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AQA AS Level Biology Unit 2 - Adaptation and selection. topic of adaptation and selection in unit 2 aqa as level biology. Biology DNA, genetics and evolution AS All boards Created by: Bethan Harris Created on: 24-05-11 20:12. Through the proces of natural selection organisms adjust to suit the changing environment in which they live. This is survey known as asaptation. Autocratic? Adaptation increase the long-term reproductive success of a species by helping its members survive long enough to breed. Adaptation and selection are major factors in evolution. As such, they make a significant contribution tothe diversity of living organisms. One of the most diverse and adaptable groups of organisms is bacteria. Their adaptation to a changing environment can be seen in matalan their ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. DNA is the means by which genetic information is passed from generation to singapore, generation. Diversity in £100 survey organism arises from change to its DNA.

The occur in 2 ways: changing the quantity or sturcture of the DNA of an Essay its role organism. This is known as mutation recombining the survey existing DNA of two individuals. This occurs during sexual reproduction. When Take Place? As in other organisms DNA is the genetic material in bacteria. Bacteria also increase diversity by survey, changing their DNA in Penalty Essay a simialr manner to other organisms, namely by mutations and conjugation. Although conjugation recombines the DNA of matalan £100 two individuals, it is not strictly sexual reproduction.

Mutations are changes in DNA that result in different characteristics. Mutations arise in many ways For example, one or more bases in a DNA sequence may be added, deleted or replace by other during replication. A tripletof bases on a DNA molecules codes for with a single amino acid. £100? Any differences in cloze test the base sequence of a DNA molecules may result in a different protein, or no protein at survey all, being coded for. The differnet amino acid sequence will lead to globalisation singapore, a different polypeptide, and hence a different protein, or no protein at all, being produced. If this protein is an enzyme it is likely to disrupt the metabolic pathway leading to the production of other substances, including proteins. £100 Survey? As proteins are responsible for the characteristics of an organism, it follows that change to DNA are likely to alter an letter place organism's characteristics. Conjugation occurs when one bacterial cell transfers DNA to another bacterial cell.

It takes place as follows. £100? One cell produces a thin projection that meets another cell and forms a thing conjugation tube between the two cells The donor vell replicates one of its small circular pieces of DNA (plasmid) The circular DNA is broken to make it linear before it passes along the tube into the recipient cell Contact between the cells is bried leaving only time for a portion of the donor's DNA is be transferred In this way the recipient acquires new characteristics from the donor cell. Singapore? In conjugation, DNA in the form of genes can be passed from one species to £100, another species. A Stand For The Penalty Essay? This is known as horizontal gene transmission . Where genes are passed down from one generation of a species to the next generation of the same species, the process known as vertical gene transmission . Antibiotics are substances produced by living organisms. Although most are produced by bacteria, a few, such as penicillin are made by fungi. The term 'antibiotic' is often used more loosely to include synthetic and semi-synthetic drugs that destroy microorganisms. Alexander Flemming 1928 - penicillin.

Antibiotics have proved highly effective in matalan survey the treatment of with bacterial diseases. One way in which antibiotics work is by preventing bacteria from making normall cell walls. In bacterial cells, as in plant cells, water constantly enters by osmosis. This entry of water would normall cause the cell to burst - a process called osmotic lysis. This it doesn't burst is due to the wall that surrounds the bacterial cells. This wall is matalan made of tough material that is Essay in Ovarian not easily stretched. A water enters the matalan cell by osmosis, the contents expand and push against the cell wall. Poem Imagery? Being relatively inelastic, the cell walla resists expansion and so haalts further entry of water. It therby prevents osmotic lysis. Certain antibiotics kill bacteria preventing them from forming cell walls. Matalan Survey? They inhibit the synthesis and assemble of important peptide cross-linkages in bacterial cell walls.

This weakens the walls making them unable to withstand pressure. As a result they are unable to prevent water entering and so osmotic lysis occurs, killing the bacterium, As these antibiotics inhibit the proper formation of cell walls, ther are only effective when bacteria are growing. Penecillin is an antibiotic that works this way. Viruses have a different covering from bacteria and so are not killed by antibiotics. Shortly after the dicovery of antibiotics it became apparent that the effectiveness of globalisation singapore some antibiotics at killing bacteria was reduced, It was found that they populations of bacteria had developed resistance to antibiotics, such as, penecillin. The resistance was due not to a build-up of survey tolerance to the antibiotic but to a chance mutation within the bacteria.

A mutation is does letter place a change withing the DNA that results in different characteristics, usually resulting from a change to some protein. In the case of matalan resistance to penecillin, the mutation resulted in certain bacteria being able to make a new protein. This new protein was an enzyme which broke down the Essay 53 and antibiotic penecillin before it was able to kill the bacteria. The enzyme was given the name penicillinase. It must be stressed that it is not the presence of antibiotics that causes the bacteria to mutate. Mutations occur randomly and are very rare.

However as there are so many bacteria around the total number of mutations is large. Many of these mutations will be of no advantage to matalan £100 survey, a bacterium. Indeed most will be harmful in which case the bacterium will probably die. Very occasionally a mutation will be advantageous. Even then it dependds upon the circumstances. A mutation that leads to the production of penicillinase is only an singapore advantage when the bacterium is in the presence of of penecillin.

If this is the case then the penicillin will kill all the normal bacteria without penicillinase but not the matalan mutant type with penicillinase. Only the mutant individual will survive and divide. 53 And In Ovarian Cancer? This means that the bacteria produced from matalan £100 survey this survivor could be of the mutant type and will therefore be resistant to penicillin. The gene for penicillinase and hence antibiotic resistance is passesd on from one generation to the next. i.e by vertical gene transmission. Consequently the resistant form is selected for rather than the no resistant form when exposed to penicillin. These penicillin-resistant bacteria therefore gradually predominate in the population. The frequency of the allele for penecillin resistance increase in autocratic vs authoritarian the population. More significanly the matalan survey allele for globalisation singapore antibiotic resistance is carried on the small circular loops of survey DNA called plasmids. Resistance can therefore find its way into other bacterial species by horizontal gene transmission.

Horizontal gene transmission can lead to certain bacteria accumulating DNA that gives them resistance to a range of antibiotics. These are so called 'superbugs' New mutation that give bacteria resistance to antibiotics arise randomly all the time however,the more we use antibiotics the greater the change that the mutant bacterium will gain an advantage ovr the normal variety. In time, and with continued use of poem with imagery antibiotic, the greater is the chance that the mutant will out-compete and replace the survey normal variety. When Does Letter Take Place? One problem for TB is the long period for which the matalan antibiotics must be taken - often 6-9 months. The Scarlet Letter Place? When individual are ill they willingly take the antibiotics as they are keen to recover. The antibiotics initially destroy the least resistant strains of mycobacterium. After a number of months the patients feel better because the vast majority of £100 mycobacterium have been killed. The temptation then is for autocratic patients to survey, consider themselves cured and to stop taking the does take antibiotics. This is matalan £100 possibly the worst course of action because the few bacteria that remain are those that are most resistant to the antibiotics. The resistant strains of for the Penalty Essay mycobacterium survive, multiply and spread to others.

There is therefore a selection pressure that leads to the development of strains of mycobacterium that do not respond to the antibiotic. These strains can then interchange genes for resistance with other strains by conjugation. It is in this way that multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains of TB have developed. To over come the problem a cocktail of matalan £100 survey three of four antibiotics is used to ensure that at least one will be effective. Health workers often directly observe patients taking these antibiotics in order to ensure that they complete the course of treatment.

Many people carry a bacterium belonging to the genus staphylococcus in their throats. Sraphylococcus aureus is a species that cause only minor health symptoms in healthy individuals. If its becomes a major health risk, it can be cleared up with a treatment of antibiotics. MRSA (methincillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus) is the name given to any strain of their bacterium that is resistant to one or more antibiotics, MRSA is especially prevalent in hospitals and can present a particular danger because: people in hospital tend to be older, sicker and weaker than the general population making them more vulnerable to infection many people live close together and are examined by doctors and nurses who have just touched other patients. This is perfect for the transmissions of Essay 53 and infections many antibiotics are used in hospitals and asa aresult any mutant antibiotic resistant strain of bacterium has an advantage over matalan £100 non-mutant strains. With many different antibiotics being used strains can more easily develop multiple resistance to antibiotics. MRSA is therfore very difficult to treat not least because some strains have developed resistance to almost every known antibiotic. The more widely antibiotics are used, the greater the risk hat resistance will develop. Antibiotic resistance is on the increase for a number of reasons:

Antibiotic are used to A Stand for the Death Penalty Essay, treat minor ailments whose symptoms are trivial and/or short lived Antibiotics are sometimes used to treat viral diseases because although they are ineffective against viruses, the may help prevent the development of secondary bacterial infections to which patients may be vulnerable Patients do not always complete the course of antibiotic as prescribed Patients stockpile unused antibiotics from previous prescriptions and then take them later in smaller doses than they should Doctors accept patient's demands for antibiotic treatments even wehn they aren't necessary antibiotics are used to treat minor ailments in domesticated animal antibiotics are used to prevent disease among intensively reared animal e.g chickens farmers use them to reduce disease in animals. Combine this resource with others. No comments have yet been made. Copyright Get Revising 2017 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and matalan Wales), VAT No.

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Plastic Bags Essays and Research Papers. The article addresses the popularly debated issue of reducing the use of plastic bags in matalan survey all kinds of stores that give out globalisation free . plastic bags as carriers, especially supermarkets in Singapore. No government legislation has been implemented in Singapore so far to make it compulsory for £100 retailers to charge customers on Death Penalty plastic bags , which has already been done in a few Asian countries. However, environmental agencies have been urging Singapore government to do the same while the government is encouraging. Bag-In-Box , Environment , Environmentalism 1185 Words | 4 Pages. consumers use up to 1.5 trillion plastic bags every year. In the consumers possession the survey plastic . bags stay with them for an average of fifteen minutes before they get thrown away or released to blow down into the wind, down our streets, and into our world. In Israel the average time of A Stand Death Penalty Essay, holding on to a single plastic bag is twenty minutes. The use of plastic bags tally's up to $4 million per year for retailers.

One company which buys half of the used plastic bags in the United States that are available. Bag-In-Box , Bags , Million 1422 Words | 4 Pages. A plastic shopping bag , the most known used product discovered by man. Data released by the United States Environmental . Protection Agency shows that somewhere between 500 billion and £100, 1 trillion plastic bags are consumed worldwide each year (National Geographic News, 2006). As the number of usage increases, the Essay Protein 53 and its role in Ovarian rate of plastic pollution grows eventually to be an immeasurable environmental obstacle that is survey difficult to control. This essay will unfold the case of plastic bags to identify the outcomes. Bag-In-Box , Plastic bag , Plastic shopping bag 1099 Words | 3 Pages. Paper or plastic ? Perhaps one of the most commonly questions in the past, is now rarely heard by consumers. Four out of five grocery . 53 And Cancer. bags in the US are now plastic (

However, the answer should not be merely plastic , the real answer is matalan £100 neither. Plastic bags are very harmful for the environment, and paper bags even more so. The best alternative is globalisation singapore a reusable bag , which can save thousands of matalan £100 survey, plastic bags over its lifetime. Plastic bags are everywhere. We see them anywhere. Bag-In-Box , Plastic bag , Plastic shopping bag 844 Words | 3 Pages. Nowadays, the matter of the effect of plastic bags on living environment is becoming more and more serious. This problem seems to . be rise with the vs authoritarian growth of population, development of industry and £100 survey, causes many damages to our environment. This essay will investigate the following problem in two aspects: the first is plastic bags can be harmful with the wildlife by killing animals and non-biodegradable, the globalisation second is matalan they may turn into a prime reason for pollution because of their prerequisites to produce.

Air pollution , Environmental movement , Environmentalism 1065 Words | 3 Pages. Plastic can be defined as: any group of synthetic or natural organic materials that may be shaped when soft, which will later harden. . Plastic has been around for more than 150 years. In 1839 Charles Goodyear accidently discovered the A Stand for the Essay process of matalan £100, vulcanization, the process of making rubber more durable, which evolved into cloze test, the creation of survey, plastics later on. In 1846, Swiss chemist Charles Schonbein discovered how to produce the plastic polymer known as celluloid. In 1909, chemist Leo Baekeland created. Bag-In-Box , Bags , Containers 1773 Words | 5 Pages.

of us, the problem is seen as one of visual pollution, where plastic bags litter streets, roadways, and in some cases scenic . areas across the country. No one will argue that polythene is useful. The plastic bags we use to carry home food or products are for the most part very light and very strong. Using these bags is does not really the problem. The problem, leading to polythene pollution, is the improper methods of matalan £100, disposing of the cloze test bags . Matalan. They've been marketed as throw-away items, and that is when the scarlet all too. Biodegradable polythene film , Containers , Intermediate bulk container 857 Words | 3 Pages.

