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Appiah Cosmopolitanism Essays and Research Papers. A True Cosmopolitan Appiah poses a question: What do we owe strangers by virtue of our shared humanity? Appiah’s answers this with his . personal story, history, literature, and philosophy. Pre-historic hunter-gatherers encountered fewer people in a lifetime than we would on a single day walking down the streets of Delhi, or New Orleans. Centuries ago, people lived in a world where they were isolated, and hubspot studies unable to communicate between different countries. Today we live in film a world where most. Africa , Cosmopolitanism , Culture 1143 Words | 3 Pages. Chicana writer, Gloria Anzaldua proposes people of different races to confront their fears in case studies order to move forward into film menace, a world that is a less hateful and . more useful. Similarly, philosopher and writer, Kwame Appiah approaches this matter with cosmopolitanism . Hubspot Case Studies? The meaning of cosmopolitanism is the focus of the world as being a whole rather than just a specific group.

It is the belief that all humans belong to a single community based on a shared understanding that we are all similar. Both Anzaldua. Borderlands , Conversation , Cosmopolitanism 1258 Words | 3 Pages. The point of Appiah's essay is to explain the topic of cosmopolitanism is today's society. Basically, Appiah explains someone . who is a cosmopolitan as a citizen of the film menace world; it is also our responsibility to exchange ideas about hubspot what is Three Ways Police and Probation Officers can Reduce Violence Essay right and wrong in the world. We must also realize that we are responsible for studies, other people in the world, and film menace 2 society that every person has a different positive contribution that they can make to the whole. He uses words, such as shared humanity, to studies, show that.

CBC Radio One , Cosmopolitanism , Humans 1197 Words | 3 Pages. Humankind would be a better place if we were all just citizens of the world. Three Officers Gang? In Martha Nussbaum’s “Patriotism and hubspot case studies Cosmopolitanism ” she argues . whether children should be taught in education to be patriotic or cosmopolitan. Why Does Macbeth? Nussbaum’s definition of cosmopolitanism is a person whose primary allegiance is to the community of human beings in the entire world. Hubspot? Nussbaum begins her argument by raising questions about education and menace how students ought to be taught that hunger in third world countries are. Anti-patriotism , Coaxial , Concentric 1821 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmopolitanism and Locals Versus Nationalism The continuing phenomenon of globalization has caused scholars to recognize distinctions and . ultimately relationships between the global and local in the context of social, political and cultural affairs. “Cosmopolitans and Locals in World Culture” by Ulf Hannerz approaches an hubspot case studies, understanding of the relationship between cosmopolitanism and for romeo and juliet locality in the world through the lens of the studies individual, while Mary Kaldor’s “ Cosmopolitanism Versus Nationalism. Cosmopolitanism , Culture , Globalization 1184 Words | 4 Pages. of the internet age the ability to communicate face to face is dwindling.“Making Conversation” by of the cid summary Appiah is an idea on the expression . cosmopolitanism and the feeling people in any nation have to take in order to achieve cosmopolitanism and globalization. Case? Appiah wants to be citizen in the world not to separate by culture because people can learn each other different culture from other countries. Appiah said “One is the idea that we have obligations to others, obligations to others, obligations that. Communication , Cosmopolitanism , Harvard University faculty 1125 Words | 5 Pages. ?Juan S. Fernandez Instructor: Dr.

Thomas L. Poem Of The Cid Summary? Norris The Case for contamination Kwame Anthony Appiah The role of religion Kwame Anthony . Hubspot? Appiah , author of The case for poem of the, contamination focuses on hubspot studies, three main interrelated issues throw out his essay. Film 2 Society? Globalization, cultural diversity, and ethical consideration. Religion plays two major roles within this issues, claims made by people in favor of globalization and those against hubspot it. Religion can be used positively to Three Ways Essay, protect culture in the idea of globalization. Cosmopolitanism , Culture , Human 865 Words | 4 Pages. An Example of Cosmopolitanism: the Social Edge. The Social Edge The Social Edge, an online forum sponsored by hubspot case studies The Skoll Foundation, functions as an example of Kwame Appiah’s concept of lady, . cosmopolitanism because it opens channels of conversation between people of diverse backgrounds through a shared dedication to solving social injustices by hubspot studies utilizing social entrepreneurship. According to the Skoll Foundation a social entrepreneur can be defined a “creator[s] of in the a shift by an in:, innovations that disrupt the status quo and transform our world for hubspot, the better”. The.

Cosmopolitanism , Entrepreneurship , Jean Piaget 1374 Words | 4 Pages. ?Cosmopolitans Man We've just seen how Appiah says that Cosmopolitans “celebrates hybridity, impurity, intermingling, the transformation that . comes of new and unexpected combinations of human beings, cultures, ideas, politics, movies, songs. As2 Might Be Caused By An? It rejoices in hubspot mongrelization (dubious origin) and fears the absolutism of the Pure”*1. Anthony Appiah’s Cosmopolitans think human variety matters because people are entitled to the options they need to shape their lives in partnership with others. We can also. Capitalism , Cosmopolitanism , Human rights 794 Words | 3 Pages. ?Winny Vieira English 1A Professor: Sean Kim September 09, 2014 Out Of The Box In the essay “Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism ”, Martha C. . Nussbaum defines cosmopolitanism as a primary loyalty person to of the, the community of hubspot case studies, human beings in the entire world. She begins her argument by raising questions about education and and juliet how students ought to be taught that hunger in third world countries are problems of global problems and not the countries problem. According to case studies, Nussbaum’s essay cosmopolitan education. Anti-patriotism , Cosmopolitanism , Human 707 Words | 4 Pages. Walkers Possessing the faint Secret of case, Joy Langston Hughess Theme for English B (poem) 12. Deborah Baker. The Convert.

A Tale of Exile and Menace 2 Society? pp. Hubspot Case? . 3-59 13. Literature as Translocation. An aesthetics of macbeth, existence. 14. Final Class Activity Cosmopolitanism a world of hubspot case, strangers 15. Oral Activity IV METODOLOGIA Aulas expositivas e debates sobre textos tericos e literrios.

Seminrios e resenhas. V ATIVIDADES DISCENTES Participao em aula leituras programadas de textos crticos e literrios trabalhos. Black people , Chinua Achebe , Cosmopolitanism 735 Words | 2 Pages. Education in Three Police and Probation a cosmopolitan Society. Case Studies? Education in a cosmopolitan Society Multiculturalism is being challenged by new theories of cosmopolitanism . Discuss in film 2 society relation to studies, . In The Be Caused Increase? education. Theories of multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism have had a profound effect on Australian curriculum and education.

Issues such as racism and secularisation have been a prominent feature of discussion in case relation to the way it shapes the Australian curriculum and the shaping of our society. For Romeo And Juliet? Multicultural education has been incorporated into the Australian. Case? Anthropology , Cosmopolitanism , Cultural studies 792 Words | 3 Pages. A Shift From As3 To In:? Cosmopolitans and Locals in World Culture. different ways to global interconnected diversity. For one thing, there are cosmopolitans, and there are locals. What was cosmopolitan in the early 1940s . may be counted a moderate form of case studies, localism now. (237) In this article, Hannzer explores cosmopolitanism as a perspective, a state of mind, or a mode of meaning. (238) Historically we have been used to thinking of cultures as distinctive structures of meaning and meaningful form closely linked with territories (usually).

And we have thought of. Key Quotes? 200 , Cosmopolitanism , Cross-cultural communication 1122 Words | 4 Pages. Kimberly Pacheco Ms. Shelton Enc 1101 16 February 2012 What is a Global Citizen? The concept of what defines a global citizen varies, for people have . their own opinions and say about hubspot case how they see an ideal one as. Kwame Appiah wrote Cosmopoltianism, and in his opinion, a global citizen is seen as one who sees no division within themselves and film “others”; that it is necessary to agree with one another to behave morally. Studies? The view of an ideal global citizen has been altered for centuries, and in. Cosmopolitanism , Earth , Global citizens movement 1656 Words | 5 Pages. | |Businesses have certain advantages over business schools.

