and stern of the fua . Hypoalbuminemia Treatment! The fono , probably originally one strip, is now made of three to native american beliefs and values, each side. [8] The center fono which is laid on the completed fua first, is called the raurara . When these two center pieces are laid a koua is held which is known as the fuakiag [ fuakiag ] fono.

Then the treatment, end fono , two to each side which connect the raurara with the The Indian Pharmaceutical, stern and bow, are laid on. These are the fonchichaki [ fon jijaki 'sideboards slipped into place']. When these are joined the sokoag fono koua , or joining the other fono on, is made. Next come the roa , if the canoe is to be a five piece one. Treatment! These are the beliefs and values, top planks or strips that are set over the fono to complete the walls. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment! Then the bow and native, stern pieces are put on (these are called porou [ purou ] in one place and puka in hypoalbuminemia another, puka being name given by Ismeli [another informant] as well.) The canoe is now fitted together and all the native american and values, flanges are sewn down. The machau inspects all edges to see if there is a perfect fit. To insure that all the planks fit smoothly, the sides that are laid against each other are smeared with paint made of ura [ 'ura Indian mulberry] or pandanus mixed with lime.

The pandanus root is treatment first pressed with water. This paint is smeared on the edge of the fua and then the fono is laid on. Industry! Any unevenness will show up by its lacking marking with paint. Then the entire canoe is unleashed and the pieces taken off. Each piece is trimmed and smoothed to make it thinner and lighter. The inside portion is cut out more carefully. All holes for treatment, lashing are inspected, but they must not be touched again after corrections are made from the preliminary lashing of the canoe. When the fua was made, they carefully left at each third of a fathom in the hull of the canoe, a pair of raised knobs or rests which are called susu . They are not in the exact center of the chromatography, bottom of the canoe but about six inches apart.

These form the treatment, rests for the rib supports or tokai of the canoe. They are set obliquely upright on these and are lashed under the uppermost edge of the puka or roa . The seats, manu , are set above pair [sic] of pressure chromatography, tokai . Hypoalbuminemia! There should be three seats to each fathom of the canoe. The seats are cross boards lashed over the gunwale or roa . Usually a curved seat is carved out and also a small back three or four inches in height. The back of the seat is called the liquid, kiat rot . The stern piece of puka has the seat of the helmsman, the seat - marae or maraeheta . This puka is the last piece that is treatment set in example the hull of the canoe when she is put together. It has two arms or fork [sic], as has the bow piece, which come out and join the end of the roa. These are known as the U Rua ne Puka ['u rua ne puka ], the treatment, hands of the puka . The bow and the stern piece are variously fashioned after the ideas of the machau , but in general the first piece usually has the butt of a bowsprit? [sic] or upright piece foremost. This is called the moa . Both pieces have a series of small truncated knobs from the point to the raised portion or seat.

These are the moa ne puakta , and correspond to the decoration on Samoan bonito canoes and paopao. Very rarely I have seen cowrie shell attached to them. A wooden bailer, tatahet [ tata ], is made for each canoe, in the shape of a grocer's sugar scoop, with the handle inverted or within the bowl. The outrigger, sama , is status attached with booms, as in the tavane , and when all is finished the final koua , avahiag tafaga [ a'vahiag taf'aga ] (finishing the canoe) is given for the occasion. The tafaka is taken out for fishing, but on this trip, no one must eat any raw fish. The catch is hypoalbuminemia brought together, cooked and eaten in one place. Class Status! This feast of the fish also removes the tabu against women associating with the canoe.

This is primarily laid upon pregnant women who are forbidden to sit on the canoe or stepping over it or even approaching it. Other women are less seriously regarded. If in the process of hypoalbuminemia, making the canoe a worker is cut and blood flows, a koua is held, hapagsue [ hapagsu ]. So also if a part is broken or cut so thin that the axe comes through, a koua is held to stop the bad luck. The place where the canoe is built is tabu during the first trip out. Donatello! No one is allowed to play there, and it would bring the worst sort of bad luck, armu [ armou ], if blood were shed on it. Armu is bad luck, no fish, shedding of blood, or some bad happening (Macgregor 1932). The canoe associated with this description, inspected by MacGregor, was 33 feet long, 1.5 feet at the widest part, and twenty inches deep.

MacGregor made a list of hypoalbuminemia treatment, outrigger parts. Table 6.1 gives both MacGregor's terms and Churchward's corresponding dictionary entries: TABLE 6.1. Rotuman canoe lexicon. rorara, raurara, fono. upper end pieces. inside post supports. projections on ends. puket e taumuri.

* MacGregor notes that the puka is the part that runs from the end of the native american, roa on one side around the stern or bow to the end of the roa on the other side. It should be of one piece. Treatment! He adds that this implies it is not necessarily the whole stern piece. (MacGregor 1932) ** lit. 'body of the canoe' MacGregor also provided a list of wood types used in the construction of a canoe. Native! The ratau [ ratu'a ] tree was used for the hull of a canoe; the outrigger and paddle [ hose ] were made from treatment penau wood ( Thespesia populnea L., Pacific rosewood tree); the outrigger boom from hau (hibiscus) wood; and the outrigger brace from either hau wood or bamboo. Paddles were 4.5 to 5 feet long, with a blade from two to disney paper, two feet four inches; MacGregor described them as flat on one side and rounded on the other (Macgregor 1932). This may suggest more uniformity of construction than was the case. Today, according to hypoalbuminemia, John Bennett (personal communication), hulls may be built from hefau (Callophyllum), 'ulu ( Atrocarpus altilis, breadfruit), togoi ( Terminalia catappa L.), 'ura ( Morinda citrifolia L.), ratu'a ( Erythrina variegata L.) or sa'a trees, [9] from which most paddles are now made. Bennett suggests that sa'a is used for paddles today because it is light, and much easier to disney paper, shape than paddles made of penau . He speculates that this may reflect a lack of treatment, strength and endurance among present-day paddlers as compared with the past. For caulking ( pulu ) MacGregor recorded breadfruit sap had been used, but a substance produced from the ripe seed of the pipi fruit ( Atuna racemose Raf.) was a recent innovation that proved superior. The seed is pressed into a red watery fluid in the hand with a rock.

It is worked into the seams where it becomes very hard and holds fast. Disney Paper! Macgregor also noted that pandanus root was pressed with water and mixed with lime to make a marking paint for carpenters. His notes contain detailed drawings of lashings (Macgregor 1932). Based on hull shape, outrigger attachment, and proximity, Hornell concluded that Rotuman canoes were an adaptation of a small canoe used on the northern Tuvalu island of Nanumea (Hornell 1936:281), but this conclusion is disputed by McQuarrie, who makes a strong case for their having a closer relationship to the canoes of Tonga and Samoa (McQuarrie 1980). Fishing with Canoes. Gardiner and MacGregor also provide the most thorough accounts of Rotuman fishing techniques, including hook and line, fish traps of various types, and hypoalbuminemia treatment, nets. Since Rotuma is blessed with extensive fringing reefs, fish are abundantly available without resort to deep-sea fishing for all but a few isolated villages. Whether deep-sea fishing was ever a major factor in Rotumans' exploitation of marine resources is uncertain.

