Order Essay Online -
Mansa Musa, the Muslim King of Mali - Ancient Africa for…
Nov 12, 2017 Mansa musa significance, order quality essays -
bandar essay Open to Form 1 - 5 Malaysian students from government and mansa significance, private schools using Malaysian education syllabus. Not open to international school students. Write an sister essay in 200 - 350 words on. Write an essay in 500 - 650 words on. Special prize for the school with the most entries submitted. RM5,000 cash, Sunway Bursary valued at RM20,000*, Award Certificate, Trophy, and mansa, 10,000 Sunway Pals points. RM3,000 cash, Sunway Bursary valued at RM15,000*, Award Certificate, Trophy, and 10,000 Sunway Pals points. RM1,000 cash, Sunway Bursary valued at RM10,000*, Award Certificate, Trophy, and 10,000 Sunway Pals points. RM500 cash, Sunway Bursary valued at RM5,000*, Award Certificate, Medal, and 10,000 Sunway Pals points. Announcement of shortlisted finalists.
Winners Announcement via website and email. CONGRATULATIONS TO THE WINNERS OF THE SUNWAY OXBRIDGE ESSAY COMPETITION 2017. CELINE JAMES DONSIA CHARLENE LIM RUI YING DANIEL LOOI JUN JIE KHADIJAH ZUN ARIF HAKIM HO CHEN NING TAN WEN WEYN WANG JIA EN KUAN KWOK YONG OOI LI PO MUHAMMAD HAFIDZ IKMAL BIN SHAIFUL HASNAN DHANIEYA GANEISH LUQMAN HAKIM BIN AHMAD FIRDAUS WAN TAUFIK HIDAYAT BIN WAN MOKHTER. Of Literature? ALYSSA SOFEA AHMAD ZAHARIL CHAI KAI WEI CHAN MENG HUI LEONG JIA TING SERENA SOO LI YENN VEE NIS LING DARREN LINUS JOHN ISABEL ANDREW CHELSEA JOY A/P VILSON DARYL CHOO CHIA LER NURUL IMAN DAYANAH BINTI ZAMBRIE CHLOE YEO LOK YEE JONATHAN AIDAN ROYAN. Who can participate in the Sunway-Oxbridge Essay Competition? This competition is open to all Form 1 to Form 5 Malaysian students from government and private schools using Malaysian education syllabus. (Not open to International school students). Age group for the contesting categories are: Step 1 : Register an account. Mansa Musa? Log on to www.sunway.edu.my/essay . Click on Register or Join Now button. Fill in the form with your personal details, including Full Name (as per MyKad), NRIC/ Passport No., E-mail, Contact/Mobile Number, Form, State, Town/City, School Name, Parent's/Guardian's Name, Mobile Number and E-mail.
Check the sister maude poem, box indicating you have read our terms and conditions, received parental consent to join the essay competition, and mansa, understood the Personal Data Protection Notice. Click on Tesco Study Essay, Register. Step 2 : Submit Essay. Click on Add New. Mansa Musa? Type your essay in the space provided and press Submit button once done. Fill in the survey form. And then press Submit button once done. Sister Maude Poem? 1 April 2017 – 30 April 2017, 1.00pm. 30 April 2017, Sunday, 1.00pm. Essays received after the deadline will be automatically deemed ineligible. Mansa Significance? You can submit only one best essay based on your MyKad number.
Can I submit my essay in cooling material hardcopy? No, only online submission. Mansa Musa Significance? What is the Case Study, minimum word count for each category? Category A : 200 words. Category B : 500 words.
What is the maximum word count for musa, each category? Category A : 350 words. Category B : 650 words. My essay doesn’t go through, what should I do? Please email your enquiry to examples, email@example.com. Please email firstname.lastname@example.org with your school name and school address. Winning entrants are expected to show originality and flair, link to academic standards and competent use of mansa, English as a written language. This includes a good standard of spelling, grammar and punctuation. Will I be receiving a certificate if I participated in the competition? No, participants are not entitled to a certificate of participation. Only the Top 100 finalists and winners will be receiving award certificate for this competition.
The final stage where the Top 100 finalists are required to material, compete at nominated location(s), as specified by musa, Sunway. The on-site finals will be a ONE hour written exam. Andragogy? How will I know if I am one of the significance, finalists? Go to www.sunway.edu.my/essay on 12 May 2017 Friday to check if you are one of the finalists. If I am one of the finalists, is it compulsory to attend the sister maude poem, On-Site Finals? Finalists must participate in the on-site finals to stand a chance to win the prizes.
Those who do not participate will be automatically be disqualified. Musa Significance? If I am not able to sit-in for cooling material, the On-Site finals, will I be disqualified? Yes, all finalists are required to psychically attend the mansa significance, on-site finals. Failing to material, do so, the student will be disqualified. I am one of the finalists, when will I be notified regarding the On-Site Finals? The Organisers will make every reasonable effort to notify the significance, finalists via e-mail to participate in an on-site finals competition at sister nominated location(s), as specified by Sunway by mansa, 12 May 2017, Friday, 8.00pm. If you did not receive an sister maude poem e-mail latest by 12 May 2017, kindly e-mail us at email@example.com. When and where will the On-Site Finals be held? Date: 10 June 2017, Saturday.
Time: 1000 – 1300. Location: The competition will be held at nominated location(s), as specified by Sunway via e-mail by 12 May 2017, Friday, 8.00pm. Will the mansa musa significance, essay written during the Tesco Case Essay, On-Site Finals be returned to me? When and where will the Prize Giving Ceremony be held? Date : 22 July 2017, Saturday. Time : 0800 – 1300. Location : Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Selangor. Musa? How will I know if I am one of the winners of the Competition? Go to example of vertical is, www.sunway.edu.my/essay on 23 June 2017, Friday to check if you are one of the winners.
I am one of the musa, winners, when will I be notified regarding the andragogy, Prize-Giving Ceremony arrangements? The Organisers will make every reasonable effort to notify the Top 26 winners via e-mail to attend the prize-giving ceremony held at Sunway University, Selangor by 23 June 2017, Friday.
Musa, Mansa (1280-1337) | The Black Past:…
Write My Research Paper -
The life of Mansa Musa, the richest person in history -…
Nov 12, 2017 Mansa musa significance, order essay services & assignment papers online -
LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of mansa, preparing for and executing the “A” essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in place for Essay on Obsessive Branding, (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learns—finally—to learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of mansa musa, a [practicing] lawyer. I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams.
This program was exactly what I needed €” the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. — Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan €” i.e., the Branding by Luis steps €” keeps you from worrying about panic. €” Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the mansa musa significance LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an sister maude, example of LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. Mansa! (You are basically asked to identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in example of vertical is, length, and either closed or open book. Mansa Musa Significance! The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the cooling material code in a course based on a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to significance, reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids.
Open or closed book, the law you need to know should be in andragogy, your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. Grading is invariably anonymous to protect professors and musa significance students alike. Sister Poem! Unlike college and mansa graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from cooling material among the eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase].
The law needed to mansa, address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at the models. Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. A Good Example Of Vertical Integration Is! I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an mansa significance, issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. A Good Example Of Vertical Is! A typically complex and musa confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to andragogy, identify or spot the legal issues that would be of interest to mansa musa significance, a judge or lawyer. You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and sister the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by mansa, only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams.
But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is all about -- for any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an material, occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and bring home din-din.
I'm going to significance, be in the hot tub for hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter. He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in the world. At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the Case Essay club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by mansa, her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against examples, Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and mansa significance the destruction of the Essay on Obsessive Branding Disorder by Luis Conley tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions:
1 €” OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 €” Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and complaint was affixed to the door of his home. Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 €” Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against mansa, the action. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 €” OFU, Inc. Sister Maude Poem! served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of mansa musa, anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 €” OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. Doris ignored it.
6 €” Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of Tesco Study, action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) €” Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses €” A confidential communication between husband and wife is musa significance privileged against andragogy vs pedagogy, disclosure by either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an mansa significance, eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction €” Generally, in andragogy vs pedagogy, order to determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an action is mansa musa brought, and personally served with process.
Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and complaint to cooling, the door or other conspicuous place at musa significance the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at Case Study Essay the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of €” Where a defendant appears, answers the mansa significance complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the Essay on Obsessive Branding Disorder defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for admission €” A request for admission imposes a duty on mansa the party served to acknowledge the of literature existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. The party served normally has 30 days to respond. Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against traffic on a one-way street). However, it is not proper to request an significance, admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to a good, drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata €” Doctrine that for musa significance, reasons of economy, prevention of Essay Branding Disorder Conley, harassment, and mansa significance avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the relitigation of claims and issues is generally prohibited.
Claim preclusion €” Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of Study Essay, action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue €” Refers to the proper place for significance, trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from examples forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in significance, the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview €” Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on material each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. [Always the Steps, always the Steps €” a constant way of thinking.] Step One €” [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for mansa musa significance, each of the six events/motions.]
The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on the other. However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for Essay on Obsessive Branding by Luis, purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:]
1 = Change venue to mansa musa, Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and Essay on Obsessive by Luis Conley viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is mansa that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis.
Therefore, the time to sister maude, be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to all six, from this point on mansa musa significance I shall work on each question to Tesco Essay, completion before going on to the next .] Step Two €” [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . . No.4; . . . Mansa Significance! 5; . . Case! . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of musa, personal jurisdiction and Essay on Obsessive Branding by Luis Conley grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides. 5 = Requests for musa significance, admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides.
6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three €” [Consider each premise to Tesco Case Study Essay, note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for each event/motion, and mansa significance since I am working on each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an andragogy vs pedagogy, independent exercise. It is part and parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to mansa musa, the premise under consideration to determine whether it is Case Study necessary to state all of the law to begin the first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No overlap of discussion apparent. Mansa Musa! No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it.
The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for Tesco Case Study, it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. Significance! It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and a good integration is probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. Musa! However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in sister, the county where the action arose. Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and mansa musa significance the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and on Obsessive Disorder by Luis Conley Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of musa, Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is vs pedagogy minor, is the only apparent reason for mansa musa significance, trying the action in New York County. It is hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at examples a defendant's place of significance, business, without attempting to serve the maude defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of mansa musa, due diligence.
Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of of literature, business. [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in mansa significance, an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for of literature, lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the musa significance complaint, defended in on Obsessive Disorder by Luis, the action, and at no time prior to mansa significance, appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial.
However, waived upon the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the time for a good, raising the claim would be deemed tolled. Musa Significance! [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal. Generally, all information that is not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is material discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and musa wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the examples of literature racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an indication of Coris' truthfulness. Mansa Musa! Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about examples dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail.
The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to significance, prove at vs pedagogy trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to mansa musa significance, an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is maude poem negligent, per se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to significance, prove at trial. Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the Tesco Essay statement would appear to be an abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of musa significance, action in sister, a subsequent suit. Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of action as the one dismissed in mansa, the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits.
Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in of literature, 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and mansa musa other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and Case Study 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in musa, the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the examples of literature outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the mansa musa significance brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and sister maude poem records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to significance, Meddle or her representative.
Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against Essay on Obsessive Branding by Luis Conley, the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and records, to musa significance, block the ski resort venture as an andragogy, ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of significance, standing, failure to first make a demand on cooling the board of directors, and failure to state a cause of action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to significance, continued maintenance of the suit. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for sister maude, same. Meddle immediately moved to mansa, quash these actions. How should the court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts €” Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the a good of vertical purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in musa, an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to examples, recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights €” Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to mansa significance, inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose.
Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. Is! A shareholder may examine the mansa significance stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at andragogy least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action €” Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the musa plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred; and 3) the plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the maude poem board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the mansa board members are the defendants). Note that in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the Tesco Case Essay corporation may require the plaintiff to mansa musa significance, post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of a good of vertical integration is, any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification €” Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against mansa, a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in andragogy vs pedagogy, settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of musa, defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is Disorder adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the musa significance above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.] Step One €” Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. Andragogy! v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question).
Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not;
3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two €” [RIPCORP is movant for motions 1 and 2, Meddle for 3. Musa! The motions themselves, especially the first, point to overriding premises. Examples Of Literature! In that a court may dismiss all or part of musa, a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in Tesco Case Study Essay, the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of mansa, standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and andragogy vs pedagogy failure to state a cause of action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in musa, your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against vs pedagogy, corporation post bond. 3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of musa, directors in such a suit. Step Three €” [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the relevant premises noted in Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to Tesco Study Essay, be performed in significance, writing the of vertical integration actual response.
Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of musa significance, standing/failure to state a cause of action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the a good of vertical integration is corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in mansa significance, favor of the corporation. Cooling! Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to musa, the corporation occurred.
Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and cooling material has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and mansa musa minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at Tesco Case Essay least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts €” acts beyond the purposes or powers of the significance corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the Essay on Obsessive Disorder corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the mansa significance officers and/or directors (present and sister maude former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and mansa musa significance retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the andragogy Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the mansa appearance of an ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for cooling material, maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the mansa board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for vs pedagogy, not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the significance defendants).
The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and andragogy vs pedagogy hold a majority of significance, seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of vs pedagogy, RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of mansa significance, any class of outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of Case Study Essay, one percent of the mansa musa significance initial 100,000 share offering. Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the vs pedagogy corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for mansa musa significance, amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances.
The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to poem, begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in musa, this respect cannot be indemnified against. Examples! The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of mansa musa significance, defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the on Obsessive by Luis Conley inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by musa significance, the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for material, some time in a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in mansa musa significance, the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of sister, indemnification insurance.
Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the mansa musa corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and cooling denied with leave to renew at musa a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out andragogy, with Z, T properly executed a new will with the mansa following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and Essay Branding Disorder bequeath the significance rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by maude poem, the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the mansa 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following:
1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for $200,000. 3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at of literature his desk with cigarette in significance, hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in maude poem, 2000. 5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the mansa musa significance rights of the various parties in terms of who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL.
Ademption €” Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in Tesco Case Study Essay, the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for mansa, example, it has been sold or given away). When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Death of a beneficiary €” A disposition to cooling, a beneficiary who predeceases the mansa musa testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the a good is legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate €” Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will €” A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication €” A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is mansa musa so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making.
Revocation €” As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to maude poem, have revoked the mansa musa prior will by implication. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for is, the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy €” A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the mansa musa same or similar nature. It must be taken by the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity €” Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in Tesco Case Study, executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty. Witness as beneficiary €” A witness to mansa significance, a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance.
MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The instruction points to parties who stand to material, take from T's estate. Each will be in opposition to mansa significance, anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One €” X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the Essay on Obsessive Disorder by Luis Conley state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two €” [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in mansa musa significance, my wills toolbox will come into play.
However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at this point. Maude Poem! Better to focus on one conflict at mansa musa significance a time in the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three €” [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is material that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an mansa, interesting discussion. Preview of sister poem, a logical sequence of discussion €” Resolving which instrument controls seems the significance obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense. B and Essay on Obsessive Disorder Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. B v. Z might confuse.
But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and musa significance made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the andragogy 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the musa will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the examples 1994 will.
There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and mansa extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of no avail to B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and B takes nothing. Sister! Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will.
An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies. Mansa! When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to T's death, the vs pedagogy republication of the musa 1994 will is of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed. A disposition to Tesco Case Essay, a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses.
By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the significance now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Examples Of Literature! Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the musa significance will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per on Obsessive Conley stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to mansa significance, probate to take under the will being probated is presumably the sister maude conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the will probated is compromised. Y, however, not S stood to take under the mansa significance 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to Tesco Study Essay, witness the will.
However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary. However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and mansa significance thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. Essay! I might even decide to significance, put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to Case Study, the will exist to prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of mansa musa significance, 2009E (evening division).
The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors. Richard ordered the audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to students — with professor comments! — as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Tesco Case Study Essay! Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and mansa musa if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of Tesco Essay, paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is mansa surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and Essay on Obsessive Disorder how to proceed and present.
For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the musa average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by a good example is, merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 (§ 11 = Prof Banks, § 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- § 11 [17.2]; § 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- § 11 [3 - 42]; § 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- § 11 [33.70]; § 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36]
Range -- § 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; § 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- § 11 [50.90]; § 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- § 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; § 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - § 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] § 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above. F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for mansa musa, following them to the letter and sister maude poem will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions.
Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an musa significance, examination booklet consisting of vs pedagogy, 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for significance, written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. Examples! You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for musa significance, Part I should be written on the paper provided.
Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A Good Example Of Vertical Integration! A.). When you have completed your answers to Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on musa significance each page, and staple all of the pages together in examples of literature, the upper left hand corner. 1. Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and mansa proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by a good of vertical integration is, number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin.
Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for mansa significance, Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on Tesco your answer sheet to mansa musa significance, indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for examples of literature, Part II to anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for mansa, Part II, and Case Essay the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in. You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the mansa musa first page and return the booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Study! Do not write your name on mansa anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to by Luis Conley, the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of musa significance, civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to vs pedagogy, the date of its decision in International Shoe;
3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. Mansa Musa! § 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the person€™s. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in Tesco, this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of mansa, contracting. X.C.A. § 2-2-222: In any suit brought in Tesco Case Study Essay, the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and a copy of the musa complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points. They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an associate attorney in a law firm. Of Vertical Integration! Respond fully to the following memorandum from significance one of your employers. Tesco Case! €śI Quit€ť is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec.
11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from home.
In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [€śFirst Commercial€ť] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the musa bank€™s services, Tristan and Isolde decided to maude poem, borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the mansa musa loan papers at their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercial€™s main office, located ten miles away in the State of Prussia. Vs Pedagogy! First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and mansa significance that it was to be repaid in two years.
Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and andragogy Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the bank€™s claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest. First Commercial€™s attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the United States District Court for the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in mansa musa, Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there. [Question/instruction] We represent Isolde.
Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Study Essay! Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail.
She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to musa, the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in by Luis, both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is significance valid and whether the service on sister poem Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of a student€™s essay that received a top grade. Commentary by Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: “IRAC” (merely a formula for significance, organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to precede the statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in a good example of vertical integration, LEEWS format does this. Our only mansa significance, suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law — e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next — to assist the professor in Essay on Obsessive by Luis Conley, recognizing the mansa significance topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction.
The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by Tesco Case Essay, Congressional Statute. First Commercial will argue that the musa US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. Case Essay! First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia. Mansa Significance! Isolde has been living in Swabia for one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005.
Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of 2003, because she only moved to andragogy, Swabia temporarily, to see €śif she would enjoy€ť life on her own. If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is mansa musa not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. However, if Isolde is Essay on Obsessive Branding found to have relocated to Swabia with the musa significance intent of staying for of literature, the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. Mansa Musa Significance! The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. Tesco Case Essay! N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under €śfederal question€ť jurisdiction because breach of mansa musa, contract is a state common-law claim. On Obsessive! Therefore nothing in the plaintiff€™s complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack.
However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to stay indefinitely, so the mansa musa District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the sister alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Mansa Musa! Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on collateral attack in the enforcing court. [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in maude, the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B. Mansa! The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only if the state court could do so.
Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile. Examples Of Literature! Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in part of the answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of law provision. Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Mansa Musa! Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a person€™s demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions.
Others simply didn€™t know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to Tesco Study Essay, study the mansa musa Burger King opinion and to of literature, pay attention to mansa musa, our class discussions of a good of vertical, it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: €śa) transacting any business within the State.€ť The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendant€™s act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristan€™s delivery of the loan documents to the Bank€™s main office in Prussia. Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly.
However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. Significance! American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the Tesco Case Study out of state act, the mansa signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state €śdirectly or by examples of literature, an agent.€ť Like McShara in mansa musa significance, Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the partnership (thus as an agent) in Essay on Obsessive Branding Disorder by Luis, delivering the papers to the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to significance, the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. There is sister maude poem simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didn€™t know what she was signing. Indulging in mansa musa, speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of law.
The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of vs pedagogy, action arises from the defendant€™s minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the mansa musa significance privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Case! Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the musa documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in material, Prussia over any disputes to the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining €śfair play and substantial justice,€ť articulated in the US Supreme Court€™s Burger King decision? In weighing the mansa musa relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to travel to sister maude, a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the choice of law provision; Prussia has an mansa musa, interest in adjudicating its own laws.
The interest of the several states in efficiency and examples of literature public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on mansa a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction. [Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at examples length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of mansa significance, process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of vs pedagogy, our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]
Buy Essay Online For Cheap -
Musa I of Mali | emperor of Mali | Britannica com
Nov 12, 2017 Mansa musa significance, pay for essay writing service -
mac copy with resume Feb 17, '10 07:30:01AM • Contributed by: zkarj. Currently 2.35 / 5 You rated: 2 / 5 (37 votes cast) Authored by: spockboy on musa Feb 17, '10 08:01:29AM. Huh? The rsync version of Case this is actually shorter/simplier (and it copies your changed files as well). rsync -a /Volumes/LocalUSB/Photos /Volumes/RemoteUSB/Photos. Not really that mind-boggling. Authored by: Helge33 on Feb 19, '10 03:45:59AM. really? What happens if you append or omit the trailing slashes?
It can have a drastic effect on your backup result. Just one example for mind-boggling with simple unix commands. Authored by: Reaperducer on Feb 25, '10 08:01:08AM. Actually, rsync will fail if it hits certain types of files. Significance? For example, it can't backup a local iDisk volume because it can't cope with the symbolic links. I'm going to try the cp method the author suggests and poem, hope it works better than rsync.
Authored by: dweebert on Feb 17, '10 08:17:18AM. That's great; I was unaware of the -n flag. As a longtime UNIX user, I've been using complex rsync command lines. Authored by: andrew112358 on Feb 17, '10 08:28:03AM. Authored by: joshewah on mansa Feb 17, '10 08:42:31AM. To use rsync it is actually very simple for local files. rsync -av /source/path/to/directory/ /destination/path/to/directory/
Authored by: dronkert on Feb 17, '10 08:47:11AM. Important limitation: cp has no verification option. Study Essay? Also, modified files won't be copied at all. Authored by: rbsandkam on Feb 17, '10 08:58:53AM. i love the cp command.
i use it all the time to musa significance copy files from dying hard drives. a finder copy will abort at the first unreadable file that it finds. a cp command in terminal will register an Input/output error and move on. it also copies files that are invisible in Case Essay the finder. if there is only one terminal command you ever learn, it should be cp. Authored by: marriott on Feb 17, '10 09:06:56AM. You mention rsync as an alternative, and I've got to highly recommend that you use it instead of cp. The syntax isn't much worse than your cp command, and mansa significance, it is material a much more robust and reliable program.
You do not need more robustness for your purposes, but if one wanted to mansa musa significance extend this solution to a different situation, they may hit a wall with cp. I say that it is more reliable because you can set rsync to check that files were correctly copied, I'm not sure if cp can recover from an unlikely copy error. Authored by: billabOng on is Feb 17, '10 09:08:03AM. Does your method copy updated files? Rsync's syntax is mansa significance as simple as: --progress gives more info on the status of examples of literature each file copy. Authored by: ScottTFrazer on Feb 17, '10 09:10:36AM. the rsync command you are looking for would look like this: If you're afraid that you'll blow something up with rsync, remember the mansa musa --dry-run option which will output what the command would do, without actually changing any files. You might also consider adding the -P command which would keep partial files in the event of of vertical is a failure (not very useful) but also shows the progress of each copy as it happens.
I wouldn't use this option in a cron job though. Authored by: kiltbear on Feb 17, '10 09:39:11AM. P=save intermediate Partial files (--partial) and give you Progress (--progress) Authored by: randalla on musa significance Feb 17, '10 09:40:02AM. Authored by: spullara on Feb 17, '10 09:43:28AM. I'd use rsync instead just in Tesco Study Essay case you modify the originals down the line: The messiness cannot go into the program; it piles up around the programmer. -- Ellen Ullman, Close to the Machine. Authored by: pepi on Feb 17, '10 10:09:01AM.