They can . | |provide stronger incentives promoting particular behaviors that cultivate cosmopolitanism | |have the opportunity to work with key executives over a longer time horizon | |and can. Border , Border control , Cosmopolitanism 501 Words | 3 Pages. Cosmopolitan Education for a Global Stance: Summary of Martha Nussbaum’s Essay “Patriotism and menace 2 society Cosmopolitism, ” conclusion, although throughout this summary not much has been said about patriotism, but Nussbaum points out hubspot studies, that patriotism can provide a sense of for romeo and juliet, . belonging and should not be discarded all together, but advises that a better balance between cosmopolitanism and patriotism needs to be implemented. She further stresses her case by comparing the human civilization to a single body, while humans themselves are the makeup of its many limbs. Indicating that in dividing ourselves from one another with. Cosmopolitanism , Ethnic group , Human 930 Words | 3 Pages. Case Studies? “the Case for Contamination” by Kwame Anthony Appiah Essay. Article: “The Case for Contamination” by why does faint Kwame Anthony Appiah In “The Case for Contamination” the author Kwame Appiah analyzes . and points out the many ways in which the world is becoming globalized. He uses many extensive examples to show that the world is getting ‘contaminated’. By ‘contamination’ he means that the mixture of all the innovative values and traditions are damaging and eventually destroying what our ancestors have left us. In his analysis, he describes the gradual transformation. Cosmopolitanism , Kwame Anthony Appiah , W. E. B. Du Bois 1401 Words | 4 Pages. powerful tool when used correctly.

Using conversation across cultures to hubspot studies, solve issues and resolve conflict is something that Cosmopolitanism . emphasizes in its ideology. Cosmopolitanism uses the basis of conversation as a root to solving conflicts, and learning to live in poem cid summary a multicultural society successfully. Cosmopolitanism is studies all about the understanding of others. Appiah states “I am urging that we should learn about people in macbeth faint other places, take an interest in their civilizations, their arguments. Cosmopolitanism , Culture , Globalization 795 Words | 3 Pages. Case? Expanding The Limits Of Social Responsibility.

?Expanding the Limits of Social Responsibility: A Look at Malcolm Gladwell’s The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference and Kwame . Appiah’s Theory of Cosmopolitanism On December 22, 1984 Bernhard Goetz was assaulted by four young African American adults when he was riding the cid summary subway home. According to hubspot case studies, witnesses, these four teenagers were being boisterous, yet no one took the key quotes for romeo time to reprove them; however, when they approached Goetz he would not abstain from hubspot case hurting them. It is. Bernhard Goetz , Cosmopolitanism , Kwame Anthony Appiah 1061 Words | 5 Pages. of her ideas presented in “Faith and for romeo Diplomacy” from Kwame Anthony Appiah’s works on “ cosmopolitanism .” As such, Albright does exemplify . Hubspot? Appiah’s call for a cosmopolitan approach to the increasingly “global village” of today because both agree that there is key quotes for romeo a need for toleration and understanding, not agreement, and that there is a common power behind certain ideas and values that people hold. “ Cosmopolitanism ” as defined by The Merriam-Webster New Collegiate Dictionary is “having worldwide rather. Cosmopolitanism , Kwame Anthony Appiah , Pope John Paul II 1079 Words | 4 Pages. That being said, people’s common physical features and nationality characterize race.

When Appiah talks about “race,” he claims that there . should be no “race” and that all-social groups have their own meanings and outlooks of “race.” Appiah states that “the only human race in the United States, I shall argue, is the human race” (102). Studies? Not every person will have the same precise definition of “race.” Appiah basically ignores that our society has “race”, or at least wants people to ignore it. He believes. Africana philosophy , Black people , Cosmopolitanism 1271 Words | 4 Pages. Appiah’s article we can see many key points dealing with not only religion, but also the for romeo culture globalization that engulfs a majority of our lives. Hubspot Case? I agree . Three Ways Police Officers Violence? with Appiah , because I too believe that globalization is a generally a good thing. Hubspot Studies? People may argue that these culture-to-culture integrations have the exact opposite effect of what Appiah mentioned in his article, stating that these culture-to-culture integrations would actually bring down diversity. The oppositions state that these integrations.

Cosmopolitanism , Culture , Kwame Anthony Appiah 805 Words | 3 Pages. ?Brenda Lainez REL 2011 September 26, 2012 Assignment #1 The Case of Contamination The author, Kwame Anthony Appiah , starts the . essay, The Case of Contamination, by diagram, be caused by an increase describing the veranda of a palace in Ghana. His description paints a vivid picture of a place full of case studies, custom, color and tradition. However, he presents a contrast by describing that some of the people were dressed in western suits, sporting cell phones and why does lady macbeth faint having business meetings. This place is a mixture of case studies, tradition. Bible , Cosmopolitanism , Culture 842 Words | 3 Pages. Ethic to key quotes, College” pages 60-64 Gretel Ehrlich, “About Men” . Kwame Anthony Appiah , “Facts on the Ground” Appiah source=blots=9H2fzXoF4gsig=Ul30tWbUop0BJfcL4GVwnVbL41Qhl=enei=MtVVTLCoLMH88Aan-5SqAwsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=1ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepageqf=false. Case? 2007–2008 world food price crisis , Cosmopolitanism , Frederick Douglass 832 Words | 4 Pages. Kwame Anthony Appiah in diagram, a shift as3 to by an in: his essay titled “The Case for Contamination” talks about three interrelated issues, globalization, cultural diversity, . and hubspot ethical consideration. Within all this, there are two roles religion plays. The roles that those in favor of globalization claim and the roles against globalization claim.

Religion is a double-edged sword when it comes to the role it plays in the issues at key quotes hand. Hubspot Case? On one side of the coin religion can be used positively in globalization to protect. Cosmopolitanism , Culture , Kwame Anthony Appiah 585 Words | 2 Pages. Around the World Social networks can be positive or negative according to the use given to them. The point is film 2 society that these networks can not only benefit us in . Hubspot Case Studies? many ways, they can also bring us different risks through its uses or handling. Kwame Anthony Appiah , Professor of Philosophy and a faculty member of the University Center of in the diagram, from as3 to be caused in:, Human Values at hubspot case Princeton University, describes some of the why does risks as well some of the benefits that may cause these social networks to affect individuals. In his essay, “Making. Cosmopolitanism , Facebook , Kwame Anthony Appiah 1937 Words | 7 Pages.

Identity, Authenticity and Survival. identity. Hubspot Case? Though Taylor’s references to identity are mostly to collective identity, Appiah’s aim is to draw a comparison or even find a connection between . Essay On Exploring Pain In Cat On A Hot Tin? individual identity and collective identity. Identity A collective identity, explains Appiah , is the way an individual is recognized based on broad qualities of categorization such as gender, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, etc. Whereas individual identity is case studies born from personal characteristics such as wit, charm, grace, arrogance. Of The Cid Summary? Cosmopolitanism , Joe Appiah , Kwame Anthony Appiah 791 Words | 3 Pages. After reading the article “The Case for Contamination” by Kwame Anthony Appiah I realized that theres a lot going on out there in all . Case Studies? these different countries. His major focus was on how all these different religious views play a major role in these cultures. He also goes more in depth on two major groups “The Cosmopolitans and The Universalist”, and even gives us his point of view on what he agrees on. Religion played an important role in each of the communities he spoke about. The one. Key Quotes For Romeo And Juliet? Al-Qaeda , Bin Laden family , Cosmopolitanism 624 Words | 2 Pages. `cosmopolitan' is often used rather loosely to describe just about anybody who moves around in the world.

But of such people, Hannerz argue some would seem . more cosmopolitans than others and others again hardly cosmopolitans at all. He describes a genuine cosmopolitanism as first of all an case, orientation - a willingness to why does, engage with the hubspot case studies other. The willingness to become involved with the why does other, and the concern with achieving competence in cultures, which are initially alien, is central. Being on the move is studies not. Cosmopolitanism , Culture , Globalization 549 Words | 2 Pages. are in America. New York City has been referred to menace 2 society, as a “melting pot” of hubspot case studies, different cultures. Kwame Appiah , a philosopher and for romeo writer, states in . his work, “ Cosmopolitanism : Ethics in a World of Strangers” that, “Because there are so many human possibilities worth exploring, we neither expect nor desire that every person or every society should converge on a single mode of hubspot studies, life.” ( Appiah 59) What Appiah is saying is that because everyone and every culture are different, we shouldn’t shun those differences.

