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J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay

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odysseus flaws essay Literary Terms and Definitions: M. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to J. Robert Oppenheimer, assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. MABINOGI (Welsh, Four Branches): The four branches or four parts of The Mabinogion , a medieval collection of Welsh myths and legends important in Celtic studies generally and in Yellow Wallpaper, Arthurian legends more specifically. MACHIAVELLIAN : As an Oppenheimer Essay, adjective, the word refers generally to sneaky, ruthless, and deceitful behavior, especially in regard to a ruler obsessed with power who puts on a surface veneer of honor and trustworthy behavior in inThe Essay, order to achieve evil ends.

The term originates in a treatise known as The Prince . This work was written by Nicco ló Machiavelli, an early sixteenth-century political advisor who worked for the Borgia family in Italy. In contrast to the medieval ideal of the ruler as God's holy deputy and dispenser of Oppenheimer Essay, justice, Machiavelli stressed that effective rulers often must engage in evil (or at least immoral) activities to ensure the coy mistress, stability of their rule. He suggests that, based on the evidence of J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, history and his own personal observations, the why are c4 plants than c3 plants?, rulers that have remained in power have not been kindly, benevolent men concerned with justice and fairness, but rather ruthless individuals willing to do anything to ensure the security of their state and Oppenheimer Essay their own personal power. Than? Click here for J. Robert Oppenheimer, more information. MACHIEVELLE (also spelled machiavel ): A villain, especially an Italian aristocratic power-monger, or a deceitful betrayer, who behaves according to the principles established by Niccoló Machiavelli. (See Machiavellian , above.) The machievelle became a stock character in many Renaissance plays associated with sinister plots, blackest betrayal, and wicked resourcefulness. Examples from Shakespeare include Richard of Gloucester in Richard III and Edmund and Cornwall in King Lear . MACARONIC TEXT : Any medieval or modern manuscript written in a jumble of why are c4 plants suited to hot climates c3 plants?, several languages--say a mixture of Latin and French or Latin and German--is said to be macaronic.

The mixture might involve bilingual vocabulary and J. Robert grammatical switches within a single sentence, or in alternating lines or paragraphs, or in The Character Essay, purely random intervals. J. Robert Essay? Examples from the law of demand definition economics, Restoration period would be the steamier scenes of Samuel Pepys' diary entries for Oppenheimer Essay, 1666-1668, in which Pepys frequently mingles Spanish and Booth Essay Latin words in the text to J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, hide the exact details of his sexual indiscretions. Redi? Cf. code-switching . MACROCOSM (Cf. microcosm): The natural universe as a whole, including the biological realms of flora and fauna, weather, and celestial objects such as the sun, moon, and stars. See discussion under chain of being . MACROLOGIA (Grk. big language or long language): Also called macrology , in rhetoric, a negative term for a type of periphrasis involving unnecessary repetition of lengthy clauses. See discussion under periphrasis . MACRON : A diacritical mark in the form of a horizontal line indicating the vowel beneath it is J. Robert Oppenheimer long. MAENAD : Also known as bacchae or thyiads , maenads were female worshippers of Dionysus or Bacchus. In the mystery cult of Dionysus, worshippers would get drunk on wine and then undergo an all-night process of stylized frenzied dancing in order to achieve the divine state of ekstasos . Coy Mistress? At the height of the frenzy, they believed that they would become one with Dionysus/Bacchus, thus the common Latin name bacchae for these priestesses, a feminine plural form of the god Bacchus' name. In legendary accounts, such women were supernaturally strong and wildly violent.

They would run through the forest naked after the ceremonies and would catch small animals (or in some myths men and children!), rip them apart bare-handed, and J. Robert then eat the flesh raw. In literature, Euripides' tragedy The Bacchae is a dramatic retelling of the more suited to hot climates, arrival of the Dionysiac rites in Greece. MAGIC REALISM : In 1925, Franz Roh first applied the Essay, term magic realism ( magischer Realismus in German) to a group of neue Saqchlichkeit painters in Munich (Cuddon 531). These painters blended realistic, smoothly painted, sharply defined figures and objects--but in coy mistress, a surrealistic setting or backdrop, giving them an outlandish, odd, or even dream-like qualilty. In the 1940s and 1950s, the term migrated to the prose fiction of various writers including Jorge Luis Borges in Argentina, Gabriel Garcia Márquez in Colombia, and Essay Alejo Carpentier in Cuba. The influence also spread later to Günter Grass in Germany and coy mistress John Fowles in England (Abrams 135). These postmodern writers mingle and juxtapose realistic events with fantastic ones, or they experiment with shifts in time and setting, labyrinthine narratives and plots and arcane erudition (135), and often they combine myths and fairy stories with gritty Hemingway-esque detail. J. Robert Essay? This mixture create truly dreamlike and bizarre effects in their prose. An example of magic realism (and one of my own personal favorites in postmodern narrative) would be Gabriel Garcia Márquez's short story, A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings, a narrative in which a fisherman discovers a filthy, lice-ridden old man trapped face-down in why are to hot climates than, the muddy shore of the beach, weighed down by J. Robert Essay, enormous buzzard wings attached to law of economics, his back. A neighbor identifies the old man as an angel who had come down to claim the fisherman's sick and feverish child but who had been knocked out the sky by storm winds during the previous night. Not having the heart to club the sickly angel to death, the protagonist decides instead to keep the supernatural being captive in a chicken coop.

The very premise of the story reveals much of the flavor of magic realism. Essay? Cf. postmodernism . MAIAR : Semidivine spirits in Tolkien's Silmarillion . See discussion under Valar . MAJUSCULE : A large letter or a capital letter as opposed to minuscule . MAL MARIÉE : The stock character in medieval romances, lais , and fabliaux of an unhappily married wife, often married to a senex amans . An example is the female protagonist in Marie de France's Laustic or Guigemar. MALAPROPISM : Misusing words to create a comic effect or characterize the speaker as being too confused, ignorant, or flustered to in The Yellow Wallpaper, use correct diction. Essay? Typically, the malapropism involves the confusion of two polysyllabic words that sound somewhat similar but have different meanings. For instance, in Richard Sheridan's The Rivals , we hear, She's as headstrong as an allegory on the banks of the The Character of Celie inThe Color Purple Essay, Nile. Dogberry the Watchman in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing says, Comparisons are odorous, and later, It shall be siffigance--both malapropisms. In Sheridan, we also find pineapple instead of pinnacle , and we read in Twain's Huckleberry Finn how one character declares, I was most putrified with astonishment instead of petrified, and so on.

The best malapropisms sound sufficiently similar to the correct word to let the audience recognize the intended meaning and laugh at the incongruous result. Cf. acyron . MANET / MANENT : Common Latin stage directions found in the margins of Shakespearean plays. Manet is the singular for He [or she] remains. Manent is the plural form for multiple individuals. Often the phrase is accompanied with explanatory remarks, such as Manent utras (The others remain on J. Robert Essay, stage), or Manet solus (He alone remains). MANNER OF ARTICULATION : In linguistics, how the speech organs of lips, tongue, and vocal cords must be arranged in to his coy mistress, order to produce a particular sound such as a nasal, a stop, a fricative, or so on. MANUSCRIPT : A text written by J. Robert Oppenheimer, hand, as opposed to one printed with a printing press. ( Manus is Latin for hand; scriptum is a Latin participle for written.) Early Egyptian manuscripts are written on to his coy mistress, crushed and flattened papyrus reeds and rolled up as scrolls. Later, parchment and Oppenheimer vellum (animal skins) became the primary means of transmitting texts. In the late Roman and early Patristic period, individual pages were bound between covers as a codex or a book, a practice that continues today. Paper as we know it became common in to his coy mistress summary, the Middle East in the twelfth century, but it took another three hundred years for the art of Essay, paper-making to spread through Europe. By Shakespeare's day, printed paper had largely replaced manuscripts written on vellum, but the coy mistress, mechanics of J. Robert Essay, printing often tried to why are c4 plants suited, imitate the familiar features of manuscripts.

In medieval scholarship, the J. Robert Essay, abbreviation MS stands for manuscript, and British scholars often use the plural form MSS for manuscripts. TS and TSSare the to his coy mistress, equivalent terms for typeset documents. Some important medieval literary manuscripts include the Ellesmere , the Hengwyrt , and the Nowell Codex . You can click here to see the first page of Beowulf from the Nowell Codex. J. Robert Essay? See also parchment , vellum , quire , hair side , and flesh side . MAQAMA : Picaresque Arabic stories in rhymed prose. Law Of Economics? The two most famous writers in this genre include Abu al-Fadl Ahmed ibn al-Husian al Hamadhani and J. Robert Abu Mohammed al Qasim al-Hariri. MÄRCHEN : A technical German word used in folklore scholarship to refer to fairy tales. See discussion under fairy tale . MARCHING SONG : A song with strong metrical beat designed to help soldiers keep time so they can march in step, usually performed by a military band. Examples include the death march in Wagner's Götterdamerung or Beethoven's Eroica . Tolkien has the Ents in of Celie inThe Color Purple Essay, The Lord of the Rings sing a tune matching the rhythmical constraints of a marching song as they head into war with Isengard in J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, The Lord of the Rings (484-85). Contrast with walking song . MARGINALIA : Drawings, notation, illumination, and The Mood doodles appearing in the margins of a medieval text, rather than the central text itself. MARKED WORD : A word that has some limitation or boundary in its meaning when contrasted with an unmarked word without such a limitation or boundary. Algeo points to the example of J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, stallion (marked for male gender) and Essay mare (marked for female gender) in contrast with the word horse , which is unmarked for gender (323).

MARRIAGE GROUP : A term coined by George L. Kittredge in 1912 to describe a specific set of stories in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. The marriage group includes The Wife of Bath's Tale, The Clerk's Tale, The Merchant's Tale, and The Franklin's Tale. J. Robert Essay? All four narratives deal with the question of the why are more suited than, proper relationship between men and women in marriage. The intervening tales of the Friar, Summoner, and Squire serve as interruptions of this longer-running thematic concern about gender. Some critics, especially those who accept the Bradshaw Shift , argue that the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, marriage group also includes Melibee, The Man of economics, Law's Tale, and The Nun's Priest's Tale.

MARY SUE : A character beloved by the author but often despised by readers and editors--an unrealistic character with overly idealized behavior who lacks any perceivable flaws--especially one serving as a wish-fulfillment fantasy for the author. This term is an eponym from a character in Paula Smith's 1973 parody, A Trekkie's Tale, and in Essay, subsequent decades became popular among editors in science-fiction publishing houses to refer to poorly written, annoying, and unlikely characters written by amateur authors. MASCULINE ENDING / MASCULINE RHYME : Rhymes that end with a heavy stress on the last syllable in each rhyming word. Why Are C4 Plants Suited To Hot Climates? See under discussion of J. Robert Essay, meter . MASHAL (plural meshalim ): In the law of, Hebrew tradition, a mashal is a broad, general term including almost any type of figurative language from short riddles to long, extended allegories. It denotes mysterious speech. Some of the Psalms, for J. Robert, instance, are designated as meshalim . The New Testament Greek often translates the term as parabole or parable . This translation, however, causes some problem. Booth (Installation). Essay? In Greek, parabole are always allegorical and open to point-by-point interpretation. Parabole were often used as a simple method of teaching by example or analogy. The meshalim in Hebrew, however, was often intentionally confusing or deliberately obfuscating in nature--much more like the Greek enigma (riddle). We can see this confusion in Essay, the New Testament, where Mark interprets the purpose of the parables as Hebrew meshalim . In Mark, Jesus tells his disciples: The secret of the kingdom of God has been given to you. But to those on to hot than c3 plants?, the outside everything is said in parables so that, 'they may be ever seeing but never perceiving, and ever hearing but never understanding; otherwise, they might turn and be forgiven' (Mark 4:11-12).

The common, modern idea that Christ uses parables for simple pedagogic purposes (i.e., so that even a child could understand the secrets of heaven) is a creation of the medieval period, much later. MASORETIC (from Hebrew Masorah , handed over): The Masoretic texts are partly Hebrew and partly Aramaic versions of the Hebrew Bible (i.e., what Christians call the Oppenheimer Essay, Old Testament) with accompanying explanatory notes or marginalia. Yellow? A group of Jewish scholars known as the Masoretes approved them for J. Robert, general use in Judaic biblical scholarship and reading between the first and ninth centuries CE with a few late additions in law of demand, the tenth century. These manuscripts contain numerous differences when compared to the Greek Septuagint . To list one minor but illustrative example, Septuagint texts give the dimensions for the porch of Solomon's temple as twenty cubits, but most Masoretic texts give the dimensions of the same architectural feature as one-hundred twenty cubits. Other differences range from the trivial to the striking. For linguists and biblical scholars, Masoretic texts are especially important because the Masoretes who wrote them introduced the Hebrew convention of using dots and symbols under, above, and inside consonant letters to represent vowel sounds.

Previous Hebrew texts only marked consonant sounds, which left the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, meaning of many words ambiguous and rendered it difficult to verify comparative studies showing how similar or different Hebrew was from closely related languages such as Akkhadian, Amorite, Arabic, Ugaritic, Proto-Canaanite (which developed into both Phoenician and Classical Hebrew), Eblaite and Elamite. MASQUE : Not to be confused with a masquerade, a masque is a type of elaborate court entertainment popular in the times of Insanity, Queen Elizabeth I, King James I, and Charles I--i.e., the early 17th Century after Queen Elizabeth's death. The masque as a performance grew out of medieval plays, but it was more spectacle than drama proper. The content was suitable for amateur actors rather than professional performers. The masques tended to use long speeches and little action.

They combined poetic drama, singing, dancing, music, and splendid costumes and settings. The imagery was influential on later poets and poems, such as Andrew Marvell, who makes use of masque-imagery in Upon Appleton House. MAXIM: A proverb, a short, pithy statement or aphorism believed to contain wisdom or insight into J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, human nature. In much of the dialogue in Viking sagas, for instance, the The Character of Celie Color Purple Essay, characters will quote short maxims to each other to make a point. MCGUFFIN (also MacGuffin, Maguffin): A humorous or joking term to describe an object or artifact that drives the plot as part of a quest motif . Essay? For instance, the Wallpaper, horcrux in the Harry Potter series, the J. Robert, Holy Grail in Arthurian legends, the Golden Fleece in Jason and the Argonauts , and so forth. Often Alfred Hitchcock is credited for coining the phrase. See discussion under quest motif . MEAD HALL : A structure built by francesco redi experiment, an Anglo-Saxon lord ( hlaford or cyning ) as a social center for Oppenheimer Essay, his immediate community, especially his thegns and warriors. Since they were constructed primarily of wood, we have only a few archeological samples that survive to provide examples.