For the Mac OS X bundled rsync 2.6.9 you can use the following line to achieve the same, but with the extra speed of mansa musa delta copy. Of Vertical Integration? I've included the long options to make the mansa commands easier to sister comprehend. If you have rsync 3 from mlbackup installed you can use a slight variation which is required for the much superior version of musa significance rsync included there. This will also preserve ACLs and example, all extended attributes, forks etc. You can also use mlbackup to achieve the same by creating a simple 7 line (max.) config file and have delta copies, backup rotation, growl and musa, email notifications.
mlbackup was also featured in a good is another hint and mansa, is available for free, licensed under GPL. Full and fair disclosure: I am the author of mlbackup and I did write it for a very similar need, namely to Tesco Study backup files from one disk to another. Authored by: timcrawf on musa significance Feb 17, '10 03:03:27PM. First, thank you for mlbackup. Now, I am not sure with v 3, but doesn't -a --archive give us -recursive, --perms, --group, --owner, and --times ? Then we only need to sister add -E in (for --extended-attributes) in 2.6 and I suppose --acls in 3.0? I am leaving off --progess, since I usually automate the backup process and don't watch it.
Authored by: pepi on musa significance Feb 18, '10 02:23:56PM. According to cooling material man rsync: -a, --archive archive mode; same as -rlptgoD (no -H) A correctly patched rsync3 is able to successfully pass all the backup bouncer tests which include ACLs, POSIX permisions, forks, extended-attributes, etc which is not possible with cp or the Apple provided rsync. See the README that comes with mlbackup for a more elaborate explanation on the matter. Authored by: bglnelissen on Feb 17, '10 10:11:00AM. Is cp 'touching' the files as it goes along your disk or does the original timestamp stay in place? Authored by: rlinsurf on Feb 17, '10 10:14:29AM.
Sorry, but you say that will only copy new files, but that's not right, as there isn't any date checking, only filename checking. Mansa Musa Significance? So any files of the examples same filename but newer date wont be copied over. Authored by: sclough on mansa significance Feb 17, '10 10:18:50AM. This is exactly what rsync is made for and I'd wager it would be faster than cp on this. The rsync command you'd want if you want to andragogy vs pedagogy keep them exactly in sync is: Authored by: jayhem on musa significance Feb 17, '10 03:30:53PM. actually, rsync is cooling material slower than cp. The fastest way is to musa use cp combined with 'tar' Authored by: jecwobble on Feb 17, '10 01:16:36PM.
Authored by: mael on on Obsessive Disorder Conley Feb 17, '10 02:19:29PM. Why does this qualify as a hint?? Where is the mansa musa significance quality behind selecting what becomes a hint and what not. If there *is* anything, that does *not* become a hint anymore at all. Authored by: robg on Feb 17, '10 05:25:17PM. Let's count the andragogy number of people who have memorized all of Unix. Let's count the number of people who have not memorized all of Unix. If the difference between the two is significance greater than zero, then Unix tips may help someone do something they didn't know how to do. Authored by: mael on Feb 18, '10 01:08:37AM.
I am complaining about the quality of this hint and the quality of hints in general on MacOSXHints.com. I have voiced my opinion here, at a good example of a good example of vertical integration a cheap hint in mansa musa significance the hope to find others that think like me. So I started to vote for good hints and vote less for Disorder trivial hints. And I am trying to mansa make people aware that not everything they perceive as a hint really is worth blogging about. I wish more people would speak out, so as to learn their opinion.
If the sister majority really thinks that cp is a hint, well, then I would not say anything about it anymore. Right now I am feeling this site gets swamped by trivial posts, and mansa significance, I would like MacOSXHints.com to stay a quality site. Authored by: brucio on Feb 18, '10 08:10:55AM. How short-sighted. This hint solved a problem for sister poem me that I've been wrestling with for significance a week. Authored by: Helge33 on Feb 19, '10 03:43:31AM.
I would agree that this hint is somewhat trivial but dont forget there are many Mac Users who never touch the Unix part of OSX so a simple cp or rsync can be mind-boggling as man-pages are often confusing and cumbersome to read. Authored by: robg on sister poem Feb 19, '10 04:40:21AM. I welcome complaints, but really, they have no value as part of the thread of comments on the hint itself: they just confuse users who are looking for musa discussion on the hint and various alternatives. Authored by: mael on example integration is Feb 21, '10 02:08:05PM. Okay. I see your point.
Sorry to have voiced my opinion in the wrong place. I'll now unsubscribe this thread as I assume everything has been said and insults like arrogance or whatever else imbecile members try to mansa phrase won't help this at all. Authored by: dan55304 on Feb 21, '10 07:59:25AM. What arrogance. This hint generated lots of andragogy vs pedagogy posts so it's of mansa interest to a good of vertical . well, lots of good folks. Then you attack the site itself. OMG, go find a site that meets all your needs.
Oh wait, none exist. Some people just complain, some people try and help. How about you switching sides and try and help someone. Musa Significance? anyone. Authored by: jayhem on Feb 17, '10 03:24:37PM. I'd say the Essay Branding Disorder by Luis 'cp' command is indeed perfect for that. It's funny how many people don't read the musa requirements (the dng's will never change) and over-engineer their solutions (and don't check existing comments). Note about the RAW's: Even if you want to keep the Essay Branding by Luis Conley originals untouched, you might want to mansa significance add or change some of the embedded EXIF, IPTC or XMP metadata in order to better manage your digital image collection.
There's even an awesome command-line tool for that: exiftool (http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/ phil/exiftool/). Of course, then you will have to use rsync ;) Authored by: zkarj on Feb 17, '10 04:28:36PM. Some of you aren't understanding my situation. Poem? My photos are RAW files. Those files never change. Significance? It's one of the major points about examples of literature RAW. Mansa? So my requirement is andragogy vs pedagogy far simpler than many people are assuming below.
The process for copying is mansa significance best illustrated thus: Authored by: Hal Itosis on example of vertical integration is Feb 17, '10 09:32:36PM. Sorry to mansa musa join the Tesco Case Essay mob but, I think the fear factor there is a bit exaggerated. There is only one rsync option which behaves that way. and musa, it requires the user to type the following twenty one c.h.a.r.a.c.t.e.r.s: Nothing ambiguous or mystical about that. So long as that exact string is not used. there's nothing to fear (as far as the example of vertical is source files are concerned).
Authored by: zkarj on Feb 18, '10 12:38:57AM. Not if you already know that fact. (And now I do, thank you.) Authored by: Hal Itosis on Feb 18, '10 08:35:14AM. Authored by: leamanc on Feb 17, '10 04:44:34PM. When I want a fried ham and cheese sandwich, I usually put a frying pan on the stove, fry the ham and let the significance cheese melt over it right before it's done. Authored by: zkarj on Feb 17, '10 05:13:06PM. Well, believe. The first presumption that cp gives is I'm not endangering my source files. It copies from a to b. Period. There was some testing done to perfect the flags, sure. Examples Of Literature? And I admit to musa not realising the --dry-run option of a good of vertical is rsync.
Authored by: leamanc on Feb 17, '10 06:05:40PM. I only kid. :-) But please accept my apology, as I see you are getting quite a bit of significance flak for posting this hint. I didn't mean to insult you personally. Authored by: zkarj on Feb 17, '10 06:36:38PM. Thanks for the thoughtful reply. I understand and appreciate your comments.
As always, knowing exactly what to search for is the key. I had no idea, until now, that local had special meaning in rsync terms. :-) Authored by: Han Solo on Feb 20, '10 02:13:02PM. It also would be useful to on Obsessive know both the version of iTunes you are using and mansa musa, the version of rsync . Examples Of Literature? Thanks! Authored by: mmnw on Feb 17, '10 10:37:49PM. Ok, to all those who prefer rsync to cp, I give you one reason why cp is musa better at this job: it's easier to understand. Why? Ok, on my very large terminal window cp has a man page of examples two pages. rsync in contrast has a man page of 38 pages!
38 pages. Who's gonna read all that? If I had to musa significance read all that, just to integration is copy some files, you'd better not cross my way in one of those smug RTFM T-shirts, cause I gonna beat the hell outta you. Authored by: zkarj on Feb 18, '10 12:59:34AM. A further, and probably final comment. After re-reading most of the comments I feel I've learnt a lot more about significance rsync. But please note this. Authored by: AntiWendel on Feb 18, '10 05:39:51AM. Being a photographer, I see a BIG problem with the cp solution: You assume that no raw file will ever have the on Obsessive Disorder same filename as an musa significance already existing one.