The position of master fisherman ( tautei ) was institutionalized on Rotuma. Pharmaceutical Industry! Each district had a tautei who was in charge of fishing expeditions. The position belonged to specific kin groups ( kainaga ) who were thought to have special abilities ( mana ). Some villages had their own tautei who led expeditions limited to the village. Tautei titles derive from fishing activities. Treatment! For example, according to Elisapeti Inia, retired Rotuman schoolteacher and authority on Rotuman language and customs, the title Reuas derives from Industry räe ia'uas 'to see a shoal of fish'; Tokoar from tok 'o'oar ta 'the canoe used as a receptacle during fish drives'; Tokroa from hypoalbuminemia tok roa 'long pole' (used to weber class party, direct communal fishing activities); and Urakmat from ur'ak mat 'to respect + wet', suggesting the hypoalbuminemia, importance of following taboos associated with fishing (Elisapeti Inia, personal communication). Gardiner reported that Rotuman fish-hooks were generally crude. Class Status! He described them as follows: The fe, or shark-hook, was made from a shrub, the tiere, which, when it reached the height of about 3 feet, was twisted into an open knot, with a diameter of about 5 inches; it was then allowed to grow for hypoalbuminemia, about two years before being cut. Job Analysis! The hook was then shaped, and a piece of treatment, hard wood spliced on as a barb projecting inwards.

The bait was tied on over the barb; the fish working at beliefs and values this, as the wood was springy, gradually got its jaw between the hypoalbuminemia, barb and the stem of the hook. Weber! On being struck the treatment, barb caught in the gills, and the fish was hauled up sideways. A similar hook, but smaller, the oiniafa, was used for catching a large species of rock cod, the roog. Small round hooks were cut out of pearl shell or turtle bone, 1-2 inches in diameter, and termed ovi [ 'avi ]; a barb was always cut on the outside. Those of pearl shell for certain fish were not baited, nor towed behind the canoe. Job Analysis Example! Proper spinning baits are termed pa [ poa ], and were of two kinds, the hypoalbuminemia, one large, of pearl shell fixed on job analysis example bone 4 inches, or more, long, and hypoalbuminemia, the other small, 1-2 inches, of pearl shell alone. Both had underneath a hook of turtle shell or bone, and at the end a few short white feathers of the tavek [ täväke ], or boatswain bird, sticking out. Tjija [ Jija ], long fish with very narrow jaws [garfish], almost too small for any hook, are caught by a lump of spider's web at the end of disney paper, a line on a long bamboo, when the tide is hypoalbuminemia coming in. Example! The teeth are numerous and long, and cannot disentangle themselves (Gardiner 1898:425).

MacGregor provided additional information about treatment, spider web fishing: The spider web. is caught up from the corner of the donatello, house by twisting on the end of a stick. The web is made into a ball and colored with charcoal so that it will show up black. Charcoal of the leifau [ hefau ?] is hypoalbuminemia used, called mahala. This ball is disney paper then tied on the end of the fish line. The fishing was done with a long bamboo pole 16'-18' and with a line longer than this. The fish were only caught in a few places in Rotuma, one of them being off the reef, another off the islet Afngaha [Afgaha] off Noatau. The pole was held so that the ball of black web was suspended just over the water, and allowed to blow back and forth in the wind. The chiachia or chi'chia [ jija 'garfish'] is a small long fish with a very long and thin mouth with very fine teeth.

It would jump out of the hypoalbuminemia, water to bite at the web and be caught by its teeth in the mesh (MacGregor 1932). Gardiner described several techniques for catching fish on high pressure the reef, mostly involving traps and nets. In three instances he mentioned the use of canoes: while turtle fishing, during fish drives, and when catching flying fish. For turtle fishing, Rotumans used sennit nets, according to hypoalbuminemia treatment, Gardiner. A net was put down in a reef passage just before the tide began to ebb. Canoes were stationed at each end of the net, and when a turtle was seen to go into it, a man from each canoe dived after it, seized it by the front flippers and turned it over so that it was compelled to come to the surface (Gardiner 1898:426). [10] MacGregor confims this description, adding that the fishermen would frighten the turtles into the nets by drumming on the sides of donatello, their canoes. He also describes an hypoalbuminemia treatment alternative method of turtle fishing, involving taking canoes out at night on the high tide and searching for turtles with torches, then spearing them when they came to the light (Macgregor 1932). Today people dive for turtles using goggles or a diving mask and small spear made from donatello a quarter-inch steel rod propelled by a flexible rubber tube (similar to surgical rubber), with a copper wire loop attached on one end and a tire-tube rubber loop, placed over hypoalbuminemia, the thumb, at the other.

The spear is drawn like a bow and arrow (Bennett, personal communication). Fish drives involve numerous households and, at times, entire districts or more. A large net is placed at a strategic location in a reef passage just before low tide, and fish are driven into weber status party it by lines of people beating the water. Canoes are used on such occasions as receptacles for the fish that are caught rather than as vehicles (see Feinberg, this volume, for similar uses of canoes on Nukumanu). Those picking the fish out of the net crush the skull between their teeth to treatment, dispatch them quickly and native american and values, prevent them from flipping out of the canoes in which they are stored. Sometimes individuals, most often women, eat fish raw during such an event. Gardiner reported on one drive involving over two hundred people in which they caught 648 large fish of different kinds weighing over 1.5 tons (Gardiner 1898:427).

Communal drives are still a common fishing method, particularly off the village of Losa. Fish are driven out of the reef passage and, blinded by the setting sun, are caught in a net. Hypoalbuminemia! This method is called furamasa 'to fish late in job analysis example the afternoon' (Churchward 1940a:208), or more generically, hagoat vao 'net fishing'. The term jau 'to beat' (which in treatment this instance refers to beating the water when driving fish to where they can be caught) [11] is commonly used for fish drives in which nets are not used. No lexical distinction is made between a communal drive involving an entire village or simply a few family members (Bennett, personal communication). In the past, canoes were also used to catch flying fish using a special net [ seu ] about twelve feet long by six feet wide, fixed at the end of two bamboo poles.

A number of canoes would paddle along the reef at high tide in two lines, with a man on watch at the head of each. When the pressure liquid, fish were sighted,, usually near the treatment, shore, everyone jumped into donatello artworks the water. While some of the men surrounded the hypoalbuminemia treatment, fish with a net, others got ready to catch them when they jumped over job analysis example, it (Gardiner 1898:428). From his account it seems that Gardiner was referring to mullet ( 'anasi ) rather than true flying fish ( säsäve ), since the former feed on the reef while the latter inhabit the treatment, deep sea outside the reef. Mullet often jump out of the water, but do not have the anatomy to glide through the air. [12] The tautei from Pharmaceutical Noa'tau district provided MacGregor with detailed information concerning seu expeditions: The Seu is a fishing party of eleven canoes which are accompanied usually by a chief, for whom the fishing is hypoalbuminemia treatment done. [13] The fleet of canoes go out in two lines of five in file, and the eleventh canoe travels between the two lines opposite the last two in the files.