We know from descriptions in Anglo-Saxon texts that they were filled with mead-benches, which were elaborately carved and decorated with gold. Words such as horn-gapped may imply architectural features, or they may imply that the hall was decorated with the horns of The Character inThe Color, stags and other trophy animals. J. Robert Oppenheimer? The lord would gather his warriors at more to hot c3 plants?, his mead hall to eat, drink, pass out gifts and treasure, and Oppenheimer renew the oath-bonds between himself and his men. MEDIEVAL (from Latin medium aevum , the Middle Age or the in-between age): The period of time roughly a thousand years long between the economics, fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of the Renaissance. Actual starting and J. Robert ending points are somewhat arbitrary when describing the redi experiment, era, and scholars vary wildly in the dates they assign. Essay? For instance, M . H. Abrams' Norton Anthology of English Literature , 7th edition, assigns to inThe Color Purple, the medieval period the years 450-1485, but in his Glossary of J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, Literary Terms , the c4 plants more suited to hot climates than, same scholar points to the years 410-1500 as the Essay, appropriate years. J. Of Celie Color Purple Essay? A. Cuddon's Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory prefers the dates c. 800-c.

1450, and Harry Shaw's Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms prefers c. 476-c. 1350, but notes that it may extend to about 1500 (p. 170). While there are no universally accepted demarcations, it is common in J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, older European histories to divide the medieval period into experiment, an early period of the Dark Ages and a later period of the High Middle Ages. On the other hand, linguists divide the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, medieval period in England into the Anglo-Saxon period (about 450-1066) and the Middle English period (about 1066-1450). The dividing line is the Norman Conquest of England following the Battle of Hastings (1066), which marked the introduction of heavy French influences into English.

Some scholars prefer to mark the years 1100-1350 as the to his, Anglo-Norman period, since most courtly literature in England was written in Norman-French rather than English. Oppenheimer? Note, however, that these divisions are most useful in discussing English literature; they are less useful for discussing medieval literature, art, and architecture on the continent. European scholars and art historians divide the medieval period into four periods: Carolingian (c. Summary? 750-900), Ottonian (c. 900-1056), Romanesque (c. 1057-1150), and Gothic (1150-1475). For our literary purposes, however, the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods serve as a useful division. The early medieval centuries (often misleadingly called the Essay, Dark Ages) are marked by the disintegration of coy mistress, classical Greco-Roman culture and the volkerwanderung of Germanic tribes into western Europe, followed by gradual conversions to Christianity. Its later stages (often called the High Middle Ages) are marked by innovative technology, economic growth, and original theology and philosophy. The term medievalism in J. Robert Oppenheimer, western Europe is linked with feudalism in government, guildhouses in economics, monasticism and to hot climates than Catholicism in religion, and castles and knights in chivalrous military custom. Click here for a PDF handout placing this historical period in chronological sequence with other historical periods.

Click below for a chronological list of historical events in various centuries: 500-600 CE 600-700 CE 700-800 CE 800-900 CE 900-1000 CE 1000-1099 CE 1100-1199 CE 1200-1299 CE 1300-1399 CE. MEDIEVAL ESTATES SATIRE : A medieval genre common among French poets in which the speaker lists various occupations among the three estates of J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, feudalism (nobles, peasants, and clergy) and depicts them in a manner that shows how short they fall from the ideal of that occupation. In the late medieval period, the genre expanded to discuss the failings of bourgeois individuals as well. The genre was not unknown in England. John Gower's Vox Clamantis and Confessio Amantis have passages similar to those in continental estates satire.

Jill Mann suggests in her famous book, Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire , that the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales is itself an example of The Mood Essay, this genre . See also satire , anti-fraternal satire , and three estates . MEDIEVAL STUDIES : An interdisciplinary field of scholarship in literature, history, art, philosophy, and theology focusing on the culture of the Middle Ages or medieval period . Scholars who specialize in this area are medievalists. Among the Inklings , J.R.R. Tolkien entered medieval studies through philology and Germanic literatures, while C.S. Oppenheimer? Lewis became a medievalist via classical and Renaissance philosophy and literature--eventually leaving Oxford to go to in The Wallpaper, Cambridge and become the Chair of Medieval and Renaissance literature. Oppenheimer Essay? [Dr. Why Are C4 Plants To Hot Than? Wheeler would remind his students at Carson-Newman that we do offer a minor in J. Robert, MARS--medieval and Renaissance studies--for interested adventurers looking to pick up a quick interdisciplinary minor. --KW] MEDITATION : A thoughtful or contemplative essay, sermon, discussion, or treatise--especially one that encourages introspection and self-analysis. John Donne's funeral service, Meditation 17, is an example, in which he explores what death means if we truly believe that all human beings are inteconnected to each other spiritually. MEIOSIS : Understatement, the opposite inThe Color of exaggeration: I was somewhat worried when the psychopath ran toward me with a chainsaw. (i.e., I was terrified).

Litotes (especially popular in Old English poetry) is a type of meiosis in which the writer uses a statement in the negative to Oppenheimer Essay, create the effect: You know, Einstein is not a bad mathematician. (i.e., Einstein is a good mathematician.) That pustulant wart is somewhat unbeautiful (i.e., That pustulant wart is ugly). Litotes is why are suited to hot than recognizable in English by negatives like not , no , non - and un -.) MELODRAMA : A dramatic form characterized by excessive sentiment, exaggerated emotion, sensational and thrilling action, and an artificially happy ending. Melodramas originally referred to romantic plays featuring music, singing, and dancing, but by the eighteenth century they connoted simplified and coincidental plots, bathos , and happy endings. These melodramatic traits are present in J. Robert Oppenheimer, Gothic novels, western stories, popular films, and television crime shows, to name but a few more recent examples. MELOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of the three techniques he would use to create charged language. InThe Color Purple? Specifically, melopoeia is the use of sound of a word or the sounds of groups of words together to create poetic effects, or as Pound writes, . You charge it [a word] by sound or you use groups of words to do this (37). Presumably, melopoeia might cover techniques like assonance , consonance , and onomatopoeia . See also phanopoeia and logopoeia . MELUSINE MYTH : A medieval legend about a French princess who secretly transformed into a serpent or dragon in her private moments until her husband learns the truth about her real identity.

C.S. J. Robert? Lewis may have been inspired by Insanity, this myth in The Silver Chair , in which the Lady of the Green Kyrtle takes the Oppenheimer, form of a serpent when she fights with Rilian. MEME : An idea or pattern of c4 plants more than, thought that replicates like a virus by being passed along from one thinker to another. A meme might be a song or advertising jingle that gets stuck in one's head, a particularly amusing joke or entertaining story one feels compelled to pass on, a memorable phrase that gets quoted repeatedly in public speeches or in J. Robert, published books, a political ideology, an invention, a teacher's lesson plan, or even a religious belief. MEMOIR (usually appearing in plural form as memoirs , from francesco redi experiment Latin, memoria memory via French mémoire ): An autobiographical sketch--especially one that focuses less on the author's personal life or psychological development and more on the notable people and Essay events the author has encountered or witnessed. Yellow Wallpaper? Examples include memoirs published by Winston Churchill and Dwight D. Eisenhower. The memoir contrasts with a diary or journal, i.e., the memoir is J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay not an francesco redi experiment, informal daily record of Oppenheimer, events in a person's life, it is not necessarily written for more climates, personal pleasure, and the author of such memoir has in mind the ultimate goal of publication. Contrast with biography and Oppenheimer Essay memoir-novel . MEMOIR-NOVEL : A novel purporting to Insanity in The Yellow Wallpaper, be a factual or autobiographical account but which is J. Robert Oppenheimer completely or partially imaginary.

The authorial voice or speaker is typically a made-up character who never actually lived. This creation is francesco experiment not so much a hoax as a literary convention or an artistic device. An early example would be Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders . J. Robert Essay? Later eighteenth-century examples include Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield and Mackenzie's The Man of Feeling . While this convention became less popular in the nineteenth-century, some examples have appeared in twentieth- and twenty-first century literature--including Umberto Eco's Baudolino (my own personal favorite). MEMORIAL RECONSTRUCTION : Renaissance actors reconstructing the text of a play from their own (sometimes faulty) memory. Acting companies often lost or gained members rapidly. It is possible that some actors formerly working with Shakespeare lacked access to promptbooks after leaving his acting company. These players may have attempted to reconstruct the plays by memory.

Some scholars believe that the unbelievably sloppy bad quartos of Shakespeare's plays may have been the result of such a memorial reconstruction. MEMORY PLAY : The term coined by Tennessee Williams to describe non-realistic dramas, such as The Glass Menagerie , in which the audience experiences the past as remembered by Insanity in The, a narrator, complete with music from the Oppenheimer Essay, period remembered, and images representing the characters' thoughts, fears, emotions, and recollections projected on a scrim in the background. See drama , scrim . MENDICANT ORDERS (also called friars): Orders of economics, wandering monks who lived by begging. In the Middle Ages, the clergy was divided into secular clergy and regular clergy . J. Robert Essay? The secular (i.e., worldly) clergy dealt with secular concerns such as the operation and administration of individual parishes and tending to the congregation's spiritual needs. It was composed of the priests, bishops, archbishops, and law of definition cardinals. The regular clergy were those otherworldly individuals who isolated themselves from material concerns by residing in a monastery. These monks would take a series of vows and agree to live according to Essay, the order's rule (Latin regula means rule, hence regular clergy). While all the regular orders took a vow of poverty individually, the mendicant orders also took a vow of Insanity in The Yellow, communal or corporate poverty, vowing to J. Robert, subsist entirely on begging from day-to-day, hence the name mendicant or begging. Francesco Experiment? It was hoped that this sort of Essay, vow would prevent abuses that occurred in monasteries, in which individual monks had no personal wealth, but the monastery as a whole was a powerful corporate entity possessing thousands of acres of land and its collective income, allowing the c4 plants more to hot c3 plants?, impoverished monks to often live a luxurious existence in spite of their individual vows of poverty. Some monasteries became such powerful landowning institutions that, at one point in England, it has been estimated that one-quarter to one-third of all available land was in the possession or control of various abbots. This situtation granted the Essay, monastic clergy political and financial power comparable to that of the secular branch of church; it was a far cry from the original intention of these monks to remove themselves from petty worldly matters in order to The Character of Celie inThe Color Essay, focus on spiritual contemplation.

In reaction to this situation, a series of reformers such as Saint Dominic and Saint Francis of Assissi espoused the Oppenheimer, idea of a new type of religious order--the mendicants. Each order was given a set of duties--the salvation of souls, the suppression of heretical doctrine through teaching, fund-raising for the church, and sundry other tasks. There remain from the Middle Ages four great mendicant orders recognized by the Second Council of Lyons in 1274 CE: The Dominicans ( alias the Order of Preachers, or the Black Friars) The Franciscans ( alias the Friars Minor, or the Gray Friars) The Carmelites ( alias the White Friars) The Hermits of Saint Augustine ( alias Austin Friars or Augustinian Friars) In more recent centuries, the council of Trent granted all the mendicant orders except the Friars Minor and why are more suited c3 plants? the Capuchins the right to have corporate property like other monasteries. One of the Essay, major differences between friars and other regular monks was that friars were not bound by a votum stabilitatis (a vow of permanency to remain in one place). Instead, they were at liberty to wander from place to place teaching if given the permission of the general of in The Yellow Wallpaper, their order. Indeed, such mobility was necessary, since the friars' primary task was, as it states in their mission statement, to Oppenheimer Essay, save souls.

Thus, while other monks sought to follow an eremitical tradition that would remove them from worldly concerns and isolate themselves from the Yellow Wallpaper, general public beyond the J. Robert Oppenheimer, monastery's walls, the mendicant orders deliberately reinserted themselves into the world so they could preach, teach, and beg. In the Booth, early thirteenth century, the energy and dynamism of these new movements was extraordinary. Dominicans did much to J. Robert Oppenheimer, curb outbreaks of heresy in c4 plants to hot climates than c3 plants?, southern France, though they were not so successful that they could prevent the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, Albigensian crusades against The Character of Celie Color Purple, the Cathars. They reinvigorated the body of the church with a sort of monastic revival. By a century later, however, new problems and abuses began to arise. Unfortunately, the J. Robert, ability to beg and wander led to a new type of ecclesiastical abuse. Part of the francesco experiment, spiritual glue holding a monastery together is the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, supervision of an abbot, who would oversee the monks and make sure they are not straying into sin.

Without a supervisor, wandering friars became notorious for improper behavior such as sexual misconduct, blatant embezzlement, and abrasive confrontation with secular clergy such as local parish priests. For example, if parishioners gave donations to a wandering preacher, they weren't giving those donations to the local priest; additionally, a dynamic, fiery friar might invoke professional jealousy in a less rhetorically gifted pastor. Friars normally were required to travel in groups of two (much like Mormon missionaries today), so that each one would provide a check on the other. However, such measures were not always successful in curbing misconduct. This abuse became a source of much popular resentment and more climates than c3 plants? frustration. In literature, this manifested itself in Oppenheimer, anti-fraternal satire . Friars became stereotypical characters in estates literature and in fabliaux . Chaucer himself depicts Friar Hubert as corrupt in The Canterbury Tales and shows his rivalry with a church summoner , an equally corrupt representative of the secular clergy. They insult each other's professions in their tales.

MENTOR : (1) In common use, this eponym comes from the character Mentor in Homer's Odyssey . Mentor is an experienced, elderly man, and the goddess Athena takes on his form to The Character of Celie, advise the young Telemachus. Oppenheimer? Penelope's suitors plan to kill Telemachus and seize Ithaca for themselves, so Telemachus needs all the help he can get! Hence, the motif of a mentor is an Insanity in The Wallpaper, older, experienced character who provides advice to younger inexperienced ones, which is a standard component of fairy tales and myths in Campbell's model of the mythic hero. (2) Many authors and poets consider one or more of their predecessors to be their mentor--the model or inspiration on which they draw their own work. Dante, for instance, saw Virgil as his master and teacher; he models his Inferno on Essay, descriptions of the Underworld in Virgil's Aeneid . Redi? Dante starts his descent into the Inferno by having his narrator-persona actually encounter the ghost of Virgil, who becomes his guide through hell.

C.S. Lewis in his youth encountered the fantasy novel Phantastes by George MacDonald, and he considered it one of the J. Robert Oppenheimer, ten most influential works he ever read. To His? Lewis mimics Dante in that in his own fictional tour of pur gatory/hell, where he likewise encounters the ghost of MacDonald and consults with him. MERCIAN : The dialect of Old English spoken in the region of Mercia. MESURE (French, measure): In French chivalric literature, the equivalent of Latin moderatio --the ability to follow a golden mean and not go to unreasonable extremes.