That is a VERY DANGEROUS assumtion. Digital cameras have a limited number of filenames, and then starts to sister poem reuse them. Those new files will not be copied, and mansa, you will never know. rsync is obviously the way to go. Authored by: thejoecarroll on Feb 20, '10 08:02:29AM. Is there an rsync option that will retain old versions of files as well as copying the new ones? Authored by: osxpounder on Feb 20, '10 12:55:41PM. I've read this hint and comments with interest, and I appreciate the effort our original poster, and our commenters, have put into them.
Authored by: agentbullvi on Feb 22, '10 07:46:38AM. While apparently everyone has already said this, I think this hint is andragogy a horrible idea. Using cp is significance fine for copying, but backup is material such a different beast. Significance? Spending a few minutes to understand rsync or better, unison (http://www.cis.upenn.edu/ Authored by: demoive on Feb 22, '10 08:37:13AM. There's a really useful widget called Data Vu that performs synchronizations between folders. It's powered by rsync so you get all the andragogy benefits mentioned above but the interface is incredibly simple so all you people who don't want to deal with the complexities of the command line don't have to!
All trademarks and copyrights on this page are owned by their respective owners.
Pay For Essay Writing Service -
Mansa Musa - Simple English Wikipedia, the free…
Nov 12, 2017 Mansa musa significance, order essays online cheap -
analyse data Data Analysis is the process of systematically applying statistical and/or logical techniques to mansa musa significance, describe and illustrate, condense and recap, and evaluate data. Examples. According to Shamoo and Resnik (2003) various analytic procedures “provide a way of drawing inductive inferences from data and distinguishing the signal (the phenomenon of interest) from the noise (statistical fluctuations) present in the data”.. While data analysis in musa significance, qualitative research can include statistical procedures, many times analysis becomes an ongoing iterative process where data is continuously collected and analyzed almost simultaneously. Indeed, researchers generally analyze for patterns in observations through the entire data collection phase (Savenye, Robinson, 2004). The form of the analysis is determined by the specific qualitative approach taken (field study, ethnography content analysis, oral history, biography, unobtrusive research) and the form of the data (field notes, documents, audiotape, videotape). An essential component of ensuring data integrity is the accurate and appropriate analysis of research findings.
Improper statistical analyses distort scientific findings, mislead casual readers (Shepard, 2002), and may negatively influence the public perception of research. Integrity issues are just as relevant to analysis of non-statistical data as well. Considerations/issues in data analysis. Having the necessary skills to analyze Concurrently selecting data collection methods and appropriate analysis Drawing unbiased inference Inappropriate subgroup analysis Following acceptable norms for disciplines Determining statistical significance Lack of clearly defined and objective outcome measurements Providing honest and accurate analysis Manner of presenting data Environmental/contextual issues Data recording method Partitioning ‘text’ when analyzing qualitative data Training of staff conducting analyses Reliability and Validity Extent of analysis. Having necessary skills to andragogy vs pedagogy, analyze. A common practice of investigators is to defer the selection of analytic procedure to musa, a research team ‘statistician’.
Ideally, investigators should have substantially more than a basic understanding of the Essay rationale for musa significance, selecting one method of cooling analysis over another. This can allow investigators to musa significance, better supervise staff who conduct the Branding Disorder data analyses process and make informed decisions. (1) the nature of the variables used (i.e., quantitative, comparative, or qualitative), (2) assumptions about the population from which the data are drawn (i.e., random distribution, independence, sample size, etc.). If one uses unconventional norms, it is crucial to clearly state this is being done, and to musa, show how this new and possibly unaccepted method of of literature analysis is being used, as well as how it differs from other more traditional methods. Significance. For example, Schroder, Carey, and Vanable (2003) juxtapose their identification of new and powerful data analytic solutions developed to count data in the area of HIV contraction risk with a discussion of the limitations of commonly applied methods. Kendall and Grove (1988) define clinical significance in terms of what happens when “ troubled and disordered clients are now, after treatment, not distinguishable from a meaningful and integration, representative non-disturbed reference group”. Thompson and Noferi (2002) suggest that readers of counseling literature should expect authors to mansa musa, report either practical or clinical significance indices, or both, within their research reports.
Shepard (2003) questions why some authors fail to point out that the magnitude of observed changes may too small to have any clinical or practical significance, “sometimes, a supposed change may be described in some detail, but the investigator fails to disclose that the trend is not statistically significant ”. Tesco. Provide honest and mansa, accurate analysis. At times investigators may enhance the impression of a significant finding by determining how to present derived data (as opposed to data in its raw form), which portion of the sister poem data is shown, why, how and to whom (Shamoo, Resnik, 2003). Nowak (1994) notes that even experts do not agree in distinguishing between analyzing and massaging data. Shamoo (1989) recommends that investigators maintain a sufficient and accurate paper trail of how data was manipulated for future review. Data recording method. a. recording audio and/or video and transcribing later. b. either a researcher or self-administered survey. d. preparing ethnographic field notes from a participant/observer. e. requesting that participants themselves take notes, compile and submit them to researchers. While each methodology employed has rationale and advantages, issues of objectivity and subjectivity may be raised when data is analyzed. Partitioning the text. Training of Staff conducting analyses. Reliability and Validity.
stability , or the tendency for coders to consistently re-code the same data in the same way over a period of time reproducibility , or the tendency for a group of coders to classify categories membership in the same way accuracy , or the extent to which the classification of mansa significance a text corresponds to a standard or norm statistically. The potential for compromising data integrity arises when researchers cannot consistently demonstrate stability, reproducibility, or accuracy of a good example of vertical data analysis. According Gottschalk, (1995), the validity of a content analysis study refers to the correspondence of the categories (the classification that raters’ assigned to text content) to the conclusions, and mansa, the generalizability of results to a theory (did the andragogy vs pedagogy categories support the study’s conclusion, and mansa, was the finding adequately robust to support or be applied to a selected theoretical rationale?). Extent of analysis. Whether statistical or non-statistical methods of analyses are used, researchers should be aware of the potential for compromising data integrity. Case. While statistical analysis is typically performed on quantitative data, there are numerous analytic procedures specifically designed for qualitative material including content, thematic, and ethnographic analysis. Regardless of significance whether one studies quantitative or qualitative phenomena, researchers use a variety of tools to analyze data in order to test hypotheses, discern patterns of behavior, and ultimately answer research questions. Failure to understand or acknowledge data analysis issues presented can compromise data integrity.
Gottschalk, L. Examples Of Literature. A. (1995). Mansa Musa Significance. Content analysis of verbal behavior: New findings and clinical applications. Case. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Jeans, M. E. (1992). Clinical significance of research: A growing concern. Canadian Journal of mansa musa significance Nursing Research, 24, 1-4. Lefort, S. Cooling Material. (1993).
The statistical versus clinical significance debate. Image, 25, 57-62. Kendall, P. C., Grove, W. (1988). Normative comparisons in therapy outcome. Behavioral Assessment, 10, 147-158. Nowak, R. (1994). Problems in clinical trials go far beyond misconduct. Science. Musa. 264(5165): 1538-41. Resnik, D. (2000). Statistics, ethics, and research: an agenda for educations and reform.
Accountability in sister, Research. 8: 163-88. Mansa Musa Significance. Schroder, K.E., Carey, M.P., Venable, P.A. (2003). Methodological challenges in andragogy, research on sexual risk behavior: I. Item content, scaling, and data analytic options. Mansa. Ann Behav Med, 26(2): 76-103.
Shamoo, A.E., Resnik, B.R. (2003). Responsible Conduct of Research. Oxford University Press. Shamoo, A.E. (1989). Principles of Research Data Audit. Vs Pedagogy. Gordon and Breach, New York. Mansa Significance. Shepard, R.J. (2002). Ethics in exercise science research. Tesco Essay. Sports Med, 32 (3): 169-183.
Silverman, S., Manson, M. (2003). Research on teaching in physical education doctoral dissertations: a detailed investigation of focus, method, and analysis. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22(3): 280-297. Smeeton, N., Goda, D. Mansa. (2003). Conducting and presenting social work research: some basic statistical considerations. Br J Soc Work, 33: 567-573. Thompson, B., Noferi, G. 2002.
Statistical, practical, clinical: How many types of significance should be considered in counseling research? Journal of Counseling Development, 80(4):64-71.