PLASTIC BAGS Introduction One of the matalan most commonly used items in modern generation is the poem with imagery plastic . bag . Sufficient, convenient, strong and cheap, plastic bags are seem to be perfect for marketing merchandise, foods, drinks and more. However, there are associated issues with the production, use and disposal of these bags which may not be known to most users but which are nonetheless extremely important especially to the environment. To fully understand the ecological footprint of plastic bags , determining. High-density polyethylene , Linear low-density polyethylene , Low-density polyethylene 1942 Words | 6 Pages. Plastic Bags: useful but hazardous. the term, paper or plastic came from? In 1977, Gordon Dancy revolutionized the consumer experience by inventing the plastic . bag to replace the paper bag (Turner Sutton, 2012). Matalan Survey. His intention was to save the trees that would need to be cut down to create paper bags ; however in autocratic his quest for environmental preservation, he inadvertently created a worse evil. Matalan £100 Survey. Plastic bags are everywhere; it is almost impossible to make a purchase today without receiving our items in a plastic bag , but how many of globalisation singapore, use.

Bag , Bag-In-Box , Bags 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Corporate Environmental Responsibility: a Review of Environmental Contribution of matalan survey, Ikea. build awareness of imagery, environmental protection. In 2006 March 15, IKEA no longer offers customers free plastic bags , every . plastic bags in U.S store will charge 5 cents. £100. At the same time, in order to help alter customer behavior and endorse environmentally responsible habits, IKEA will be selling its iconic reusable 'Big Blue Bag ' for 59 cents, a cost that has been reduced from 99 cents (Stop Plastic Bag Waste 2007). Firstly, the planting activities is a direct help to vs authoritarian, the nature, for example it removes. Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Environmentalism 2028 Words | 7 Pages. demonstrates how iodine changes in the presence of £100, starch. A Stand Penalty. **Prelab Observations: Describe what happened when iodine came into contact with starch. . The cornstarch turned blue-black Procedure: 1. Fill a plastic baggie with a teaspoon of cornstarch and matalan £100 survey, a half a cup of water tie bag . (This may already have been done for you) 2. Take. Fill a beaker halfway with water and add ten drops of iodine. 3. Matalan Survey. Place the baggie in the cup so that the cornstarch mixture is submerged in the iodine water. Chemistry , Concentration , Diffusion 579 Words | 3 Pages.

Caused By Plastic Bags Written by: Erica Duncan Science 256 Professor Elizabeth Stevens Pollution Caused By . Plastic Bags Plastic bags are one among many items that do not decay or professional terms non-degradable. Dod you know it takes thousands of years before one plastic bag cant turn into small particles? Yew, that is a long time for plastic bags to vanish from earth. Many people don't understand how seriously something as simple as plastic bags affect us. Bag-In-Box , Bags , Causality 698 Words | 4 Pages. issue of excessive usage of plastic bags in Singapore, and explores the globalisation possibility of reducing this usage by levying a fee when . £100 Survey. large retail outlets issue plastic bags . While some retailers feel that a formal governmental legislation should be passed before proceeding with the charge, others feel that retailers should implement these measures even without such mandatory policies.

As this measure may potentially be feasible and A Stand for the, effective in reducing the usage of plastic bags in Singapore, the government. 2010 , Bag-In-Box , Bags 893 Words | 3 Pages. Paper or Plastic ? It's an £100, age old question when checking out at does letter, the local grocer: Paper or plastic ? It seems like an easy . choice but there is matalan £100 a myriad number of details hidden in each bag . Both types of when the scarlet letter take, bags are designed to £100, make carrying a variety of items easier. The type of bag that is chosen will affect consumers health and the environment. Consumers need to be informed on how these bags are created, what effects these bags will have on Death Penalty the environment, and matalan £100, what will happen to the bags after they. Greenhouse gas , Landfill , Methane 1259 Words | 4 Pages. Harmful effect of Plastic Bags Plastic bags have rapidly becoming popular among consumers and Essay on Tumor Protein 53 and Cancer, . retailers due to £100 survey, its convenience and on Tumor 53 and its role Cancer, functionality and it comes at a relatively low cost. Wastage and hygiene issue arises as these non- biodegradable bags are usually littered and £100 survey, not recycled. Technological advances that led to even lighter bags have worsened this problem. These lighter bags are often not suitable for reuse and heavy items have to be double bag , increasing the poem imagery use of plastic bags . As a result.

Bag-In-Box , Bags , Plastic bag 1215 Words | 4 Pages. Sustainability issues with plastic bag. ?Sustainability Issues with Plastic Bags A plastic bag is £100 survey used for 5minutes on average but requires . more than a thousand years for it to vs authoritarian, decompose (Sharma,2008). After decomposition, the tiny particles continue to contaminate our water sources and threaten wildlife (West, n.d.). Yet, the global usage of matalan £100, plastic bags hits an on Tumor 53 and in Ovarian, unprecedented annual rate of 1 trillion (Facts,n.d.), with Singapore contributing 3 billion in 2011(Tay,2012). Hence, it is vital that we pay more attention to our environment. Bag , Bag-In-Box , Bags 1831 Words | 6 Pages. Reduce Usage of plastic bag Plastic ! Plastic ! Plastic !.this materials is use by matalan people . Poem With Imagery. all over the world.Plastic uses for many activity,mainly for carry things.we can see plastic every day and every where in our shop even at stall.Usage of plastic has advantage and matalan survey, disadvantage. The advantages of plastic are , the misuse of plastic bags may be responsible for when does the scarlet place environmental contamination, they are much more eco-friendly than many assume, especially when looked at from their creation to.

Plastic bag , Plastic recycling , Plastic shopping bag 1047 Words | 3 Pages. Carbon footprint of a plastic grocery bag. of plastic grocery bags during its life cycle, I should first explain what does the £100 carbon footprint term stand for, I would take . the definition given in the textbook of this course, The carbon footprint is the vs authoritarian total emissions of CO2, more specifically greenhouse gases as CO2, equivalent (CO2e), that is matalan generated by individual, organization, event, product or process over its life-cycle. Singapore. Knowing what the carbon footprint means now, I know that for discussing the carbon footprint of matalan survey, plastic grocery. Carbon dioxide , Methane , Natural gas 1683 Words | 5 Pages. Action Plan for Community Problem Solving.

Project title: Community Problem Solving: Problems of plastic bags Name of group: Name of members: Leong, Suzie and globalisation singapore, Noraini . Vision: Social and cultural issues with plastic : Half the students and matalan survey, teachers in the school would have reduced their use of plastic bags in school by 50% (within 2 months) |Action |Person(s) responsible |Resources needed |Resources provided by for the Essay |Strategy |Anticipated results. Education , Member of survey, Parliament , Plastic bag 433 Words | 4 Pages. No Plastic Bag Day Research Proposal. government regulation. Thus in when does the scarlet letter place this case, government becomes a power stakeholder which enforces the company to matalan £100, practice green concept through no . plastic bag day . No plastic bag day was first started at the state of Penang on 1 July 2009 every Monday, before it was extended to Tuesdays and Wednesdays as well from Jan 2. To promote the No Plastic Bag Day ruling, the state distributed 500,000 brochures to create public awareness besides erecting educational billboards. This noble cause was then. Bag-In-Box , Business ethics , Corporate social responsibility 1703 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction Amongst the myriad of does letter place, literature on the issue of plastic bag usage, multiple perspectives have been brought up and . discussed. Matalan £100 Survey. In this critique, I will be highlighting some of cloze test, these issues discussed and provide my analysis on the article.

Summary of Key Issues In Singapore, it is commonplace to issue free plastic bags . £100 Survey. As plastic is non-biodegradable, it causes pollution and consumes significant amounts of precious resources including petroleum and land. The manufacturing also produces. Bag-In-Box , Bags , Environment 962 Words | 4 Pages. Anti- Plastic and singapore, Zero Garbage Campaign Naocha * Three cheers to the recent goodwill initiative taken up Anti- plastic . campaigners' group, Blue and Green. Back-up and support from various sections of society, organization, NGOs shows the awareness of the health hazardous and dreadful consequences of £100, using plastic . A Stand For The Penalty. As we all know that regular and prolonged dependence on matalan £100 plastic by the common people pushed the plastic items one of the most polluting agent destabilizing the ecological balance of. City , Great Pacific Garbage Patch , Local government 1562 Words | 5 Pages. Non-biodegradable They litter our streets Plastic bags suffocate and kill Wildlife concerns Spread Awareness Environment . destroyement Paper It messes up future with too much plastic bags and ends ups that we might have to leave earth. All the No points No need to ban, add a tax Used as a marketing ploy Freedom of choice people forget their re-useable bags Causes expense to consumers in a time of recession causes loss of poem, jobs People can and do recycle plastic bags the environmental war needs to.

Plastic shopping bag 4933 Words | 16 Pages. ?1. Find a plastic shopping bag . Survey. It doesn't have to be huge - one that's standard size works. Does Take Place. 2. 2 Fold the £100 . Cloze Test. plastic bag in half vertically. Be sure it is flat, and even.

3. Matalan. 3 Cut out the kite shape. Here are the cuts you need for your kite: Cut off the bottom of the bag . Penalty. Position your scissors 2 or 3 inches (5 or 7.5 cm) up from the bottom, and cut so that all the bunchiness is removed. Cut the bag in the middle, from the base straight up to the center of the survey bag . Make a cut from the center of. French Revolution , Inch , Left-wing politics 683 Words | 16 Pages. NOTES Every day over 10million new plastic bags are being created, thats over 3.92 billion new plastic . bags every year. On Tumor Its Role In Ovarian Cancer. You may think plastic bags are harmless, but the matalan every time you accept plastic bags at autocratic vs authoritarian, a check out, you are damaging the £100 survey environment we live in.

For that one time you use that plastic bag , it can last from 500-100years. You may think you are helping the environment when you are buying biodegradable bags , but they take just as long to degrade. But there is a way to help the. Bags , High-density polyethylene , Landfill 945 Words | 3 Pages. Exploratory Essay on 53 and Cancer Plastic Bag Ban. a day and billion times a year is the plastic bag . Yes the plastic bag , the one that is at grocery . Matalan Survey. stores, clothing stores and even restaurants. Several cities have even started to autocratic, implement to some degree the plastic bag ban into matalan, their cities meaning the cloze test bags are banned from that city or there is a fine/ tax to £100, use and purchase the plastic bags . This ban obviously has its supporters who agree with the ban and like the idea of reducing and banning the cloze test plastic use in matalan survey their cities and there are the. Bag-In-Box , Dallas , Downtown Dallas 1239 Words | 3 Pages. People in A Stand for the Penalty Essay modern society have been accustomed to the throw-away life for a long time. A disposable product is a product designed for cheapness and short-term . £100 Survey. use. Globalisation Singapore. It includes paper products, shopping bags , water bottles, food packaging and plastic cutlery.

Annually, about 45 billion pairs of disposable chopsticks are produced in China, consuming 25 million of trees and bamboo plants; meanwhile, as worlds highest forest coverage nation, Japan imports 25 billion pairs of disposable chopsticks from. Disposable , Environment , Plastic bag 1541 Words | 4 Pages. Millions of disposable plastic bags are used and discarded in £100 survey Washington each year. Death Penalty. A beached grey whale was found in West . Matalan. Seattle in 2010 with 20 plastic bags in its stomach. Small pieces of plastic can absorb toxic pollutants like DDT and PCB. Scientists have found that fish are ingesting these toxins when they ingest plastic , concentrating the chemicals in the food chain. There is a good chance that we also absorb these pollutants when we eat fish. The good news is, Washingtonians are taking.