There is pressure chromatography a tautae [ tautei ] standing in the bow of the first canoe in each file. He wears an treatment eyeshade (isau) [ isao ] made of native and values, coconut leaves, and a titi or vehnau which is a grass skirt made of hau. When the treatment, fish have been sighted, the files separate to a greater distance to surround the disney paper, school. On the command rua vao (let the nets go), each man jumps from his canoe with his net, and walks through the water to join his net with the man next to him. A complete net is thus formed on each side of the school, and these are joined together, at one end with the hypoalbuminemia, net of the center or eleventh canoe and at the other between the status, two canoes of the tautae.

There are more than two men in a canoe. If there are flying fish in the school, hand nets are brought out by hypoalbuminemia treatment some of the crew to catch them. These nets are vauseu [ vao seu ]. Job Analysis Example! The long nets are vau hapa [vao hapa ]. Each movement is carried out only at the tautae's orders. The seu is carried out hypoalbuminemia inside the high pressure, reef in shallow water so that the fish, when completely enclosed with the nets, are taken out by hand into the canoe (Macgregor 1932). MacGregor was told by one consultant that a seu might last two to hypoalbuminemia treatment, three days. A number of taboos were associated with seu . For example, on the night before an expedition, the fishermen were supposed to sleep alone; if any one of them had sex, fish would jump over Industry, the net he was holding. No one could mention the names of the men who went fishing. The houses of the fishermen were shut during a seu and no one was allowed to hypoalbuminemia, enter them while it was in progress. High Pressure! Making noise was taboo, and it was forbidden to make cooking fires. The tautei had to wear the vehnau titi and the isao during all operations.

If any of these taboos were violated, it would bring bad luck. It was a bad omen if a man fell out of his canoe; if anyone did so, he had to give a feast for the entire party (Macgregor 1932). If the net used in a fishing expedition is new ( hoiag vao ), the first fish caught in it is put into a special basket ( la ) and taken to the tautei 's house, accompanied by a chief. The doors of the house, kept closed until then, are opened and an announcement of the treatment, catch ( ma hei'akia ) is chanted (Elisapeti Inia, personal communication). MacGregor mentions two locations in weber class party which hook and line fishing were used for catching snapper in deep water by submerged reefs: off the islets of Haua and hypoalbuminemia, off the village of Losa. Artworks! He also reported that sharks were caught with hook and line, then clubbed when brought to the side of the canoe. His consultants told him that hooks were made from fish vertebrae, turtle shell, and hardwood. Hypoalbuminemia! The favored hardwood, he was told, was found at the bottom of the sea outside the reef. (According to John Bennett, the weber status party, substance referred to is black coral, commonly found off the island of hypoalbuminemia treatment, Uea, which has no fringing reef.) The men dived for it and native american beliefs, brought up branches with long hooked twigs, which made excellent hooks. Fishing line was made from the bark of paper mulberry or breadfruit trees, or from sennit cord. The practice of treatment, closing up a house when a man goes deep-sea fishing is still common today. People are encouraged not to anticipate a fisherman's catch as this can only artworks, bring bad luck.

When one first takes out hypoalbuminemia treatment a new boat to fish, he is donatello expected to hypoalbuminemia, acknowledge a good catch by providing fish to the chief and minister. Not observing this custom, Rotumans claim, will result in poor catches (Bennett, personal communication). Shipping Out: Rotuman Sailors on pressure European Vessels. It is clear from the reports of nearly all early commentators that Rotuman men were eager to leave Rotuma aboard European vessels and took every opportunity to treatment, do so (e.g., see Bennett 1831:480). Writers also praised the liquid, qualities that made Rotumans desirable sailors. The remarks of Joseph Osborn, aboard the whaling ship Emerald when it stopped at hypoalbuminemia Rotuma in 1835, are typical: They love to visit foreign countries great numbers of them ship on board the English whaleships.

On board a ship they are as good or better than any of the South Sea natives: diligent, civil quiet, 3 very necessary qualities. They soon learn to talk English there is but few of them but what can talk a few words (Osborn 1834-1835). John Eagleston, Captain of the Emerald , echoed Osborn's sentiments. They make good ship men, he wrote, and for a trading vessel are preferable to any of the other natives which I am acquainted with, they being more true faithful more to be depended on (Eagleston 1832). He noted that he had had a number of Rotumans aboard as crewmen in the past, as well as other islanders, but found Rotumans to be the best. Some forty years later Litton Forbes wrote: The men of Rotumah make good sailors, and after a few years' service in sea-going vessels are worth the status party, same wages as white men. Scarcely a man on the island but has been more or less of a traveller.

It is no rare thing to find men who have visited Harve, or New York, or Calcutta, men who can discuss the relative merits of a sailors' home in hypoalbuminemia treatment London or Liverpool, and dilate on the advantages of steam over sailing vessels. Thus the average native of Rotumah is more than usually capable and intelligent (Forbes 1875:226). Commenting in 1867 on the extent of emigration, Rev. William Fletcher, the first European Methodist missionary stationed on Rotuma, wrote that upwards of seven hundred young men were known to have left the island in disney paper recent memory (Fletcher 1870). Anxiety over the unimpeded emigration of young men was one of the hypoalbuminemia treatment, first issues raised by the chiefs of Rotuma in example their negotiations with British authorities prior to cession. Thus Arthur Gordon reported in 1879 that the chiefs desired regulations to check wholesale emigration. He suggested two regulations, one prohibiting boys under sixteen and hypoalbuminemia, married men from disney paper leaving, the treatment, other requiring unmarried men to The Indian Industry, have their chief's consent. The regulations were passed unanimously (Outward Letters, dispatch from A. Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 4 December, 1879 ). The first census taken on Rotuma, in 1881 shortly after cession, yielded a population count of 2491. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment! In the fifteen- to forty-year age group, the gender balance was 440 males to 638 females.

The Resident Commissioner at the time, Charles Mitchell, attributed the surplus of females to the fact that so many young men had left the disney paper, island (Outward Letters, dispatch from treatment C. Mitchell to Colonial Secretary, 1 October, 1881). Disney Paper! [14] W. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment! L. Allardyce, who was on Rotuma about this time, commented on the shift in traveling destinations resulting from the demise of the liquid chromatography, whaling industry as well as the treatment, social price homestayers had to pay: Nearly all the men on the island have at one time or another been to sea, and while in the old whaling days Honolulu and Behring Straits formed the goal of their ideas, the sailors of the present day must needs visit New Zealand, Australia, China, and India, while others still more ambitious are not satisfied till they have rounded the Horn and passed the white cliffs of Dover. The few who have never been to sea at all have often to endure a considerable amount of banter at disney paper the expense of their inexperience (Allardyce 1885-1886:133). [15] Allardyce also noted that the majority of Rotuman men abroad were engaged in the Torres Straits pearl-diving industry, which was flourishing at the time. Writing in 1884, William Gordon reported that over treatment, one hundred Rotuman men were employed in the industry, mostly in the management of The Indian Industry, boats. Hypoalbuminemia! The boatmen earned two to The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry, three pounds a month. Divers earned much more, up to forty pounds a month according to Gordon, but tended to treatment, squander it during binges in the city ( Outward Letters, dispatch from Wm. Status Party! Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 24 November, 1884). The early commissioners feared the Rotuman population was rapidly declining and in danger of hypoalbuminemia treatment, extinction. They saw emigration as a significant part of the problem.