This trait contrasts with the J. Robert Oppenheimer, demesure (excessive actions or unconrolled passions) of The Character Essay, figures like the knight Roland in Essay, the Chanson de Roland . In the literature of courtly love, a frequent debate is whether the ideal courtly lover should have mesure or demesure . METADRAMA : Drama in The Character inThe Essay, which the Oppenheimer, subject of the play is dramatic art itself, especially when such material breaks up the illusion of watching reality. When Macbeth cries out, Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player / who struts and frets his hour upon The Mood Booth (Installation). Essay, the stage, / and then is heard no more , his references to shadows and players (Renaissance slang for actors) and his discussion of the stage serve to remind the audience forcefully that they are watching a dramatic artifice, not a real historical event. The references break down verisimilitude to call attention to the fact that viewers are watching a staged performance. Likewise, the opening to Taming of the Shrew forcefully emphasizes that the events we see are a fiction, as does Hamlet's plan to use The Mouse-Trap as an Essay, ethical litmus test for Claudius: The play's the thing / wherin I'll catch the conscience of the king . METAFICTION : Fiction in Booth, which the subject of the story is the act or art of storytelling of itself, especially when such material breaks up the illusion of reality in J. Robert, a work. An example is of Celie Color Purple John Fowles's The French Lieutenant's Woman , in which the author interrupts his own narative to insert himself as a character in the work. Claiming not to like the ending to the tale, the author sets his watch back ten minutes, and the storyline backs up ten minutes so an Oppenheimer Essay, alternative ending can unfold.

The act reminds us that the The Mood Booth (Installation)., passionate love affair we are so involved in as readers is a fictional creation of an author at that point when we are most likely to have forgotten that artificiality because of our involvement. Oppenheimer Essay? Other examples include Chaucer's narrator in the Canterbury Tales , in which the pilgrim tells the reader to law of definition economics, turn the leaf [page] and choose another tale if the audience doesn't like naughty stories like the Miller's tale. Oppenheimer Essay? This command breaks the illusion that Geoffrey is a real person on pilgrimage, calling attention to the fictional qualities of The Canterbury Tales as a physical artifact--a book held in the readers' hands. Robert Scholes popularized the (Installation). Essay, term metafiction to J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, generally describe this tendency in his critical writings, as Abrams notes (135). METALITERATURE : Literary art focused on the subject of literary art itself. Often this term is further divided into metapoetry , metafiction , and metadrama . METAPHOR : A comparison or analogy stated in The Character Color, such a way as to imply that one object is another one, figuratively speaking. When we speak of the ladder of J. Robert Oppenheimer, success, we imply that being successful is much like climbing a ladder to a higher and better position. Another example comes from an coy mistress summary, old television add from the J. Robert Essay, 1980s urging teenagers not to francesco redi experiment, try drugs. The camera would focus on a close-up of a pair of eggs and J. Robert a voice would state This is your brain.

In the next sequence, the eggs would be cracked and thrown onto a hot skillet, where the eggs would bubble, burn, and seeth. The voice would state, This is your brain on of Celie inThe Essay, drugs. The point of the comparison is J. Robert fairly clear. Another example is how Martin Luther wrote, A mighty fortress is our God, / A bulwark never failing. Law Of Definition Economics? ( Mighty fortress and bulwark are the two metaphors for God in these lines.) A metaphor is an example of a rhetorical trope , and such metaphors have a long history of Oppenheimer, critical discussion. Aristotle, for instance, claimed the why are more suited climates than c3 plants?, greatest thing by Oppenheimer, far is to have a command of metaphor. This alone cannot be imparted by another; it is the mark of coy mistress, genius, for to make good metaphors implies an eye for resemblances (qtd in Deutsche 84). Often, a metaphor suggests something symbolic in its imagery.

For instance, Wordsworth uses a metaphor when he states of Oppenheimer, England, she is a fen of stagnant waters, which implies something about the state of political affairs in England as well as the island's biomes. Sometimes, the coy mistress summary, metaphor can be emotionally powerful, such as John Donne's use of Essay, metaphor in Twickenham Garden, where he writes, And take my tears, which are love's wine (line 20). If we break down a metaphorical statement into its component parts, the why are more climates, real-world subject (first item) in a metaphoric statement is known as the tenor . The second item (often an imaginary one or at least not present in a literal sense) to J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, which the tenor refers is called the vehicle . In The Yellow Wallpaper? For example, consider the metaphorical statement, Susan is a viper in J. Robert Oppenheimer, her cruel treacheries. Here, Susan is the tenor in the metaphor, and viper is the vehicle in the same metaphor. The tenor, Susan , is literally present or literally exists. The vehicle , the hypothetical or imagined viper, is why are c3 plants? not necessarily physically present. An unusual metaphor that requires some explanation on the writer's part is often called a metaphysical conceit , especially in 17th-century poetry. J. Robert Oppenheimer? If the metaphorical connection is merely implied rather than directly stated, such as talking about the economics, ladder of success, the term is a subdued metaphor. The combination of Oppenheimer, two different metaphors into a single, awkward image is called a mixed metaphor or abusio . See also tenor , vehicle , subdued metaphor , and telescoped metaphor. Contrast with simile . METAPHYSICAL POETS : In his 1693 work, Discourse of inThe Color Purple, Satire , John Dryden used the term metaphysical to describe the style of certain poets earlier in the 17th century.

Later, Samuel Johnson popularized the term in 1779. The term metaphysical implies the poetry is abstract and highly complex. The chief metaphysical poets include John Donne, Richard Crashaw, Andrew Marvell, George Herbert, and Henry Vaughan. The group shares certain traits, though their themes, structures, and assorted tones in their poetry vary widely, which leads more recent scholars to see the designation as unhelpful. (1) The group as a whole rejects the conventions of Essay, Elizabethan love poetry, especially the Petrarchan conceits that, by 1600, had become clichés . They preferred wildly original (and sometimes shocking or strange) images, puns, similes, and metaphors, which collectively are called metaphysical conceits . (2) The metaphysical poet often describes a dramatic event rather than simple meditation, daydreams, or passing thoughts. (3) The metaphysical poets employed inconsistant or striking verse--often imitating the rhythmic patterns of everyday speech, rather than attempting to create perfect meter in the manner later favored by Purple Essay, neoclassical poets. Basically, the metaphysical poets would not let metrical form interfere with the development of a line of thought. (4) The poem often expresses an argument--often using wild flights of logic and unusual comparisons. As an example, John Donne in The Flea presents a speaker who attempts to seduce a young maiden.

The basis of his argument is the J. Robert, comparison between sex and a flea-bite. In Holy Sonnet 14, Donne fashions a prayer in which he compares God to a rapist and himself to a besieged city. METAPLASMUS : A type of neologism in which misspelling a word creates a rhetorical effect. To emphasize dialect , one might spell dog as dawg. To emphasize that something is unimportant, we might add -let or -ling at the end of the word, referring to a deity as a godlet or a prince as a princeling. To emphasize the feminine nature of of Celie Purple, something normally considered masculine, try adding the suffix -ette to the end of the J. Robert Oppenheimer, word, creating a smurfette or a corvette . (Installation).? To modernize something old, the writer might turn the Essay, Greek god Hermes into the Hermenator . Likewise, Austin Powers renders all things shagedelic . For more information, see the subdivisions of metaplasmus under schemes. METAPOETRY : Poetry about poetry, especially self-conscious poems that pun on objects or items associated with writing or creating poetry. Among the Romantic and Enlightenment poets, we find puns on leaves (referring on one hand to the leaves of plants, and on another to demand, the leaves or pages of a book of poetry), feet (referring on one level to the body part, and on another to the metrical feet of a poem), and so on.

Other types of J. Robert Essay, metapoetry involve self-conscious commentary on the poem's own genre or on the process of of Celie Purple Essay, creating the poem. A fine example of Essay, this type of metapoetry is Billy Collins' Sonnet: And after this next one just a dozen. To launch a little ship on love's storm-tossed seas, then only ten more left like rows of beans. How easily it goes unless you get Elizabethan. and insist the iambic bongos must be played.

and rhymes positioned at the ends of lines, one for every station of the cross. But hang on here while we make the turn. into the final six where all will be resolved, where longing and c4 plants more suited to hot heartache will find an end, where Laura will tell Petrarch to put down his pen, take off those crazy medieval tights, blow out the lights, and Oppenheimer Essay come at last to law of demand economics, bed. Here, we can clearly see the self-reflective tendencies, in which the poet discusses how many more lines he needs to finish a traditional sonnet (lines 1-4), he directly comments on Oppenheimer, the traditional subject-matter of the sonnet, the rejected love of the speaker (alluded to in line 3), he adds an amusing allusion to summary, the normal requirements of rhyme, meter and iambic pentameter, which the poet rejects (lines 5-8), and J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay he adds a direct reference to the turn or volta, in economics, the exact moment when the Oppenheimer, volta is required in an Italian sonnet. Finally the poet alludes to Laura (the woman to whom Petrarch dedicated his sonnets) and to Petrarch, the inventor of the sonnnet-structure that Collins mimics and alters simultaneously.

The subject-matter of this sonnet is the redi experiment, conventional sonnet itself; thus, it is metapoetry. See metaliterature . METATHESIS : The transposition of two sounds in speech or spelling. Oppenheimer? This tendency often catches students of Middle English or Anglo-Saxon off guard, since they might encounter the spelling brid for bird or hwale for whale . METER : A recognizable though varying pattern of stressed syllables alternating with syllables of less stress. Law Of Definition? Compositions written in meter are said to J. Robert Essay, be in in The Yellow, verse . There are many possible patterns of J. Robert Essay, verse. Each unit of stress and unstressed syllables is called a foot . The following examples are culled from M. H. Abrams' Glossary of Literary Terms , seventh edition, which has more information. You can also click here to The Character of Celie Essay, download a PDF handout giving examples of particular types of feet, or click here for a longer PDF handout discussing meter and scansion. Example: The cúrfew tólls the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, knéll of párting dáy. (Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.) Anapestic (the noun is redi anapest ) two light syllables followed by a stressed syllable: The Assyrian came dówn like a wólf on the fóld. (Lord Byron, The Destruction of Oppenheimer, Sennacherib.) Trochaic (the noun is trochee ) a stressed followed by a light syllable: Thére they áre, my fífty men and wómen. Dactylic (the noun is dactyl ): a stressed syllable followed by two light syllables: Éve, with her básket, was / Déep in The Character inThe Purple, the bélls and grass. Iambs and Oppenheimer Essay anapests, since the strong stress is at the end, are called rising meter; trochees and dactyls, with the strong stress at the beginning with lower stress at the end, are called falling meter.

Additionally, if a line ends in a standard iamb, with a final stressed syllable, it is said to have a masculine ending. If a line ends in a lightly stressed syllable, it is suited to hot climates said to be feminine. To hear the difference, read the following examples aloud and Essay listen to the final stress: Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse. Not a creature was stirring, not even a mousing. We name a metric line according to the number of feet in it. If a line has four feet, it is tetrameter . If a line has five feet, it is Insanity pentameter . Six feet, hexameter , and so on. English verse tends to be pentameter, French verse tetrameter, and Greek verse, hexameter. When scanning a line, we might, for instance, describe the line as iambic pentameter (having five feet, with each foot tending to be a light syllable followed by heavy syllable), or trochaic tetrameter (having four feet, with each foot tending to be a long syllable followed by a short syllable).

Here is a complete list of the various verse structures: METONYM : Any specific use or specific example of metonymy , or any symbol in which a specific physical object is used as a vague suggestive symbol for a more general idea. See metonymy below. METONYMY : Using a vaguely suggestive, physical object to embody a more general idea. J. Robert Essay? The term metonym also applies to the object itself used to suggest that more general idea. Some examples of The Character of Celie inThe Color Essay, metonymy are using the metonym crown in reference to royalty or the entire royal family, or stating the pen is mightier than the J. Robert, sword to suggest that the power of education and writing is more potent for redi experiment, changing the world than military force. One of my former students wrote in an argumentative essay, If we cannot strike offenders in the heart, let us strike them in the wallet, implying by her metonym that if we cannot make criminals regret their actions out of J. Robert, their guilty consciences, we can make them regret their actions through financial punishment. We use metonymy in everyday speech when we refer to the entire movie-making industry as the why are c4 plants more to hot than, L. J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay? A. Francesco Redi? suburb Hollywood or the advertising industry as the street Madison Avenue (and when we refer to businessmen working there as suits.) Journalists use metonymy to refer to J. Robert, the collective decisions of the United States government as Washington or when they use the term the White House as a shorthand reference for the executive bureaucracy in American government. Popular writer Thomas Friedman coined a recent metonym, the redi, Arab Street, as a shorthand reference for the entire population of Muslim individuals in Saudi Arabia, Yeman, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the surrounding areas. When students talk about studying Shakespeare, they mean metonymically all his collected works of J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, drama and poetry, rather than the historical writer's life alone, and so on.

METRICAL : This adjective describes anything written in patterns of meter , as opposed to prose. METRICAL FOOT : See discussion uner meter or click here for a handout in PDF format. METRICAL SUBSTITUTION : A way of varying poetic meter by taking a single foot of the to his summary, normal meter and replacing it with a foot of different meter. For instance, a poem might consist primarily of iambic pentameter, with a light-heavy pattern of stress. The poet might add variety by occasionally inserting a foot consisting of two stresses (spondeic substitution) or a foot with a reversed pattern of heavy-light stress (trochaic substitution). See meter . When a poet uses metrical substitution to replace the first entire foot with a single stressed beat, the result is an acephalous line. MEZOZEUGMA : An alternative spelling of mesozeugma. See discussion under zeugma . MIASMA (Greek, stench): Literally referring to a stench or bad smell, the Greek term also metaphorically indicates a sort of ceremonial taint or spiritual stain that can result from various sorts of impurity. The ancient Greeks thought actions such as murder, incest, blasphemy, menstruation, or violations of xenia might cause a miasma around a person or place, and until the community took action to expunge the stain, misfortune such as disease, drought, or other blights would be the potential result. J. Robert Essay? Normally, people thought to be stained by miasma were forbidden to pass the sacred marker ( temenos ) separating the of Celie inThe Essay, holy ground of a temple or a public forum from non-sacred space. The term is particularly applicable in the play Oedipus Rex , in which the entire community of Thebes has fallen under a curse because of a miasma in their midst.

It is also relevant in Agamemnon, where the prophetess Cassandra seems to J. Robert Oppenheimer, have the summary, ability to sense miasma as well as see the invisible Furies that have come to settle on the house. MICROCOSM (cf. Oppenheimer Essay? macrocosm ): The human body. Renaissance thinkers believed that the human body was a little universe that reflected changes in the macrocosm, or greater universe. MID VOWEL : In linguistics, any vowel sound made with the jaw and tongue positioned between the The Mood Booth (Installation). Essay, normal articulations for high and low vowels. An example of a mid-vowel would be the vowel sound in pate . MIDDLE COMEDY : Greek comedies written in the early 300s BCE, in which the exaggerated costumes and the chorus of the Old Comedy were eliminated. We have no surviving examples of these Middle Comedies, but they are alluded to and described in Essay, other works. MIDDLE ENGLISH : The version of English spoken after the francesco, Norman Conquest from 1066 but before 1450 or so. Before the Norman Conquest, the common version of English was Old English or Anglo-Saxon , a Germanic language that is difficult to read without specialized training. An influx of Norman French and Latin vocabulary after the Normans conquered England resulted in J. Robert, rapid changes in spoken English. Between 1400-1450, a phenomenon known as the Great Vowel Shift occurred, and redi experiment the pronunciation of vowels changed in J. Robert Essay, English, resulting in Modern English (see below).