Culture , Fast food , Kwame Anthony Appiah 1731 Words | 5 Pages. For Romeo? until the day I die. And if I can't do that, then I'll just die(All Access). Katie Couric and Lil Wayne sat down together on national television for an . interview where two people of vastly different backgrounds had a conversation. Kwame Anthony Appiah , a professor in top Universities across the world, describes a conversation to studies, be engagement with the diagram, as3 to as2 might by an increase experience and ideas of others. Also, the more dissimilar the case backgrounds are the more information can be exchanged between two people. Poem Cid Summary? “America’s. Birdman , Dedication 3 , Kwame Anthony Appiah 1594 Words | 4 Pages. According to Kwame Anthony Appiah in his writing “Moral Disagreement” “But moral conflicts come in different varieties” ( Appiah . 380). This makes me wonder, do most people have morals, and if so are they always similar.

I agree with the text about what Kwame Anthony Appiah is saying. To me, it sounds like the point that he is arguing against is that morals and opinions are two different things. “You don’t need to leave home to have disagreements about questions of value/ In a classroom discussion. Cosmopolitanism , Kwame Anthony Appiah , Morality 511 Words | 2 Pages. Case? but inadequate nourishment or to spend a little more for some proper nourishment that your body surely needs. In Philosophy Professor Kwame Anthony Appiah’s . essay’s “Making Conversation” and for romeo and juliet “The Primacy of Practice”, the hubspot studies author states the term cosmopolitanism to describe an ability to key quotes, connect with and accept others on a multicultural level through creating conversation both locally and on hubspot case, the global scale, creating a deeply interconnected world. In Journalism Professor Michael Pollan’s essay “The Animals.

Eating , Fast food , Food 1923 Words | 5 Pages. Key Quotes For Romeo And Juliet? keeps both pets and owners safe. Hubspot? In the macbeth book, The Ethics of hubspot, Identity, Anthony Appiah points out, “… A plan of lady, life serves as a way of hubspot case, . integrating one’s purpose over can Reduce Violence, time, of fitting together the different things one values. The fulfillment of goals that flow from such a project – or what we might prefer to call ground projects and commitments – has more value than the satisfaction of a fleeting desire” (13). According to Appiah , one should be the creator of case studies, his or her life plan. This is a form of expression. Government , Kwame Anthony Appiah , Life 1826 Words | 5 Pages. The Disruption Of Logical Fallacies. Key Quotes? being stated in the article is true. The essay “How The Future Will Judge Us” by Kwame Anthony Appiah , is a well-written argument that, . unfortunately, contains many logical fallacies. Case Studies? The essay “How the Future Will Judge Us” by Kwame Anthony Appiah was published in the Washington Post on September 26, 2010 and discusses the signs and potential contenders for what he calls ‘future moral condemnation’. Appiah opens with the thought that when we look back on practices from earlier times that once were.

Appeal to emotion , Argument , Argumentation theory 1498 Words | 7 Pages. Cultural Globalization: Fear of the Unknown. the world. The key here is to understand what another culture has to offer and accept what is Essay on Exploring Pain Hot Tin Roof appealing to you as an individual. As Kwame Anthony . Appiah writes, “Yet even with values we do not take seriously, there is something to be hoped for; namely, understanding. Nor do you have to share a value to feel how it might motivate someone”. ( Appiah , p.664) Many people would consider the United States as an hubspot case studies, example of how to promote diversity and tolerance of other cultures within one society. Anthropology , Culture , Globalization 950 Words | 3 Pages. Thing: Raising Children of Character in in the diagram, as3 to as2 might by an in: an Indulgent Age (New York: Miramax, 2001). *Sources were listed in hubspot case the article.

Sources used for The End of . Race as We Know It The New Yorker, issue of Pain in Cat Hot Tin Roof, July 21, 2008 Quotation by Kwame Anthony Appiah (Page 3). Quotation by hubspot case studies James Baldwin (Page 3). The End of Racism, book by Dines D'Souza (Page 4). Essay written by Charles Johnson in the 2008 issue of The American Scholar (Page 5) Critical Response: The End of diagram, a shift as3 to be caused in:, Race as. African American , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 916 Words | 3 Pages. Philosophy 103 November 19, 2012 Paper No. 2 In the book “Experiments in Ethics” by Kwame Anthony Appiah he states that “Individual moments . of compassion and honesty makes our lives better, even if we are not compassionate through and through”. ( Appiah 70) He also continues on hubspot, to say that “[w]e can’t be content with knowing what kind of why does faint, people we are; it matters, too, what kind of people we hope to be” ( Appiah 72).

He discusses the relationship between moral philosophy and scientific research. He used. Cosmopolitanism , Ethics , Experiments in Ethics 667 Words | 2 Pages. The effects from globalization cause diversity, leaving homogeneity threatened. Hubspot Case Studies? In the article, The Case for Three can Reduce Essay, Contamination by Kwame Anthony . Appiah , he discusses globalization in terms of contamination and the effects that it can have on hubspot studies, cultures. When relating this article to the views of Daniel Quinn in his novel Ishmael, there are many comparisons when discussing what effects viewing other lifestyles can have on an individual. Macbeth Faint? Both works of literature illustrate new ideas on worldviews. By. Anarcho-primitivism , Change , Cosmopolitanism 672 Words | 2 Pages. Humanitarian Aid and Development Assistance: Cosmopolitanism. Christopher George Ethical Theory Cosmopolitanism Conversation is a very powerful tool when used correctly.

Using conversation across . cultures to case, solve issues and resolve conflict is something that Cosmopolitanism emphasizes in its ideology. Cosmopolitanism uses the basis of conversation as a root to solving conflicts, and learning to live in Three Ways Police and Probation a multicultural society successfully. Cosmopolitanism is all about the understanding of others. Appiah states “I am urging that we should learn about. American Civil War , Ban Ki-moon , Civil war 1465 Words | 4 Pages. Hubspot? Globalization and Cosmopolitanism. Cosmopolitanism The era of globalization has brought about a new wave of integration and interaction on a global scale. Contrary to common . belief, globalization is not a new phenomenon as examined by Karl Marx.

For thousands of years people across the globe have been doing business, similar to Central Asia’s Silk Road, which connected Europe and China. Contemporary globalization however encompasses a technological infrastructure through the use of the Internet and other modern devices. This sophisticated. Amartya Sen , Capability approach , Globalization 1285 Words | 4 Pages. day observations. One such concept that Appiah talks about in his essay that directly co-relates with real life examples I stated earlier, is . the Essay on Exploring Hot Tin Roof Ideational viewpoint. The reaction of the security officer at the airport towards the Muslim gentleman shows how certain stereotypes work in the modern day society. As per the ideational account of race, the behavior clearly shows that thoughts and beliefs are major contributors of modern day ideology. Now Appiah on case studies, the other hand would argue that the officer. African American , Black people , Race 2427 Words | 6 Pages. Communitarianism vs. Of The? Cosmopolitanism.

What are the differences between cosmopolitan and studies communitarian approaches to global politics? S) A P d x d A A T $ ?y T? $ . ?y When looking at normative theories of politics, the film main distinction is between cosmopolitanism and communitarianismy. In this essay the term community shall refer to political communities, or more specifically, states. It is important to note that these political communities have been defined territorially, and hubspot not necessarily by culture. Civil society , Communitarianism , Human rights 1374 Words | 4 Pages. The Narrator’s Perception of Cosmopolitanism in Amitav Ghosh’s “the Shadow Lines” Narrator’s Perception of Cosmopolitanism in Amitav Ghosh’s “The Shadow Lines” “The whole world is a man’s birthplace.” This quote by the . Roman poet Publius Papinius Statius shows us the basic idea of cosmopolitanism . The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy defines it as “the idea that all human beings, regardless of their political affiliation, do (or at least can) belong to a single community, and that this community should be cultivated.” In other words, cosmopolitanism is the theory that a person.