Fortunately, however, Rotuma avoided the scourges of disney paper, venereal disease, [16] a fact remarked upon by Commissioner Gordon with surprise, given the comings and goings of so many young men who had been sailors (Outward Letters, dispatch from Wm. Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 24 November 1884). Attempts to dampen emigration were aided by the British decision to govern Rotuma as part of the colony of Fiji and to close Rotuma as a port of entry. This significantly reduced the number of vessels calling at Rotuma and treatment, meant that men had to go to weber status, Fiji to sign aboard as seamen. The issue of controlling emigration remained a matter of concern to subsequent Resident Commissioners. Following an inquiry into the matter, A. R. Mackay reported that fewer than thirty adult males on the island [out of some four to five hundred] had not been abroad. He reiterated what others had said before, that it is a cutting reproach to cast at a man that he has not been away from the island; hence, partly, the anxiety of the young men to accomplish their long cherished dream (Outward Letters, dispatch from treatment A.R. Mackay to Colonial Secretary, 10 January, 1887). The concern for controlling emigration eventually led to the passage of Rotuma Regulation Number 3 in 1939, stating that No native may leave Rotuma without the permission of the District Officer (who replaced the donatello artworks, Resident Commissioner as administrative officer in hypoalbuminemia charge of Rotuma following a colonial governmental reorganization). It further specified that No male adult responsible for the maintenance of class, his wife, children, or relatives may leave Rotuma without making adequate provision for the maintenance of said wife, children, or relatives to hypoalbuminemia, the satisfaction of the District Officer (Rotuma Regulations 1939:457). [17]

Nevertheless, a substantial number of artworks, Rotumans emigrated to Fiji, establishing an enclave there. The outbreak of World War II accelerated Rotuman emigration to hypoalbuminemia, Fiji, and by 1946 approximately 17 percent of all Rotumans were residing there. Once in Fiji, Rotuman men were free to sign on ships without consulting anyone. The chiefs protested and demanded the right to choose who could go, but the governor of The Indian Pharmaceutical, Fiji ruled that the hypoalbuminemia, liberty of the individual must be respected and disney paper, it is not for the Rotuman Chiefs to decide who shall and who shall not sign on ships (Fiji Archives, Document F 24/44). Although precise figures are not available, sailing remains a favored occupation among Rotumans. In a survey of 414 households (85 percent) on Rotuma during 1989, [18] I identified sixty-nine men engaged in sailing at the time. This accounted for 20.7 percentof all men abroad on whom I have occupational data. Five of them were ship captains, two were pilots.

Rotuman crews were entrenched on certain ships, like the cable ships Retriever and hypoalbuminemia, Pacific Guardian . All the information at my disposal suggests that Rotumans are desired as crewmen as much today as they were in earlier times. [19] The reasons given are similar: that Rotumans are exceptionally conscientious, learn fast, and are capable of taking responsibility. The Indian Industry! [20] I have elsewhere related these qualities, widely recognized by employers of Rotuman personnel, to socialization patterns and the social organization of the hypoalbuminemia treatment, Rotuman community (Howard 1966, 1970). Seamanship on Rotuma Today. With a few notable exceptions, Rotumans now residing on the island do not venture beyond the reef and have not developed seafaring skills. Almost all fishing is done on the reef, and disney paper, canoes are used more as receptacles than as vehicles. The only hypoalbuminemia treatment, type of canoe that has survived is the beliefs, small outrigger, formerly called täväne , but currently known only by the generic term for canoe, vaka . They are occasionally used as transportation to hypoalbuminemia treatment, the nearer offshore islets. Pharmaceutical Industry! Both men and women fish on the reef, and women are as likely to hypoalbuminemia treatment, take canoes for this purpose as men.

It is common to find husbands and wives exploiting the high pressure chromatography, reef together. The most usual techniques employed do not require canoes, however. They involve one or two individuals with minimal gear: goggles, perhaps a spear, and occasionally small gill nets. Night fishing ( sulu ) is also practiced, although the technique has changed during the past decade. Hypoalbuminemia! Previously, benzine lanterns were used, and one would walk on the reef at low tide or spearfish from a canoe. Today it is more common for young men to dive at night using an underwater flashlight. In general, there has been a dramatic decline in the use of canoes in the past few years.

Bennett reports that men with whom he previously fished in the deep sea no longer go out, and young men show little interest (Bennett, personal communication). As the cash flow to Rotuma has increased, largely as a result of remittances (Rensel 1994), the islanders have exploited marine resources less and less, so that consumption of tinned fish now exceeds that of fresh fish. Donatello! A few years ago a Fisheries report documented an hypoalbuminemia treatment average annual per Pharmaceutical Industry, capita consumption of 30 tins of mackerel, a total wet weight equivalent of more than 40 tons of fish. The authors comment on the unimportance of fishing in daily life, in treatment stark contrast to the strong fishing traditions of other Polynesian peoples (Fisheries Division n.d.:5). [21] The 1989 household survey (see note 18) included an inventory of selected items, including canoes and boats. Seventy-six households (18.4 percent) reported owning a canoe, and weber class, seven households (1.6 percent) reported owning a punt or launch with an outboard motor. All canoes were owned by individual households, and nearly all had been built by a member of the hypoalbuminemia treatment, household. [22] One man, with the title Sautiak, owned a small fishing boat with an inboard engine. Sautiak identified five fishing areas that he exploits. Three were off the west end of the island, including Whale Bank Reef; one was to the east, another to donatello, the southeast of Noa'tau. The furthest destination, Captain Read Reef is some forty-eight kilometers to the south-southeast of Rotuma. [23] It is approximately sixteen kilometers long and rises to within twelve fathoms of the surface.

According to a report from the Fiji Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, this location is likely to be very productive for both pelagic and bottom fish, and can be fished with a reasonable margin of hypoalbuminemia, safety during favourable weather in the SE trades, when prevailing winds would favour sail-assisted return of a disabled vessel to Rotuma (Fisheries Division n.d.:18). Sautiak takes twenty liters of disney paper, fuel with him on treatment each trip, which he says is more than enough. He locates sites with a compass and uses a depth sounder to determine optimal fishing grounds. When fishing close to Rotuma, he uses alignments of landmarks on the island and watches for chromatography, sea birds feeding at the reef breaks. He uses metal hooks of Japanese manufacture on nylon line, and does both deep-water drops and hypoalbuminemia treatment, trolling.

He goes out once a week or so when his boat is in good repair. Artworks! Most of his expeditions are extremely fruitful, and he distributes his catch to friends and family, although he usually sells a portion. Since demand far exceeds the supply, selling fresh fish is very easy. He has considered fishing on a commercial basis, but the main problem is storage. He said that unless he had cold storage facilities on board he could not stay out long enough to make it pay. A group from the district of Malhaha formed a cooperative a few years ago in which fishing was to be a major activity. They bought two boats and a large, walk-in freezer to hypoalbuminemia, store their catch. But they had difficulty with the freezer and some of the fish spoiled, leading a health inspector to condemn their entire frozen stock on several occasions.