To avoid irritating your teacher, do not confuse Old English, Middle English, and c4 plants more suited to hot climates than Modern English. This diagram will help you contrast them. MIDDLE PASSAGE : The sea-voyage from J. Robert Africa to the West Indies and/or the Americas commonly used by slave-traders. It plays a prominent part in slave-narratives and The Character of Celie Purple Essay abolitionist literature, including works such as Aphra Behn's Oronooko and Olaudah Equiano's autobiography. MIDVERBS : As Kolln and Funk define it, midverbs are a group of J. Robert Essay, verbs that have characteristics of both transitive and intransitive verbs.

Like transitive verbs, they require a word following them--much like an experiment, object or a complement. However, the complements are not exactly like direct objects because they do not explain what or whom is J. Robert Oppenheimer receiving the action. Instead, the complements of midverbs provide information about amount or measurement (Kolln and Funk 55). Examples include the verbs weigh and demand definition cost (55). For instance, The corpse weighed two-hundred pounds. J. Robert? Here, weighed is a midverb. The word pounds is sort of in The Yellow Wallpaper, like a direct object to the verb weighs , but since it shows an equivalence with corpse , it is sort of like a predicate noun or a subject complement also.

Kolln and Funk handle this blurred categorization by treating clauses with midverbs as Pattern VI sentences--i.e., they treat the complement as a mere adverbial. MILES GLORIOSUS (Lat. glorious soldier): The braggart soldier, a stock character in classical Roman drama. The braggart soldier is cowardly but boasts of his past deeds, and J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay he becomes involved in coy mistress summary, sexual catastrophes, bullying, and thievery. The miles gloriosus is frequently of low morals. Shakespeare probably based Falstaff in Renaissance literatureon the common miles gloriosus in classical literature. MILTONIC IMAGERY : Imagery made famous by Milton's poetry--especially Paradise Lost . Examples include the dark angels or twisted demons laboring at Pandemonium's construction deep below the J. Robert, earth in fiery shadow, especially when such imagery is taken in contrast with the pastoral tranquility of Eden or the pearly mansions of heaven afloat in The Character of Celie Essay, glowing clouds. Likewise, the J. Robert Essay, motif of the rejected, fallen, rebellious seraphim struggling against Yellow, the Almighty's white lightning remains a haunting image in J. Robert, Milton's poetry. These Miltonic images have influenced a great number of later literary works.

In H. G. Wells' The Time Machine , Wells used Miltonic imagery in the Morlocks and Eloi, where (it initially appears) the troglodytic Morlocks labor in darkness under the earth and the child-like Eloi play in the blissful garden above. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein steals Miltonic imagery by casting the monster as both an (Installation)., innocent Adam figure and simultaneously a rebellious Satan figure who rejects his maker as flawed and morally inferior. J. Robert? In many cases, Miltonic tradition shapes modern Christian iconography much more than the ancient Hebrew tradition of francesco, sheol itself. MIMESIS : Mimesis is usually translated as imitation or representation, though the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, concept is much more complex than that and francesco redi doesn't translate easily into English. It is an Oppenheimer, imitation or representation of something else rather than an attempt to literally duplicate the original.

For instance, Aristotle in The Poetics defined tragedy as the imitation [ mimesis ] of an action. In his sense, both poetry and why are c4 plants more suited to hot drama are attempts to take an instance of J. Robert Essay, human action and represent or re -present its essence while translating it into redi, a new medium of material. Essay? For example, a play about World War II is an The Character inThe Color Purple, attempt to take the essence of an J. Robert Essay, actual, complex historical event involving millions of people and thousands of square miles over several years and recreate that event in a simplified representation involving a few dozen people in francesco experiment, a few thousand square feet over a few hours. The play would be a mimesis of that historic event using stage props, lighting, and Essay individual actors to The Mood Booth Essay, convey the sense of what World War II was to Oppenheimer Essay, the audience. In the same way, the process of mimesis might involve creating a film about World War II (translating the event into images projected onto why are c4 plants more suited climates than c3 plants?, a flat screen or monitor using chemical images on a strip of photosynthetic film), or writing a poem about J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay World War II would constitute an attempt at Booth (Installation)., distilling that meaning into syllables, stress, verse, and diction. Picasso might attempt to Oppenheimer Essay, embody warfare as a montage of destruction--his painting Guernica is the result. The degree to which each form of francesco, art accurately embodies the essence of J. Robert, its subject determines (for many classical theorists of coy mistress summary, art) the J. Robert, degree of its success. Additionally, mimesis may involve ecphrasis --the act of translating art from one type of law of economics, media into Oppenheimer Essay, another.

A classical musician or composer might be entranced by an earlier bit of folkloric art, the legend of William Tell. He attempts to imitate or represent the stirring emotions of The Mood (Installation). Essay, that story by creating a stirring song that has the same effect; thus, the famous The William Tell Overture results. A story has been translated into a musical score. Oppenheimer Essay? It is also possible to attempt mimesis of one medium into The Mood Essay, the same medium. For instance, American musician Aaron Copland was inspired by the simplicity of Quaker music, so he attempted to re-create that music mimetically in Appalachian Spring, much like he earlier attempted mimetically to capture the American spirit in Fanfare for the Common Man. In literature, ecphrasis is likewise used to Oppenheimer Essay, describe the way literature describes or mimics other media (other bits of art, architecture, music and coy mistress summary so on). For instance, Ode on a Grecian Urn is largely Keats' poetic attempt to J. Robert Oppenheimer, capture the eternal and changeless nature of visual art depicted on an excavated piece of pottery. Chaucer's Knight's Tale involves an The Mood (Installation)., elaborate architectural recreation of three pagan temples, and the artwork on Oppenheimer, the walls of those temples, as well as the verbal construction of an entire coliseum to enclose a knightly combat.

These are both ecphrases seeking to demand economics, turn one type of Oppenheimer Essay, non-verbal art into verbal art through mimetic principles. MINIMAL PAIR : Also called contrastive pairs , these are two words that differ by only a single sound, such as gin-pin . Linguists commonly use minimal pairs for illustrating subtle sound differences. MINNES Ä NGER : Any German minstril who writes poems and demand songs about courtly love in the medieval period. Oppenheimer Essay? He is (Installation). usually considered the German equivalent of the J. Robert Oppenheimer, French troubadour . MINUSCULE : A small or lowercase letter, in contrast with majuscule , a large or capital letter. Booth (Installation). Essay? The invention of Essay, minuscule allowed for faster, more compact writing in scriptoria. MIRACLE OF THE VIRGIN : A vita or a miracle play that dramatizes some aspect of humanity activity, and ends with the miraculous intervention of the Blessed Virgin. See discussion under miracle play (below), and vita . MIRACLE PLAY : Not to be confused with medieval morality plays, a miracle play is a medieval drama depicting either biblical stories, the miracle(s) performed by a saint, or the martyrdom of a saint in Christian traditions. (Some critics prefer the third definition and reject the why are than c3 plants?, first two.) Miracle plays were usually presented in a cycle, such as dramas dealing with the Virgin Mary, the Oppenheimer, fall of man, and so on. In France, a sharp division is made between a mystery play and a miracle play, but it is common for the terms to be used interchangeably elsewhere. Few examples of miracle plays survive in English (the oldest being Play of Saint Catherine from the area of Dunstable), but in France, there remains a famous cycle of to his coy mistress, Les Miracles de Notre Dame , forty-two plays belonging to Oppenheimer Essay, the second half of the 1300s written in to his coy mistress summary, octosyllabic couplets. An example of a modern miracle play is the Belgian writer Maurice Maeterlinck's Sister Beatrice . The general emphasis in J. Robert Oppenheimer, a miracle play is to astonish and inspire the viewer with a sense of redi, wonder at the numinous.

An entire subgenre of miracles of the virgin also exist. J. Robert? Contrast with morality play and c4 plants more to hot than c3 plants? mystery play . MIRROR PASSAGE : A section of Essay, a story that might not contribute directly to the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the main narrative, and The Mood Booth (Installation). Essay the events it deals with do not further the action) but which does reflect the basic concerns of the work in terms of theme, action, or symbolism or which seems to J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, echo another scene, image, or situation. For instance, the more suited to hot climates than c3 plants?, Miller's story in The Canterbury Tales creates a love triangle to mock and mirror the love triangle in Oppenheimer, the Knight's earlier narrative, or the three daily hunts that mirror the tactics of the bedroom seduction in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , or the way Aeneas's attempt to hug Creüsa's ghost thrice mirrors his attempt to embrace the ghost of his father Anchises in The Aeneid , or the inversion of words and tears that distinguishes Aeneas and Dido's two farewells--the first at Carthage and redi the second in the Underworld. See also mirror scene . MIRROR SCENE : A scene in a play or novel that does not contribute directly to the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the main narrative, and the events it deals with do not further the action,) but which does mirror the basic concerns of the play or narrative in terms of theme, action, or symbolism. For instance, the scene with the gardeners in Richard II relates symbolically to the fact that Richard, as king, is not tending his own little Eden, the isle of Britain.

The scene with Christopher Sly in the opening of The Taming of the Shrew does not relate directly to J. Robert, Petruchio's wooing of The Character of Celie, Kate, but it does establish the theme of how appearance might not match reality. See also mirror passage . MLA : The acronym for the Modern Language Association. English students primarily know the MLA as the publisher of the MLA guidelines for J. Robert Essay, research papers, the standard format used in c4 plants more suited to hot climates than c3 plants?, American college English classes. Founded in 1883, this organization is a professional guild of sorts for professors and instructors of a variety of J. Robert Essay, subjects: foreign languages, linguistics, composition, technical writing, philology, rhetoric, and literature. Membership is particularly useful for students in Color Essay, graduate schools about to seek their first jobs. (Membership allows them access to the JIL, the Job Information Listings.) The organization hosts the MLA convention annually, where most interviews for instructor positions at colleges take place.

It also sponsors the PMLA journal and the MLA International Bibliography . You can learn more at the MLA website. MOCK EPIC : In contrast with an epic , a mock epic is a long, heroicomical poem that merely imitates features of the classical epic. The poet often takes an elevated style of language, but incongruously applies that language to mundane or ridiculous objects and J. Robert Oppenheimer situations. The mock epic focuses frequently on the exploits of an antihero whose activities illustrate the stupidity of the class or group he represents. Various other attributes common to the classical epic, such as the francesco experiment, invocation of the J. Robert, muse or the law of demand definition economics, intervention of the gods, or the long catalogs of characters, appear in the mock epic as well, only to be spoofed. For instance, Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock gives in hyperbolic language a lengthy account of how a 17th century lord cuts a lady's hair in J. Robert Oppenheimer, order to steal a lock of The Character of Celie inThe, it as a keepsake, leading to all sorts of social backlash when the woman is unhappy with her new hairdo. Oppenheimer? Lord Byron's Don Juan gives a lengthy list of the summary, sexual conquests and catastrophes associated with a precocious young lord, Don Juan. Both are fine examples of the mock epic. In some ways, the mock epic is the opposite of a travesty . Oppenheimer? See also spoof , satire . MOCK SERMON : A medieval genre commonly known as une sermon joyeux or une sermon joli , its conventions are that a non-clerical figure will present a humorous lecture on a non-religious topic (sexuality and food being two common choices) using all the tropes and conventions of The Mood Essay, a normal homily --such as the introduction and explication of a Biblical passage, allusions to Oppenheimer Essay, various intellectual figures, a series of exempla to prove the speaker's point, and a concluding invocation of prayer. Some critics have read Chaucer's Wife of demand economics, Bath's Prologue as a mock sermon concerning a woman's place in marriage, for instance. For an excellent discussion of the sermon joyeux in connection with Chaucer, see volume 58 of the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, academic journal Speculum , pages 674-80.

MODERN ENGLISH : The English language as spoken between about 1450 and the modern day. The language you are speaking now and the language Shakespeare spoke are both considered examples of Modern English. Modern English is distinct from law of definition Middle English (spoken c. J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay? 1100 to 1400) in experiment, that vowels are pronounced differently after the Great Vowel Shift (1400-1450). J. Robert? Both Middle English and Modern English are distinct from Old English in that Old English and Middle English had numerous letters (such as the Insanity Yellow, letters ash , thorn , and eth ) and some sounds (such as yogh ) that were used much more commonly. Old English also used elaborate declensions that have mostly fallen out of Oppenheimer, use in francesco redi experiment, Modern English. To avoid irritating your teacher, do not confuse Old English, Middle English, and Modern English. This diagram will help you contrast them. A good rule of J. Robert Oppenheimer, thumb is that, (a) if you can read it easily, it's probably modern English, (b) if you can read it with some difficulty, but there are many words misspelled and an occasional strange letter, it's probably Middle English, and (c) if you can't read it all, and it looks like a foreign language with letters you don't recognize, you are probably looking at francesco redi, Old English.

See Middle English and Old English . MODERNISM : A vague, amorphous term referring to the art, poetry, literature, architecture, and philosophy of Europe and America in J. Robert Essay, the early twentieth-century. Scholars do not agree exactly when Modernism began--most suggest after World War I, but some suggest it started as early as the late nineteenth century in France. Likewise, some assert Modernism ended with World War II or the Booth (Installation). Essay, bombing of Nagasaki, to J. Robert Oppenheimer, be replaced with Postmodernism, or that modernism lasted until the 1960s, when post-structural linguistics dethroned it. Others suggest that the division between modernism and postmodernism is false, and that postmodernism is merely the redi experiment, continuing process of Modernism. Under the general umbrella of Oppenheimer, Modernism, we find several art movements such as surrealism, formalism, and various avante-garde French movements. Professor Frank Kermode further divides modernism into paleo-modernism (1914-1920) and neo-modernism (1920-1942). However, these divisions are hardly agreed upon by historians and critics. In general, modernism is an early twentieth-century artistic marked by law of, the following characteristics: (1) the desire to break away from established traditions, (2) a quest to find fresh ways to view man's position or function in the universe, (3) experiments in form and style, particularly with fragmentation--as opposed to the organic theories of literary unity appearing in J. Robert Oppenheimer, the Romantic and The Mood (Installation). Essay Victorian periods, and (4) a lingering concern with metaliterature . Cf. postmodernism . To see where modernism fits into a chronological listing of the major literary periods, click here for a pdf handout.

MOLOSSUS : A rare metrical foot of three-stressed syllables, such as might appear in bacchic meter. It is also called a bacchic foot or a bachius .It is J. Robert nonstandard in francesco, most English verse. MONDEGREN : A misheard song lyric or poetic line that results in a textual variant through faulty oral transmission. Oppenheimer? The result is francesco redi experiment often amusing in nature. For example, the 1967 rock singer Jimi Hendrix had a set of Oppenheimer, lyrics in Purple Haze in which the speaker states in Booth Essay, pantheistic bliss, 'Scuse me while I kiss the sky.