Bag-In-Box , Great Pacific Garbage Patch , Pollution 841 Words | 4 Pages. SHOULD BAN PLASTIC BAG The society's consumption rate is now estimated over cloze test 500,000,000,000 plastic . bags annually. The Malaysian Federal Government is considering banning plastic bag for environmental reason. There are some big company have take the challenge to make say no to plastic bag campaign such as IKEA, AEON and Factory Outlet Store (F.O.S). There are many drawbacks of the use of plastic bags . In some other countries, there are proposals to charge for the use of plastic bags . The objective. Bag , Bag-In-Box , Bags 936 Words | 3 Pages. 4 January 2013 Plastics in matalan £100 Modern Society: Excess without Excuse All around us is with plastic , and it plays a major part . in our society. Historically, the advent of plastic has coincided with significant advancements in society: modern means plastic . For example, its an essential component in matalan £100 survey computers, cars, planes, technology and medicine; they all rely heavily on plastic usage. Plastic is really beneficial to our society, but it is not beneficial to our eco-system that is autocratic vs authoritarian slowly dying. Bisphenol A , Great Pacific Garbage Patch , Pacific Ocean 2065 Words | 6 Pages.

onwards, plastic bags became common for matalan £100 carrying daily groceries from the store to vehicles and homes throughout the developed . world. As plastic bags increasingly replaced paper bags , and as other plastic materials and imagery, products replaced glass, metal, stone, timber and other materials, a packaging materials war erupted, with plastic shopping bags at the center of £100 survey, highly publicized disputes. Although few peer-reviewed studies or government surveys have provided estimates for Essay on Tumor Protein in Ovarian global plastic bag use, environmental. Packaging , Plastic , Plastic bag 1217 Words | 4 Pages. SAY NO TO PLASTICS !! As quoted by Lord Byron, There is a pleasure in the pathless woods, There is a rapture on the lonely shore, There . is society, where none intrudes, By the matalan £100 survey deep sea, and music in its roar: I love not man the less, but Nature more. The earth is the only known world to harbour life. There is nowhere else, at least in globalisation singapore the near future, to which our species could migrate. For 200 years we have been conquering nature, now we are beating it to death. One of the. Earth , Environmental movement , Plastic 747 Words | 3 Pages. Dilemma of Asian Bags Asia Paper Bag has since 1990 operated as a . manufacturer of plastic carrier bags supplying them on a contract-manufacturing basis to £100 survey, well-known supermarket chains, fast-food outlets, pharmacies and department stores.

Lately, Asia Paper Bag exports customized plastic carrier bags to Marks n Spencer and Boots Pharmacy in the United Kingdom. During the Asian financial crisis, Asia Paper Bag had difficulties in meeting its term loan repayment. Bangalore , Infosys , Plastic shopping bag 695 Words | 3 Pages. is important to educate our younger generation about these habits. Heres a list of desi eco-friendly alternatives to products that we buy from . supermarkets that we can use in our daily lives: 1. Coconut fibre instead of plastic scrubbers We all know that plastic is choking the earth.

Why not go back to cloze test, using coconut fibre to scrub dishes? 2. Soap nut/besan instead of soap bars The bath soaps that we buy tend to have artificial fragrances and foaming agents that are harmful to. Bottled water , Coconut , Plastic shopping bag 1416 Words | 6 Pages. Green Marketing Newspaper Critique on Plastic Bags Usage in Singapore. charging for plastic bags The article highlights an idea to cut down on plastic bag usage in . Singapore by imposing charges for them on people patronising supermarkets, provision shops and even food outlets and hawker stalls. The proposal deals with one of Singapores significant source of waste and it can be seen as a small move towards eco-friendliness.

As with any other new initiatives, it is matalan £100 survey worth discussing its potential effectiveness, and any other impacts that the charges on plastic bags may have. Bag-In-Box , Bags , Electric charge 1338 Words | 3 Pages. residential areas. Conservation Groups Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. They believe we can reduce the amount of waste we produce, that many things can be reused . Essay In Ovarian. instead of being thrown out straight away and that most sorts of paper, aluminium, glass, plastics end even water can be recycled. Businesses Most businesses produce large amounts of rubbish each day. They want to be able to get rid of £100, rubbish in any way they can without cost or hassle. A Stand Death. They do not want to have to travel to dispose of their. Biodegradable waste , Composting , Plastic shopping bag 1027 Words | 4 Pages.

the problems associated with thin plastic bag use is not a ban, but better management. Matalan £100. Solution: The 3Rs reduce, reuse and . recycle of solid waste management (SWM).. Guide to Recycling Plastics 1. Find out which plastics are accepted for recycling in your area and where they can be taken. Though recycling varies throughout the country, most community programs collect plastic bottles, and many grocery and retail chains offer bins for recycling used plastic bags . * Bottles: Today, more than 80. Containers , Plastic , Plastic bag 904 Words | 3 Pages. Paper or Plastic ? You are at A Stand for the Essay, the grocery store checking out and the clerk asks you, paper or plastic ? Which one will you . choose?

Do you choose paper because you think it is better for the environment, or do you choose plastic because its easier to carry? Whatever choice you make is up to you, but I hope that after reading this essay you will be more informed about the choice you do make. Paper comes from matalan £100 trees. It starts from logging, where trees are marked and cut down. A Stand For The Essay. In the logging process. Bag-In-Box , Bags , Drinking water 1000 Words | 3 Pages. eliminated the use of matalan, disposable plastic grocery bags company-wide. Customers can now choose between paper bags . made from 100% recycled paper or from a selection of globalisation singapore, reusable bags . The company also began offering Better Bags , a large and colorful grocery bag made primarily from matalan £100 recycled bottles. The move from the traditional paper/ plastic system to cloze test, environmentally friendly and reusable bags has been packaged as an initiative the £100 survey company calls BYOB Bring Your Own Bag .The campaign is A Stand for the Death Penalty aimed at reducing. Charles Shaw wine , Food , Grocery store 1382 Words | 5 Pages.

------------------------------------------------- Say no to plastics Presentation Transcript * 1. SAY NO TO PLASTICS By . Dibakar Bose * Plastics is one of the few new chemical materials which pose environmental problem. Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyester is largely used in survey the manufacture of vs authoritarian, Plastics Plastics is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semi synthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products . Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular. Oxygen , Plastic , Plastic bag 924 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay: Plastic Bags vs Paper Bags. brown paper bag which the 40-year-old housewife held at the bottom, all 10 -fingers at full stretch. Matalan Survey. But one side of the . bag ruptured, too weak to hold even its meagre content.

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Bag-In-Box , Bags , Environment 1350 Words | 3 Pages. the reasons why plastic pollution has become a problem. Survey. How can the problems be solved in the future? 5. Tutor Name: Claire Swanwick 6. . Student ID Number: 200939477 7. Date of Submission: 30/11/2012 8. Word count:727 Plastic pollution It is evident that plastic pollution has become a serious problem .More and more people are concerned about how to solve this problem .Using plastic is very normal in humans life .People use plastic everyday like plastic bottle, plastic bag . After people use. Bag-In-Box , Bags , Landfill 922 Words | 3 Pages. Current plastic bag use and globalisation singapore, disposal, both by consumers and matalan £100 survey, through waste management activities, not only create environmental . problems, but also reinforce the perception of a wasteful society. When The Scarlet. Plastic bags as litter create a visual pollution problem, and affect our aquatic wildlife, while the heavy reliance on disposable plastic bags by the Malaysian consumer raises questions of resource consumption and resource efficiency. Matalan. Many of the grocery store use the on Tumor 53 and its role plastic bags as a tool to matalan £100, keep the the scarlet letter take place things. Bag-In-Box , Marine biology , Packaging 789 Words | 2 Pages. Compare plastic bags to other alternative packaging, they are actually more environmentally friendly. Matalan £100 Survey. They are lightweight, . waterproof, hygienic and poem imagery, totally recyclable.

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WHAT YOU CAN DO ABOUT PLASTIC POLLUTION Plastic bags and cloze test, bottles, like all forms of plastic , create . significant environmental and matalan, economic burdens. For The Death. They consume growing amounts of energy and other natural resources, degrading the environment in numerous ways. In addition to using up fossil fuels and matalan £100, other resources, plastic products create litter, hurt marine life, and poem with imagery, threaten the basis of life on earth. We are producing over 25 million tons of plastics per year in the United States, a trivial. Bag-In-Box , Bags , Bottled water 934 Words | 3 Pages. How Have Plastic Bags Negatively Affected the Environment? remains: plastic . As the waves roll upon the beach, they hold within their grasp plastic wrappers, containers, but most of all . bags . They drift in the wind over £100 Americas great prairies and are caught on A Stand for the Death Essay rocks at the highest peaks. Animals are seen wrapped in plastic struggling to move and breathe while others lie motionless on the ground having given up the survey struggle to free themselves. Vs Authoritarian. Societys descendents can no longer lie on £100 the beach and enjoy the sun due to the thick layer of cloze test, plastic covering.

Great Pacific Garbage Patch , Grocery store , Plastic recycling 2895 Words | 7 Pages. Not Ban Plastic Bags From LoveToKnow GreenLiving With plastic bags causing significant damage to . Matalan £100 Survey. our environment, why should we not ban plastic bags to solve the problem? Plastic bags are one of the cloze test most visible signs of the pollution problem that extends across our planet. It is rare to see a strip of road, river bank or sea front that does not have a few plastic bags littering the environment. The result, besides being an matalan, eyesore, is often the death of wildlife. The problems that plastic bags. Bag , Bag-In-Box , Bags 2857 Words | 8 Pages. Plastics Bags: A Devil To Be Banned. Plastics Bags - A Devil To Be Banned Plastic bags are normally given to poem with imagery, customers by vendors when . Matalan. buying.

It is a very convenient method for transporting goods. The Scarlet Letter Place. Moreover, it is highly popular to the customers and retailers because of its light weight. But, ultimately this much usage of the plastic bags leads to the many serious problems. Plastic bags should be banned in Canada because it have a critical environment problems, health problems and also because of its cost of production and recycling. Air pollution , Environment , Environmentalism 1027 Words | 3 Pages. Why are plastic bags bad for our environment?

Now and days everywhere we go we have waste and a big part of it is . plastic bags . Plastic bags are very bad for our environment we find them all over our oceans and on streets. The bags also end up hurting our animals mainly our sea creatures. In general plastics are bad over all they waste money and are bad to £100, our environment. We already have a bad environment over cloze test all getting rid of plastic bags would be a good strep to take. Matalan. We would be helping. Animal , Bag-In-Box , Bags 767 Words | 2 Pages. say no to plastic bags ! Plastic bags should be banned from Essay Cancer grocery stores.

I often go to the . Matalan £100. store and buy 1 or 2 items and I am given so many bags . I feel that we have become an extremely wasteful society. If we could just say no to plastic bags we would be slowing down the waste in landfills. It takes a little more effort to remember to carry reusable bags in cloze test the car but it is worth saving our environment. I am proud to say that my young daughters have said no to the plastic bag when they have. Bag-In-Box , Bags , Global warming 22447 Words | 94 Pages. Why Production of Plastic Bags Should Banned In the matalan 21st century, people have become their own killers. From countryside to the . Autocratic Vs Authoritarian. cities, the use of matalan £100 survey, plastic materials has greatly increased.

In the the scarlet take grocery stores, tons of products are packaged using plastic materials. About 30 years ago, in countries like Uganda, there were no plastic bags used for packaging and carrying items. Matalan £100 Survey. Items in the shops were packed in biodegradable paper bags . In the A Stand Essay markets, people used local materials like banana leaves. Bag-In-Box , Bags , Bisphenol A 2716 Words | 7 Pages. environment levy scheme on plastic shopping bag . You can found this logo at the cashier in the supermarket and some department . Matalan £100. stores. A Stand For The Penalty Essay. A probable reason for us to show you this picture is it is related to £100 survey, our topic, implementing the cloze test plastic bag tax is beneficial to Hong Kong. Matalan Survey. Im going to does the scarlet letter take, divide our presentation into matalan £100 survey, three parts.

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Bag-In-Box , High-density polyethylene , Linear low-density polyethylene 3058 Words | 9 Pages.

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During the early 1630's England entered into a storm of conflict with the death of James I and the succession of Charles I. In 1638 the Scots took up arms against the King. The Presbyterians took control of the Commons and this was followed by an all out civil war in 1642. During this period of time Tristram and Dionis had two more children Elizabeth (d.o.b. unknown) and James born August 12, 1639. Dionis was also pregnant with their fifth child. In 1640 Coffyn was selected as a Warden of Brixton Parish. Shortly after in November 1640, he leased his farm that was located at Butlass. With the cloze test, civil war closing in on matalan £100 his family and for the Penalty, the wounding and eventual death eight days later of survey his brother John at Plymouth Fort, Tristram decided to take his family, including his mother and two unwed sisters to safety in Colonial America. Tristram's friend Robert Clement was leaving for America shortly, aboard a small fleet of ships, some of which were owned by Clement. Tristram quickly put his affairs in order and embarked on his journey with his family aboard Clement's ship named Hector Clement in singapore the spring of 1642.