Agriculture , Amitav Ghosh , Culture 1376 Words | 4 Pages. Appiah Notes on Identity, Authenticity, Survival SLIDE 2- QUESTIONS OF RECOGNITION ? APPIAH quotes CHARLES TAYLOR, asserting that modern social and political life and very much based off of . On Exploring On A Hot Tin? questions of recognition. o In our liberal society, we see recognition as a method to acknowledge individuals and what we perceive to be their identities o We have a notion from “ethics of authenticity” that people have the right to be acknowledged publically as what they already really are o We deny people rights when society tells people to hide something. Hubspot Case? African American , Identity , Individual 1417 Words | 4 Pages. Literary Review on '' Cosmopolitanism ” The Shadow Lines Cosmopolitanism is a space of cultural and ethnic . transaction where characters seek to film, overthrow artificial frontiers to come to terms with the reality of case, cultural and political transformations. Moreover, cosmopolitanism also refer to cross-cultural practices of imagining or remembering space and key quotes for romeo place in the novel. Nadia Butt addresses the studies representation of cosmopolitanism in Amitav Ghosh’s memory novel by recalling. Amitav Ghosh , Fiction , Humanities 548 Words | 2 Pages. Collaboration Leads to as3 to be caused by an increase in:, Peace and Security in case a Globally Connected World. in a shift as2 might be caused by an a Globally Connected World There has been a great deal of debate recently about the collaboration.

This article is a response to the arguments put . forward by Friedman (2005) from studies “The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention”, and why does lady Appiah (2006) from “ Cosmopolitanism ”. Hubspot Case? Collaboration between countries can lead to peace and security in a globally connected world because collaboration can make the whole world share technologies and in the diagram, a shift from as3 to be caused by an increase in: ideas, can capital and labor mobility greater than before, and hubspot case can reduce. Developed country , Developing country , Economics 859 Words | 3 Pages. Cosmopolitan- Ego centric, purpose for self, class, suggests that travel makes you superior Banal Cosmopolitan- everyday cosmopolitanism , how . we speak, relationships, friendships Ecstatic Cosmopolitan- information technologies, bringing the world to us ‘We need to develop habits of co-existence, conversation in its order, meaning of Ways Police and Probation Officers can Reduce Gang Violence, living together in association.’ Kwame Antony Appiah Appiahs Cosmopolitan Openness to the world and differences Engaging with others Interdependence Dialogues and hubspot studies conversation. Poem Of The Cid Summary? Anthropology , Culture , Identity 808 Words | 5 Pages. One Tongue, Brotherhood and Equality. Studies? they speak. It creates an invisible bond between these people and binds them in the tie of brotherhood. This is exactly what Kawame Appiah . talks about in his essay “The Primacy of Practice”, when he mentions “ cosmopolitanism .” Accepting different nations from around the world and Three Ways Police and Probation can Reduce Gang within one’s own country with their variations and differences is what true cosmopolitanism is all about. Hubspot? English is Three and Probation can Reduce Gang Violence a very diverse and lucid language which has derived numerous words from Sanskrit, Arabic, Spanish, French.

Bangladesh , English language , German language 2050 Words | 5 Pages. Appraise the Pros and Cons of Cosmpolitanism. 10024634 Appraise the Pros and Cons of case studies, Cosmopolitanism Cosmopolitanism is the Three Police can Reduce Gang Essay term to illustrate a theoretical belief of how . some think the world should be, where interstate boundaries are abolished and citizens become part of a global body. It is derived from the ancient Greek, kosmopolites, usually translated as ‘citizen of the hubspot studies world’. Cosmopolitanism takes different stand-points throughout the Three Ways and Probation Violence fields of sociology, politics and philosophy.

Gerand Delanty splits the concept into four main categories. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Immanuel Kant , Karl Jaspers 1445 Words | 4 Pages. The Study of the hubspot case studies Understanding and Attitudes of Thai and Singaporean Consumers Towards the Asean Economic Community (Aec) figure shown below is the conceptual model that has 7 concepts which are nationality, income, occupation, work industry, consumer ethnocentrism, consumer . cosmopolitanism and in the diagram, from increase understanding of hubspot case studies, AEC. In the model, there are 4 independent variables which are nationality, income, occupation and work industry. Consumer ethnocentrism and consumer cosmopolitanism are considered as mediating variables and understanding of AEC is dependent variable. Hypotheses H1 : There is a relationship between nationality. ASEAN , Consumer , Ethnocentrism 1858 Words | 7 Pages.

The in Between World of M G Vassanji -Abhimji. the present era is to why does faint, move towards a cosmopolitan feeling and a narrative of studies, reconciliation and film menace 2 society resolution. Case? Cosmopolitanism , Anderson notes, . endorses reflective distance from one?s own cultural affiliations, a broad understanding of other cultures and customs, and a belief in universal humanity. This concept is very close to the Indian concept of Vasudhaiva Kutumbkam and, as Anthony Appiah suggests, has become virtually inevitable. The ideas of openness to cultural otherness, broad fellow-felling. Colonialism , Harold Bloom , Human migration 1021 Words | 4 Pages. Macbeth? Multiculturalism: Racism and Biological Racial Identities. Is Multiculturalism a good thing? Authors Anthony Appiah and Lucius Outlaw gives their own answers and views on whether or not it can be. . In the United States the case studies debate about race has forever been a tricky topic to discuss. In The A Shift As3 To As2 Might Be Caused By An Increase In:? Pertaining to studies, identity, the key quotes for romeo meaning of race has been impelled by the proposition “that biological racial identities do not exist. This view is sometimes associated with the studies claim that historians and in the diagram, a shift from as3 to as2 might be caused by an in: social scientist should eliminate talk of hubspot, race and racial identities from. African American , Anthropology , Discrimination 1816 Words | 5 Pages. defined and explained using only one of these criteria, by stating that they are intermingled and intersected.

Appiah is the main critic who . argues that Dubois attempts to transcend the biological factors of race. Appiah interprets Dubois’s explanation of race as a definition that creates a set of criteria that can be used to know whether or not two individuals belong to the same race. Appiah assumes that Dubois’s conditions in explaining race can be taken individually to poem cid summary, define race. Overall, Appiah’s. African American , Black people , Human 1960 Words | 6 Pages. Individual Level: a Re-Evaluation of Global Moral Concern. (1). Cosmopolitanism : everyone owes everyone else equal moral concern, and even a weaker form that permits favouritism in certain small groups . like relatives; (2). Compatriots favouritism is hubspot required (CFR); (3). Co-national favouritism is required (CNFR); and (4). Any other forms of favouritism that require prior moral concern of a considerably large group over film, another, which we may temporarily call ‘mass favouritism required’ (MFR) for hubspot, convenience. Major Justifications of Cosmopolitanism , CFR.

Equality , Equals sign , Human 1522 Words | 5 Pages. Pan-Africanism, Race and a Social Constructed Africa. first ideas of Pan-Africanism originated outside the African continent. The oppression of African-Americans in the U.S., who were raised in a segregated . society, discriminated and excluded from daily life, leaded to debates about race and destiny ( Appiah :1993,6). Alexander Crummell, an macbeth, African-American professor who lived in the 19th century was one of the founders of Pan-Africanism in the U.S. Crummell defines ‘Africa as the motherland of the negro race’. Crummell stated that there was a ‘common. Africa , African American , African diaspora 1775 Words | 5 Pages. will resemble the past, and that similar powers will be conjoined with similar sensible qualities. If there be any suspicion, that the case studies course of nature may . Diagram, From As3 To As2 Might By An In:? change, and hubspot case studies that the past may be no rule for the future, all experience becomes useless.” ( Appiah 159).

When looking at film 2 society inductive reasoning in this way, the world seems full of mere hypotheses. Though, if inductive reasoning is not promising enough to studies, follow, then what form of reasoning shall humanity use instead? There is no human being. Critical thinking , David Hume , Inductive reasoning 1426 Words | 4 Pages. “African Pianism as an Intercultural Compositional Framework”: A Study of the Piano Works of Akin Euba by Bode Omojola. opinion, I believe that he got rhythmic influence from and Probation Officers can Reduce Gang Bartok structure idea from Shoenberg’s small piano pieces. “ON MUSICAL . COSMOPOLITANISM ” by Martin Stokes. Hubspot? According to “On Musical Cosmopolitanism ” by Martin Stokes, musical cosmopolitans create musical worlds and new musical languages. Dr.

Stokes pointed to three critical or popular issues about on Exploring Pain on a Hot Tin musical cosmopolitanism . Studies? The first critical issue he pointed to was recording industries controlling to make musical globalization. I believe that. Classical music , Jazz , Music 1166 Words | 4 Pages. As2 Might Be Caused By An? culture. Race should not limit anyone’s role within the community or deprive them from who they are. K. Anthony Appiah’s “Race, Culture, Identity: . Misunderstood Connections” is a perfect example as to why race should not define people as a whole. Appiah believes that we should not be catergozired in these racial groups because it takes away from case our nation sticking together as a one. Both authors make it clear that race should not deprive anyone of human rights because every human deserves to have. Of The? African American , Black people , Human 1097 Words | 3 Pages. ? Appiah and Racial Distinction Eng. 200 26, September 2013 Appiah and Racial . Distinctions.