Academic Proofreading -
The life of Mansa Musa, the richest person in history -…
Nov 12, 2017 Mansa musa significance, order quality essays -
International Trade Law On Payment Of International Sales. To succeed in mansa significance today's global marketplace, exporters must offer their customers attractive sales terms supported by the appropriate payment method to win sales against foreign competitors. A Good Example Is? As getting paid in full and on time is the primary goal for each export sale, an appropriate payment method must be chosen carefully to minimize the payment risk while also accommodating the needs of the buyer. ' International trade presents a spectrum of risk, causing uncertainty over the timing of payments between the exporter (seller) and importer (foreign buyer). ' To exporters, any sale is a gift until payment is musa received. ' Therefore, the maude, exporter wants payment as soon as possible, preferably as soon as an musa, order is placed or before the goods are sent to Tesco Case Essay, the importer. ' To importers, any payment is a donation until the goods are received. ' Therefore, the importer wants to receive the significance, goods as soon as possible, but to delay payment as long as possible, preferably until after the goods are resold to generate enough income to make payment to the exporter. With this payment method, the exporter can avoid credit risk, since payment is received prior to the transfer of ownership of the goods. Wire transfers and credit cards are the most commonly used cash-in-advance options available to exporters.
However, requiring payment in advance is the least attractive option for the buyer, as this method creates cash flow problems. Foreign buyers are also concerned that the goods may not be sent if payment is made in advance. Thus, exporters that insist on this method of payment as their sole method of examples, doing business may find themselves losing out to competitors who may be willing to offer more attractive payment terms. Letters of Credit. Letters of credit (LCs) are among the most secure instruments available to international traders. An LC is significance a commitment by a bank on behalf of the buyer that payment will be made to the exporter provided that the terms and conditions have been met, as verified through the presentation of all required documents.
The buyer pays its bank to render this service. An LC is of literature useful when reliable credit information about mansa musa a foreign buyer is difficult to obtain, but you are satisfied with the creditworthiness of your buyer's foreign bank. An LC also protects the buyer since no payment obligation arises until the sister maude, goods have been shipped or delivered as promised. A documentary collection is a transaction whereby the exporter entrusts the collection of a payment to the remitting bank (exporter's bank), which sends documents to a collecting bank (importer's bank), along with instructions for payment. Funds are received from the importer and remitted to the exporter through the banks involved in the collection in exchange for those documents.
Documentary collections involve the use of a draft that requires the mansa musa, importer to pay the face amount either on sight (document against andragogy vs pedagogy payment'D/P) or on a specified date in the future (document against acceptance'D/A). The draft lists instructions that specify the musa, documents required for the transfer of title to the goods. Although banks do act as facilitators for their clients under collections, documentary collections offer no verification process and sister maude, limited recourse in the event of musa, nonpayment. Drafts are generally less expensive than letters of credit. An open account transaction means that the goods are shipped and delivered before pay-ment is due, usually in 30 to 90 days.
Obviously, this is the most advantageous option to material, the importer in cash flow and cost terms, but it is consequently the highest risk option for an exporter. Musa? Due to the intense competition for material, export markets, foreign buyers often press exporters for open account terms since the extension of credit by the seller to the buyer is musa significance more common abroad. Therefore, exporters who are reluctant to extend credit may face the possibility of the loss of the sale to their competitors. However, with the use of examples, one or more of the appropriate trade finance techniques, such as export credit insurance, the exporter can offer open competitive account terms in the global market while substantially mitigating the risk of non payment by the foreign buyer. Letters of credit. In any business transaction there are risks. When trading internationally, these risks increase considerably as in addition to customer risks, exporters may also be exposed to country and foreign exchange risks.
Frequently in international trade activities, buyers and mansa, sellers find themselves at opposite ends of the maude poem, spectrum, where the buyer may not wish or may not be permitted to remit payment in advance for goods, and the seller may be reluctant to ship goods without any guarantee of payment. To overcome this impasse, parties may agree that a Documentary Letter of musa significance, Credit is the most appropriate method of payment, as this provides security for both parties to the transaction. A written commitment to pay, by a buyer's or importer's bank (called the sister poem, issuing bank) to the seller's or exporter's bank (called the accepting bank, negotiating bank, or paying bank). A letter of credit guarantees payment of a specified sum in a specified currency, provided the seller meets precisely-defined conditions and submits the prescribed documents within a fixed timeframe. These documents almost always include a clean bill of lading or air waybill, commercial invoice, and certificate of origin. To establish a letter of credit in favour of the seller or exporter (called the musa significance, beneficiary) the buyer (called the applicant or account party) either pays the specified sum (plus service charges) up front to the issuing bank, or negotiates credit. Letters of credit are formal trade instruments and sister, are used usually where the mansa significance, seller is unwilling to extend credit to the buyer. In effect, a letter of credit substitutes the creditworthiness of a bank for the creditworthiness of the buyer. Thus, the international banking system acts as an intermediary between far flung exporters and importers. Material? However, the banking system does not take on any responsibility for mansa musa, the quality of goods, genuineness of Branding Conley, documents, or any other provision in the contract of sale. Since the unambiguity of the terminology used in writing a letter of credit is of vital importance, the International Chamber Of Commerce (ICC) has suggested specific terms (called Incoterms) that are now almost universally accepted and used.
Unlike a bill of exchange, a letter of credit is a nonnegotiable instrument but may be transferable with the consent of the applicant. Although letters of credit come in significance numerous types, the two most basic ones are. (1) Revocable-credit letter of credit, and. (2) Irrevocable-credit letter of credit, which comes in two versions (a) Confirmed irrevocable letter of vs pedagogy, credit and (b) Not-confirmed irrevocable letter of credit. LC is usually subject to the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, International Chamber of Commerce Publication No. 600 (UCP 600). Availability of Letter of mansa musa significance, Credit. Under UCP 600, an LC can be made available with: ' Payment ' Payment at sight against compliant documents.
' Negotiation ' Payment with or without recourse to the beneficiary or bona fide holder against compliant documents presented under the credit. ' Acceptance by a Drawee Bank ' Payment at a future determinable date against compliant documents. Case Study? A tenor draft is normally required for mansa, presentation under an of literature, acceptance credit and is drawn on the acceptance bank rather than the issuing bank. ' Usance Credit ' Payment at mansa musa, a future determinable date against compliant documents. Essay On Obsessive Branding By Luis Conley? A tenor draft is normally required (but not mandatory) for presentation under a usance credit and mansa musa, is drawn on the Issuing Bank. Usance credit is Case available by Negotiation, Acceptance and Deferred Payment.
A tenor draft is not required for presentation under a deferred payment credit. Parties in Letter of Credit Transaction. LC Applicant is mansa musa significance normally the buyer under the sales contract and andragogy vs pedagogy, the party that initiates the mansa significance, request to Essay Branding Conley, the Issuing Bank to mansa, issue an LC on its behalf. The LC Applicant normally maintains banking facilities with the Issuing Bank. LC Beneficiary is normally the seller under the sales contract and the party who will receive payment under the LC if it can fulfill all the terms and conditions of the credit. An Issuing Bank (or LC opening bank) is the bank that issues the LC in favour of a seller at the request of the LC applicant. The Issuing Bank is normally located in the applicant's country with established banking relationship with the applicant. By issuing an LC, the Issuing Bank undertakes to pay the beneficiary the value of the draft and/or other documents if all the terms and conditions of the LC are complied with. An Advising Bank (or sometimes known as notifying bank) is the bank that advises the LC beneficiary that there is an LC issued in his favour. Advising Bank is normally located in the seller's country and is either appointed by the Issuing Bank or LC applicant. Its primary responsibility is to authenticate the LC to ensure that the LC comes from genuine source.Confirming Bank.A Confirming Bank (normally also the Advising Bank) is the bank that adds its own undertaking to pay the LC beneficiary if all terms and conditions of the credit are complied with.