As a result, they endured financial losses and their backers, a group of Rotumans in job analysis example Fiji, withdrew financial support. After a while the freezer broke down completely. Hypoalbuminemia! One of the boats was repossessed by the bank and sold to donatello, a group from Hapmak; the other developed a leak and was still in drydock on our last visit to the island. The Hapmak group uses the treatment, boat for Pharmaceutical Industry, commercial fishing on hypoalbuminemia a sporadic basis, going out when there is a special need for fish and when sailing conditions are optimal. Another group, from Itu'muta, bought John Bennett's catamaran with the stated intention of starting a fishing enterprise, but they go out only occasionally, and the venture has foundered. Despite a consistent demand for fish and recognition of commercial possibilities, little has been done to job analysis example, capitalize on the potential. Hypoalbuminemia! A lack of storage facilities and sufficient financing to keep operations going through lean periods have clearly been factors. Weber Class Status Party! But the fact that many Rotumans in Fiji are engaged in hypoalbuminemia commercial deep-sea fishing suggests an aversion to disney paper, the rigors of the treatment, deep is not at issue. [24] While it is probably true that economic payoffs on Rotuma are insufficient to offset investment costs in time and money, [25] a more important factor may be a failure in leadership. This is the opinion of Bennett, who is high familiar with both the Malhaha and Itu'muta ventures. The leaders in each case were assertive individuals viewed as serving their own self-interests rather than the group at large.

In the Itu'muta case, the young men expressed dissatisfaction with spending all day fishing only to find the catch inequitably distributed among participants (J. Bennett, personal communication). Problems of leadership are endemic on Rotuma, especially when it comes to the management of financial resources. It may well be, therefore, that the kind of hypoalbuminemia treatment, leadership required to sustain a fishing enterprise is absent on Rotuma, and that Rotumans engage in seabound ventures so much more readily abroad (and aboard European vessels), because they they find the leadership much more palatable. The importance of weber status, sailing as a focus of cultural experience for treatment, Rotumans is disney paper evident in hypoalbuminemia many ways. It is a source of solidarity between men who have sailed together and the subject of reminiscences when men congregate. Sailing experience also provides metaphoric content for class party, a number of hypoalbuminemia treatment, sayings and for beliefs and values, the content of songs and hypoalbuminemia, recitations. In some instances it constitutes the core of personal identity, as in the case of a woman who changed her name to Al 'e sasi 'Died at disney paper sea' after her son was lost while serving aboard a ship.

Travel abroad, in general, is metaphorically a sailing experience, and at hypoalbuminemia its core remains a canoe journey. Thus, the notion that the traveler arrives with salt on his body is central to the Rotuman ritual of mamasa , welcoming a returnee or first-time visitor to the island. The term mamasa means 'to be dry' or 'to become dry', and american beliefs and values, is used in reference to a ceremony performed when people return from a sea voyage or, in earlier times, from hypoalbuminemia a dangerous deep-sea fishing expedition (Churchward 1940a:258). Presumably when people arrived by disney paper canoe, or by steamer prior to the building of a wharf at Oinafa in the 1970s, they landed wet and had to be dried and hypoalbuminemia, provided with clothes; hence the reference to drying out. The mamasa is disney paper one of several life crisis events that involve the central symbols of Rotuman ceremonial performances: sacrificial pigs, kava, sweet-smelling oil, garlands, and fine white pandanus mats ( apei ). The recipient of a mamasa ceremony ( forau ) is seated in the place of honor upon a pile of mats ( päega ) topped with an apei , which symbolizes his or her elevation to a god-like status for treatment, the duration of the event. Apei are the prime form of traditional wealth on Rotuma, and are necessary elements in any formal ceremony. Each apei is consecrated by native american beliefs and values a koua 'sacrificial slaughter and cooking of a pig in an earth oven'; it symbolizes life and blessings from the gods. While seated on hypoalbuminemia the päega the forau is presented with a tefui 'garland', tied around his or her neck by a woman designated to example, play the welcoming role. Treatment! The woman then performs the liquid, mamia , which in ordinary circumstances means 'to wash a person or fishing net in fresh water after having been in the sea' (Churchward 1940a:259), but in this instance is symbolized by treatment anointing the honoree with sweet-smelling oil, which must be pure Rotuman oil.

This highly symbolic act signifies cleansing the donatello, body of salt from the sea (Nilsen 1977:80). In earlier times, the woman would take off the hypoalbuminemia, forau 's shirt and put a new one on him or her, then present him or her with a new lavalava (Marseu 1986:5). Job Analysis Example! [26] This act is hypoalbuminemia treatment followed by a kava ceremony and formal presentation of food. The forau is given the status, head of the largest pig (reserved for the person of highest status during feasts), which is placed in front of him or her on a ceremonial table ( 'umefe ). He or she is treatment also served kava before anyone else present, including chiefs. Job Analysis! If the ceremony is an elaborate one, for a person of high status or someone whose achievements abroad brought honor to the community, dances and hypoalbuminemia treatment, songs composed for the occasion may be performed, glorifying the person's adventures or accomplishments. The mamasa ceremony has at least two clear functions. One is to reintegrate sojourners back into Rotuman life by communicating their importance to artworks, the community and treatment, elevating their status, if only for the duration of the weber class, event. Attention is called to treatment, their absence and artworks, return, to their bravery in leaving the island, and to their accomplishments.

They are made to feel special. The ceremony's other function is to celebrate the triumph of life over death. Like all Rotuman ceremonies, the symbolism of the hypoalbuminemia treatment, mamasa emphasizes the regeneration of life forces: the sacrificial pig is a gift to american and values, the gods, who are supposed to hypoalbuminemia, respond by high giving life to the land and its people; kava symbolizes bodily fluids that give life; and fragrant oils and flowers (in the form of hypoalbuminemia treatment, a garland) suggest the sweet smells of life as opposed to the stench of death. [27] Journeying beyond the reef for native and values, long periods was regarded as dangerous in treatment the past; the mamasa was a way to offer thanks for a safe return. Native American Beliefs And Values! Another possible function, given the ambivalence Rotumans have toward the sea and things foreign, is symbolic purification. By washing away salt water residues with fresh water, they perhaps ritually cleanse sojourners of contamination not only by the sea, but by foreign influences of all kinds.

Rotuman sayings referring to sailing experiences can be lumped into four categories: (1) those calling attention to the special status of travellers; (2) those used metaphorically to call attention to hardships and hypoalbuminemia, fatigue; (3) those referring to job analysis example, chaos; and (4) those calling attention to undesirable behavior. The following examples are illustrative: [28] 1. The special status of hypoalbuminemia, travellers. 'Ou la mat la'mou 'Your legs (or feet) are still wet'. Said to newcomers, suggesting that they have not yet fully integrated into community life. It can be used as a put-down to someone who expresses opinions prematurely after coming to the island. 2. Hardship and fatigue. Na ta lu 'Give a rope'. Chromatography! Said of people who work slowly, as if fatigued.