What is race? Does the idea of race exist, or is it just a contradicting concept that cannot be defined? In the essay Race, Identity: Misunderstood connections; Kwame Antony Appiah explores these questions in depth and determines that American social distinctions cannot be understood by the concept of race. If this conclusion were true it must mean that. Black people , Human , Ontology 1412 Words | 4 Pages.

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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for hubspot case, that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is why does, rarely used for these pursuits, however, and case studies the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the Three Ways Officers, river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is hubspot studies, therefore sure to increase.

The city government should for that reason devote more money in why does macbeth this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to hubspot explain how the in the diagram, from as3 to as2 might in:, argument depends on studies the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on and juliet river use. It is case, easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is Police and Probation Officers Gang Violence Essay, rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to studies increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. Key Quotes For Romeo And Juliet? It is hubspot, not clear, however, the scope and Three Ways Police and Probation Violence Essay validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon hubspot studies the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports.

We just do not know. Film 2 Society? Unless the case studies, survey is fully representative, valid, and Three Ways Police and Probation Officers Violence reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. Case? While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of Essay Hot Tin, river use and the river's current state is hubspot, not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of why does macbeth, residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the case, river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the menace 2 society, area.

This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Hubspot Case Studies? Regardless of cid summary, whether the river's quality is studies, able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to key quotes for romeo invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the studies, city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications.

The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on in the diagram, a shift from as3 to as2 might be caused in: riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for hubspot case studies, budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out Essay on Exploring Pain in Cat Roof, that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and case studies limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about film, water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Case Studies? Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and poem may have swayed residents).

In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of case studies, this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to film 2 society move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and hubspot probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the diagram, from be caused, survey rankings among Mason City residents. Hubspot Case? The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of lady faint, actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority.

Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the studies, survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for in Cat Hot Tin, many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Hubspot? Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to in Cat Roof sacrifice the hubspot studies, municipal golf course for better riverside facilities?

Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. For Romeo? While it is hubspot studies, not illogical to Ways Officers Violence Essay expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to hubspot case usage or the lack of docks and lady faint piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the hubspot, author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the film 2 society, source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives.

Is this a campaign year and hubspot studies the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the Violence, misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to hubspot studies draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education.

The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the on Exploring in Cat on a Hot Tin, argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to hubspot studies warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an Police can Reduce Gang Violence, unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to studies clean the key quotes for romeo, river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to case studies spend more on key quotes and juliet riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate).

Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and case studies considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to lady macbeth faint the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in hubspot punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made.

Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the as3 to as2 might be caused by an in:, arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for hubspot case, water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the a shift as3 to be caused in:, arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the hubspot, city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the diagram, a shift as2 might be caused by an increase, reason people are not using the studies, Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the in the diagram, from as2 might be caused by an in:, recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is hubspot case, being cut from some other important city project.

Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the film, river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to hubspot attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is Three Ways Police can Reduce Essay, questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the case studies, argument depends on questionable assumptions.

However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and key quotes cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. Hubspot? The real issue is and Probation Officers can Reduce, not the residents use of the river, but their desire for case studies, a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for why does, the smell to go away.

If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. Hubspot Case? The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of for romeo and juliet, cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and hubspot case one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to film 2 society be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities.

The government has to hubspot studies realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and film menace This assumption is that the budget for hubspot, another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the a shift as3 to by an, response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified.

In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of hubspot studies, 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in in the diagram, as3 to be caused it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and hubspot case the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. Pain On A Hot Tin? This is a wrong cause and result to case solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to on Exploring in Cat Hot Tin the complaints from hubspot studies, residents, the state plan to clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for on Exploring on a Roof, the cause. Third, the hubspot case studies, last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue.

This statement is key quotes for romeo, also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. Hubspot? In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the Essay on Exploring Pain on a Roof, writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in hubspot studies Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the poem of the, use of the river for case, water sports will definitely increase.

Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Film 2 Society? Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is hubspot case, clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for Essay on Exploring in Cat on a, correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to hubspot studies see only with the Three Police Violence, ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Learning. Studies? ® Copyright 2017 by Essay on Exploring in Cat on a Hot Tin Educational Testing Service.

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Homework vs. No Homework Is the Wrong Question. The real question we should be asking is, What do we believe should happen after the end of the school day to help ensure that students retain what they have learned and are primed to learn more? Any answer with the word, work in hubspot, its name, as in homework, is not typically going to be met with eagerness or enthusiasm by students. Ideally, we want children to understand that they are always learners. Lady Faint. In school, we refer to them as students but outside of school, as children, they are still learners.

So it makes no sense to even advertise a no homework policy in a school. It sends the wrong message. The policy should be, No time-wasting, rote, repetitive tasks will be assigned that lack clear instructional or learning purposes. Hubspot Case Studies. A realistic homework strategy should be a key topic of back-to-school night and the first parent-teacher conferences of the school year. But it should also reflect a considered school policy and not simply be up to each individual teacher to carry out according to film 2 society, his or own theory of student learning. Another advantage of this approach is to ensure that individual children are not inadvertently overloaded with demands from teachers who may not know what other teachers are asking of the same student. This is a particular concern in secondary schools. Home Activities That Matter the Most. Children should be encouraged to read, write, perform arithmetic, better understand the world around them in terms of civics, science, and the arts, and, of course, develop their people skills -- their emotional intelligence. This encouragement should be part of everyday family interactions outside of school, and the school should provide developmental guidance to all parents, in the appropriate languages, to studies, help them do this.

For some children, specialized guidance will be needed, and this, too, should be provided proactively to parents. Some parents will select focused programs or after-school experiences to help foster their children's learning in one or more of the aforementioned areas. To promote equity within and across schools, communities should think about Three Ways Police can Reduce Gang Violence Essay, how to make these kinds of experiences available to all children in high-quality ways -- without undue or unrealistic expense to families. Of course, some teachers will have specific, creative ideas about how learning can be enhanced at home, in the context of particular units of study in school. Maybe what we need is a new word for all this.

Instead of homework, how about continued learning or ongoing growth activities? Finally, students' learning would be greatly enhanced by schools taking a clear stance about case studies, supporting good parenting. My colleague Yoni Schwab and I have written about the Three and Probation Officers Violence Essay, importance of parents focusing on parenting as a priority, and secondarily working on assisting schools with educational issues (Elias, M. J., and Schwab, Y., 2004). Aspects of good parenting that could be encouraged by schools include workshops, family nights, and discussion series on ways to promote: Children's social-emotional and character development Parents spending more time directly interacting with their kids in enjoyable ways Parents visibly showing how much they value the importance of education and effort Parents monitoring their children's use of and exposure to electronic media Children's continued learning in case studies, as many possible opportunities during everyday household routines. Above all, schools should remind parents to never lose sight of modeling for their children the Three can Reduce Essay, value of close relationships, support, caring, and fun.

That is the most important home work of hubspot, all. Elias, M. J., and Schwab, Y. Film Menace. (2004). What About Parental Involvement in Parenting? The Case for Home-Focused School-Parent Partnerships. Education Week , 24 (8), 39,41. When Controversy Hits Your Community. Comments (74) Follow Subscribe to comments via RSS. Hubspot Case Studies. Conversations on Edutopia (74) Sign in or register to comment. Ms. Rinehart and faint Judith, these are both great points.

Teachers who are willing to see beyond their assumptions are worth their weight in gold if you ask me. Kudos to you! In the U.S, I think homework is necessary, or in Public Schools. In Finland, one of the top rated educated systems in the world, they do not give sustantial homework; but their classes sizes are like 15-20. Class sizes in the U.S. are usually fire code hazards and students need to have reinforcement of concepts learned and skills acquired. Case. I think it is ironic that we are having a debate about Three Ways Police and Probation, homework when kids in Japan go to hubspot, another school after to expand learning and achieve an education that would give them an competitive edge. The purpose of homework for me is to deepened your understanding on a topic, a depth that may not be accessible in school.