This proved to be the last time Coffyn was to see his home in survey England. The crossing of the Atlantic took between 60 and globalisation, 90 days before they arrived in Newburyport Massachusetts, during the summer of 1642. It was a mere twenty years since the pilgrims, aboard the Mayflower had landed at £100 survey Plymouth. Shortly after their arrival, Tristram. secured living quarters for his family and cloze test, started exploring up the Merrimack River with Robert Clement in search of a good location for a more permanent home. He arrived in matalan £100 survey a soon to singapore, be called settlement named Pentucket, now known as Haverhill Ma. The book The History of Haverhill by George Chase states that Clements son, Job Clements had already settled in the area a year earlier, if so, this could be the reason that Coffyn and Clements chose this area. They found the area to have fertile soil with the necessary resources to build a farm, however, it was recorded that the large population of wolves were a problem with the £100 survey, flocks of sheep and a guard had to Essay Protein its role Cancer, be posted at all times.

In 1641 there were only six homes built in matalan survey Pentucket. Tristram's group of settlers negotiated with the Indians for the property rights and secured a large area for the sum of vs authoritarian three pounds ten shillings. A copy of this deed is still on matalan £100 record and bares witness to the signatures of Robert Clement and Tristram Coffyn, dated November 15, 1642. Cloze Test! Not only is this the first record of the first Coffin immigrant in America, but it also indicates how Tristram spelled his surname, Coffyn, with a y instead of an i. It was also during this period that John, their youngest child fell ill and matalan survey, died. Imagery! Dionis was also pregnant with their sixth child who was later named Deborah. She was born the survey, first Coffin child in singapore America, and the third child born in the tiny settlement but was destined for the same fate as the other newborns and died three weeks later. Matalan £100 Survey! These deaths give evidence to the harsh conditions that the autocratic, first immigrants must have encountered upon survey, their arrival in the new world. The living conditions were primitive and unforgiving and many families suffered greatly. It was noted that Coffyn was the first white settler to plough land in the area, having made his own plough from for the Death Penalty, materials at hand.

A few years after his arrival in Pentucket, his daughter Mary was born, becoming the matalan £100 survey, first Coffin child to be born and survive to adulthood in America. Shortly after Coffyn's arrival, the poem imagery, settlement was threatened when Indian war parties decided to target the settlers homes. They wanted to matalan survey, halt the white invasion however they feared the firepower of the settlers muskets. The Indian plan was to send a small group to each of the settlers homes at poem imagery the same time and gain entrance to £100, the houses by way of presenting goods for when does the scarlet take place, trade. Upon a predetermined signal, the Indians would jump the white men, cut their throats and ransack the house looking for weapons. What the Indians didn't know was that one of their members was a Colonial informant who revealed the plan to British intelligence and the British soldiers, along with about forty settlers disarmed the Indians before they could set the plan in motion. After only a few years of farming in Pentucket, Tristram embarked on a new direction.

It would seem that not only was he a farmer, but he was also interested in expanding his business holdings. Matalan Survey! When the opportunity arose to operate a ferry back in Newbury, Tristram decided to cloze test, move his family once again. The History of Newbury states that in 1644 Tristram Coffin Sr. is allowed to keep an Ordinary (Tavern) which consisted of selling wine and keeping a ferry and Inn on the Newbury side of the Merrimack River. George Carr kept a ferry on the Salisbury side across from Carr Island. Tristram's ferry crossed from Newbury on the south side of the river, between Carr Island and Ram Island, over to the north side to matalan, the town of Salisbury. The ferry was most likely a tow ferry with oxen providing the power to Essay Protein 53 and its role Cancer, pull the craft across the river, with his sons helping to load and disembark the passengers. In the 1650's Tristram's eldest children began to expand their horizons with Peter leaving Newbury to go to matalan survey, Dover, New Hampshire, where he became involved in the scarlet place the lumber business along with holding a variety of public office positions. Tristram's daughter Elizabeth wed Stephen Greenleaf in survey 1651 and resided in Newbury where the couple eventually had ten children before Elizabeth's early death. Globalisation! Tristram Jr. £100 Survey! married Judith Somerby in 1653 and became a weaver/tailor and Deacon of the First Parish of Newbury.

Tristram Jr. is also the person who brought the on Tumor 53 and, Coffin name to the old Coffin house in 1654, which still stands in Newbury, after housing over 240 years of £100 Coffin descendants. In 1997, I visited Newbury and the Coffin house which is now a historical site owned by the SPNEA. The Coffin house is one of the globalisation singapore, earliest homes constructed of £100 wood still standing in New England. It is believed that the father, Tristram Sr., lived here shortly before moving to his new home in Nantucket. The house was originally much smaller than it appears today, with the oldest section being located at the back. In 1735 the first centennial of Newbury was celebrated by cloze test, the town in the front yard of the Coffin house, under two gigantic elm trees. Inside, one is struck by the large fireplace located in survey the middle of the house, in singapore a room referred to as the hall.

This is where the cooking, dining and visiting took place. Above this area was the hall chamber, or sleeping chamber. When I visited the sleeping chamber, a large cradle lay on one side of the matalan £100 survey, room. This was not for infants, but was for the elderly family members who were gently rocked to sleep. Does The Scarlet Letter Place! On some of the beams near the matalan £100 survey, stairs were engravings carved in with imagery the beam, these were thought to ward off evil spirits.

Much of the family time in the house was spent reading the bible as this was an era of strong religious beliefs along with the survey, threat of evil coming in the form of witches and devils. The last full time occupant of the Coffin house was Lucy Coffin, who never married and lived to be 101 years old. After she died in 1893, a nephew used the house as a summer place until it was turned over to the SPNEA in 1921. A short distance from the Coffin house, stood the Coffyn's Tavern. The Tavern was operated mainly be Dionis, Tristram's wife, and singapore, it was called Coffyn's Ordinary. Not only did she serve the patrons but she was also responsible for making the beverages of the day. This.

eventually led the matalan £100, Coffyns into confrontation with the law. The laws of 1645 stated clearly that every person licensed to poem with, keep an Ordinary (Tavern) shall always be provided with good wholesome beer of four bushels of malt to the hogshead, which he shall not sell above two pence the £100 survey, ale quart, on penalty of forty shillings the first offence and for the second offence shall lose his licence. Essay On Tumor 53 And Its Role In Ovarian Cancer! Dionis' ale was made with six bushels, giving it a kick that kept them coming back for more. For her troubles she increased the price by £100, one pence and in turn had to stand before the autocratic vs authoritarian, court to defend her actions. Eventually the charge was dismissed, but word spread quickly through Newbury as to where to go for a quality ale. According to the book Ould Newbury by John Currier, the Coffyns owned forty acres across from Carr Island. Matalan Survey! In later years the vs authoritarian, road to the Inn was known as Coffin Lane and was on the west side of present day Jefferson St. down by the Merrimack River. Toward the mid 1650's the ferry crossings were replaced by a floating bridge leaving Tristram little choice but to sell his property. He moved across the river to Salisbury where records show his name on some documents as Commissioner of Salisbury.

It was during these years in the late 1650's that the first plans to matalan £100, relocate his family to a more desirable location were first laid out. Depending on which source one would believe, there are many arguments that have been brought forward as to why Tristram decided to when does the scarlet letter, leave Massachusetts. All would have been valid arguments. It was true that the Puritan rule was harsh and prejudice against freedom of choice both religiously and matalan survey, politically. It was also true that the desire to move to an area where fences were not needed for A Stand Penalty, the livestock (that an Island would provide) would be of some benefit, mainly monetary. In the end, Tristram's will to £100, keep his family together around him in a community outside of the smothering rules of the Puritans, and guarded by cloze test, miles of ocean, could have been the driving factor behind his decision to locate to a new home. In talking to his friends and neighbours he found he was not alone in his thinking. Others were also anxious to leave, many for the same reasons as Coffyn. After a short time their ideas took shape and later after meetings, it was decided to form a group of associates to pursue matters further. Matalan £100! The idea of common pastures and with imagery, buildings were appealing to many, especially the farmers who were advancing in age. The back breaking life of maintaining a farm could now be shared among the group with common mills and labour supplied by the Indians.

How the Island of matalan £100 survey Nantucket, thirty miles off the south shore of Cape Cod ever came forth as a choice, is once again debatable. Some point out that the connection lies with Thomas Mayhew, the owner of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, was a cousin of one of the associates in Tristram's group, a man named Thomas Macy. Others think that Nantucket simply came up in a passing conversation and caught the groups imagination. At one meeting the decision was made to send Tristram Coffyn, possibly his son James, Edward Starbuck and cabin boy Isaac Coleman on a fact finding mission to meet with Mayhew and A Stand, view Nantucket to assess its suitability as a home. Early in 1659 the men set out for Edgartown in Martha's Vineyard, the home of Thomas Mayhew. Thomas Mayhew came to New England before 1632 from Wiltshire England. By 1637 Mayhew was in the town of Watertown, Massachusetts, where he was operating a grist mill. Matalan! His. business enterprises were flourishing by the time the family of John Folger arrived in Watertown. Mayhew had a son named Thomas Jr. who was very religious.

Folger's son Peter was close to the same age as Thomas Jr. and the two became friends. They both shared an appetite for adventure, so when the opportunity came forth for the Mayhew's to purchase an Island named Nantucket, from the Essay 53 and its role in Ovarian, Earl of Stirling in survey 1641 for forty pounds, the adventure began. After seeing the Island it was concluded that Nantucket Island was too far off shore and that Martha's Vineyard would be a more suitable island to inhabit, so shortly after Mayhew also bought Martha's Vineyard. Thomas Mayhew Jr. moved quickly to cloze test, establish his home on Martha's Vineyard bringing Peter Folger along with him. His mission was to teach the Indians that inhabited the Islands' Christianity.

Folger was to be a school master and surveyor. The work was quite successful and the elder Mayhew came to matalan survey, join them in Edgartown. In 1657 Thomas Jr. found it necessary to go to cloze test, England to matalan survey, stimulate more financial support, however, his ship was lost in a gale on the crossing and globalisation, he was never heard from again. Mayhew was devastated by the loss of his son, however he decided to continue with his son's mission. Folger on the other hand was looking for a change. His chance for £100, change came in the form of a shallop sailing into the harbour at Edgartown with Tristram Coffyn on board.

It's interesting to note that this simple twist of fate with Coffyn arriving in Essay Protein 53 and in Ovarian Cancer Edgartown while Folger was searching for a new adventure, brought about matalan one of the circumstances to which American statesman, scientist and writer, Benjamin Franklin would later be born into. Forty years later, Folger's daughter, Abiah, of Nantucket, married Josiah Franklin, where in 1706 shortly after moving from Nantucket, gave birth to Benjamin Franklin. In turn this would make Tristram's new friend, Peter, Ben Franklin's grandfather. Tristram's preliminary discussions with Mayhew were favourable, however, Mayhew insisted that if Coffyn's group wanted to purchase Nantucket, the Indians on Death Essay the Island would have to be included in the negotiations. £100! It was estimated that Nantucket had about 700 Narragansett Indians living in six villages, mostly on poem with the east shore. Today, there is not a single Indian descendant living on the Island. The last Indian descendant died in the 1850's, wiped out for the most part by white man diseases. Nantucket in Algonquin is interpreted as far away Island. Coffyn realized that without an interpreter he would have problems communicating with the Indians. To address this problem he enlisted the services of matalan £100 Peter Folger who was also a skilled Surveyor. Shortly thereafter, the group left for the Island.

The Indians greeted them favourably and although their interpretation of purchasing land proved to be different than the singapore, white interpretation, they agreed on the idea. In later years the Indians were surprised to learn the meaning of trespassing, for in their culture no one ever owns property but instead they only had rights to live upon it, yet anyone could travel through it. The whites wouldn't allow this for fear of livestock disappearing. Shortly after achieving their goal, Coffyn and the rest headed back to Edgartown for further negotiations with Mayhew. Committed to matalan £100, carrying on with his lost son's mission, Mayhew had no real interest in Nantucket and therefore agreed to very reasonable terms for the purchase of the Island. The sale price of 30 pounds along with two beaver hats, one for him and one for his wife, was a bargain especially if one considers that after owning the place, Island for close to £100 survey, twenty years Mayhew was selling it for ten pounds less than he bought it for. The beaver hats incidently were supposedly made by Tristram Coffyn's son, Tristram Jr. Today one can only speculate on the mood of the negotiations, but judging by the eventual results, Coffyn and poem, Mayhew must have respected each other a great deal in order for things to have gone so smoothly. Matalan! Mayhew did decide however to retain a one twentieth share of the venture so he could have a voice in with how the Island affairs were being handled.

Coffin returned home to Salisbury to £100 survey, organize the purchase of Nantucket. Once there, his eight partners ratified the agreement with Mayhew and letter place, ten new partners and ten tenant inhabitants were admitted into the company. Half Share Owners. Tristram Coffin Jr. #9;The half share partners were tradesmen who were needed to help develop the settlement. Folger was the interpreter/surveyor who later became the survey, miller. Joseph Gardner was a shoemaker and cloze test, Nathaniel Holland was a tailor etc.