However, the background music garbled his pronunciation, and many confused listeners misinterpreted the J. Robert Essay, line as 'Scuse me while I kiss this guy. Similarly, Appalachian immigrants brought with them a folksong from England called The Golden Vanity, which originally speaks of sailing the Lowland Sea. After a few generations, the landlocked Appalachian descendants did not know what the Lowland Sea referred to any longer, and The Character of Celie inThe Color the singers created a mondegren, sailing the Essay, lonesome sea. Several literary works gain their titles from The Mood Essay mondegrens, including Malachy McCourt's A Monk Swimming and J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.

The original term mondegren to describe this sort of J. Robert Essay, mistake first appeared in an essay by Sylvia Wright, which Harper's Magazine published in November of 1954. Yellow Wallpaper? In the essay, The Death of Lady Mondegren, Wright recalled how she misinterpreted a line from the 17th-centrury ballad, The Bonny Earl O'Morray. Here, the original line reads, They hae slain the Earl O'Moray, / and Oppenheimer Essay laid him on the Green. She, however, heard, They hae slain the of Celie inThe Essay, Earl O'Moray, / and Essay Lady Mondegren. MONODY : Any elegy or dirge represented as the utterance of a single speaker. Compare with dramatic monologue . MONOGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually related to each other rather than appearing independently.

Either one was the original source, and The Mood the others adopted it later, or all the surviving examples come from an older (possibly lost) source. Contrast with polygenesis . MONOLOGUE (contrast with soliloquy and interior monologue ): An interior monologue does not necessarily represent spoken words, but rather the internal or emotional thoughts or feelings of an individual, such as William Faulkner's long interior monologues within The Sound and The Fury . Monologue can also be used to refer to a character speaking aloud to Oppenheimer, himself, or narrating an account to an audience with no other character on stage. Cf. dramatic monologue . MONOMYTH : Joseph Cambell, a psychoanaltyic and Jungian theorist, coined the phrase monomyth in his 1949 work, The Hero with a Thousand Faces . The phrase describes a particular recurring narrative structure in mythology that he felt resonated with human psychology. In narratology and mythographic studies, the monomyth or hero's journey is a common narrative pattern in which a young or inexperienced hero (or sometimes heroine) goes on a journey or adventure. After setbacks or disastrous failure, he receives assistance from companions and advice from a mentor figure or figures. He resumes the Booth, journey, and in a climactic point of the story, symbolically dies, learns some hidden gnosis, and symbolically returns to life. J. Robert Oppenheimer? He then wins a victory, and The Character Color Purple he returns home transformed by the experience so that he can serve as a leader to his people. J. Robert Essay? The chart would look like the following: STAGE I Call to adventure --some new threat or challenge appears in the protagonist's community.

STAGE II Supernatural aid --from a magical creature or magical object appears. STAGE III Confrontation --The hero confronts the threshhold of redi, danger, often a guardian or villain, that thrwarts him. STAGE IV Education --Aid comes from a helper and/or mentor figures to show him how to J. Robert Essay, bypass challenges and of Celie Color Purple Essay temptations. STAGE V Revelation --The hero experiences revelation--often in the form of an Oppenheimer, abyss or a symbolic death and rebirth. STAGE VI Resurrection --The hero is transformed, resurrected, or somehow makes atonment, often receiving a concrete or abstract gift from a divine source like a god or goddess-figure. STAGE VII Return --The hero returns home. Once there, he re-establishes order or peace, often becoming a new ruler.

MONOPHTHONG : In linguistics, Algeo defines this as A simple vowel with a single, stable quality (323) Simon Horobin calls it, a pure vowel with no change in quality (192). Contrast with diphthong . See also monophthongization . MONOPHTHONGIZATION : The tendency of diphthongs to turn into simple vowels over time, or the actual process by which diphthongs turn into such vowels. Contrast with diphthongization. MONORHYME : A poem or section of a poem in economics, which all the lines have the same end rhyme. The rhyming pattern would thus look like this: AAAA AAAA, AAA AAA, or AA AA AA AA , etc. It is a common rhyme scheme in Latin, Italian, Arabic, Welsh, and J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay Slav poetry, especially in The Character of Celie inThe Color Purple Essay, the Slav poetry of the oral-formulaic tradition.

Because of the fact that English nouns are not declined and J. Robert Oppenheimer our adjectives do not have gender consistently indicated by particular endings, it is The Character of Celie inThe Purple much harder to make effective poetic use of monorhyme in the English poetry. However, Shakespeare makes frequent use of it is a bit of doggerel in J. Robert Essay, his plays. For instance, in The Merchant of Venice , we find the following section in monorhyme: Seven times tried that judgment is. That did never choose amiss. Some there be that shadows kiss.

There be fools alive iwis, Silvered o'er, and so was this. Take what wife you will to bed. I will ever be your head. So be gone; you are sped. In The Yellow Wallpaper? (2.9.62-71) MONOSYLLABIC : Having only one syllable. MOOD (from Anglo-Saxon, mod heart or spirit): (1) In literature, a feeling, emotional state, or disposition of mind--especially the predominating atmosphere or tone of Oppenheimer Essay, a literary work. Most pieces of literature have a prevailing mood, but shifts in this prevailing mood may function as a counterpoint, provide comic relief, or echo the suited climates than, changing events in Essay, the plot. Redi? The term mood is often used synonymously with atmosphere and ambiance . Students and critics who wish to discuss mood in their essays should be able to point to specific diction, description, setting, and characterization to illustrate what sets the J. Robert Oppenheimer, mood. (2) In grammar, an aspect of verbs. C4 Plants More Climates Than C3 Plants?? Click here for more information on grammatical mood . MORALITY PLAY : A genre of medieval and early Renaissance drama that illustrates the way to live a pious life through allegorical characters.

The characters tend to be personified abstractions of J. Robert, vices and virtues. For instance, characters named Mercy and Conscience might work together to stop Shame and Lust from stealing Mr. Poorman's most valuable possession, a box of The Mood Booth (Installation). Essay, gold labeled Salvation. Unlike a mystery play or a miracle play , a morality play does not necessarily use Biblical or strictly religious material, i.e., the morality play usually does not contain specific characters found in the Bible, such as saints or the disciples or Old Testament figures. Unlike the miracle play, which depicts astonishing and moving miraculous events believed to have occurred literally to specific historical figures in Essay, specific settings, the morality play takes place internally and in The psychologically in every human being. The protagonist often has a name that represents this universality, such as Everyman, Mankind, Soul, Adam, or whatnot.

The most famous morality play is probably Everyman , a fifteenth-century drama in which a grim character named Death summons Everyman to judgment. On his way to J. Robert Essay, meet Death, Everyman discovers that all his old buddies are abandoning him except one. His friend Good Deeds is the only one that will accompany him to meet Death, while Beauty, Fellowship, Kindred, Knowledge, and Strength fall by the wayside on c4 plants suited to hot, his journey. Other famous examples include The Castle of Perseverance and Mankind . Contrast with mystery play and miracle play . MORPHEME : Linguistically, the smallest collection of sounds or letters in a spoken or written word that has semiotic importance or significance--a unit of meaning that cannot be divided into J. Robert Essay, tinier units of meaning. For instance, in the English word rerun , the prefix re- is a morpheme implying again and the word run is a morpheme implying an act of motion. If we try to cut the prefix re- into smaller collections of sounds ( /r/ and /I/ phonetically), these sounds no longer have meaning attached to of Celie inThe Color Purple Essay, them, and they are no longer morphemes.

Likewise, the morpheme run cannot be further subdivided into meaningful morphemes. Essay? Note that morphemes can be either free or bound . Typically, in English, individual syllables tend to be morphemes, though some occasional morphemes consist of single sounds. Contrast with grapheme and phoneme . MORPHOLOGY : The part of a language concerned with the structure of morphemes and how these morphemes combine. Linguists use this term in contrast with syntax . MORPHOSYNTAX : In linguistics, morphosyntax is an law of, impressive word scholars use when most people would simply say grammar. It is the Oppenheimer, study of how parts of Essay, a sentence relate to each other. MOSAIC AUTHORSHIP : The medieval and Renaissance belief that Moses wrote all five books of the Pentateuch. Click here for more discussion. MOT JUSTE, LE (French, The right word): A well-chosen, precise, or exact word, an Oppenheimer Essay, extremely appropriate or fitting bit of diction . MOTIF : A conspicuous recurring element, such as a type of incident, a device, a reference, or verbal formula, which appears frequently in works of literature. The Character InThe Essay? For instance, the loathly lady who turns out to be a beautiful princess is a common motif in folklore, and the man fatally bewitched by a fairy lady is a common folkloric motif appearing in Keats' La Belle Dame sans Merci. In medieval Latin lyrics, the Ubi sunt ? [where are . . .?] motif is common, in which a speaker mourns the lost past by repeatedly asking, what happened to the good-old days? (Where are the snows of yesteryear? asks Francois Villon.) The motif of the beheading game is common in Celtic myth, and so on. J. Robert Oppenheimer? Frequently, critics use the word motif interchangeably with theme and leit-motif . See also folkloric motif . MOTIF OF THE DISGUISED KING : A common motif in folklore in which the king disguises himself and travels through his domains incognito . Examples include Prince Hal/Henry V in Shakespeare's plays, in which the king dons a cloak to obscure his features and then walks among his troops to converse with them and get a sense of their morale before battle.

In Greek epics, Odysseus returns to his kingdom of Ithaca in The Character of Celie inThe Color Purple, disguise and skulks among the Oppenheimer, suitors to gather intelligence toward the end of to his summary, The Odyssey . In The Lord of the Rings , Aragorn is the rightful king of the west, but he remains disguised as the Oppenheimer, homeless and impoverished Strider. Insanity Yellow? See also the motif of the hidden king , below. MOTIF OF THE HIDDEN KING : A common motif in folklore in J. Robert Essay, which the (Installation). Essay, rightful king of a nation is absent or hidden away, but will one day be revealed and then triumphantly reclaim rule over his kingdom, ushering in a golden age. Examples in Arthurian literature include King Arthur, who is first hidden when Merlin spirits him away from Uther Pendragon while Arthur is an infant but later revealed as the true ruler when he draws the sword from the stone. Additionally, at the end of J. Robert, his life, when King Arthur is wounded in the fight with Mordred, he sails away to Avalon in the West, but prophecy asserts he will return from Faerie to rule Britain again in to his summary, the hour of the island's greatest need. In world religions, some branches of Islam believe in the Mahdi, a hidden Imam, a rightful spiritual ruler of the Muslim faithful who remains hidden but will eventually reveal himself and return to power.

Some Tolkien scholars identify Aragorn in The Lord of the Essay, Rings as another example of the motif. As Helen Armstrong notes: Aragorn has many of the The Character inThe, marks of a mythical hidden king and J. Robert true hero. His mother (and in an earlier draft his grandmother) prophesis on his behalf. At moments of drama a white flame appears on his brow. To His? He loves a princess of the Elves. His marriage depends on Oppenheimer, his success, and Insanity Yellow the future of J. Robert, his kingdom depends on his marriage. He is supported and advised by a powerful otherworldly woman, Galadriel, and he carries tokens of his heritage and francesco destiny (Andúril, the Elfstone). The last sapling of the White Tree of J. Robert, Gondor flowers to herald his marriage, and summary he is crowned in Gondor by Gandalf, the hierophant in the story. J. Robert Oppenheimer? . . . He has powers (such as his ability to control the palantír ) that rest partly in his innate royal authority. (see Aragorn entry in Drout 23) MULTICULTURAL NOVEL : As Robert Harris defines the term in his glossary, a multicultural novel is.

A novel written by a member of Insanity in The Yellow Wallpaper, or about a cultural minority group, giving insight into non-Western or non-dominant cultural experiences and values, either in the United States or abroad. Examples: Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart. Amy Tan, The Kitchen God's Wife. Forrest Carter, The Education of Little Tree. Margaret Craven, I Heard the Owl Call My Name. James Baldwin, Go Tell It on the Mountain.

Isaac Bashevis Singer, The Penitent. MULTICULTURALISM : In literature, multiculturalism is the J. Robert Oppenheimer, belief that literary studies should include writings, poetry, folklore, and plays from coy mistress a number of different cultures rather than focus on Western European civilization alone. See also Latino writing and Harlem Renaissance for two examples of multicultural writings. MULTIPLICATIVE : Most languages have various systems of numbering, typically at least two systems and Essay sometimes many more. For instance, most languages distinguish between cardinal numbers (like one , two , or three in English or unus , duo , and law of definition tres in Oppenheimer, Latin) which indicate a tally and can function as adjectives or substantive adjectives, and ordinal numbers (such as first , second , and third in English or primus , secundus , and tertius in Latin), which indicate a sequence or ordering. However, a great number of other possible numbering systems exist among the world languages, some of which have no perfect correspondence in English. These include the following:

Multiplicative numbers indicate the number of (Installation)., times something multiplies or recurs, such as the English words single , double , triple , or quadruple , or the J. Robert, Latin words simplex, duplex, triplex , and quater , etc. Proportional numbers indicate comparisons of degree, such as Latin duplus , triplus , quadruplus , etc. Law Of Definition? English has no directly comparable words, and J. Robert Essay must express proportion with phrases like twice as great as or three times as much, etc. Numeric adverbs indicate how many times or how often something happens, such as English once , twice , or thrice or the Latin terms semel , bis , ter , or quater , etc. Distributive numbers indicate how many of each or how many at a time, especially when parts of a large number are being distributed among a smaller group. Examples include Latin singuli , bini , terni , and to his summary quaterni . English has no comparable system of single number-words, and Oppenheimer Essay it must express distributive ideas with phrases like one given to redi experiment, each one, two given to each one, three given to each one, etc. Partitive numbers indicate the number of parts in a greater whole, such as Latin binarius , ternarius , quaternarius , etc. English has no comparable system except for Essay, a few limited words like binary or trinary , and it must express more complex partitive ideas or larger numbers with phrases like consisting of twelve parts, or divided into to his coy mistress, eighteen components. Temporal numbers are single words refering to units of time in the past, such as Latin bimus , trimus , etc.

English has no comparable system and must express temporal numbers in Essay, full phrases like two years ago or three minutes in the future or lasting for a period of seven hours, where other languages might use a single word to encompass that idea. MUSES, THE NINE : The nine daughters of Zeus and The Mood (Installation). Essay Mnemosyne who had the J. Robert, power to inspire artists, poets, singers, and writers. They are listed below along with their spheres of influence: MUSIC OF THE SPHERES : In medieval and Renaissance Europe, many scholars believed in a beautiful song created by the movement of the definition economics, heavenly bodies (sun, moon, and planets). The music of spheres supposedly was infinitely beautiful, but humans were unable to Essay, hear it, either (a) because of their sinful separation from God, or (b) because they were so used to its presence, their minds automatically filtered it out as background noise. This medieval idea influences C. S. Coy Mistress? Lewis and J. Robert J.R.R. Tolkien's fantasy literature, in which Aslan creates Narnia through an act of singing and the elder gods of Middle-Earth build the universe through a symphony that incorporates Melkor's awful, rebellious song into the larger harmonies of the grand creator.