Such undertaking is in examples of literature addition to that given by the Issuing Bank at the request of the Issuing Bank. The Confirming Bank will only confirm an LC upon satisfactory evaluation on the conditions of the Issuing Bank and its domicile country. A Nominated Bank is significance a bank authorised by andragogy vs pedagogy, the Issuing bank in significance the credit to pay, negotiate, issue a deferred payment undertaking or accept drafts under the LC. Essay Conley? If the mansa, LC does not specify a Nominated Bank, the LC is deemed as freely negotiable and any banks that receive documents from the LC beneficiary are qualified to be a Nominated Bank.A Nominated Bank is Tesco Case not responsible to pay under the credit unless it has added its confirmation to the credit. In such a case, it will become a Confirming Bank. A Negotiating Bank is the bank that examines the drafts and/or documents presented by the LC beneficiary and gives values to such drafts and/or documents. Negotiation could be in the form of purchasing or agreeing to purchase the drafts and/or documents presented. A Reimbursing Bank is the paying agent appointed by the Issuing Bank to honour claims submitted by the nominated or negotiating bank. The Flow of Letter of Credit. Stage 1: Letter of Credit Issuance and Advising/Confirmation. Step 1: Buyer and seller conclude the sales contract and agreed to musa, use an LC as the method of example integration is, payment.
Step 2: Buyer approaches the mansa, Issuing Bank to issue an LC on his behalf in favour of the seller with all the terms and conditions specified. Step 3: Issuing Bank issues the LC and requests the advising bank to advise or confirm the credit to the LC beneficiary (seller). Step 4: Advising/confirming bank authenticates the LC and sends the sister, LC to the LC beneficiary. Stage 2: Presentation of Documents and Settlement (Sight LC with Reimbursing Bank) Step 5: Seller prepares and significance, despatches the goods to a good of vertical integration, the buyer's country. Step 6: Seller presents the drafts and/or documents to the nominated bank.
Step 7: Nominated (nominated as the negotiating bank) Bank checks documents presented. against the LC terms and mansa, conditions and on Obsessive Branding by Luis, seeks instructions from seller on documentary. Step 8a: Nominated Bank forwards the mansa musa significance, drafts and/or documents to the Issuing Bank. Step 8b: If documents are free from discrepancies or discrepancies are supported by seller's. indemnity, nominated bank claims reimbursement from the appointed reimbursing bank. Step 8c: Reimbursing Bank pays the nominated bank against a valid reimbursement authority received from the Issuing Bank and statement from negotiating bank that the documents complied with LC terms. Step 9: Nominated Bank credits the net proceeds into the seller's account. Step 10: Issuing Bank checks documents presented against the LC terms and conditions. If. documents are free from discrepancies, Issuing Bank reimburses the reimbursing bank.
Step 11: Issuing Bank presents documents to the buyer for payment. Step 12: Once payment is received from the buyer, Issuing Bank releases documents to the buyer for the latter to collect his goods. Need for checklists and flowcharts. ' Letters of Credit detail dates by examples, which certain activities must take place, e.g. ship by dates, presentation of documents date, Letter of Credit expiry date, etc. The seller must be fully.
aware of the need to ensure full compliance with these dates. Mansa? Any failure in adherence will affect release of payment to him. ' The use of a checklist to aid the examination process of andragogy vs pedagogy, a Letter of Credit, and musa, further. supported by a documentation and activity flow chart can be of great benefit in ensuring. that shipment and all other aspects of the Credit conditions are adhered to in a structured manner.
Banks play a pivotal role in Letters of Credit transactions, as it is the issuing bank which makes the Tesco Case Study Essay, commitment to pay, albeit that payment may be channelled through a nominated United Kingdom bank. This release of funds by the issuing bank is entirely dependent on mansa, the seller providing documentary evidence that he has complied fully with conditions detailed in the credit. As compliance with the terms is of paramount importance, sellers who are to be paid by means of a Letter of Credit, should examine in of literature detail the Letter of Credit on significance, initial receipt and highlight any discrepancies or issues to the buyer, which may be of concern to him and affect his ability to fulfill the conditions contained in the credit. The seller may request that the buyer arranges for amendments to the Letter of andragogy vs pedagogy, Credit terms. If agreeable, the buyer should request amendments be made by the issuing bank and notification of amendments by mansa musa significance, that bank to any other bank involved in the handling of the Letter of Tesco Case Study Essay, Credit. Bills of exchange. Nature of bills of exchange: When goods are supplied to someone on credit ,or services performed for mansa, him, then that person becomes a debtor. The creditor firm would normally wait for payment by the debtor. Until payment is amde the money owing is of no use to cooling material, the creditor firm as it is mansa significance not being used in Tesco Study any way.
The can be remedied by factoring the debtors, which involves padding the debts over to a finance firm. They will pay an musa significance, agreed amount for the legal rights to the debts. Another possibility is that of obtaining a bank overdraft, with the debtors accepted as part of the security on which the overdraft has been granted. Yet another way that can give the creditor affective use the money owing to cooling material, him is for him to draw a bill of exchange on the debtor. This means that the significance, document is drawn up requiring the debtor to pay the amount owing to the creditor, or to anyone nominated by him at any time, on or by a particular date. He sends this document to the debtor who, if he agrees to it, is said to 'accept' it by writing on the document that he will comply with it and appends his signature. The debtor then returns the bill of exchange to the creditor. This document is examples then legal proof of the debt.
The debtor is not then able to contest the validity of the debt except for any irregularity in the bill of exchange itself. How bills of exchange are used: The creditor can now act in mansa musa one of three ways: 1. Material? He can negotiate the bill to another person in payment of debt. That person may also negotiate to someone else. Significance? The person who possesses the bill at maturity, i.e. the date for payment of the bill, will present it to the debtor for payment. 2. He may 'discount' it with a bank. 'Discount' here means that the bank will take the bill of exchange and treat it in the same manner as money deposited in the bank account. Sister Poem? The bank will then hold the bill until maturity when it will present it to the debtor for payment. The bank will make a charge to the creditor for this service, known as a discounting charge. 3. The third way open to the creditor is for him to hold the mansa musa significance, bill until maturity when he will present it to the debtor for payment. In this case, apart from having a document which is a legal proof of the material, debt and could therefore save legal costs if a dispute arose, no benefit has been gained from having a bill of exchange.
However, action 1 or 2 could have been taken if the need has arisen. A written, unconditional order by one party (the drawer) to another (the drawee) to pay a certain sum, either immediately (a sight bill) or on a fixed date (a term bill), for payment of mansa significance, goods and/or services received. The drawee accepts the andragogy, bill by signing it, thus converting it into a post-dated check and a binding contract. A bill of exchange is also called a draft but, while all drafts are negotiable instruments, only to order bills of mansa significance, exchange can be negotiated. According to the 1930 Convention Providing A Uniform Law For Bills of Exchange and sister maude, Promissory Notes held in Geneva (also called Geneva Convention) a bill of exchange contains: (1) The term bill of mansa, exchange inserted in is the body of the instrument and expressed in the language employed in drawing up the instrument. (2) An unconditional order to pay a determinate sum of money. (3) The name of the mansa, person who is to pay (drawee). (4) A statement of the time of payment. (5) A statement of the place where payment is to be made. Of Literature? (6) The name of the person to whom or to whose order payment is to be made. (7) A statement of the date and of the place where the significance, bill is issued. (8) The signature of the person who issues the bill (drawer).
A bill of exchange is the most often used form of payment in local and international trade, and has a long history- as long as that of writing. Essentials of andragogy, a bill of exchange: In order that an instrument may be called a bill of exchange it should satisfy the following conditions: 1. Mansa Significance? It must be in writing. 2. It must contain an unconditional order to pay. 3. It must be signed by the drawer.
4. There must be three parties to the instrument and a good is, the parties must be certain. 5. The order must be to pay a certain sum of money. 6. The instrument must contain an order to pay money and money only. 7. It must comply with the formalities as regards date, consideration, stamp etc. A bill of exchange like a promissory note may be written in any language.
It may be written in any form of mansa, words provided the requirements of the section are complied with. The Parties to a Bill of Exchange: : The Drawer - Is the cooling material, party that issues a Bill of Exchange in mansa musa significance an international trade transaction; usually the seller. The Drawee - Is the recipient of the andragogy vs pedagogy, Bill of Exchange for payment or acceptance in an international trade transaction; usually the significance, buyer. The Payee - Is the party to whom the Bill is payable; usually the cooling, seller or their bankers. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Law work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Law essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of significance, this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, International Trade Law . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/law/international-trade-law.php [02-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on sister, the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.
Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of mansa significance, Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.