Some of the other half-share holders listed didn't join the group until the later years. #9;In the fall of 1659 before any formal deed was drawn up with the matalan survey, Indian leaders Wanackmamack and Nickanoose, James Coffin, Thomas Macy and family, Edward Starbuck and Isaac Coleman left Salisbury for Nantucket to take up residence. Macy was in trouble with the Puritan judges for harbouring Quakers during a short rain storm. Nantucket was out of the autocratic, Judge's legal realm, so rather than stay and face the charges he decided that the sooner he could leave Salisbury the better it would be. Edward Starbuck was Macy's partner in the company and also his best friend.

He felt compelled to go with Macy and the rest to see them through what was going to matalan, be a tough first winter. James Coffin age 19 went to watch over his father's interests and Isaac Coleman age 13 was probably just looking for adventure. The first winter on Nantucket proved to autocratic vs authoritarian, be one full of hardships. The crossing was reported to have been a rough one in which the tiny craft was almost lost. During the first winter the Indians were said to matalan survey, have been most helpful in seeing to the needs of the first white settlers on the Island.

In the spring of cloze test 1660 Edward Starbuck returned to Salisbury to update the rest on £100 the progress of Nantucket. The reports were favourable and others made preparations to relocate quickly. The freedom enjoyed in Nantucket, by being independent from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, was the lure that attracted many from Salisbury. But along with their freedom certain laws and regulations had to be drawn-up to keep the new settlement from deteriorating. For instance one guideline was that Indian land could not be purchased by any individual except for use by all its original purchasers. This would ensure a balanced ownership. The Colony of Essay New York claimed jurisdiction over matalan £100 survey, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket and so it was with the Governor of New York, Francis Lovelace, that the Colony had to deal within terms of being recognized.

By the A Stand Death Penalty Essay, summer of 1661, records show that the meetings were now being held on Nantucket indicating that many of the settlers had made the move to the Island. The first concerns of many were where their house lots would be located. At a town meeting held July 15, 1661 it was agreed upon that each owner would have the freedom to choose his lot within limits not previously occupied. It was also decided that the lot size for each full share holder would be sixty rods square (a rod consisting of 16'6). It was also agreed that Tristram Coffyn would select first, in which he selected a lot on the north western coastline of the Island at a place known as Cappammet Harbour (today known as Capaum Pond). The original Nantucket record states Tristram Coffyn, Sr., had his house lot laid out at Cappammet, by the aforesaid lot layers, at Cappamet Harbour head, sixty rods square, or thereabouts, the east side line part of it bounded by the highway; the south side by a rock southward of the pond; the north by the harbour head; the west side bounded by the lot of Tristram Coffin Jr.

In the aftermath, once all was said and done, Tristram had succeeded with his wish to live out £100 survey, his days in imagery a free society surrounded by his friends and matalan, family. To his east side, across Cappamet Harbour was his son Peter, who didn't reside on the Island but was a frequent visitor seeing as he had secured the rights to supply the settlers with lumber for their homes. To the 53 and its role Cancer, west was the lot of his son Tristram Jr., again not a full time resident but a frequent visitor. To the matalan survey, south laid the lots of his daughter Mary and A Stand for the Death Penalty Essay, her husband Nathaniel Starbuck. Mary and Nathaniel were very much a part of the Island's development. Mary owned the first store on the Island as well as being regarded in later life as a. spiritual leader, having embraced Quakerism. Mary and matalan survey, Nathaniel also had the when letter take place, honour of having the first white baby on the Island during the early 1660's. Also to the south lay the £100 survey, lot of James Coffin.

After Tristram, James was the with, head of the Coffin interests on matalan £100 survey Nantucket. The first years of settlement consisted of building houses along with shelters for their livestock, mainly sheep and oxen, as well as developing pastures and common buildings. The Indians helped to develop the farms and for the Death Penalty Essay, taught the settlers a great deal about living on the Island. In turn they were given employment and some formal education. The first years were often regarded as the best years upon matalan £100 survey, Nantucket, in terms of creating a society that flowed in harmony, where one could rely on their neighbours as though they were family. The great grandson of cloze test Thomas Macy would later write, The little community was kind and courteous to each other and hospitable to matalan survey, strangers. The prevalence of good feeling was remarked and felt by all who came among them. From the beginning Tristram Coffyn and Thomas Macy were the spokesmen for the settlement. In 1671 they were selected by the group to go to New York and meet with Governor Lovelace and secure their claim to poem, the Island.

Upon their return the £100 survey, Islanders nominated Coffyn to be Chief Magistrate of Nantucket. The town also selected all other officers except the Chief Military Officer who was to with, be selected by Governor Lovelace from nominees chosen by survey, the settlement. After a few more years of Essay on Tumor 53 and in Ovarian Cancer harmony, or about the early 1670's the first signs of trouble on the Island began to appear. The problems came through the evolution of the two classes of settlers. On one hand they had the full share owners and their partners, who by Nantucket law had two votes each. On the matalan survey, other hand the half share owners only had one vote resulting in less of a say on the scarlet place Island affairs. They viewed themselves just as important as the full share settlers. The only thing missing for a revolt by the half share members was a leader. £100! That changed in 1673 when it was decided that the community needed to expand their fishing interests by enlisting the services of a skilled tradesman by the name of John Gardner of for the Salem, Massachusetts. Matalan £100 Survey! Gardner was the singapore, brother of full share owner Joseph Gardner. Right from the start John Gardner challenged the original owners on most issues and survey, from this began the feud between the Gardners group and globalisation singapore, the Coffin group.

Another problem arising on the Island involved the Indians and matalan £100, liquor. Some of the white settlers were taking advantage of the Indians' ignorance regarding liquor consumption. Laws had to eventually be implemented prohibiting the sale and consumption of autocratic vs authoritarian alcohol to matalan £100 survey, Indians. John Gardner often ignored these laws which escalated the tension on the Island. Gardner also attempted to buy land from the Indians, however the final blow most probably resulted from a meeting Gardner set up with Gov. Lovelace's replacement, Governor Francis Andros. One of the for the Death Penalty, requirements of the Islanders was to pay taxes to matalan £100 survey, New York. When Letter! This payment was met by giving the government barrels of fish. John Gardner convinced the settlers to let him deliver the payment.

While in New York, he met with Governor Andros and in turn convinced the Governor to matalan £100, name the main town in Nantucket, Sherborne, after his hometown back in England. He then managed. to get himself appointed as Chief Military Officer. This all came about shortly before the Dutch takeover of New York. With the change in governments in A Stand for the Essay New York, Gardners's group declared that past arrangements with the original settlers was no longer valid. The tension ran high for a short period until the Dutch were run out of New York and the old government was reinstated.

Upon this action, Tristram and Mathew Mayhew, grandson of Thomas, once again sailed for £100, New York and had their agreements with the government reinstated. In 1676 Thomas Mayhew became Chief Magistrate on Nantucket with Peter Coffin, a new resident on the Island becoming Assistant Magistrate. Peter and James Coffin had returned to the Island as a result of the conflict on the mainland between the Indians and the white settlers known as King Philip's War. This appointment of Macy and the election of Peter Coffin infuriated the Gardner group. Not only was Peter a Coffin he also held government positions back in Dover and was not considered a full time resident of Nantucket. A few years later the tension eased with the elections of James Coffin, John Gardner and Nathaniel Starbuck who would all be elected as Assistant Magistrates. The feud continued toward the late 1670's in cloze test a period that would result in Tristram Coffyn being selected as Chief Magistrate by Governor Andros in the hopes of trying to pull the community back together. Coffyn was regarded by most of the £100, settlers as the one person who could rectify Nantucket's struggle with growth. Unfortunately, for everyone, a shipwreck on the Nantucket shoals diverted any plans that Tristram had for the Islanders. In September 1678 a French ship ran aground during a storm, forcing the crew to abandon ship. Shortly thereafter the cargo was salvaged by certain parties and sold for profit.

This action put Tristram, who was chief magistrate, in violation with maritime law which stated that the cargo should have been secured until claimed by the owner. In failing to do so, Tristram subjected himself to be responsible for the lost cargo. The courts came down hard on him with a stiff penalty which would ruin him financially. The action cast a dark cloud over Coffyn, who was now in poem his early 70's. His family rallied to survey, his side but the strain of the penalty along with the feuding years had worn him down. His son James made financial arrangements to pay the fine.

In the end, surprisingly, it was John Gardner, who had become the new Chief Magistrate of Nantucket, who stood up to the courts with a touching appeal on Coffyn's behalf. Singapore! He convinced the courts to reduce the survey, penalty substantially. When all was said and done what remained was Coffyn's ill health. The year was 1681, and autumn was closing in. Coffyn had made the poem imagery, arrangements that were to matalan £100 survey, follow his death back in 1678. He made no will but instead disposed of his rather large estate through deeds to his family, mainly his youngest sons John and globalisation singapore, Stephen. To his numerous grandchildren, 60 in all, he granted 10 acres of land to each one upon survey, the Coffyn's Island of Tuckernuck, off the west coast of Nantucket.

In 1681 Tristram owned two houses on his property, the first dwelling house he deeded to for the Essay, Stephen and the new house upon matalan survey, the hill was to go to John. Globalisation Singapore! His son Stephen was asked to care for their mother, Dionis up until her death. On October 3, 1681 Tristram Coffyn died, he was 72 years old at matalan survey the time of his death. His funeral brought out Essay Protein, all the Islanders including the Gardners to mourn his passing. It has been suggested that his old friend Edward Starbuck read from the bible and then Tristram's body was taken to a favourite location on his property and buried.

Through the years the exact site of his grave has wandered from memory, however, the man himself lives on in each one of his descendants. In just forty years after his death his descendants numbered 1,138 born in America. In 1728 the number had increased to 1,582. All of matalan £100 them descendants from one couple, Tristram and when does take, Dionis Coffyn. Stephen Coffyn cared for his mother up until her death which occurred on November 6, 1684 in Nantucket.

The Children of Tristram and Dionis Coffyn: Honorable Peter Coffin was born in England in 1631. He was the first child of Tristram and Dionis. Peter married Abigail Starbuck, daughter of Edward Starbuck. He resided in Dover, New Hampshire for £100, a good portion of A Stand his life before moving his family to Nantucket. He later moved his family to Exeter, New Hampshire, where he became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of matalan £100 survey New Hampshire and a member of the Essay Protein 53 and its role, Governor's Council. The Coffin's had ten children including their son Jethro whose house is considered the oldest house still standing on Nantucket having been built in 1686. Tristram Coffin Jr. was born in England in £100 1632. He married Judith Somerby of Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1652. Tristram was a weaver and filled many notable positions on autocratic the Newbury Town Council.

He was named Deacon to the first Parish of Newbury. His house in Newbury is known as the Old Coffin House. Tristram Jr. and his wife Judith's graves are marked in the cemetery of the First Parish of matalan survey Newbury which is poem with imagery, located across the street from the Coffin house. Together they had ten children along with Judith's three children from her first marriage. Elizabeth Coffin was born in England in matalan 1634. She married Stephen Greenleaf in Newbury, Massachusetts, on November 13, 1651.

From this family the Greenleaf's of New England have descended. Elizabeth died in 1678 at Essay Protein 53 and its role in Ovarian Cancer the age of survey 44. The Greenleafs had ten children. Hon. James Coffin was born in England in 1639. He married Mary Severance, daughter of the scarlet John and Abigail Severance of Salisbury, Massachusetts, in 1663. James was the first settler to settle on Nantucket after the purchase. He later became a leading figure in Nantucket politics.

He served many terms as Chief magistrate on the Island. £100 Survey! James and Mary had fourteen children with twelve surviving into adulthood. John Coffin was born in England but died shortly after the crossing on October 30, 1642. Deborah Coffin was born two weeks after her brother's death and died three weeks later on. December 8, 1642. Mary Coffin was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, in 1645 and Essay, married Nathaniel Starbuck at the age of matalan survey 17. Mary was a most extraordinary woman. Not only did she raise a family of ten children but she operated the Island's first store. Her open mindedness gained her respect from everyone who knew her.

Later it was her interest in Quakerism that laid the ground work for that particular religion on the Island. Mary and Nathaniel held the distinction of cloze test having the first white child born on Nantucket. Mary died on November 13, 1717. Lieut. John Coffin was born in Massachusetts, on October 30, 1647, exactly five years to the day of the death of his brother John.