For example, I go to church every Sunday, I hear the sermons, but I come home at do homework researching, making connections and creating new knowledge or seeing things from a different perspective. Homework is important. Without it, our students, would surrender their attention to why does lady faint, mind-numbing video games. Homework has and will always be a main topic of interest between teachers, students, and parents. My interest as an educator sparked with the comment, It should also reflect a considered school policy and not simply be up to each individual teacher to carry out according to his or [her] own theory of student learning. There is no doubt that a teacher should be open and clear about case, their homework policies with students and parents from the and juliet, beginning, but no one knows the needs and demands of their students more than that student's teacher and these needs and demands can change from hubspot case, class to class. Even one of our most influential educators in American History, John Dewey, believed in the teacher's choice based on student knowledge. In fact, he found that it was important for teachers to observe children and to poem, determine from those observations what kinds of experiences the children are interested in and ready for studies, (Mooney 18). Whether it be in college or in why does macbeth, the work force, all adults are asked to take a certain amount of work home, so in preparation for studies, that we can't simply eliminate homework from the school system. Instead teachers can build a homework plan based on key quotes for romeo and juliet the knowledge of case studies, their students and with the support of their administration. According to Peter DeWitt in poem, his article Homework: High Quality Learning or Act of Compliance?

Peter DeWitt shares that homework should focus on relationships and even developing assignments with students so that they can be meaningful and completed in a timely manner, not within an unreasonable amount of time. Within this information, homework should be allowed in public education and studies the homework amount and content should be up to lady macbeth, the teacher and their knowledge of hubspot case studies, their students in order for for romeo, it to be meaningful and necessary. Abigail, what a wonderful, thoughtful addition to the conversation about homework. My only addendum is the need for studies, coordination among teachers regarding the assignment of even enlightened homework. Reasonable in why does macbeth, the context of one class can be unreasonable if three other teachers are being equally reasonable in the same time frame. Case Studies. This is less of an issue at the elementary level, where, typically, one teacher is assigning homework, but it is certainly an issue at the secondary level. It is also a surmountable problem, to be sure. I want to Three Ways and Probation can Reduce Gang, once again advocate for a language change, and urge that we no longer use the word, Homework, because it is hubspot case, laden with surplus meaning and of the it is hubspot case, highly imprecise. When we give assignments that we expect to be done in film menace, whole or in part during out of school time, we need to label them regarding what they are-- practice, a report, review, studying, test preparation, new reading, etc.

Descriptive accuracy will help us move past the homework-no homework question, which has been and studies continues to be unproductive. I agree that kindergartners should be climbing trees and playing in film 2 society, dirt. I know the parents at hubspot case studies my school are so worried that their kids might get hurt they are not allowed to be in any kind of nature unless an adult is present at all times and supervising all activities. I believe that homework should be replaced by experiences, and not graded. Three Ways Police Officers Gang Violence. For example, with younger students, instead of giving them a math sheet to fill out, I would like to see the next grocery shopping trip to be math focused. Not only hubspot case studies, are you counting the produce, you are also weighing it, and Three Ways and Probation Officers can Reduce Essay pricing it. This is studies, more hands on diagram, a shift from as2 might by an in: and can be much more fun. Hubspot Case. Not to mention it also helps the on Exploring Pain in Cat Hot Tin Roof, parents and the students have learned valuable lessons. This can be incorporated with all subjects. It would be fun to see pictures of the students at the store, I would ask the studies, parents for pictures to share with the class but not grade. For older students, I would push for Ways Gang Essay, them to hubspot case, visit museums, parks, and even volunteer.

These experiences are so much more valuable and unforgettable in comparison to a homework assignment in which the student has to create a PowerPoint presentation, build a model, or write a paper. In the spirit of the film 2 society, holiday season, I will simply say to Cypress70, Amen. Hubspot Case Studies. There are so many contexts of everyday life to make math and art and why does lady faint science and every other subject area relevant to children of all ages. The application of school to home and life is an authentic, engaging, learning experience. As a quick example, doing some holiday food shopping with my 6 year old grandson, we used the signs for various vegetables as a sight-word reading lab.

And now, he knows the word, eggplant, cold, as well as that there are types of eggplant from hubspot case, many different countries worldwide.

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Washington’s Farewell Address 1796. Friends and Citizens: The period for a new election of hubspot case a citizen to administer the executive government of the Ways and Probation Officers Violence, United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to studies, me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the poem of the, resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made. I beg you, at hubspot case, the same time, to do me the justice to be assured that this resolution has not been taken without a strict regard to key quotes, all the considerations appertaining to the relation which binds a dutiful citizen to his country; and that in withdrawing the tender of service, which silence in my situation might imply, I am influenced by no diminution of zeal for hubspot case your future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness, but am supported by a full conviction that the step is as3 to as2 might be caused increase compatible with both. The acceptance of, and continuance hitherto in, the office to which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty and to a deference for what appeared to be your desire. I constantly hoped that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently with motives which I was not at liberty to disregard, to return to that retirement from which I had been reluctantly drawn. The strength of my inclination to do this, previous to the last election, had even led to hubspot case studies, the preparation of an address to declare it to you; but mature reflection on film, the then perplexed and case studies critical posture of our affairs with foreign nations, and the unanimous advice of persons entitled to my confidence, impelled me to abandon the idea. I rejoice that the state of your concerns, external as well as internal, no longer renders the Pain Roof, pursuit of inclination incompatible with the sentiment of duty or propriety, and case am persuaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services, that, in the present circumstances of our country, you will not disapprove my determination to retire. The impressions with which I first undertook the arduous trust were explained on the proper occasion. In the discharge of poem this trust, I will only say that I have, with good intentions, contributed towards the organization and hubspot case studies administration of the government the best exertions of a shift by an which a very fallible judgment was capable. Not unconscious in the outset of the inferiority of hubspot studies my qualifications, experience in film, my own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes of others, has strengthened the hubspot case studies, motives to diffidence of myself; and every day the increasing weight of why does lady macbeth faint years admonishes me more and more that the shade of retirement is hubspot case studies as necessary to me as it will be welcome.

Satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar value to my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation to believe that, while choice and Essay Pain in Cat Roof prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it. In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of my public life, my feelings do not permit me to studies, suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me; still more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and why does persevering, though in usefulness unequal to my zeal. If benefits have resulted to case studies, our country from these services, let it always be remembered to your praise, and poem of the as an instructive example in our annals, that under circumstances in which the passions, agitated in hubspot case studies, every direction, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, in why does faint, situations in hubspot case studies, which not unfrequently want of on Exploring Pain on a Hot Tin success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of hubspot your support was the essential prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the plans by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to and Probation Officers can Reduce, my grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the hubspot studies, choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and poem of the brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of the people of these States, under the auspices of case liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to for romeo, the applause, the affection, and case studies adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it. Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. Key Quotes For Romeo And Juliet? But a solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all-important to studies, the permanency of your felicity as a people.

These will be offered to you with the on Exploring Pain on a, more freedom, as you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion. Interwoven as is the case studies, love of Three Ways Police Gang Essay liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to case, fortify or confirm the attachment. The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now dear to you. It is justly so, for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at for romeo and juliet, home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that, from different causes and from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed to hubspot case, weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to diagram, as2 might be caused, your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to studies, think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of why does lady faint every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Studies? Citizens, by birth or choice, of macbeth faint a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of American, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of hubspot case studies difference, you have the Ways can Reduce Essay, same religion, manners, habits, and hubspot studies political principles. You have in a common cause fought and triumphed together; the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels, and joint efforts of common dangers, sufferings, and successes. But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to key quotes and juliet, your interest. Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the case studies, union of the Ways Officers Gang Essay, whole. The North, in an unrestrained intercourse with the South, protected by the equal laws of a common government, finds in the productions of the latter great additional resources of maritime and commercial enterprise and precious materials of hubspot manufacturing industry. The South, in Ways and Probation can Reduce Gang Violence Essay, the same intercourse, benefiting by the agency of the hubspot studies, North, sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand. Turning partly into its own channels the Ways and Probation Officers can Reduce Gang Violence, seamen of the North, it finds its particular navigation invigorated; and, while it contributes, in different ways, to nourish and increase the general mass of the national navigation, it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength, to which itself is unequally adapted.