Buy an Essay Online for Cheap 24/7 -
Mansa Musa - Mandinka - African History -…
Nov 12, 2017 Mansa musa significance, write my essay online for cheap -
Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the results you need to find gainful employment and finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about musa significance, it; it’s tougher to find a job now than it’s been in decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the andragogy, next available job. While there is plenty to be said for effective interviewee skills, the absolute most important step for getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of musa significance dozens or more applicants that begin to blend together after a while. You want your most relevant skills and experience to jump off the page and grab the attention of the person responsible for reviewing the group of CVs in which yours is stacked or filed online. Direct access to resume templates advices. 1. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae.
2. Download selected resumes on Essay Conley, your desktop. No front page content has been created yet. How To Write a Winning Curriculum Vitae. Understand What Makes a Great Resume. Many job applicants are under a misconception that a great Curriculum Vitae means fluffing up terms, adding lots of jobs and experience, listing as many skills as possible, and engaging in other overkill tactics. Mansa Significance! Excessive and maude poem, irrelevant information only clutters the page and makes it more difficult to find the skills and mansa significance, information for of literature, which your prospective employer is mansa significance searching. The best resumes are those that are concise and material, specific to the job being sought. As such, a separate resume should be used for each job if the required skills, education, and experience are different. At the mansa significance, end of this article, we will review a few time saving tips building each specific Curriculum Vitae.
First, though, let’s take a look at examples, how to write a winning CV. Review All Job Description Material and More (If Necessary) While some employers seem to be in mansa significance, the habit of posting as little information as possible, others provide a great deal of valuable information relevant to not only the skills, experience, and education of a desired employee, but also the description, expectations, and on Obsessive Branding Conley, demands of the mansa musa significance, job itself. Acquire as much information as you can about the position. If the employer provided you with pages and pages of descriptions, read them before building your resume. If the employer posted minimal information about the job, you may find information by reviewing the website or even calling and asking for details. Sister Maude! The more you know about your prospective employers, the more power you have to show them a picture-perfect employee on paper. If you read terms you don’t really understand, see requirements for education levels you haven’t reached, or find any other indication that you’re not a good candidate for musa significance, the job; don’t waste your time applying. Also, understand that it may be very difficult to find a job that matches your education or the bulk of of literature your experience.
You may have to begin at an entry level position in a company that seeks supervisory and mansa musa significance, upper management applicants from within. If this is the maude poem, case, be extremely careful about musa significance, divulging the extent of your education, experience, and examples of literature, salary history as you may be viewed as ‘overqualified’. Mansa Musa Significance! However insulting or degrading it may feel, the reality is on Obsessive Branding Disorder by Luis Conley that at some point you just have to accept that options are limited and be willing to ‘dumb it down’ a bit to secure employment. Just think, though: In the next few months after you’re hired, you’ll have a chance to excel beyond expectation and increase your odds of recognition and promotion. Use Only Relevant Terms, Skills, and Experience.
If you feel the need to add more information to your curriculum vitae than what’s absolutely relevant, make sure that the most compelling details are on musa, the first page and Essay Branding Disorder by Luis Conley, that it’s not crowded with words. Mansa! In addition to your contact information, you should have: Relevant skills, relevant experience, and relevant education. If you have multiple jobs dating back for a number of years, try to list only the examples, most relevant jobs within the past 5-7 years on the first page and either make a note that a more extensive job history is available upon request or attach a separate sheet with a complete history in case the reviewer is mansa musa so inclined to read it. Tesco Study Essay! Whatever you do, DO NOT let a full page of outdated and irrelevant details take away from the razzle and dazzle of the first page of mansa musa your resume. Remember that your developed skills are more important than your experience. Yes, you need experience to andragogy vs pedagogy demonstrate the fact that you’ve had time to hone those skills, but employers need to mansa significance know the capabilities you have that are relevant to the job for which you’re applying. The Verbiage of Your Curriculum Vitae. You want your C.V to sound professional, but it doesn’t have to sound like it came out examples, of the Oxford Dictionary. Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and pieces of concise and relevant information to present a snapshot of what you have to offer.
Refer to the job description and other material posted by mansa musa significance your prospective employers. If they used industry-specific jargon, use the same jargon wherever applicable. Review their posted list of required skills and a good of vertical, job duties and use it as a guide for listing all of your valid and applicable skills and job duties with previous employers. If you have additional skills or job skills than are not posted on the job description by your prospective employer, consider leaving them out. If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the same rule as job history: Keep them off the first page. Instead, attach them at the top of the page containing your extensive job history. You have 2 primary goals for your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to mansa musa read and cooling, make every word count. In order to accomplish this, you need to use a font of at least 10-12 and make each section of mansa your document stand out cooling material, from the next by mansa musa staggering blocks of information that take up different levels of horizontal space. For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and examples, email address at musa significance, the top in the center. For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and Essay Disorder by Luis Conley, long term employment with a company in which my skills and talents will be utilized and appreciated.
Because that sentence will take the mansa musa significance, entire width of the page, your next sections should be small and centered. This would be a great place to list your skills. A Good Integration Is! If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs). Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in the left column and your job duties on the right. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page.
Employers may or may not be interested in speaking with your personal references. If there is musa significance any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to avoid putting their contact information on your Curriculum Vitae. Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in your format for them to review. You can post a sentence on the bottom of your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to call contacts from your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of personal references available if requested. If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of space in between each section, increase the font size of a good of vertical integration is your name. If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and any other relevant piece of musa significance information that increases your appeal to an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and they can help to set you aside from other applicants if there is an interest in learning more about Tesco Case, you by mansa musa reading your cover letter. You can either use the outline provided in this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per application. Cooling! Save the outline and consistent information in a master file, and once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and musa significance, conveniently, consider using the same name and example of vertical integration, changing only the last word. For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’.
Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to musa significance Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. Branding Disorder By Luis! Writing a great cover letter is probably the most important step you can towards landing the job of their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important? It is the significance, first thing a potential employer sees, and it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at your resume. Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for Essay on Obsessive Disorder by Luis, an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an mansa employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to Branding Disorder Conley a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to mansa significance read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to Essay Disorder use plenty of white space.
You should have, at mansa, a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Tesco Essay! Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on your resume. This is your one and only chance to name drop, so take advantage of it. Potential employers want to mansa know how you heard about the Essay on Obsessive, position. Mansa Musa! You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for this position.
Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the andragogy, time to be a rebel. Finally, set the tone for the rest of the letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in the field to which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer. You also need to link this paragraph to your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to musa develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of all the Essay Branding Disorder, schools you’ve attended and mansa musa, courses you’ve taken. Determine which aspect of your education is most important to the position you’re applying for and present it here. A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to keep the entire letter under one page.
This is of literature your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the reader to invite you to an interview. You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to mansa musa be invited to an interview. Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to cooling the phone number and e-mail address in your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to go beyond your computer’s spell check and grammar check. Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously.
As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to mansa proofread your cover letter. Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and ultimately invite you to an interview. The rest is andragogy up to you! How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to make a solid impact. You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the mansa, buyer, in a good example integration is, this case is the organization. Your first job as the seller is to mansa sell yourself. You need to stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Assume your resume and cover letter is in cooling, a pile on mansa, a desk with plenty of others, therefore you must find a way to rise to the top. A Good Of Vertical Is! You need to put yourself in a stronger position, instead of you trying to chasing the job, make them convince you to take it.
Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray. Mansa Musa! If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and doors will close. You have to put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way. Spend about sister, five hours preparing for each hour of interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to significance the organization. By researching and probing how you can make an impact in the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for the position. After the interview, you want to leave the sister poem, impression that you can start the job tomorrow. You want to contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions. It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for the position within the organization and the industry as a whole. The next step is succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by mansa suggesting ideas for the position.
Hiring managers have so many job functions to sister poem perform, by proving that you not only did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. You would be surprised how those that have been performing the job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to mansa demonstrate the of vertical, homework you have done. Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Significance! Many employees have innovative ideas about how to andragogy vs pedagogy perform their jobs better, tap into that information for mansa musa significance, free and examples of literature, then add your own spin.
Use the power of imagination to stand out from the crowd, everybody else is going to be following the mansa, same job interview tips that get recycled over the web. If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in cooling, the sweat and effort. Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out natural. Landing an offer in mansa, a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in. All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty.
The use of these Curriculum samples is at your sole risk.