John married Deborah Austin daughter of Joseph and Sarah Austin. Shortly after his father's death he moved to Martha's Vineyard, where he found employment as a blacksmith. He died in Edgartown in 1711, where today one can still locate his tombstone. Stephen Coffin was the £100, last child born to cloze test, Tristram and Dionis Coffyn. He was born in Newbury, Massachusetts, in £100 1652. He married Mary Bunker in 1668 and had ten children with Mary.

Stephen took over cloze test, his father's estate on Nantucket where he lived out his life as a farm manager. Survey! He died on November 14, 1734. HONOURABLE JAMES COFFIN. Pioneer of Nantucket Law and Order. James Coffin was born August 12, 1639, in Brixton, Devonshire, England. He was the fourth child of Tristram and vs authoritarian, Dionis Stevens Coffin. James was only three years old when his father immigrated to America.

The family first settled in Salisbury before heading down the Merrimac River to Haverhill where after only a short time they relocated once more to the town of Newbury. £100! James' family operated a ferry on the south side of the Merrimac River. They also operated a Tavern/Inn which was located near the landing. During the 1650's with the older brothers and sisters going off in poem with their own directions, James took over their responsibilities. Of the older children, it was James who was showing the most interest in Nantucket. Matalan! James' brothers had already established enterprises on the mainland and wanted to remain there, however, they were willing to with, invest in the plan financially. James was only twenty when the plans to investigate the Island came about. Depending on whose account of history one would study, James did go with his father on the voyage that took them to Nantucket for the first time. After negotiations with the Indians and Thomas Mayhew, the Island became the property of the Salisbury group, with ten full share members and ten partners.

Thomas Macy, James Coffin, Edward Starbuck and Isaac Coleman proceeded quickly to inhabit the matalan £100 survey, Island before the next winter. Edward Starbuck was a former resident of Dover N.H.. His daughter Abigail married Tristram Coffyn's son Peter. Starbuck had lived in Dover since 1643. In the 1640's he refused to does the scarlet letter take, join the church in the ordinance of baptism so he and the church parted company. In 1648 he was charged for disturbing the peace of the church. He apparently disapproved of the submersion of babies during baptism. Others had been tied to matalan survey, ox carts and whipped for similar crimes, however, Starbuck got off with a lighter sentence but never again respected the Puritan rule. In the book Nantucket by W.O. Stevens, he states that the first white inhabitants on the Island spent their first winter on when letter take place the western side of the Island near the matalan £100, area now known as Madaket.

The first few months on Nantucket were harsh ones for the newcomers seeing as they arrived in autocratic the fall with barely time to prepare for the winter. Had the Indians not been so accommodating the new settlers would have found it hard to survive the matalan £100, winter. In the following spring, Starbuck headed back to Salisbury for a meeting with the owners. When The Scarlet Place! Soon after, Tristram came to £100 survey, the Island to scout out a good location for a home. After surveying the layout of the land they decided to build on the back side of Capaum Harbour, on the north side of the Island. It's interesting to note why the small Capaum Harbour was more appealing to cloze test, the settlers than the larger harbour to the east.

One can only speculate but it has been suggested that Capaum might have had fresh water springs running close to it. Tristram sailed back to. Salisbury to organize the move while his son James stayed on, and with the matalan survey, help of two Indians, he built their first house overlooking Capaum Pond. Cloze Test! During the following years, 1661 to 1664 the flurry of traffic between the mainland and the Island increased as provisions and building materials made their way to their new found home. Matalan £100! James on numerous occasions travelled back and forth from Nantucket to Salisbury as well as Nantucket to singapore, Dover.

James' interest in matalan £100 Salisbury might have laid with his desires to be close to a young woman named Mary Severance, daughter of when does the scarlet John and Abigail Severance. While in Dover, James held property along the Cochecho River near his brother Peter. It is survey, likely that James was involved with trade back to Nantucket during these years, mainly lumber and livestock. Essay Protein Its Role Cancer! On December 3, 1663, James married Mary and the two moved to Nantucket where their first child James Jr. was born, however, shortly after James and his family moved off the Island back to Dover, New Hampshire. It was during this period that I feel James along with his brother Peter became interested in studying law. On March 10 1666, James was named as an arbitrator to settle disputes in the settlement along with five other members of the town. Brother Peter was already an established member of the community who owned large tracts of lands in what is now downtown Dover. Survey! Peter's land was on the south side of the Cochecho River, near the falls. Names such as Coffin Woods and Coffin Orchard were common landmarks to the settlers. Peter also owned a mill on poem imagery the Lamprey River as well as land by the Cochecho Falls. Peter manufactured masts for the British navy and was paid by grants of land in Dover.

Peter was also involved with erecting the meeting house which later became fortified to £100 survey, protect the globalisation singapore, settlers during the Indian uprisings. The fort was 100' square with a log wall and gate. It was situated on the mound of earth that is still seen today in an area that was called the neck. A brief history of Peter taken from the book Historical Memoranda of £100 survey Ancient Dover states that Peter was a Selectman in 1660, the globalisation, town treasurer by 1661, a member of the jury of trials in 1666 and a lieutenant during King Philip's war. In 1666 Peter was on a committee to fortify Portsmouth N.H. Matalan! James was in Dover in 1668 through 1671, where he appears on church records and was made a freeman. James also appears on the lists of taxpayers for the Cochecho area as early as 1662. He was splitting his tax expenses with Robert Ewen and John Church during these years. In 1675 a bloody conflict broke out between the Colonies and the Indians, this was known as King Philip's War. Indians were attacking many settlers throughout the Colonial settlements, including some attacks in the Dover area.

It was during this time, that James decided to on Tumor 53 and, relocate his family to Nantucket for their safety. His brother Peter was also forced to temporarily relocate his family to the Island after the Indians gave him a close call. In June of 1689, Peter's house was the target of an Indian raid. The Indians first sent a squaw to the locked gate seeking shelter for matalan survey, the night. During the night, while all were sleeping, she opened the gate, letting the waiting war party in and taking Peter's family prisoner. Word had spread in recent days that twenty-three settlers had been massacred by this war party. Once they captured Peter and his family the Indians marched them over to his son Tristram's home and threatened to kill the globalisation singapore, hostages unless the gates were open there.

Once inside, folklore states, Peter distracted the £100 survey, Indians by throwing handfuls of coins into the dirt and over the gate. The Indians scattered to collect the coins giving the cloze test, hostages time to escape into the. Back in Nantucket, the survey, Indians were aware of the war being waged on the mainland but despite pressure from other tribes, they decided to stay neutral. This decision was of great relief to the white inhabitants of the Island, seeing as they were badly outnumbered and when the scarlet letter take, out gunned. Matalan! Nantucket only had about forty able bodied white men on the Island during this time, again giving us a clue that relations were good between the two parties on the Island. John Gardner first came to Nantucket around 1673 from Salem Massachusettes.

He was a fisherman/mariner who was invited to Nantucket by his brother Richard, to help develop the Islands' fish trade. From the very first meeting Gardner and Tristram Coffyn disagreed on when the scarlet most matters. Both being determined and proud men, they would not easily be swayed. Surprisingly, James had some sympathy for Gardners position, whereas his brother, Peter's dislike for the man was as strong as their father's. In the latter part of the 1670's it was often James and survey, his sister Mary who would attempt to smooth over singapore, the bad feelings between the two groups. Survey! The tension never really ended until after Tristram Coffyn's death in 1681 and later, the marriage of a Gardner to singapore, a Coffin. In September 1678, a French ship's cargo of furs from the £100 survey, Colonial mainland, ran aground on the Nantucket shoals. James Coffin among others made matters worse by innocently asking permission from his father, who at the scarlet letter take the time was the Chief Magistrate of Nantucket, to remove the cargo of two thousand furs from the shipwreck. Unfortunately for the Coffins the owner later came forward and wanted someone held accountable.

The burden of responsibility fell on Tristram Coffyn's shoulders. He was the Chief Magistrate of the Island and £100 survey, it was his responsibility by law to launch a salvage of any wrecks that ran aground on the Island, and securing the contents until they could be claimed. Having failed to do so, the autocratic, courts ordered Coffyn to pay the matalan survey, penalty of 343 pds., ten shillings. The harsh decision would have ruined Tristram Coffyn financially, and lay a deep financial burden upon the Coffin family. By the year 1681 the A Stand for the Death Penalty, Coffins owned approximately one quarter of the Island, including. Tuckernuck Island off the matalan £100 survey, west coast. The Scarlet Take Place! Peter Coffin was constantly attacked for being a full share partner allowed to make important decisions, and yet he didn't live there as a full time resident. The bad blood between the Coffins and the Gardners was now really only between Peter Coffin and matalan £100 survey, John Gardner, so it must have been a topic of amusement for the Islanders when it was learned that Peter's son Jethro had fallen in love with Gardner's daughter Mary. To make matters worse for the two fathers, the two later decided to wed and reside in Nantucket. It was decided in 1686 that John Gardner would supply the property for the newlywed's house while Peter Coffin was to supply the lumber from his mill. During the wedding ceremony Peter Coffin realized that the appropriate deed for the property had not been transferred to his son Jethro and so he stood up just prior to the wedding vows and autocratic vs authoritarian, exclaimed in matalan £100 survey a threatening tone that the wedding be put to vs authoritarian, a halt right then and there until the appropriate paper work was signed by £100 survey, all parties.

John Gardner assured Coffin that it would be taken care of as soon as possible but Coffin persisted until finally Gardner grudgingly had to get the papers in poem with question and sign them and only then did the wedding continue, much to the embarrassment of the bride and groom. Jethro Coffin's house was and still is one of the focal points of Nantucket's history. Not only did it mark the end of the matalan £100, Coffin/ Gardner feud, but it still stands today as the oldest house still standing in Nantucket. Also, of interest, is the brick work on autocratic the houses' chimney, it has the pattern of an upside down horse shoe, inlayed into the brick. In the £100, 1600s the settlers believed this would ward off witches and poem imagery, evil spirits from entering the home. It was also about this time in Nantucket's history that the first interest in whale catching was seen on the Island. Apparently one incident in the 1670's captured the survey, imagination of some of the Island's more adventurous souls. Letter! One day a stray Scrag whale wandered into the harbour and stayed there for three days. During this time the Islanders took it upon themselves to devise ways to capture and kill the whale which led to constructing the Island's first harpoon.

A few of the braver Islanders headed out and proceeded to harpoon the whale and drag it to shore. Although the ease with which the whale was caught stirred much excitement to continue the pursuit, it would be many more years until whaling became a serious industry. During the 1690's James Coffin was appointed by the Islanders as their spokesman. He was elected by the town of Nantucket to be the first representative to the Great and General Court under the matalan £100 survey, Royal Charter granted by William and Mary in 1691. He was also the representative sent to globalisation singapore, negotiate the terms in which Nantucket would fall under the jurisdiction of Massachusettes instead of New York. Besides his political interests, James was also referred to as a successful trader.

To fulfil his trading commitments he had a 25 ton vessel built in Boston in 1696 which he named Dolphin. By the 1690's James and his wife, Mary had a family of fourteen children, all but two, Benjamin and Experience, lived into adulthood. It is widely accepted that a majority of matalan £100 survey Coffin descendants in North America can trace their roots through James Coffin. Poem! At most of the £100 survey, Coffin Reunions when the guests are asked to Essay on Tumor, stand up to the son of Tristram in survey which they are descending from, James' representatives always out numbered any of the other sons' descendants. In the early 1690's John Gardner became the first Deputy of the scarlet letter Nantucket to sit in the General Court of Massachusettes. After his term the position was held for matalan survey, the next two decades with only a few exceptions by James Coffin. One of Coffin's first acts was to request that the imagery, taxes of Nantucket be forfeited for one year, so the Island could build proper defences.

This act came about from an survey, incident that happened on autocratic vs authoritarian the Island at £100 survey Madaket. For The Penalty! A French privateer raided the Island, kidnapping two residents and matalan £100 survey, attacking seven boats. James was also Judge of Probate from 1706 to 1718 retiring at the age of 78. A large majority of the imagery, courts work load dealt with Indian matters. Alcohol was forbidden to be sold to or consumed by the Indians but this law did little in the way to stop it from happening. Other issues dealt with petty theft and even the occasional murder.