It refers to seafarers who, wearied by a long journey, need to be hauled up to the beach with a rope, like a punt. 3. Chaos. 'Itake vak lo 'Like a capsized canoe'. Said when there is a sudden crisis and hypoalbuminemia, everyone starts talking at once, but no one knows what to do, and nothing gets done. It also applies where one can not hear because of the noise. 4. Undesirable Behavior. Vak ta lelei ka sam ta raksa'a 'the canoe is good but the outrigger is bad'. Weber Class Status! Metaphorically, the man is hypoalbuminemia treatment good, but his wife is not. This is generally used in reference to a chief and his wife, since the term vaka is a common metaphor for a chief. Songs are composed in several formats referring to travel abroad, including chants that accompany action dances and compositions in a modern pan-Pacific format accompanied by guitar, ukelele and other instruments. Donatello! An example of such a song is treatment presented by Mosese Kaurasi (1977:145-146): Rotuman Version Tefui hata vasa 'e tier Ma noa la se maoen 'ae 'e fue Api ma roa 'ae 'e matit fak use Tari te Rotuma noh fak rotue English Translation The garlands of pandanus fruit and gardenia Be careful not to get lost out there You've lingered long in the cold of the rain Your relatives are awaiting you in Rotuma Recitations.

Ritual presentations of kava occupy a central place in nearly all Rotuman ceremonies. A key part of the ritual is the recitation of a fakpeje , a text generally associated with the legendary coming of donatello artworks, kava to Rotuma. Recitations are given by male elders ( mafua ), usually in a language so esoteric that most people cannot follow their meaning. Rotumans often describe fakpeje as composed of archaic words whose meanings have been lost. I suspect, however, that a lack of intelligibility has always been central to such recitations, perhaps to accentuate the foreign origin of kava. The prevailing myth concerning kava's origin has it coming from Tonga, which in its generic sense is a place over or under the hypoalbuminemia, sea inhabited by The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry potent beings or spirits. That Rotumans associate experiences overseas and hypoalbuminemia, aboard ship with the foreignness (and potency) attributed to disney paper, kava can be seen in a fakpeje recorded by Hocart on Rotuma in hypoalbuminemia 1913.

In this instance, intelligibility seems to be obscured by the seemingly random juxtaposition of English phrases, with Rotuman words interspersed: A below, way about riepouj how many nu le for here ten mile and a quarter two far off all pull up to which you can't go up there its too heavy good kuretemene hard Adele lee o four yard forty gunsale forty mainsail pull off the guff topsail French ship jib stay sail jib fore poren where your head saw pau es you takes up. Collectively, Rotuman attitudes toward the sea are ambivalent. It has been a source of artworks, wondrous adventures for some, of seasickness for hypoalbuminemia, many, and of grief over losing kinsmen for The Indian Pharmaceutical, others. For all Rotumans, boats represent connections to the outside world. For those on treatment the island, boats are bridges to relatives abroad, transporters of status party, vital supplies, and hypoalbuminemia, the means by which money is earned through the shipping of copra. Days when boats arrive and high chromatography, leave are major occasions. That the sea beyond the reef is dangerous comes home repeatedly. Hypoalbuminemia! A number of Rotumans have been lost in recent years during seafaring adventures. Disney Paper! Some have gone fishing and never returned.

News of crewmembers aboard vessels that have sunk arrives periodically. During my 1989 visit, a freighter sank in treatment a storm off Nova Scotia; it had five Rotuman crew members aboard who went down with the ship. Shortly before this tragedy, a Rotuman helicopter pilot was killed in a crash on weber class status the U.S. mainland, [29] lending even more emphasis to the dangers of sailing, since sea and sky are associated in Rotuman cultural idiom (airplanes are called 'ahai fere 'flying ships'). Such tragedies have fed the mystique with which the sea is endowed by most Rotumans. They conceive of the sea, and treatment, what happens in and on it, as dangerous and unpredictable on high pressure chromatography the one hand, enriching and vitalizing on the other.

Their attitudes have been shaped, in part, by treatment the unpredictability of artworks, shipping over the years. Vessels sometimes do not arrive for months at a time, resulting in empty stores and varying degrees of hardship. At other times several ships may arrive within days of each other. Despite numerous efforts on the part of well-placed officials, shipping to Rotuma has remained erratic since the initial arrival of Europen vessels. It has been the source of much black humor on the island. For example, when I heard on Fiji Radio that a boat was scheduled to sail for Rotuma in a week and hypoalbuminemia treatment, mentioned it to my Rotuman friend, he laughed and told me always to multiply the time interval by two or three. On several occasions Rotumans have attempted to gain control of shipping by purchasing and operating their own vessel.

As early as 1901 they had a schooner built to ship copra and take passengers between Rotuma and Sydney via Suva. The fifty-ton vessel cost over 2,000 pounds and operated for eighteen months before sinking on native american and values a reef at Rotuma (Eason 1951:89-90). Most recently, in hypoalbuminemia treatment 1992, a Rotuman group purchased an interisland vessel, the Wairua , at a cost of Fiji $250,000. The Indian! It went aground on a reef at Kadavu in August 1993 and was judged unsalvageable. The evidence reviewed in this essay raises questions about Rotuma's maritime tradition at the time of European contact.

Although there is hypoalbuminemia treatment no doubt that Rotumans occasionally voyaged to native and values, islands in their general vicinity, and treatment, perhaps beyond, their canoes were described by European observers as of poor quality, and their navigational knowledge was characterized as limited. Taken at face value, these observations suggest Rotuma lacked the highly developed maritime traditions that characterized some of its mid-Pacific neighbors. If so, this may have resulted from risks being greater than potential benefits, given Rotuma's isolation and productivity. Rotuma is an Pharmaceutical Industry exceptionally fertile island, not often subjected to the devastating droughts and hurricanes that forced periodic migrations in other parts of the Pacific. There may have been little motivation to hypoalbuminemia treatment, develop long-distance sailing skills. A second possibility is that Rotumans may have possessed a sophisticated sailing culture that deteriorated prior to European contact. The only hope of example, verifying such a prior tradition would be through archaeological investigations yet to treatment, be done. A third possibility is that Rotuman seafaring skills were in fact highly developed, but that opportunities to class status, sail aboard European vessels led to an extraordinarily rapid erosion of traditional maritime technology and knowledge. Hypoalbuminemia! Perhaps, it might be argued, the disney paper, most skillful sailors took advantage of the hypoalbuminemia treatment, opportunities European ships offered, and they distinguished themselves because they already had the personal characteristics that made them good sailors, regardless of the craft involved. That sailing, and canoes in particular, have remained central symbols in Rotuman culture lends weight to such an argument. Regardless of which scenario one favors, it seems clear that the status party, character traits developed on this remote island were consistent with those required for seafaring, especially where responsibility to one's shipmates was central.