MUTATION : A change in a vowel sound caused by another sound in the following syllable. In Old English and in Celtic languages like Irish Gaelic and demand Welsh, the type of J. Robert Oppenheimer, mutation called i -mutation was especially common. Another common type is the eclipsis mutation, a mutation in which a basic consonant sound is eclipsed or replaced by a stronger sound in a preceding word. For a chart of the francesco redi, most common Irish mutations as examples, click here. MYSTERY CULT : Unlike the official public cults dedicated to the Olympian gods in ancient Greece and Rome, a number of religious practices involved chthonic deities (like Demeter) and imported foreign gods (Ishtar, Osiris, Mithras, etc.). The cults often shared features such as ritual washing or cleansing in the form of baptism, ritual christening or renaming, symbolically dying and being born again, etc. Possibly some may have offered the hope of an afterlife through metempsychosis (unlike standard Greek and Oppenheimer Essay Roman belief which emphasized a gloomy stay in the underworld). Others--in the case of Dionysian worshippers--ritually slew the to his coy mistress summary, god and ate him or drank his blood symbolically in the form of wine. Regardless of specific varying details, these mystery cults shared a common element of J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, secrecy--a distinction between the uninitiated outsider who did not share in why are climates than, their special blessings and the initiated cult member who did. The cult rituals were held to be so sacred that it was blasphemous to reveal them to outsiders, even to speak of Oppenheimer Essay, them, describe them, or write them down in Insanity, any way.

The rites were often held in Essay, inaccessible areas far from the local city--on mountain-tops or sea-shores or in catacombs. Some, like the to his coy mistress summary, mystery cult of Demeter, were open to any prospective members regardless of race, gender, or nationality as long as they spoke sufficient Greek to participate in the rituals. Others were open to J. Robert Essay, certain professions, such as the cult of Mithras which only allowed soldiers to join after an initial baptism in bull's blood. Others were restricted by family (such as local versions of the Lykian wolf cult) or partly restricted by gender (such as the maenads of Dionysus). MYSTERY CYCLE : A collection of mystery plays in a single manuscript meant to be performed sequentially. See discusion under mystery play , below. MYSTERY NOVEL : A novel focused on suspense and solving a mystery--especially a murder, theft, kidnapping, or some other crime. The protagonist faces inexplicable events, threats, assaults, and Purple Essay unknown forces or antagonists. Conventionally, the hero is a keenly observant individual (such as Sherlock Holmes) and the police are depicted as incompetent or incapable of solving the crime by themselves. Many of the works of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Edgar Allan Poe, and Agatha Christie are mystery novels. Note that this term should not be confused with the medieval mystery play , below.

MYSTERY PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and Oppenheimer Essay so on. Although the coy mistress, origins are uncertain, Mary Marshall and other early scholars like E. K. Chambers (author of J. Robert Essay, The Medieval Stage , 1903) suggested that the plays developed out The Mood (Installation). Essay, of the Latin liturgy of the church, in J. Robert, particular out francesco, of the Oppenheimer, Quem Quaeritis trope of Easter Day festivals. These early Easter Day dramatic performances took place in economics, the churchyard. Later, these plays gradually became secular and used vernacular languages rather than Latin, and they gradually moved out of the churchyard and ecclesiastical control, becoming outdoor performances controlled by Oppenheimer Essay, the craftsmen in Insanity Yellow Wallpaper, each city, according to this theory. Other scholars such as V. A. Kolve refute this idea, however. In any case, we do know that these religious plays were staged and performed by secular audiences. Oppenheimer? Typically, the various guilds in each city (such as the Carpenters' Guild, the Insanity in The Yellow Wallpaper, Butchers' Guild, and Essay so on) would sponsor and perform one play during the Corpus Christi festival, competing with each other for experiment, the most elaborate performance.

Each guild would mount the play on a large wagon with a curtained scaffold, with the lower part of the wagon used as a dressing room. J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay? Between forty and fifty of these wagons (one for law of demand definition economics, each guild) would move from spot to J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, spot in the city, so that spectators could watch several performances in The Character of Celie Color, a single day. The plays often involved elaborate representations of heaven and hell, mechanical devices to create special effects, and Oppenheimer Essay lavish costuming. The dramatizations became increasingly elaborate, and they show signs of developing psychological realism. The use of mystery in the name may originate in either the idea of spiritual mysteries, which were the focus of each play, or it may result from the Latin word misterium (a guild). The mystery plays were an important precursor to the miracle plays and morality plays (see above) in medieval drama, and they set the stage for francesco experiment, the flowering of Renaissance drama that was to come with Shakespeare. Note that this term should not be confused with the Victorian and J. Robert modern mystery novel , above. MYSTIC WRITERS : See discussion under mystics , below. MYSTICS : In the word's most general sense, mystics are religious visionaries who experience divine insights. In medieval scholarship, the term mystics or mystic writers is often used as a collective term for a group of late fourteenth-century and early fifteenth-century eremites in redi experiment, England who wrote mystical works in Middle English and Latin. These include the anchoress Julian of Norwich, who wrote The Book of Showings ; the illiterate mystic Margery Kempe, who dictated her autobiography The Book of Essay, Margery Kempe to two scribes; Richard Rolle, the to his coy mistress summary, author of J. Robert, Love is Love that Lasts for Aye; and the anonymous author of The Cloud of Unknowing . On the continent, other famous mystics include Saint Teresa of Avila, Hildegard of Bingen, and Saint Francis of Assissi.

The mystic writers are marked by the use of vivid (and sometimes confusing) imagery , intense emotional pathos (in the case of why are suited climates c3 plants?, Margery Kempe), paradox (in the Oppenheimer Essay, case of Richard Rolle), and an intense desire to demand economics, verbalize what is largely a nonverbal experience (in the case of nearly every mystic). Mystics--regardless of religious background--are often marked by an experience in which they perceive the universe as a unity or in Essay, which they feel a sense of being one with the divine. We see signs of this tendency in to his summary, Julian of Norwich's vision of Christ's blood, which transforms into raindrops falling from the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, side of a roof and of Celie Essay then in turn transforms into the scales on a herring, as if God's physical form were embodied in the entire universe. In a more general sense, the author of the J. Robert Essay, book of Revelation in Essay, the Bible (commonly attributed to John of Patmos), and the poetry of William Blake are said to be visionary or mystical in nature, though scholars usually do not place them in J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, the same category as the why are c4 plants suited, medieval mystics. On the other hand, much of religious poetry and writing is Oppenheimer not particularly mystic in redi, its nature--as witnessed by C. S. Lewis' The Screwtape Letters or the poetry of Milton and Gerard Manley Hopkins, all three of which are profoundly religious, but which do not necessarily represent a struggle to verbalize an intense religious vision in the same manner as a mystic writer. MYTH : While common English usage often equates myth with falsehood, scholars use the term slightly differently. A myth is a traditional tale of J. Robert Oppenheimer, deep cultural significance to a people in demand, terms of etiology , eschatology , ritual practice, or models of appropriate and inappropriate behavior. The myth often (but not always) deals with gods, supernatural beings, or ancestral heroes.

The culture creating or retelling the myth may or may not believe that the Oppenheimer, myth refers to literal or factual events, but it values the mythic narrative regardless of inThe Color, its historical authenticity for J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, its (conscious or unconscious) insights into the human condition or the model it provides for cultural behavior. See also folklore , legend , mythography , mythos , and mythology . MYTHOGRAPHY : The commentary, writings, and francesco interpretations added to myths. Medieval writers, such as the four anonymous scribes collectively called the Vatican Mythographers, would take Greek and Roman myths and J. Robert write elaborate Christianized allegories to explain the meaning of the text. Another example of medieval mythography is the Ovid moralisée , a retelling of Ovid's Metamorphoses in which French scribes interpret the legends as Christological commentary on the New Testament. MYTHOLOGY : A system of stories about the gods, often explicitly religious in nature, that possibly were once believed to be true by a specific cultural group, but may no longer be believed as literally true by francesco redi, their descendents. Like religions everywhere, mythology often provided etiological and eschatological narratives (see above) to help explain why the world works the way it does, to provide a rationale for Oppenheimer Essay, customs and observances, to establish set rituals for sacred ceremonies, and to predict what happens to c4 plants more suited than, individuals after death. If the protagonist is a normal human rather than a supernatural being, the traditional story is Oppenheimer usually called a legend rather than a myth. If the demand, story concerns supernatural beings who are not deities, but rather spirits, ghosts, fairies, and other creatures, it is J. Robert usually called a folktale or fairy tale rather than a myth (see folklore , below). Samples of why are suited to hot climates, myths appear in the writings of Homer, Virgil, and Ovid.

MYTHOPOEIA (Greek myth-making or myth-poetry): (1) J. R. R. Tolkien's neologism for the deliberate creation of artificial myth , especially the incorporation of traditional mythic archetypes into J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, current fiction, whether that fiction be something akin to Virgil's propaganda in The Aeneid , the Romantic poetry of Insanity, William Blake, or the Essay, fantasy literature of C.S. Lewis or Tolkien himself. Law Of Economics? Tolkien connected mythopoeia with his theological doctrine of subcreation (q.v.) (2) Tolkien's poem of the same title, which he wrote in response to Oppenheimer, an argument he and the other Inklings had regarding C.S. Lewis' atheism shortly after September 19, 1931. C.S. Lewis initially felt he could not believe in a literal resurrection of Christ because the narrative pattern in the Gospels echoed much older myths about The Mood Booth (Installation). Essay sacrificial dying gods, as detailed at J. Robert Essay, length in Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough . He thus thought that the Gospel stories, though breathed through silver, were merely pretty lies. Tolkien's counter-argument was that, even though much older versions of the story existed before the time of Christ, that did not matter.

Tolkien argued that, what God did in law of demand definition economics, the incarnation and crucifixion was to take the older stories and Oppenheimer Essay make them literally true. Our older myths expressed man's deepest longest for francesco experiment, redemption and resurrection, and that God chose to fulfill those ancient desires by giving Christ to humanity--and thus the J. Robert, older myth could be made flesh and walk among us. MYTHOS : (1) Approaching the world through poetic narrative and traditional ritual rather than rational or logical thought. To His Coy Mistress? (2) The collected myths of a specific culture in J. Robert, a general sense rather than in reference to one particular narrative or character. Why Are C3 Plants?? For instance, we might refer specifically to the myth of Hercules fighting the Hydra, the myth of Kali drinking demons' blood, or the Essay, myth of the giant Ullikummis, but we would more generally say these tales belong to the Greek mythos , the summary, Hindu mythos , or the Hittite mythos , respectively. Cf. Essay? mythology .

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essay on conics Department of Mathematics Education. Dr. J. Wilson, EMAT 6690. A Look at the Major Contributions of Pascal. At the Oppenheimer Essay, age of sixteen, Blaise Pascal wrote an Essay on Conics that so greatly impressed Descartes that he could not believe that it had been written by someone so young ( Kline 297 ). Praise from such a respected mathematician, of the time and historically, provides an to his coy mistress summary indication of the level of genius of J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, Pascal. During his short lifetime of thirty-nine years, Pascal is noted for his significant contributions to mathematics, physics, and religious philosophy. Pascal#146;s mathematical work helped to provide the foundation for the modern theory of probabilities and to advance the topics of projective geometry and the calculus.

His work in physics lead to law of demand economics the formulation of Oppenheimer, what is now known as Pascal#146;s law or principle. However, for a considerable part of his life, Pascal turned away from worldly issues and c4 plants suited than c3 plants?, devoted his life to God, in which he developed a reputation as a master of prose through his religious writings ( Orcibal 1 ). Historians can only J. Robert speculate what Pascal#146;s influence on mathematics and physics would have been had he not divided his pursuits between the worldly and religious, but reviewing what Pascal did accomplish allows for an interesting glimpse at a brilliant 17 th century thinker. Pascal was born in Clermont-Ferrand, France on June 19, 1623. His father was the Yellow, judge of the tax court and was respected as a mathematician. His mother died in 1626 and in Oppenheimer, 1631 the Pascal family moved to Paris. Booth Essay. Pascal displayed exceptional ability as a child, but was prone to sickness.

As a result, his father had him tutored at home with instructions that his studies be limited to the languages, and should not include any mathematics. Oppenheimer Essay. However, at to his summary, the age of twelve, Pascal became curious about the subject of J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, geometry and upon hearing a general description from his tutor, began to independently study the subject with passion. His father was so struck his son#146;s display of talent that he gave him a copy of Euclid#146;s Elements , which Pascal immediately studied and soon mastered. The Mood Booth (Installation). Essay. At the age of fourteen, Pascal was admitted to the weekly meetings of Mersenne, Desargues, Roberval, Mydorge, and Fermat, from which the French Academy eventually developed ( Rouse Ball 1 ). J. Robert Essay. Thus, the stage was set for Pascal to begin to produce the major results for which he is known. Although not published until 1779, Pascal wrote an Essay on Conics in 1640, which approached the geometry of conics using projective methods. This work was instigated by Desargues who wanted Pascal to investigate the method of projection and section, with the particular goal of reducing the properties of the Insanity Yellow, conic sections to as few basic propositions as possible. Pascal#146;s most famous result in projective geometry came out of this work and is now called Pascal#146;s Theorem. In modern day terminology, this theorem states that if a hexagon is inscribed in a conic, the three points of intersection of the pairs of opposite sides lie in a line.

This result is diagramed below in Figure 1, where points R, S, and T lie in a line. Additionally, if the opposite sides of hexagon ABCDEF are parallel, points R, S, and T will line in a line at infinity ( Kline 297 ). There is not a clear record of how Pascal proved this theorem, only suggestions. Pascal states that since the theorem holds true for the circle, it must by projection and section be true of Oppenheimer Essay, all conics. If a projection is formed of Figure 1 from a point outside the plane and then a section of this projection, the suited climates than c3 plants?, section will contain a conic and a hexagon inscribed in it.

Furthermore, the opposite J. Robert Essay, sides of the hexagon will meet in three points that are collinear, which are the points that correspond to to his coy mistress and the line that passes through R, S, and T. As a note, Pappus#146; theorem, Proposition 131 of Book VII of Euclid#146;s Elements, is a special case of Pascal#146;s theorem. Pappus#146; theorem states that if A, B and C are three points on a line and A#146;, B#146;, and C#146; are three points on another line, then lines AB#146; and A#146;B, BC#146; and B#146;C, and J. Robert Oppenheimer, AC#146; and A#146;C intersect in in The Yellow, three points that line in a line. When the conic of Pascal#146;s theorem degenerates into two lines, such as when a hyperbola degenerates into its asymptotes, then the case described by Pappus#146; theorem results. Lastly, Pascal did not consider the converse to his theorem, that if a hexagon is such that the points of intersection of its three pairs of opposite sides lie in a line, then the vertices of the hexagon lie on J. Robert, a conic, but it also has been proven to be true. There are many results in Pascal#146;s Essay on Conics , but the theorem that eventually came to bear his name is by to his summary far the most famous from this work ( Kline 297 ). In his projective geometry work, Pascal used two new ideas that had emerged in the field, which eventually became fundamental principles.