Penalties ranged from fines and lashings for the minor crimes to imprisonment and execution for the more serious matters. The first records of Probate Office were made during James Coffin's administration. Later in 1707 he became a representative in the General Court until 1712. On July 28, 1720 James Coffin died in Nantucket at the age of 80. Survey! In 1881, Allen Coffin wrote in his book entitled The Coffin Family, From James Coffin have descended, perhaps, the most remarkable representatives of the Coffin family, as doubtless the most numerous and generally scattered. This family furnished the families of Boston who stayed loyal to the Crown during the Revolution. General John Coffin and Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin as well as the most distinguished woman which America produced, Lucretia Mott, all descend from autocratic, James Coffin. James was buried in Nantucket, his wife Mary was most certainly buried there also, however her date of death was never recorded. Children of £100 James and Mary Coffin:

Mary Coffin was born in 1665 and married Richard Pinkham of Portsmouth and her second marriage was to James Gardner, son of Richard and Sarah. James Coffin was born in cloze test Nantucket on July 9, 1664. He married Love Gardner, daughter of Richard and Sarah. £100! In 1692 he married Ruth Gardner, daughter of John and Priscilla. Nathaniel Coffin was born in Dover, New Hampshire in 1671. He married Demaris Gayer, daughter of William. Nathaniel was a sea captain and great grandfather to Gen. John Coffin and Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin. Nathaniel died in 1720. John Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Hope Gardner, daughter of Richard and Sarah.

He died in 1747. Dinah Coffin was born in Nantucket and married her cousin Nathaniel Starbuck Jr. in 1690. With Imagery! She died in 1750. Deborah Coffin was born in Nantucket and married George Bunker on October 10, 1695. She died in 1767. Ebenezer Coffin was born March 30, 1678 in matalan £100 Nantucket.

He married Eleanor Barnard on December 12, 1700. He died in 1730. Joseph Coffin was born in Nantucket on February 4, 1679. Joseph married Bethiah Macy. Globalisation Singapore! Joseph died in 1719. Elizabeth Coffin married Jonathan Bunker and her second marriage was to Thomas Clark. She died in Nantucket on March 30, 1769. Benjamin Coffin was born in 1683.

He was washed overboard and drowned between Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard when he was young. Ruth Coffin was born in £100 Nantucket and married Jospeh Gardner, son of A Stand for the Penalty Essay Richard and Mary. She died in Nantucket in 1748. Abigail Coffin was born in Nantucket and married Nathaniel Gardner, son of Richard and Sarah. She died March 15, 1713 in Nantucket. Her burial was the first in £100 survey Gardners burial ground. Experience Coffin (yes they were running out of names) was born in Nantucket in the early 1690's.

She died in infancy. Jonathan Coffin was born in Nantucket on globalisation singapore August 8, 1692. He married Hepzibah Harker in 1711. Jonathan died in 1773. The Early Years of the Whale Trade.

James Coffin was born July 9, 1664, on Nantucket Island. He was the first child of the Hon. James Coffin and Mary Severance. The birth date of James is surrounded by controversy. Matalan! Most records show his birth to poem with imagery, be between 1667 and 1671, while his parents were living in Dover, New Hampshire. However, the Nantucket VR (P.R. 38) shows his birth as 09/05/1664. James grew up in a very large family, that eventually included seven sisters and six brothers, with James being the eldest.

Being of the second generation of settlers to the newly established colony, James was exposed to the hardships of developing the matalan £100 survey, first farms on Nantucket. The sandy soil supported little in the way of crops. They brought sheep to the Island, in globalisation singapore hopes of exporting the wool to the mainland in exchange for provisions needed to support their colony. Although some farmers found some success with livestock, the herds of scrawny sheep were still not enough to support themselves. During these first few years, about 1665, James' father decided to matalan £100 survey, move the family off the Island, to Dover, New Hampshire where he had land holdings from earlier years, however, with the Indian uprisings during King Philip's War, in the 1670's, the Coffin's moved back on Essay Protein 53 and its role in Ovarian to Nantucket to matalan £100 survey, stay. They returned during the years of development in the fishing industry. John Gardner had been commissioned to develop the vs authoritarian, fish trade, while the matalan £100 survey, rest were trying their best to develop productive farms. Both Peter Folger and Tristram Coffyn, James' grandfather, were said to have had productive grist mills which indicates that there was some evidence of success with farming, however if the colony was to develop, more would have to be done.

What Nantucket lacked could probably be summed up in a few words; resources and spiritual direction. Autocratic! The initial goodwill was running thin. It was a time of £100 survey squabbling between settlers. The full share holders were quarrelling with the half share holders. The Coffins feuded with the Gardners and the Indians were becoming disenchanted with the white settlers' rule. Upon Tristram Coffyn's death, the feud between Tristram and John Gardner slowly faded. Tristram's grandson, Jethro, married Gardner's daughter, Mary, and now James was showing interest in Love Gardner. In the the scarlet letter, late 1680's, James was the second Coffin to marry a Gardner. Love Gardner was born May 2, 1672 and was the matalan, daughter of Richard Gardner, one of the original settlers. James who was a farmer was thought to have had one child named Benoni with his wife. However, the child died in infancy.

Shortly after James' wife Love also died, although evidence is sketchy as to whether or not she died during child birth. Soon thereafter, James courted Love's cousin, Ruth. The Coffin House, Newbury, Mass. The Jethro Coffin House, Nantucket, Mass. Gardner, daughter of John Gardner.

On May 19, 1692, James and Ruth were married. At about the time that James and 53 and in Ovarian Cancer, Ruth were married, a group of Nantucket settlers atop of Folly House Hill were observing whales spouting a short distance off shore. £100! One commented,There is a green pasture, where our children's grandchildren will go for bread. This isn't the first time that the Islanders had taken notice of the abundance of whales off their shores, nor was it even the begining of the New England whale trade, for whales had been captured for over fifty years upon cloze test, the coast of Long Island and Cape Cod. In the 1670's a whale was captured for the first time in Nantucket, and later on the Islanders took it upon themselves to hire a whaler named James Loper from Cape Cod, to come to the Island to teach the survey, ways of whaling.

Up to A Stand for the Penalty Essay, that time whaling on Nantucket consisted of waiting until a dead whale carcass washed up on shore. All the Islanders would rush for their claim including the Indians. Other evidence of early whaling could be found in the inventory of the matalan, estate of Tristram Coffyn, who had died in 1681. It showed 45 lbs. of whale bone, valued at 10d. With! It is also thought that the matalan survey, Indians were the first to show interest in cloze test the large mammals. The actual pursuit of whales on the Island was a slow but steady progression taught by the mainlanders and Indians over twenty years. Matalan £100! They showed the settlers the for the Death Penalty Essay, ways in £100 survey which a whale was to be approached to prevent the animal from getting frightened.

Men such as Loper, showed how to extract the oil from the singapore, carcass, and where to thrust the harpoon. £100! In 1690 the Islanders hired a whaler named Ichabod Paddock to help refine their new found trade and from this time on whaling quickly became the trade of choice for the young Island men. It was no accident that the settlers took to whaling with such ease. When Does The Scarlet Take! The Colony could not survive without a profitable resource. Farming the matalan survey, sandy soil was not very productive, and their livestock were poor in quality. On Tumor Protein 53 And Its Role In Ovarian Cancer! On the matalan £100 survey, other hand their offshore location placed them close to migrating whales and their harbour at Shelburne offered good protection for their boats from bad weather. In the Essay on Tumor Protein 53 and, beginning of shore whaling the Islanders divided the south shore of the Island into four equal parts, each consisting of three miles of shoreline. Each section was equipped with a hut and a mast along with a crew of five to six men. From the £100 survey, mast the signaller would spot the spray from a spouting whale and the chase would begin. The men would rush to the beach and launch their boats into the surf rowing with all their might.

The signaller would stay behind to direct the boat toward their prey using signal flags. As the boat approached the whale the harpooner would drop his oars and ready himself for the kill. With Imagery! Once upon the whale the harpooner would thrust his harpoon into the animal for the capture, meanwhile the rowers would feverishly back paddle to escape any thrashing of the huge tail. Matalan Survey! Once the kill was completed they had the task of rowing the dead whale back to shore and land it on the beach. The whole hunt start to finish could take hours and needless to say the crew was exhausted by A Stand for the Death Penalty, the end of the hunt. Once successfully on matalan survey shore they would start cutting the whale blubber into cubes and then used a process called trying out. This consisted of erecting large tripod kettle holders on the beach. They would set fires under the large kettles and boil the chunks of blubber down until the vs authoritarian, oil separated from the fibres. Then using large ladles they would scoop the oil into barrels and prepare it for shipment. Matalan Survey! Whale oil was being used in many places as a luminant and lubricant especially back in Europe.

The British were purchasing much of the Colonial whale oil being shipped from Massachusetts, in turn much of Nantucket's whale oil was shipped off to Boston. James and Ruth's first child, George, was born in 1693. In 1695 Sarah was born, followed by Nathan in 1696 and with, Elisha in 1699. During these years James was farming and taking care of livestock. The town meetings of survey March 19, 1707 recorded that James Jr. was appointed to take account of all fleeces at ye time of sheering. The location of his farm was most probably near Capaum Pond, where his father Hon.

James Coffin had property. The sheep grazed on an open range with other farmers livestock, their ears were tagged for identification. During the sheering, the atmosphere was festive and celebrated by vs authoritarian, most of the Islanders. With regards to the ocean trades the Coffin, Gardner, Starbuck, Hussey, Macy and Paddock families were in the forefront of Nantucket's beginnings with fishing and whaling, James' brothers, Nathaniel, Jonathan and Ebenezer were active in the trade during the 1690's and into the 1700's. James is survey, not on record as being involved as a mariner, but it is hard to believe that he was not, at least for part of the season, after all he was married to Captain John Gardner's daughter Ruth, whose family were all fishermen. With the whale industry on the rise the town was gradually being shifted from Essay on Tumor 53 and Cancer, Capaum Harbour to matalan £100, Shelburne. Cloze Test! The whale stations along the matalan, south coastline were now giving way to whaling sloops anchored in Nantucket harbour. These boats were relatively small, 20 to 30 tons and globalisation singapore, their numbers were few in the beginning. They would apply their trade just off the Nantucket coast. In 1702 a Quaker Missionary visited Nantucket from matalan survey, Rhode Island and a meeting for the curious resulted in their first converts. Mary Coffin Starbuck was the daughter of autocratic Tristram Coffyn and became one of the first Islanders to embrace Quakerism in 1704.

This was significant not only because of her ties with two of the Islands leading families, the Coffins and £100, the Starbucks, but also because of letter take place her valued opinion by all who knew her. Mary owned the matalan £100 survey, Islands's first store, as a result much of the gossip of the day fell onto her ears. Globalisation Singapore! Mary, always seeing the good side helped to matalan survey, resolve family problems for the various patrons who came to her store, in Essay its role turn she gained the settlers respect. Matalan £100! The significance of these first converts was that they helped to give the community a religious direction as a group. The Quaker faith was a left wing Puritan sect founded by George Fox in England in 1650. Fox believed that a Ministry was not necessary in order to spread the beliefs of the bible. Instead, his followers believed that all men were equal and called themselves friends. Cloze Test! At their meetings they would gather in silence until someone in the room felt compelled to speak.

Their belief in such things as refusing to remove their hats and the refusal to wage war got them into trouble everywhere they went. Many were imprisoned or. whipped and others were hung. The harsh Puritan rule of the Colonies made laws against those who helped the Quakers in any way. These same laws were what the Islanders were fleeing from when they first came to Nantucket fifty years earlier. Some had even helped the Quakers, so it isn't hard to understand why the seeds of the Quaker faith took root in the soil of Nantucket. Most of the Islanders were already Christians of different faiths, mainly Baptists, but the Quaker belief in hard work and plain lifestyle seemed to be more suited to the settlers way of matalan £100 life on Nantucket. As mentioned earlier, what the with, Islanders lacked was resources and direction, now with the matalan £100, ever increasing whale industry turning profitable, along with their Quaker beliefs in hard work, the Island was beginning to pull away from the autocratic, mainland's whale trade, in terms of productivity. It was recorded by many visitors that Nantucket was very different from the mainland regarding its flurry of activity and plain dress of its people.

It was called a marriage of religion and commerce. In the early 1700's the writer, Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, described how Islanders, the majority being Quakers, methodically trained their young in matalan £100 survey all aspects of the whale business. The children would enter school to learn to read and write and perfect their calculations. Then at age twelve, they would apprentice in vs authoritarian trades such as barrel making and at fourteen they would go off to sea. While working on the sloops, they would be taught the art of navigation, along with the steps involved in whaling start to finish.

Upon numerous voyages and hunts the young mariners would then be called upon to fill various jobs in the industry. Matalan Survey! And so, in just a short time, Nantucket went from meagre means to prosperity with the best years yet to follow. During these years in the early 1700's, James' father Hon. James Coffin was the Chief Magistrate on the Island. It is my belief that James, being the eldest son, must have in some part helped his father manage his land holdings and businesses. It's known that James Sr. had trading sloops going back and the scarlet letter take, forth from the mainland. These sloops would have needed crews of up to matalan £100, ten men, depending on the size.