The contributions of sailors to Rotuman society have been substantial. Until outmigration resulted in overseas enclaves, following World War II, they were the main source of hypoalbuminemia, acculturative influences. Today travelers characteristically send remittances to their families and, when returning, bring expensive goods such as radios, refrigerators and motorbikes. For these reasons, among others, sailing continues to Industry, be a high status occupation for Rotumans. [1] For detailed information concerning the geology of Rotuma, see Woodhall 1987. [back to text] [2] W.E. Treatment! Russell, who served as resident commissioner on Rotuma in the 1920s, published an account taken from the class party, notes of F. Gibson, a part-Rotuman man, that reported canoe voyages allegedly made by Rotumans to Tikopia, Malekula, Santo, Nanumea (Ellice Islands), Tonga, and Fiji (Russell 1942:253). Hypoalbuminemia Treatment! A man by the name of Pani and two other unnamed men from Malhaha and Losa, respectively, were said by Gibson's informants to be the high pressure liquid, last canoe voyagers to treatment, go abroad and return.

I regard this report with considerable skepticism, however, since it was given over one hundred years from the time interisland canoe voyages had ceased. [back to text] [3] Allen served as a Methodist missionary on Rotuma for several years during the 1880s. [back to text] [4] Hocart, during his visit to Rotuma in 1913, elicited the names of several constellations, some of disney paper, which were associated with sailing directions, but it is unclear whether this information represented indigenous knowledge (Hocart 1913:4944-4946) MacGregor's notes also contain a number of entries concerning astronomy, but only one entry refers to the navigational use of stars. He records the name Takirua as two stars between which the treatment, course is laid from Wallis to Rotuma (Macgregor 1932). Example! [back to text] [5] The spelling of Rotuman words was standardized following Churchward's publication of his Rotuman Grammar and Dictionary in hypoalbuminemia 1940. I use Churchward's orthography in job analysis my own writing and following other authors' usage I include Churchward's spelling in brackets if it is different. For an explanation of the orthography see Churchward 1940a:13. [back to text] [6] MacGregor also records in his notes from this consultant, a man named Niua: These canoes carried from 60-100 people and traveled to Fiji, Futuna and Sufaia? [sic] in the Ellice. Ngofe was a famous captain of the last Oinafa ahoi [ 'ahai ]. Planks still in Oinafa (Macgregor 1932). Hypoalbuminemia! Again, given the time lapse from the period in donatello artworks which such voyages might have been made, one must be cautious interpreting this report as factual knowledge. [back to treatment, text] [7] Ororo refers to a contrivance made of large number of half coconut-shells threaded on a wooden hoop, and drawn up and down in job analysis the water, thereby making a noise which attracts sharks to the proximity of the baited hooks that are out for them (Churchward 1940:275). It is also used in hypoalbuminemia treatment reference to fishing for sharks with the status party, help of ororo . [back to text] [8] MacGregor's consultant mentioned this to him when asked why there were only two strips on one border of his canoe. The man said that the wood was not long enough to reach from bow piece to stern piece. [back to text] [9] Identification of penau , togoi , 'ura and ratu'a trees are from Whistler (1989). He did not identify sa'a , which Churchward describes as a tree growing to large size, with very large leaves and long straight branches. The bark, at first, is greyish-green and very smooth. Bears bunches of small whitish flowers.

Timber, white, much used in house-building and canoe-making (Churchward 1940a:307). [back to text] [10] Hocart, in a brief article published in 1914, reported that as the result of hypoalbuminemia, a curse, turtle nets were no longer being made in at least in one district (Hocart 1914). [back to text] [11] According to Churchward the phrase jao 'atua 'beating ghosts' is sometimes used (1940a:231). [back to text] [12] I am indebted to John Bennett for pointing this out to Pharmaceutical Industry, me. [back to text] [13] Another consultant told MacGregor that the last seu involved twenty-one taf'aga canoes. Hypoalbuminemia! [back to text] [14] Two years earlier, Arthur Gordon inquired into labor recruiting on Rotuma and obtained figures for five districts (Itu'ti'u, Itu'muta, Juju, Pepjei and Malhaha). They showed 177 men known to be away, approximately one-third of them married (Outward Letters,dispatch from A. Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 4 December 1879, ). [back to text] A significant portion of the men who were away had been recruited as laborers to work in the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa, and had difficulty returning. In a series of donatello, dispatches during 1883, William Gordon, the resident commissioner, requested assistance in having the 50-60 men in the Hawaiian Islands, and an unspecified number from Samoa, repatriated. He commented that the men in Samoa had been paid in goods instead of money and were thus unable to pay for passage home. [15] Gardiner also commented on hypoalbuminemia treatment the disgrace endured by Rotuman men who had not been to foreign lands (Gardiner 1898:407). Artworks! He speculated (p. 497) that, although it was not uncommon for treatment, a hundred or more young men to leave the island in a year, not more than one-third ever returned. [back to text] [16] The population may have been protected as a result of the prevalence of virulent yaws, which has a complementary distribution with syphilis (see Howard 1979). [back to text] [17] The practice of informing chiefs when departing the island is still carried out to some extent, although it has noticeably declined over job analysis, the past fifteen years. Chiefs enforce the hypoalbuminemia treatment, regulation to varying degrees. Protocol calls for disney paper, an individual to inform his village chief ( fa 'es ho'aga ), who in hypoalbuminemia turn informs the district chief, who then informs the weber, district officer (J.

Bennett, personal communication). Hypoalbuminemia! This regulation, however, conflicts with the right to freedom of movement within Fiji guaranteed by the initial and post-coup constitutions. The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry! A recent case, in hypoalbuminemia treatment which the The Indian, district officer attempted to treatment, confine a woman to the island on the grounds that her children might not be properly cared for, highlighted this contradiction and resulted in a threatened lawsuit. [back to text] [18] The survey was conducted by school teachers hired as research assistants, supervised by myself and my wife, Jan Rensel, who was pursuing doctoral research on the island at the time. The survey included all of Oinafa, Malhaha, Itu'muta and Pharmaceutical, Itu'ti'u districts, and most of Juju and Noa'tau. Pepjei was omitted as a result of treatment, interviewer difficulties. [back to text] [19] In late 1990 a recruitment program was launched in Fiji for up to sixty Rotumans to become the core crew for a newly commissioned cable ship having English officers (J. Job Analysis! Bennett, personal communication). [back to text] [20] These are the same reasons given by supervisors at hypoalbuminemia treatment the Vatukoula gold mines for favoring Rotuman workers (see Howard 1966:266). [back to high pressure liquid chromatography, text] [21] The Fisheries Division report concludes that the sea around Rotuma offers considerable opportunity for commerically viable fishing enterprises, but they identify three major problems: (1) the lack of suitable vessels to treatment, exploit the productive areas; (2) inadequate facilities for fishing vessels, including lack of an all-weather anchorage; absence of maintenance facilities; occasional fuel shortages; and the lack of ice, gear, storage, and marketing facilities for fisherman; and (3) the isolation of the island (Fisheries Division n.d.:18-20). [back to text] [22] Household size averaged 5.8 persons in 1989. For a discussion of household types on Rotuma, and how they have changed over the past three decades, see Howard 1991. [back to text] [23] The reef is donatello artworks named after its discoverer, Captain Read, aboard the hypoalbuminemia, hydrographic vessel M.V. Tangaroa, which carried out a survey for beliefs and values, phosphate deposits in the region in 1976. Hypoalbuminemia! [back to disney paper, text] [24] According to information provided by hypoalbuminemia treatment Vilsoni Hereniko, obtained from his sister Vamarasi, his brother Mua, and Isireli Motofaga, a boat owner in Pharmaceutical Industry Lautoka, at least five Rotumans in hypoalbuminemia Fiji own fishing vessels and are engaged in commercial fishing.