The first is the notion of continuous change of a mathematical entity (geometric figure) from one state to another. Pascal investigated the situation in which two consecutive vertices of the J. Robert Oppenheimer, hexagon of his famous theorem approach one another so that the figure becomes a pentagon. Pascal then reasoned from properties of the hexagon to properties of the pentagon by considering what happened to law of economics these properties under the continuous change. J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay. He also used this process in considering the continuous change from experiment a pentagon to a quadrilateral. The second is the notion of which properties of a mathematical entity remain invariant under a transformation. By investigating the relationships of different figures, such as the hexagon and pentagon, Pascal also sought a common approach to these figures. Although there are no existing works, Pascal supposedly deduced approximately four hundred corollaries from his theorem on the hexagon by studying the consequences of the theorem for J. Robert Essay related figures. As a major field of study, projective geometry was abandoned in favor of algebra, analytic geometry, and suited to hot climates than c3 plants?, the calculus and therefore, the projective results of Desargues, La Hire and Pascal were largely forgotten until a resurgence in the field occurred the 19 th century ( Kline 300 ). In 1642, at the age of J. Robert, eighteen, Pascal constructed the first arithmetic machine to help his father with tax computations.

The machine was, in a sense, the first digital calculator that automatically handled addition by carrying units to tens, tens to hundreds, etc. ( Kline 258 ). This machine brought a great deal of praise to Pascal and The Mood, was dedicated to the chancellor of France in 1644 ( Orcibal 1 ). In addition, Pascal improved upon J. Robert Oppenheimer, the original machine in 1650 ( Rouse Ball 1 ). Pascal also became intensely interested in scientific pursuits, which led him to carry out why are c4 plants more climates c3 plants? tests based upon the theories of Galileo and Torricelli. By constructing mercury barometers and measuring air pressure, both in Paris and on a mountain top overlooking Clermont-Ferrand, Pascal replicated and extended experiments on atmospheric pressure, providing additional evidence that the weight of the air decreases as the altitude increases. Through his work, Pascal invented the syringe and the hydraulic press and helped to further studies in hydrodynamics and hydrostatics. The hydraulic press is Essay, based upon the principle that is now known as Pascal#146;s principle or law, which states that pressure applied to a confined liquid is transmitted undiminished through the liquid in demand, all directions regardless of the area to which the pressure is applied. Additionally, Pascal produced writings in 1647-1648 based upon his efforts on the problem of the vacuum ( Orcibal 2 ). It should be noted that the originality of J. Robert Oppenheimer, his work in physics has been questioned, as some historians of science have described it as popularization, or even plagiarism ( Kline 296 ). In 1653, Pascal used the why are c4 plants suited climates c3 plants?, arithmetical triangle, now known as Pascal#146;s Triangle, to obtain the coefficients of the binomial expansion of Essay, (a + b) n , where n is a positive integral. Insanity. However, no account of his method was printed until 1665. Despite the name of the triangle, this expansion was known by the Arabs and Chinese of the 13 th century and by Tartaglia, Stifel, and Stevin. Essay. In fact, in of Celie Color Purple Essay, 1544 Stifel introduced the term binomial coefficient and demonstrated how to calculate (1 + a) n from (1 + a) n-1 ( Kline 272 ). Pascal#146;s triangle, part of Essay, which is shown below in Figure 2, is constructed by each horizontal line being created from the one above it.

Each number in a horizontal line is equal to the sum of the c4 plants to hot than, numbers above and to the left of the it in the row immediately above it. For example, the fourth number in Essay, the fifth line, 35, is produced from 1 + 4 + 10 + 20. The numbers in each horizontal line are now referred to as figurate numbers. Numbers in the first line are called first order numbers; those in the second line are called second order, or natural numbers; those in the third line are called third order numbers, and so on. In general, the formula for in The Yellow finding the nth number in the rth row is (n + r #150; 2)! / (n #150; 1)! (r #150; 1)!. Pascal#146;s triangle, to any specified order, is produced by J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay drawing a diagonal, where the Booth (Installation). Essay, numbers in any diagonal provide the coefficients of the expansion of a binomial. For example, the fifth diagonal contains the numbers 1, 4, 6, 4, and 1, which provide the coefficients of the expansion (a + b) 4 . Pascal was easily able to expand his triangle to find the binomial expansion for any (a + b) n , where n is a positive integer ( Rouse Ball 3 ). Today, Pascal#146;s triangle is usually constructed in triangular form, part of Oppenheimer, which is shown below in redi, Figure 3. The two top rows contain the numbers 1 and 1 1, respectively, where the top row is considered to be row 0. To find any number in subsequent rows, add the J. Robert Oppenheimer, two numbers above it. At the beginning and end of each row, place a 1. It is help think of this rule for writing 1#146;s as an extension of the addition rule.

To get the first 1 in any row, add the two numbers above it, but since there is only one number, consider the second number zero. Therefore, the first entry of c4 plants more suited to hot climates, each row is 1. Following the same logic, the last entry of each row must be 1 also. An extension of the zero concept, results in a figurate number triangle, attributed to Jakob Bernoulli. This triangle is simply Pascal#146;s triangle in a square grid with zeroes entered into the empty cells. A number of mathematicians, as early as the 12 th century Indian mathematician Bhaskara, had worked on Oppenheimer, permutation and combination problems. Pascal also found that his arithmetic triangle corresponded with finding the numbers of combinations of n things taken r at Insanity in The, a time ( n C r ), which he correctly stated to Oppenheimer Essay be (r + 1) (r + 2) (r + 3)#133;n / (n #150; r)! ( Rouse Ball 3 ). This means that when n is fixed and r runs from 0 to n, the successive binomial coefficients are obtained.

Pascal extended his work in combinations when Chevalier de Mere, in 1654, posed to Pascal the problem of how to divide the Yellow Wallpaper, stake between two players of equal skill when the stake is to go to the player who first wins n points, but the play is interrupted after the first player has made p points an the second player has made q points. This problem had been posed by other mathematicians in the past, but gained significance when Pascal communicated the Oppenheimer Essay, problem to Fermat. Their correspondence and work on this problem marks the beginning and provided the foundation for the modern theory of probabilities ( Kline 273 ). Pascal and Fermat agreed on the solution, but independently developed different proofs. The following is a translation of Pascal#146;s proof by Rouse Ball in coy mistress summary, his book, A Short Account of the History of Mathematics . The following is my method for determining the share of each player when, for example, two players play a game of Oppenheimer, three points and each player has staked 32 pistoles. Suppose that the The Character Purple Essay, first player has gained two points, and the second player one point; they have now to play for a point on J. Robert, this condition, that, if the first player gain, he takes all the money which is at stake, namely, 64 pistoles; while, if the second player gain, each player has two points, so that there are on terms of equality, and, if they leave off playing, each ought to summary take 32 pistoles. Thus if the first player gain, then 64 pistoles belong to him, and if he lose, then 32 pistoles belong to him. If therefore the players do not wish to play this game but to J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay separate without playing it, the to his coy mistress, first player would say to the second, ``I am certain of 32 pistoles even if I lose this game, and Oppenheimer, as for the other 32 pistoles perhaps I will have them and perhaps you will have them; the chances are equal. Let us then divide these 32 pistoles equally, and to his coy mistress, give me also the J. Robert Oppenheimer, 32 pistoles of which I am certain.'' Thus the first player will have 48 pistoles and the second 16 pistoles.

Next, suppose that the first player has gained two points and the second player none, and that they are about to play for a point; the Insanity, condition then is that, if the first player gain this point, he secures the game and takes the 64 pistoles, and, if the second player gain this point, then the players will be in the situation already examined, in which the first player is entitled to 48 pistoles and the second to J. Robert 16 pistoles. Thus if they do not wish to play, the first player would say to the second, ``If I gain the why are to hot, point I gain 64 pistoles; if I lose it, I am entitled to 48 pistoles. Oppenheimer Essay. Give me then the 48 pistoles of which I am certain, and divide the other 16 equally, since our chances of Booth, gaining the point are equal.'' Thus the first player will have 56 pistoles and the second player 8 pistoles. Finally, suppose that the first player has gained one point and the second player none. If they proceed to play for a point, the J. Robert Oppenheimer, condition is that, if the in The Yellow, first player gain it, the players will be in the situation first examined, in J. Robert Oppenheimer, which the first player is entitled to 56 pistoles; if the first player lose the point, each player has then a point, and each is entitled to 32 pistoles. Thus, if they do not wish to play, the first player would say to the second, ``Give me the Insanity in The, 32 pistoles of which I am certain, and divide the remainder of the 56 pistoles equally, that is divide 24 pistoles equally.'' Thus the first player will have the sum of 32 and 12 pistoles, that is, 44 pistoles, and consequently the second will have 20 pistoles. ( Rouse Ball 3 ) Pascal also considered similar problems when the game is won by whoever first obtains n + r points, where one player has n and J. Robert Oppenheimer, the other has r points, and The Character Color, found that his arithmetic triangle could be used to Essay obtain the Insanity in The Yellow, solutions. Furthermore, Pascal#146;s result to the situation where the skill of the players is unequal corresponds to the general solution provided in Oppenheimer, modern textbooks on algebra, but Pascal#146;s notation is different and less convenient ( Rouse Ball 4 ).

In 1658, Pascal made his last major contribution to mathematics through his investigation of The Character Essay, problems of the cycloid. A cycloid is defined as the curve produced by the locus of points of a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls along a straight line. Historically, Galileo first brought attention to the cycloid in J. Robert Oppenheimer, 1930 by his suggestion that the arches of bridges should be constructed to model this curve. Summary. In 1934, Roberval calculated the area of the cycloid, and Descartes subsequently challenged him and Fermat to find its tangents. Fermat, without much difficulty, provided the solution to this problem. Various mathematicians continued to J. Robert pose questions related to the cycloid, and to the surface and volume generated by its revolution about its axis, base, or the tangent at its vertex, as well as other analogous questions.

Pascal published the law of demand economics, proposed problems he had solved, including the problem of the J. Robert Oppenheimer, positions of the centers of c4 plants more suited to hot, mass of the J. Robert Essay, solids formed by the cycloid#146;s revolution, as a challenge to mathematicians, and The Character inThe Color, then proceeded to provide his own superior solutions ( Rouse Ball 4 ). Specifically, Pascal published results on the calculation of the Oppenheimer, area of any segment of the coy mistress summary, cycloid cut off by a line parallel to the base, the centroid of the Oppenheimer, segment, and the volumes of solids generated by redi experiment such segments when revolved around their bases (as shown by J. Robert Essay YZ in inThe Color Purple Essay, Figure 4 below) or a vertical line (the axis of symmetry). In this. work, Pascal used summation in geometrical form, as he did in his earlier work on areas under the curves of the family y = x n , to calculate areas and volumes ( Kline 353 ). This method of J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, summation started with modifications of Eudoxus#146; method of exhaustion and was also used by Roberval, Torricelli, Cavalieri, and redi experiment, Fermat, among others. J. Robert. Whereas the method of exhaustion employed different kinds of rectilinear approximating figures, depending upon the curvilinear area in question, summation is based upon a systematic procedure using rectangles. As the law of demand, width d of the rectangles becomes smaller, the sum of the areas of the Oppenheimer Essay, rectangles approaches the area under the curve. In the to his coy mistress, case of calculating the area under a parabola, if the bases are all d in J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, width, and if one uses the characteristic property of the The Character of Celie inThe Color Purple Essay, parabola, the sum is J. Robert Essay, d(d) 2 + d(2d) 2 + d(3d) 2 + º + d(nd) 2 . In dealing with problems of the cycloid, Pascal had to replace the characteristic property of the parabola with that of the more suited than, cycloid to achieve an analogous sum in order to calculate areas and volumes ( Kline 351 ). Pascal#146;s solutions in his cycloid work are similar to those which a modern mathematician would achieve with the Oppenheimer Essay, aid of integral calculus. By summation, he obtained what are the equivalent to the integrals of sin f, sin 2 f, and f sin f , where one limit is 0 or p . In addition, Pascal investigated the geometry of the Archimedean spiral, which according to D#146;Alembert, established a connecting link between the geometry of Archimedes and the infinitesimal calculus of Newton ( Rouse Ball 5 ). Throughout much of his adult life, Pascal fought a personal battle between his desires in worldly pursuits and in devoting his life to God. In January of 1655, committing himself to a religious life, he entered Port-Royal and remained there until his death on August 19, 1662.

Although he never became one of the solitaires, he from then on wrote only at their request and never again published under his own name. (Installation).. In fact, Pascal used the pseudonym of Dettonville for the publication of his cycloid work. Pascal produced two famous religious works, Les Provinciales and Pensees , while at Port-Royal. J. Robert Essay. Les Provinciales was written in defense of Antoine Arnauld who was on trial before the faculty of theology in Paris for his controversial religious works. It played an important role in promoting a return to inner religion and helped to secure the triumph of ideas of Arnauld, which centered on the protest against the idea that the profligate could atone for continued sin by frequent communion without repentance. InThe Color. Les Provinciales is considered to have helped Catholicism to Essay rid itself of law of demand definition economics, religious laxity.

Its publication was an immediate success and has gained the J. Robert Essay, reputation of marking the beginning of modern French prose. Pensees , still a work in progress at The Mood (Installation)., his death, resulted from Pascal#146;s meditations on miracles and other proofs of Christianity. In this work, Pascal proposed his famous wager to overcome the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, indifference of the religious skeptic: if God does not exist, the skeptic loses nothing by believing him; but if he does exist, the skeptic gains eternal life by believing in him ( Orcibal 2 ). Pascal#146;s writings, in a sense, demonstrate that he was at battle with himself concerning secular and holy life. His religious writings display a mathematical-like rigor, but it is clear that Pascal had ambivalent feelings about rigor. Fermat, Barrow, and Pascal all recognized the looseness of their work on to his, summation, but believed that one could make precise proofs in the manner of Archimedes. In Pascal#146;s published work on the problems of the cycloid, he stated that the infinitesimal geometry and classical Greek geometry were in Oppenheimer Essay, agreement and that the method of indivisibles must be accepted by any mathematician who pretend to rank among geometers. However, at times Pascal also argued that the heart intervenes to assure us of the correctness of mathematical steps.

He felt that proper finesse is of higher importance than geometrical logic to do the correct work, just as the suited to hot climates c3 plants?, religious appreciation of grace is Oppenheimer Essay, above reason ( Kline 383 ). Pascal was clearly a brilliant thinker of the 17 th century, in which his work in mathematics, physics, and religious philosophy significantly impacted each area of study. Historians question the originality of some of his contributions, some referring to it as popularization of others work. However, as a result of this popularization, Pascal made an important indirect contribution to each field in which he studied, namely bringing attention to the problems of the field and thereby creating interest, excitement, and advancement within those fields. Works Cited and Suggested Related Resources.

Kline, Morris. Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times . New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.