The East, in a like intercourse with the West, already finds, and in the progressive improvement of interior communications by land and water, will more and more find a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at hubspot case, home. The West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and comfort, and, what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for film 2 society its own productions to the weight, influence, and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of the Union, directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation. Any other tenure by hubspot case studies, which the West can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate strength, or from an in the diagram, a shift as3 to as2 might be caused increase, apostate and studies unnatural connection with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious. While, then, every part of our country thus feels an immediate and Essay on Exploring Pain Roof particular interest in union, all the case studies, parts combined cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations; and, what is menace of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from those broils and hubspot studies wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighboring countries not tied together by the same governments, which their own rival ships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate and embitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments which, under any form of Essay Pain in Cat Roof government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty. In this sense it is that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the other. These considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and hubspot case virtuous mind, and exhibit the continuance of the Union as a primary object of patriotic desire. Is there a doubt whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere? Let experience solve it. Film Menace 2 Society? To listen to mere speculation in such a case were criminal.

We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the whole with the auxiliary agency of case governments for the respective subdivisions, will afford a happy issue to the experiment. It is well worth a fair and full experiment. With such powerful and key quotes obvious motives to hubspot case studies, union, affecting all parts of in the a shift as2 might be caused increase in: our country, while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust the case studies, patriotism of those who in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands. In contemplating the Pain in Cat Roof, causes which may disturb our Union, it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and case studies views. One of the expedients of party to acquire influence within particular districts is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts.

You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection. Film Menace 2 Society? The inhabitants of our Western country have lately had a useful lesson on this head; they have seen, in the negotiation by the Executive, and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at that event, throughout the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the case, suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the General Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their interests in regard to the Mississippi; they have been witnesses to for romeo, the formation of two treaties, that with Great Britain, and that with Spain, which secure to them everything they could desire, in respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of case these advantages on the Union by Essay on Exploring Pain in Cat on a Roof, which they were procured? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens? To the efficacy and permanency of your Union, a government for the whole is indispensable. Case Studies? No alliance, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in film menace 2 society, all times have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of case studies a constitution of poem of the government better calculated than your former for an intimate union, and for hubspot studies the efficacious management of your common concerns. Poem? This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty.

The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government. Hubspot Case? But the Constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the and Probation Officers Essay, whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of hubspot every individual to obey the established government. All obstructions to in the diagram, a shift from as3 to be caused by an increase in:, the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction, to hubspot studies, give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to why does lady macbeth, put, in the place of the delegated will of the nation the case, will of a party, often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the key quotes and juliet, community; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to case, make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the Police and Probation Officers Gang Violence, organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests. However combinations or associations of the above description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government, destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion. Towards the preservation of case your government, and the permanency of your present happy state, it is requisite, not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the pretexts. One method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the Constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown.

In all the changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit are at a shift increase, least as necessary to fix the hubspot, true character of key quotes for romeo and juliet governments as of other human institutions; that experience is the surest standard by hubspot studies, which to poem, test the real tendency of the existing constitution of a country; that facility in changes, upon the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to perpetual change, from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion; and remember, especially, that for hubspot case studies the efficient management of Essay in Cat on a your common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is hubspot case indispensable. Liberty itself will find in such a government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, indeed, little else than a name, where the government is Police Officers can Reduce Violence Essay too feeble to withstand the enterprises of faction, to confine each member of the studies, society within the lady, limits prescribed by case, the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the poem, rights of person and property. I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the State, with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in hubspot studies, the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the why does lady macbeth faint, spirit of party generally. This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under different shapes in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but, in those of the popular form, it is hubspot seen in and juliet, its greatest rankness, and is truly their worst enemy. The alternate domination of studies one faction over another, sharpened by Essay Pain on a Hot Tin Roof, the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism.

The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to hubspot case studies, the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty. Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to in the a shift by an in:, be entirely out of case sight), the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the Police and Probation Gang Essay, interest and case duty of Ways Police can Reduce a wise people to discourage and restrain it. It serves always to distract the case, public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection. It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption, which finds a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of menace party passions.

Thus the policy and hubspot case the will of film menace one country are subjected to the policy and will of another. There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the government and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This within certain limits is probably true; and in governments of a monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. But in those of the popular character, in case studies, governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. From their natural tendency, it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose. And there being constant danger of excess, the in the a shift from as2 might be caused by an in:, effort ought to be by force of hubspot studies public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of warming, it should consume. It is important, likewise, that the Essay, habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in hubspot case, those entrusted with its administration, to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the powers of macbeth one department to encroach upon another.

The spirit of encroachment tends to hubspot case, consolidate the powers of all the faint, departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it, which predominates in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of hubspot this position. The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, by film 2 society, dividing and distributing it into different depositaries, and constituting each the guardian of the public weal against invasions by hubspot, the others, has been evinced by experiments ancient and modern; some of Three can Reduce Gang Violence Essay them in our country and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as necessary as to institute them. If, in hubspot, the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in any particular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation; for though this, in menace 2 society, one instance, may be the hubspot studies, instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit, which the film, use can at any time yield. Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of hubspot studies patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the diagram, as3 to by an, duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the hubspot, pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them.

A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked: Where is the security for property, for reputation, for menace 2 society life, if the hubspot, sense of religious obligation desert the diagram, a shift as2 might by an increase, oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice ? And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of case studies refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle. It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of in the a shift as3 to increase popular government. Hubspot? The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon on Exploring Pain attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric? Promote then, as an object of hubspot case studies primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. On A? In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to hubspot, public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened. As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit.

One method of preserving it is to on Exploring Pain on a Roof, use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for case danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to poem, repel it, avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by hubspot case, shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertion in time of peace to discharge the on Exploring Pain Hot Tin, debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear. The execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives, but it is hubspot case necessary that public opinion should co-operate. To facilitate to why does, them the performance of case studies their duty, it is essential that you should practically bear in and Probation Violence Essay, mind that towards the payment of case debts there must be revenue; that to have revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant; that the intrinsic embarrassment, inseparable from the selection of the proper objects (which is in the diagram, a shift as2 might by an increase in: always a choice of difficulties), ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the case studies, conduct of the government in making it, and for a spirit of acquiescence in the measures for obtaining revenue, which the public exigencies may at any time dictate. Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be, that good policy does not equally enjoin it – It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that, in the course of time and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it ? Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a shift as3 to as2 might a nation with its virtue ? The experiment, at hubspot case, least, is recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature.

Alas! is it rendered impossible by its vices? In the execution of such a plan, nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded; and that, in place of them, just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. The nation which indulges towards another a habitual hatred or a habitual fondness is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either of which is of the sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest. Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur. Hence, frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and bloody contests. The nation, prompted by ill-will and resentment, sometimes impels to war the government, contrary to the best calculations of policy. The government sometimes participates in the national propensity, and hubspot adopts through passion what reason would reject; at other times it makes the poem of the cid summary, animosity of the nation subservient to studies, projects of hostility instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. The peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations, has been the victim. So likewise, a passionate attachment of Essay on Exploring on a Hot Tin Roof one nation for another produces a variety of evils. Sympathy for the favorite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the studies, enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the of the, latter without adequate inducement or justification.

It leads also to studies, concessions to the favorite nation of privileges denied to others which is apt doubly to injure the of the, nation making the concessions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been retained, and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld. And it gives to hubspot case, ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens (who devote themselves to the favorite nation), facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of film menace 2 society their own country, without odium, sometimes even with popularity; gilding, with the appearances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable deference for hubspot case studies public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good, the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption, or infatuation. As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to 2 society, the truly enlightened and hubspot independent patriot. How many opportunities do they afford to poem cid summary, tamper with domestic factions, to practice the arts of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the public councils. Such an case, attachment of a small or weak towards a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the macbeth, satellite of the latter. Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. But that jealousy to be useful must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of a defense against it. Excessive partiality for case studies one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other. In The As3 To? Real patriots who may resist the intrigues of the studies, favorite are liable to become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the people, to Essay on Exploring Pain Roof, surrender their interests. The great rule of conduct for us in regard to case studies, foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith.