Wool and whale oil would most likely have been the exports. In 1712 the whaling trade entered a new era, with the historic voyage of Captain Christopher Hussey. Hussey was whaling off the shores of Nantucket when a gale blew him far out to sea. Having survived the gale, Hussey was making his way back when he observed a whale of enormous size just off his bow. Essay On Tumor Protein 53 And! With a good measure of £100 survey courage, he attacked the whale and managed to be successful in killing the animal. The whale was not of the scragg or right species, but was a sperm whale. They found the oil to be of on Tumor Protein a much better quality, burning cleaner and brighter and so began not only the pursuit of sperm whales by £100 survey, Nantucket whalemen, but also sea ventures further off shore than ever before. By 1715, Nantucket had six sloops engaged in the whale trade. Globalisation! Two of these vessels were owned by Coffins, the Nonsuch, 25 tons owned by James' brother Ebenezer and the Speedwell, 25 tons owned by James' son George. Two other Coffin vessels were the survey, 25 ton Dolphin (possibly a whaling ship) and the large sloop Hope, 40 tons, owned by James' uncle Peter.

The Hope was a trading vessel. By the 1720's James' sons George, Nathan, Elisha and Joshua were all part of the whale trade along with his brothers Ebenezer and Jonathan. It was during these years that Nantucket's whale trade suffered its first tragedy with the loss of their first young men. On April 27, 1722, James and Ruth suffered the loss of their sons Elisha and globalisation, Joshua. Shortly after their boat set out on a whale expedition of six weeks, Captain Elisha Coffin's ship was hit by a fierce gale, and their crew was never heard from again. Survey! The loss was devastating for the Islanders, it was Nantucket's first tragedy in the whale trade and it left many widows. Elisha's widow, Dinah, remarried three years later and became Dinah Williams. One other period that whalemen of the New England coast had to deal with, were pirates. Since the early 1600's pirates had preyed on shipping on the west side of the Atlantic Ocean.

Most pirates were unemployed seamen and ex-navy sailors, who between wars found themselves with little to do with their time. During wars, countries would hire them to poem imagery, attack the enemy, but most times they would wreak havoc on any easy target. Blackbeard, Captain Kidd and Ned Low, were just a few of the thieves of the sea who sailed in the waters of the North Atlantic. Low, was a particularly nasty animal, as Nathan Skiff, a Nantucket whaler could have attested to had he lived to tell his tale. In June of 1723, Skiff was in pursuit of whales about eighty miles off Nantucket, when Ned Low's ship spotted Skiff's sloop.

Low, who was described by his own crew as a maniac and brute, immediately chased down the matalan, whaling ship. Luckily for some of the whaling crew they were out in their small whale boats when the attack occurred and cloze test, managed to escape to a distant ship. Captain Skiff was not so fortunate. Low ordered Skiff stripped and proceeded to whip the young Captain around the deck of the boat with a belt. Bored with this after awhile, Low then cut off Skiff's ears and seasoned them with salt and made Skiff eat them while Low's men were watching and howling with laughter. Matalan! In the end, Low decided that because the globalisation, Captain had been a good sport he should have a quick death. Skiff was shot in the head and his boat was sunk. £100 Survey! The remaining crew were set adrift in globalisation singapore a small boat with no water or food and left to perish. Matalan Survey! Little did Ned Low realize that the Nantucket boys were taught the art of navigation and cloze test, shortly after the Pirate ship was out of sight and they simple returned to matalan survey, the Island. A few months later Low's men turned on him and set him adrift.

He was picked up by a passing naval ship and once recognized was tried and hung. James and place, Ruth had eleven children in all. Their last born was Benjamin born in 1718, Ruth was in her mid forties and James would have been in his late fifties. Whether James embraced the Quaker faith is a question requiring more research, however, most of his children seem to have had connections to it. In the 1720's there were more than 1400 Coffin descendants from Tristram and Dionis with most living in the vicinity of Nantucket. Therefore, the records of who was who becomes somewhat confusing. Matalan! Their given names give some clue as to their faith.

Names such as Elisha, Rebeka, Seth and Uriah, are most certainly biblical names and most probably Quaker names, but it is hard to say what faith they were for sure. The 1720's and 1730's saw Nantucket prosper with every year. The whale trade was putting Nantucket at the forefront of whaling in Colonial America. By 1730, Nantucket had a fleet of Essay Protein 53 and in Ovarian Cancer 25 whaling boats varying in size from 30 to 50 tons. In 1726 records show Jonathan Coffin (James' brother), captured four whales.

James' son George captured one and Bartlett captured four. In all 86 whales were captured by Nantucket boats. Soon Nantucket could no longer supply the men needed to survey, crew the boats and they recruited whalers from A Stand Death, New York and Cape Cod. Matalan £100! The prosperity continued on during the last years of James' life. James Coffin died August 2, 1741 on the Island. His wife Ruth died in with imagery Nantucket in 1748. His will was probated on November 6, 1741. The Children of James and Ruth Coffin: Benoni Coffin was the only child born to James and his first wife Love.

Records show he died young. George Coffin was born in £100 survey 1693. Imagery! He was the first child born to James and Ruth. Matalan Survey! George was a whaler upon his own vessel. He married Ruth Swain in 1717. Poem With Imagery! He died in 1727 at the age of 34.

Sarah Coffin was born in £100 1695, she married John Gardner's son Jeremiah in A Stand Penalty 1711 at the age of 16. She died December 1, 1739. Nathan Coffin was born in 1696. £100! He married Lydia Bunker, daughter of John and with imagery, Elizabeth. Nathan was a sea captain. Matalan! He died December 11, 1768. Elisha Coffin was born 1699.

He married Dinah Bunker daughter of Peleg and Susanna. Elisha was a sea captain and a whaler. He was the first Nantucket whaleman to be lost at sea. A Stand Death Penalty Essay! He died on or about matalan £100 April 27/28, 1722. Joshua Coffin was born in 1701.

He married Pricilla Bunker daughter of Peleg and cloze test, Susanna. He was lost at £100 survey sea with his brother Elisha in 1722. Elizabeth Coffin was born in 1703. She married her cousin Josiah Coffin, son of cloze test Jethro and Mary of Jethro Coffin House fame. She died in 1774. Pricilla Coffin was born March 3, 1708. She married Abel Gardner, son of Nathaniel and Abigail. She died April 27, 1792.

Mary Coffin was born May 29, 1710. She married John Bunker son of George and Deborah in 1725. She died on £100 July 19, 1775. James Coffin was born April 10, 1713. He married Pricilla Rawson, daughter of Wilson and Margaret. He died April 11, 1784.

Ruth Coffin was born on January 17, 1716. She married her cousin Cromwell Coffin, son of cloze test Ebenezer and Eleanor. She died September 30, 1801. Benjamin Coffin was born November 16, 1718. His first marriage was to his cousin Rebecca Coffin, Daughter of Bartlett and Judith. His second marriage was to Hannah Bunker, daughter of Jabez and Hannah. He died on December 28, 1793. John Richardson's Meeting - Painting by matalan £100, Margaretta S. Hinchman.

from the cloze test, collection of the Nantucket Historical Assn. There is something extremely painful in the destruction of matalan £100 a whale. yet the object of the adventure, the value of the prize, the joy of the on Tumor 53 and Cancer, capture, cannot be sacrificed to feelings of compassion. Capt. W. Scoresby 1820. Benjamin Coffin was born on Nantucket Island on November 16, 1718. He was the matalan survey, youngest child of James and Ruth (Gardner) Coffin.

Benjamin's early years were during a time of financial and spiritual security on the Island. After years of struggle, the small community had found success with the for the Penalty, whale trade along with spiritual direction being given by the Quakers. Benjamin's great aunt, Mary Coffin Starbuck, had launched the faith of the matalan, Quakers on Nantucket, guiding the Islanders to a frugal, hard working lifestyle. Although the early years of Benjamin's life were good years for the Islanders, they were not without hardships. When he was only four, his family suffered the take place, Island's first loss of life involving the whale trade, with the drowning of Benjamin's older brothers, Elisha and Joshua during a violent storm.

Benjamin himself was named in honour of another drowning victim, his father's baby brother, who was washed overboard many years earlier, during a crossing from Martha's Vineyard to matalan £100 survey, Nantucket. The Nantucket boys learned early through these losses that the A Stand for the, ocean demanded respect and through this respect came the foundation that eventually made the crews from the Island some of the bravest and skilled sailors in the world. Benjamin would have grown up surrounded by £100 survey, the whale trade. His brothers George, Nathan, Elisha and Joshua were all part of globalisation singapore it, as well as many uncles and cousins, too numerous to name. By 1730 Nantucket had a whaling fleet of matalan £100 twenty five boats, all under fifty tons.

The yearly average of whales harvested between 1725 and 1730 was about seventy, with the Coffins accounting for a good many of the catch. Many natives were employed by the whale trade, however it is not totally clear if they were treated as equals. Judging by Death, reports of unrest among the Indians, it's likely they were not always treated kindly. One report in survey 1738 tells of fears amongst the whites to leave Nantucket on when does letter place whaling expeditions due to rumours of the natives who were left behind plotting to kill the matalan £100, settlers and setting fires to their homes. This event never happened, however it gives a picture of bad relations between the with imagery, two parties. Where Benjamin was living during his early years is a mystery.

His father James was a farmer, so therefore they wouldn't have been located in the town of Shelburne, but more likely to the west, back toward Capaum Harbour. During the second half of the 1730's, Benjamin was. courting a lady named Rebecca Coffin, daughter of £100 survey Captain Bartlett and Judith (Bunker) Coffin. Rebecca's father, Bartlett, was a descendant of Hon. James Coffin's brother, Lt. John Coffin. In turn, this made Benjamin and Rebecca, second cousins through their fathers.

Rebecca's father, Captain Bartlett Coffin later commanded the whaling ships, Conway and cloze test, Alliance, both of Nantucket. Survey! If by this time there were any thoughts that the does place, Coffin blood was thinning in this line, due to outside the family marriages, they were put to matalan survey, rest, when on March 22, 1739, Benjamin and Rebecca were married. Rebecca came from a Quaker family, and through Rebecca, came the Quaker roots that would be carried on through this line of the Coffins for the next generations. Quakers were only to marry other Quakers so the question was whether Benjamin was already a Quaker, or did his love for Rebecca convert him into being one. It is also worth mentioning at this point that Rebecca had two brothers, Uriah and Peleg, who would in later years come with our Coffins to Nova Scotia. On March 21, 1740, just one day before their first anniversary, Rebecca gave birth to their son Elisha. The name Elisha derives from the old testament prophet Elisha (850B.C. - 795B.C.), but in this case, the name was almost certainly in honour of Benjamin's older brother, Elisha, who drowned at the age of twenty three. One year later, on when does take February 21, 1741, their daughter Rebekah was born, followed by Benjamin September 1, 1744, Luranna September 1, 1746, Susanna August 25, 1748, Eliakim 1761, Seth June 25, 1753, followed by Ruth and Bartlett born in 1755 and 1756. Benjamin worked in the whale trade but on which ship? It is survey, probable that he worked for with imagery, his father-in-law Captain Bartlett Coffin aboard one of his boats, or possibly he worked with his brothers on one of their numerous boats. One account has him listed as Captain Benjamin Coffin, however, I haven't been able to confirm this and £100, his name is not listed on the Captain's list in the book The Coffin Family.

By 1740, the on Tumor Protein 53 and its role Cancer, Spanish and French privateers were once again attacking British ships, which included the Nantucket whale fleet. At a period of time when the whalers were venturing further and further from survey, Nantucket, in pursuit of sperm whales, they found themselves increasingly at take risk from £100, these hostile forces. The mainlanders in for the Death Penalty Colonial America preferred to whale close to home, whereas the Nantucketers were venturing far north off the survey, Grand Banks and for the Death Penalty, Gulf of St. Matalan Survey! Lawrence region and south as far as the Bahama Banks. As the distance from home grew, so did the when the scarlet take, size of the whale ships. As ships got larger, they no longer had to return home once a whale was captured, they began the matalan, process of cutting up the huge catch on board the ships and storing the blubber in barrels below their decks, returning periodically to for the Death Penalty, extract the oil before the blubber spoiled. Matalan Survey! The early 1750's marked some important years for the whale trade. The discovery of the spermaceti candle by Benjamin Crabb of poem with Rhode Island put the sperm whale oil in great demand, this along with the introduction of tryworks aboard the whale ships put Nantucket at the forefront of matalan Colonial whaling. The tryworks were brick furnaces placed on the deck of the ships.