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Issues/Gang Violence term paper 5348. Gangs are a violent reality that people have to deal with in today's cities. What has made these groups come about? Why do kids feel that being in a gang is both an acceptable and prestigious way to live? The long-range answer to these questions can only be speculated upon, but in the short term the answers are much easier to find. On the surface, gangs are a direct result of J. Robert Oppenheimer, human beings' personal wants and peer pressure. To determine how to c4 plants suited to hot climates c3 plants?, effectively end gang violence we must find the way that these morals are given to the individual. Unfortunately, these can only be hypothesized. However, by looking at J. Robert, the way humans are influenced in society, I believe there is good evidence to point the blame at several institutions.

These include the forces of the media, the government, theatre, drugs and francesco redi experiment, our economic system. Originally the word gang had no negative connotation. In Old English, gang simply referred to a number of J. Robert Essay, people who went around together-a group. Why Are C4 Plants More To Hot C3 Plants?? Today a gang can be defined in four basic ways: zh an organized group with a leader. zh a unified group that usually remains together during peaceful times as well as times of conflict.

zh a group whose members show unity through clothing, language. zh a group whose activities are criminal or threatening to the larger society. Gangs are one of the results of poverty, discrimination and J. Robert Essay, urban deterioration. Some experts believe that young people, undereducated and without access to good jobs, become frustrated with their lives and join gangs as an alternative to boredom, hopelessness and devastating poverty. In The Yellow? Studies have attempted to Oppenheimer, determine why gangs plague some communities but there has been no definitive answer. Demand Economics? As a result, people working to solve gang problems have great difficulty. They find the situation overwhelming, and the violence continues. No groups completely fitting the above description of gangs existed in America until the Oppenheimer, early 1800s, but from the beginning of the European settlement in The Mood Booth (Installation). America there was gang-like activity, especially when class distinctions came into being.

Gang members tended to be from the poorer classes and J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, tended to be from the same race or ethnic background. They banded together for francesco redi, protection, recreation or financial gain. The earliest identified American gangs formed after the Revolutionary War, which ended in J. Robert Essay 1783. They were known as Smith's Vly gang, the Bowery Boys, the Broadway Boys, and the Long Bridge Boys and The Mood Essay, the Fly Boys. The first three were white and the last two were African-American. Members were in J. Robert their early teens and twenties but not all came from the lowest economic classes; nor were they necessarily criminals. It was not until the 19th century that criminal gangs first formed.

As the result of a worsening economy and growing population that increased competition for jobs, gangs began to specialize in crime and Insanity in The Yellow Wallpaper, became a part of America's cities. Irish immigrants formed the first American criminal gangs in Essay New York City. Some were criminals; some were brawlers and most associated in an area of New York called Five Points. They had dress codes and francesco, called their members by code nicknames. (Many of the gang rituals of today have their roots in this period.) The first Irish gang to Oppenheimer, have a recognized leader was the Forty Thieves, organized by Edward Coleman in 1826. Gangs also arose in the Bowery. These two sets of gangs brawled on a regular basis-over gang territory and ethnic differences. Sometimes the battles were so long and c4 plants suited to hot, intense that the army had to be called in to stop them. The decade before the Civil War was a heyday for most New York street gangs due to the all-out corruption of city government. Oppenheimer? Gang membership swelled. Gangs burned ballot boxes, plundered stores and businesses and private homes without fear of police interference.

After the Civil War in 1865 New York records indicate a presence of Jewish, Italian, African-American and Irish gangs. With the increase in immigrant populations, so grew gang membership. Almost every criminal of francesco, note in the United States made New York its headquarters. Chinese gangs appeared in California in the mid-1800s. Philadelphia reported gang activity as early as 1840 and between that time and 1870 became home to over 100 street gangs. During this time murder became a test of toughness and drugs (laudanum, morphine, cocaine) became a part of the J. Robert, gang scene. The level of violence escalated. The Whyos of Five Points used murder as a membership requirement. By the end of the 19th century gangs started wearing distinctive jackets. In the experiment, early 1900s the Oppenheimer Essay, U.S. economy worsened, the population grew at a rapid pace, and the gap between the rich and poor widened. All across the nation gangs appeared where poor, hopeless people lived.

The dawning of the 20th century also brought with it a widespread use of firearms. By mid 1920s there were 1313 gangs in Chicago and more than 25,000 members. Gang warfare in why are c4 plants more suited c3 plants? Chicago was widespread and fighting took place along ethnic, cultural and racial lines. Some gangs had no noticeable cultural, ethnic or national ties and consisted mostly of whites. The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of Chicano (Mexican-American) gangs in J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay Los Angeles. By the 1940s Chicano gangs established their place in Los Angeles-their zoot suits (a style of dress incorporating tapered pants, long wide-shoulder coats and broad-brimmed hats) had become a familiar sight. Fighting back against harassment of white residents and to his, visiting soldiers during the so-called zoot suit riots in 1943 strengthened their cause.

After World War II gang membership: 1. became younger, 2. the nationality of the membership became largely non-white (though Italians, Irish and other white ethnic groups still made up a percentage), 3. drugs became a more publicized concern, 4. Oppenheimer? gang activity centered around large-scale, well-organized street fighting, 5. fire-arms were used more often,

6. the structure of Insanity in The Yellow Wallpaper, organization became more rigid, 7. and society at large became concerned with gangs as a social problem and worked toward rehabilitation. Between 1941 and 1945 over half a million Puerto Ricans arrived in the United States, most settling in New York City. During the 1920s the African American populations migrated from the South to J. Robert Oppenheimer, the northern cities. Due, in part, to this influx of African-American and Puerto Rican into northern cities, the Post WWII period spawned the greatest era of youth gang activity in American gang history. The Old Italian, Jewish and Irish inhabitants became fearful that these groups were taking over. During the francesco experiment, 1950s gang fighting rose to an all time high in cities like New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles and Cleveland. J. Robert Oppenheimer? Gang members were usually in their teens. Codes of dress (black leather jackets were popular) and francesco redi experiment, mannerisms were an important means of Essay, identification. Body language said a lot about the nature of the coy mistress, gang.

When a gang decided to become a fighting, or bopping gang, its members immediately took on a different way of walking. A rhythmic gait characterized by the forward movement of the Oppenheimer, head with each step. Terms for fighting were bopping, rumbling, jitterbugging. Gang members used guns, knives, and homemade weapons. Most common drugs-alcohol, marijuana, heroin.

New York gangs fought along racial lines-African-American, white, Puerto Rican. Usually they fought over girls or turf. To His? Turf could be anything from a few blocks to Essay, an entire neighborhood. Gang members believed it was essential to protect the honor of their girlfriends. Demand Definition Economics? And in the late 1950, girl gangs, with strong ties to boy gangs, began to J. Robert Oppenheimer, form. Revenge was required by c4 plants climates than c3 plants? an inflexible code of gang loyalty.

It was from such incidents that gangs drew their sense of pride, of being somebody. In order to combat the rise of violence, organizations like the New York City Youth Board sent social workers into the slums to form relationships with the gangs. In some cases it worked; in many it did not. The 1960s saw a decline in gang violence, in part because drug use escalated. Where there was more drug use there was less gang violence. America's attention also shifted to J. Robert Essay, the civil rights movement, urban ghetto riots, Vietnam War protests. A new racial consciousness had its effect on local street gang, creating organizations that were more involved in communities. More To Hot C3 Plants?? The Black Panthers arose in Oakland in J. Robert Oppenheimer 1968, the Black Muslims gained national prominence in the '60s and redi experiment, a Puerto Rican gang, the Young Lords, formed in the early '70s. By early 1972 gangs were making headlines again. Oppenheimer? Drug use seemed to be decreasing and violence increasing. Gang membership grew and the potential for violence was far greater for redi experiment, the gangs had access to J. Robert Oppenheimer, weapons that no gang ever had before.

They did not make their headquarters in law of demand definition public places, but in private places. Gangs also acquired greater legal and political sophistication. When it is apparent that someone must be arrested for a crime, often the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, gang chooses a minor because his prison sentence will be shorter. Serving a term in jail helps boost his reputation. On the surface, peer pressure and greed cause gangs. Many teens in gangs will pressure peers into becoming part of a gang by making it all sound glamorous. Money is also a crucial factor. A kid (a 6-10 year old, who is not yet a member) is shown that s/he could make $200 to $400 for small part time gang jobs. Although these are important factors they are not strong enough to The Mood Essay, make kids do things that are strongly against their morals. One of the J. Robert Oppenheimer, ways that kids morals are bent so that gang violence becomes more acceptable is the influence of television and movies.

The average child spends more time at a TV than she/he spends in a classroom. Since nobody can completely turn off their minds, kids must be learning something while watching the why are c4 plants suited than, TV. Very few hours of television watched by children are educational, so other ideas are being absorbed during this period of time. Many shows on television today are extremely violent. and are often shown this from a gang's perspective. A normal adult can see that this is J. Robert showing how foully that gangs are living. Of Celie? However, to Oppenheimer Essay, a child this portrays a violent gang existence as acceptable. 'The Ends Justifies the Means' mentality is also taught through many shows where the suited than c3 plants?, good guy captures the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, bad guy through violence and is then being commended. A young child sees this a perfectly acceptable. because he knows that the bad guy was wrong but has no idea of what acceptable apprehension techniques are. Gore in economics television also takes a big part in influencing young minds. Children see gory scenes and J. Robert, are fascinated by these things that they have not seen before.

Older viewers see gore and are not concerned with the blood but rather with the pain the victim must feel. A younger mind doesn't make this. connection. Thus a gore fascination is formed, and to his coy mistress, has been seen in several of my peers. Oppenheimer? Unfortunately kids raised with this sort of Insanity, television end up growing up with a stronger propensity to becoming a violent gang member or 'violent-acceptant' person. Gangs bring the delinquent norms of society into intimate contact with the individual.1, (Marshall B Clinard, 1963). So, as you can see if TV leads a child to believe that violence is the norm this will manifest itself in the actions of the J. Robert Essay, child quite often in a gang situation. This is especially the case when parents don't spend a lot of time with their kids at the TV explaining what is right and what is in The wrong. Quite often newer books and some types of music will enforce this type of thought and ideas. Once this mentality is installed in J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay youngsters they become increasingly prone to being easily pushed into a gang situation by any problem at Booth (Installation). Essay, home or elsewhere.

For instance, in poor families with many children or upper-middle class families where parents are always working, the J. Robert Essay, children will often feel deprived of francesco redi, love. Parents can often feel that putting food on the table is enough love. Children of these families may often go to the gang firstly out of boredom and to belong somewhere. As time goes on, a form of love or kinship develops between the gang members and the child. It is then that the bond between the kid and Essay, the gang is completed because the gang has effectively taken the place of the family. The new anti social structure of cities also effects the ease in which a boy/girl can join a gang. The formation of gangs in cities, and most recently in suburbs, is c4 plants to hot than c3 plants? facilitated by the same lack of community among parents. The parents do not know what their children are doing for two reasons: First, much of the J. Robert Oppenheimer, parents' lives are outside the local community, while the children's lives are lived almost totally within it.

Second, in a fully developed community, the network of relations gives every. parent, in a sense, a community of sentries who can keep him informed of his child's activities. In modern living-places (city or suburban), where such a network is attenuated, he no longer has such sentries.2, (Merton Nisbet, 1971). In male gangs, problems occur as each of the members tries to be the manliest. Insanity Wallpaper? This often leads to all members participating in one-up-manship. Quite often this will then lead to each member trying to commit a bigger and more violent crime or simply more crimes than the others will. With all members participating in Essay this sort of Color, activity it makes for a never-ending unorganized violence spree (A sort of Clockwork Orange mentality). In gangs with more intelligent members these feelings end up making each member want to Oppenheimer, be the summary, star when the groups commit a crime. This makes the gang much more organized and Essay, improves the morale of members which in turn makes them more dangerous and law of demand economics, very hard for the police to J. Robert Essay, deal with and catch (There is nothing harder to find and deal with than organized teens that are dedicated to the group). This sort of gang is usually common of in The Wallpaper, middle or upper class people. although it can happen in gangs in the projects and other low rent districts too.

This one-up-manship is often the J. Robert, reason between rival gangs fighting. All gangs feel powerful and they want to be feared. To do this they try to establish themselves as the only gang in experiment a certain neighborhood. After a few gang fights hatred forms and gang murders and drive-by's begin to take place. When two gangs are at war it makes life very dangerous for citizens in the area. Oppenheimer? Less that 40% of drive-by's kill their intended victim yet over The Mood, 60% do kill someone. This gang application is one of the many reasons that sexual stereotypes and pressure to conform to Oppenheimer Essay, the same must be stopped. Lastly one of the great factors in joining a gang is for Booth, protection. Although from an objective point of view, we can see joining a gang brings more danger than it saves you from, this is not always the way it is seen by kids.

In slums such as the Bronx or the very worst case, Compton, children will no. doubt be beaten and robbed if they do not join a gang. Of course they can probably get the same treatment from rivals when in a gang. The gang also provides some money for these children who quite often need to feed their families. The reason kids think that the gang will keep them safe is from propaganda from the J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, gangs. Gang members will say that no one will get hurt and make a public show of why are c4 plants more suited than c3 plants?, revenge if a member is hurt or killed. People in low rent areas are most often being repressed due to poverty and most importantly, race. This often results in J. Robert Essay an attitude that motivates the person to base his/her life on doing what the system that oppresses them doesn't want. Although this accomplishes little it is to his coy mistress summary a big factor in gang enrollment. So, as you have seen gangs are a product of the environment we have created for ourselves.

Some of these factors include oppression, the Oppenheimer Essay, media, and coy mistress summary, greed, violence and other gangs. Essay? There seems to be no way to end the problem of coy mistress summary, gangs without totally restructuring the J. Robert, modern economy and value system. Definition? Since the chance of J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, this happening is minimal, we must learn to cope with gangs and try to keep their following to a minimum. Unfortunately there is no real organized force to help fight gangs. Of course the police are supposed to do this but this situation quite often deals with racial issues also and law of definition economics, the police forces regularly display their increasing inability to deal fairly with these issues. Oppenheimer Essay? What we need are more people to form organizations like the Guardian Angels a gang-like group that makes life very tough for street gangs that are breaking laws. American Psychological Association. Internet Web-Site. Experiment? Is Youth Violence Just Another Fact of Life?

4 April 2000. Graves, Chris. Oppenheimer? A?AResearch to Guide Crackdown: Study Analyses Explosion in Violence.A?A? Minneapolis Star Tribune 17 June 1997: 01B. Haskins, James. Street Gangs: Yesterday and Today. The Character Color Purple Essay? New York: Hastings House, 1975. Lewis, Yablonsky. J. Robert Oppenheimer? Gangsters: 50 Years of Madness.

New York University Press, 1997. Opinion. A?AUrban Perspective: The Peace Process Network.A?A? Los Angeles Sentinel 25 November 1998: A7. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of The Character Purple Essay, any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and will receive the paper by e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime.

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