Their boats were purchased with the help of bank loans. Two of the boat owners captain their own vessels and sail with a hired crew ranging from two to four, depending on availability. The other owners remain on land while a hired crew goes out to sea. One of the boats is quite large, and the crew sometimes remains at sea for pressure chromatography, up to hypoalbuminemia, a month. Disney Paper! The other boats are smaller and usually stay out for about two weeks at a time, depending on weather. The large boat's catch can bring in between F$3,000-5,000 per trip, while the smaller ones usually bring in catches worth between F$2,000-3,000 per trip.

The larger vessel may wait several weeks before expeditions, while the smaller ones go out more frequently, sometimes waiting only a few days before going out to sea again. [back to text] [25] According to Hereniko's brother, Mua, the absence of reefs beyond the fringing reef around Rotuma limits access to such commercially profitable fish as tuna or walu, which eat smaller fish that feed off reefs. Mua believes this at least partly accounts for the absence of commercial fishing on Rotuma. Fiji, in contrast, has extensive offshore reefs, offering better opportunities for hypoalbuminemia treatment, commercial fishing. The Indian! [back to text] [26] This practice is occasionally followed today but is hypoalbuminemia not now regarded as essential to the ceremony. [back to text] [27] These symbolic associations are my inferences and were not explicitly provided by The Indian Industry informants. They are based primarily on my analyses of hypoalbuminemia, symbolism contained in Rotuman myths (Howard 1985, 1986). [back to text] [28] The sayings included here have been obtained from an unpublished collection by Elisapeti Inia. Additional information was obtained from Aubrey Parke's published collection of Rotuman Idioms (Parke 1971). Artworks! [back to text] [29] The young man was flying mercy missions for hypoalbuminemia, a company located in Spokane, Washington. [back to text] 1885-6 Rotooma and the Rotoomans. Proceedings . 1st sets:130-44. 1895 Rotuma. Report of Australasian Association for example, Advancement of Science, pp. 556-79. 1938 Isle of Rotuma: curious place in Central Polynesian history.

Pacific Islands Monthly . December 15, 1938. Sydney, Australia. 1831 A recent visit to several of the Polynesian Islands. United Service Journal 33:198-202, 473-482. Cheever, George N. 1834-1835 Log of the ship Emerald . Pacific Manuscript Bureau, frame 31. Churchward, C. Maxwell. 1939 Tales of treatment, a Lonely Island.

Sydney: Australian Medical Publishing Co., Ltd. 1940 Rotuman Grammar and Dictionary. Native And Values! Sydney: Australasian Medical Publishing Co. 1829 Narrative . . . of a Voyage in the South Seas. London: Hurst Chance. Eagleston, John Henry. 1832 Log of the ship Emerald, Vol. 3. Peabody Museum, Salem, Mass. Eason, William J. Treatment! E. 1951 A Short History of Rotuma. Suva, Fiji: Government Printing Department.

1961 History and Traditions of Tikopia. Wellington: The Polynesian Society. 1947 Rotuman crews on overseas vessels. Archive F22/44. Fisheries Division, Ministry of Agriculture and artworks, Fisheries. n.d. The Fishery Resources of Rotuma. Suva, Fiji.

1870 The Wesleyan Missionary Notices. No. 13 Vol. III. Sidney: Australian Wesleyan Methodist Conference. 1875 Two Years in Fiji. Hypoalbuminemia! London: Longmans, Green, and weber class status party, Co. 1898 Natives of Rotuma. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 27:396-435, 457-524. 1913 Field Notes on Rotuma. Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.

1914 The disappearance of a useful art in Rotuma. Man 14:162-163. 1936 The Canoes of Polynesia, Fiji and Micronesia. Honolulu: Special Publication of the hypoalbuminemia, B.P. Example! Bishop Museum, No. 27. 1970 Learning to Be Rotuman. New York: Columbia Teachers College Press. 1985 History, myth and Polynesian chieftainship: the case of Rotuman Kings. In Transformations of Polynesian Culture, edited by A. Hooper and J. Huntsman, pp.39-77, Auckland: Polynesian Society.

1991 Reflections on change in Rotuma, 1959-1989. In Rotuma: Hanua Pumue: Precious Land. edited by Anselmo Fatiaki et. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment! al, pp. 227-54. Suva, Fiji: Institute for Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. 1838 Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas, in the Japan, Employed in the Sperm Whale Fishery, under the Command of Capt. John May. Class Party! London: Longman and hypoalbuminemia, Co. and Charles Tilt. 1977 Rotuman chants, sports and donatello, pastimes.

In Rotuma: Split Island, edited by hypoalbuminemia Chris Plant,pp. 143-52. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. 1838-9 Voyage Autour du Monde . . . sur . . .'La Coquille'. Paris: Pourrat Fréres. 1851 Rovings in the Pacific, 1837-49 . . . by status party a Merchant Long Resident in Tahiti.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longman. 1932 Rotuma Field Notes. Bishop Museum Archives. Hypoalbuminemia Treatment! Honolulu, Hawaii. SC McGregor. 1980 Canoes of beliefs, Rotuma. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 15:51-55. 1986 The Rotuman mamasa ceremony.

In Pacific Rituals: Living or Dying, edited by Gweneth Deverell and Bruce Deverell, pp. 3-22. Treatment! Suva, Fiji: Institute of disney paper, Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. 1977 The mamasa ceremony. In Rotuma: Split Island, edited by Chris Plant, pp. 79-87. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the hypoalbuminemia, South Pacific. Osborn, Joseph W.

1834-1835 Log of the ship Emerald. Pacific Manuscript Bureau, Reel 223, frame 359. n.d. Rotuma District Office. Donatello Artworks! Suva: Fiji Central Archives. 1971 Rotuman Idioms. Auckland: Te Reo Monographs, Linguistic Society of New Zealand.

1994 For Love or Money: Interhousehold Exchange and the Economy of Rotuma. PhD Dissertation, Anthropology Department, University of Hawai'i. 1939 Legislative Council Papers . Suva, Fiji: Government Press. 1942 Rotuma. Hypoalbuminemia! Journal of the Polynesian Society 51:229-255. 1915 Voyage of H.M.S. 'Pandora'.

London: Francis Edwards. 1989 Ethnobotany of Rotuma. Manuscript. 1799 A Missionary Voyage to the Southern Pacific Ocean. London: Chapman. 1875 A Yachting Cruise in the South Seas. London: Henry King.

1987 Geology of Rotuma. Suva, Fiji: Mineral Resources Department, Ministry of Lands, Energy Mineral Resources.