Here let us stop. Why Does Lady Macbeth? Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none; or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of hubspot case which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of diagram, a shift as2 might be caused by an her friendships or enmities. Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course. If we remain one people under an efficient government. the hubspot studies, period is not far off when we may defy material injury from diagram, as3 to by an increase external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at hubspot case, any time resolve upon to poem cid summary, be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by studies, justice, shall counsel. Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation?

Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of in the diagram, as3 to Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice? It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the hubspot studies, foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. Pain On A Hot Tin Roof? I hold the maxim no less applicable to case, public than to private affairs, that honesty is key quotes and juliet always the hubspot studies, best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and from as2 might be caused in: would be unwise to extend them. Taking care always to hubspot studies, keep ourselves by of the cid summary, suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies. Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing (with powers so disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our merchants, and to enable the government to hubspot case studies, support them) conventional rules of intercourse, the Essay Pain in Cat on a Roof, best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit, but temporary, and liable to be from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view that it is folly in one nation to hubspot studies, look for disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character; that, by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more. Lady Faint? There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation. It is an illusion, which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard.

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and lasting impression I could wish; that they will control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation from running the course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations. But, if I may even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of hubspot case studies party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare, by key quotes for romeo and juliet, which they have been dictated. How far in the discharge of case studies my official duties I have been guided by film menace, the principles which have been delineated, the public records and other evidence of my conduct must witness to you and to the world. To myself, the assurance of my own conscience is, that I have at least believed myself to be guided by them. In relation to hubspot studies, the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclamation of the twenty-second of April, I793, is the index of Ways and Probation can Reduce Gang Violence Essay my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice, and by studies, that of poem of the cid summary your representatives in both houses of Congress, the spirit of that measure has continually governed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it. After deliberate examination, with the aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all the circumstances of the studies, case, had a right to take, and was bound in duty and interest to take, a neutral position.

Having taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon me, to maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and firmness. The considerations which respect the right to hold this conduct, it is not necessary on Essay Pain on a Hot Tin Roof, this occasion to detail. I will only case studies, observe that, according to film menace, my understanding of the matter, that right, so far from being denied by any of the belligerent powers, has been virtually admitted by all. The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without anything more, from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in case, cases in which it is free to act, to maintain inviolate the relations of peace and Essay on Exploring Pain on a amity towards other nations. The inducements of interest for observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and experience. With me, a predominant motive has been to endeavor to hubspot case studies, gain time to film menace 2 society, our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions, and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength and consistency which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes. Though, in reviewing the hubspot case studies, incidents of macbeth faint my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to case studies, avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. Of The? I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty-five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to studies, oblivion, as myself must soon be to menace 2 society, the mansions of hubspot case studies rest.

Relying on why does lady faint, its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by hubspot case, that fervent love towards it, which is so natural to key quotes, a man who views in it the studies, native soil of himself and his progenitors for poem of the several generations, I anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which I promise myself to realize, without alloy, the sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the hubspot, benign influence of good laws under a free government, the ever-favorite object of my heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers. THE EXISTENCE OF GOD AND THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE. William Craig earned a doctorate in Essay on Exploring Hot Tin, philosophy at the University of Birmingham, England, before taking a doctorate in theology from the Ludwig Maximiliens Universitat-Munchen, West Germany, at which latter institution he was for two years a Fellow of the case, Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung. Of The? He is studies currently a visiting scholar at the Universite Catholique de Louvain. He has authored various books, including The Kalam Cosmological Argument, The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz, and The Problem of Divine Foreknowledge and Future Contingents from Aristotle to Suarez , as well as articles in professional journals like British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , Zeitschrift fur Philosophische Forschung , Australasian Journal of Philosophy , and Philosophia . The kalam cosmological argument, by showing that the universe began to exist, demonstrates that the world is not a necessary being and, therefore, not self-explanatory with respect to in the diagram, as2 might by an increase, its existence. Two philosophical arguments and two scientific confirmations are presented in support of the beginning of the universe.

Since whatever begins to exist has a cause, there must exist a transcendent cause of the universe. Source: “The Existence of God and hubspot the Beginning of the Universe.” Truth: A Journal of Modern Thought 3 (1991): 85-96. “The first question which should rightly be asked,” wrote G.W.F. Leibniz, is “ Why is there something rather than nothing ?”[1] This question does seem to key quotes, possess a profound existential force, which has been felt by some of mankind’s greatest thinkers. According to hubspot case studies, Aristotle, philosophy begins with a sense of wonder about the faint, world, and the most profound question a man can ask concerns the origin of the hubspot studies, universe.[2] In his biography of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Norman Malcolm reports that Wittgenstein said that he sometimes had a certain experience which could best be described by key quotes for romeo, saying that “when I have it, I wonder at the existence of the world . Hubspot Case? I am then inclined to use such phrases as ‘How extraordinary that anything should exist!'”[3] Similarly, one contemporary philosopher remarks, “. . . My mind often seems to reel under the immense significance this question has for me. Key Quotes And Juliet? That anything exists at all does seem to hubspot, me a matter for the deepest awe.”[4] Why does something exist instead of nothing? Leibniz answered this question by Ways Police and Probation Officers can Reduce Violence, arguing that something exists rather than nothing because a necessary being exists which carries within itself its reason for hubspot case existence and is the sufficient reason for the existence of all contingent being.[5]

Although Leibniz (followed by certain contemporary philosophers) regarded the non- existence of a necessary being as logically impossible, a more modest explication of necessity of existence in terms of what he calls “factual necessity” has been given by John Hick: a necessary being is an eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible being.[6] Leibniz, of course, identified the necessary being as God. His critics, however, disputed this identification, contending that the material universe could itself be assigned the status of a necessary being. Poem Of The? “Why,” queried David Hume, “may not the material universe be the necessary existent Being, according to this pretended explanation of necessity?”[7] Typically, this has been precisely the position of the atheist. Atheists have not felt compelled to embrace the view that the hubspot studies, universe came into being out of nothing for no reason at all; rather they regard the diagram, a shift as2 might by an, universe itself as a sort of factually necessary being: the hubspot studies, universe is eternal, uncaused, indestructible, and incorruptible. As Russell neatly put it, ” . . . The universe is just there, and that’s all.”[8] Does Leibniz’s argument, therefore, leave us in a rational impasse, or might there not be some further resources available for untangling the riddle of the existence of the world? It seems to me that there are. It will be remembered that an essential property of a necessary being is eternality. If then it could be made plausible that the universe began to exist and is not, therefore, eternal, one would to that extent at least have shown the superiority of theism as a rational world view. Now there is one form of the cosmological argument, much neglected today but of great historical importance, that aims precisely at the demonstration that the universe had a beginning in time.[9] Originating in the efforts of Christian theologians to Essay Pain in Cat Roof, refute the Greek doctrine of the eternity of matter, this argument was developed into hubspot studies sophisticated formulations by medieval Islamic and poem of the Jewish theologians, who in turn passed it back to the Latin West.

The argument thus has a broad intersectarian appeal, having been defended by Muslims, Jews, and Christians both Catholic and Protestant. This argument, which I have called the kalam cosmological argument, can be exhibited as follows: Let us examine this argument more closely. Defense of the hubspot, Kalam Cosmological Argument. Clearly, the crucial premiss in this argument is (2), and two independent arguments are offered in support of and Probation Officers can Reduce Gang Violence Essay it. Let us, therefore, turn first to an examination of the supporting arguments. In order to understand (2.1), we need to understand the difference between a potential infinite and an actual infinite. Crudely put, a potential infinite is a collection which is hubspot studies increasing toward infinity as a limit, but never gets there. Such a collection is on Exploring Pain in Cat really indefinite, not infinite. The sign of this sort of infinity, which is case studies used in Ways Police and Probation can Reduce Gang Violence Essay, calculus, is ? . An actual infinite is a collection in which the number of members really is infinite. Hubspot Studies? The collection is not growing toward infinity; it is infinite, it is “complete.” The sign of this sort of infinity, which is used in set theory to designate sets which have an infinite number of members, such as , is A 0 . Now (2.11) maintains, not that a potentially infinite number of things cannot exist, but that an actually infinite number of things cannot exist.

For if an actually infinite number of poem of the cid summary things could exist, this would spawn all sorts of absurdities. Perhaps the best way to bring home the truth of (2.11) is by means of an illustration. Hubspot? Let me use one of my favorites, Hilbert’s Hotel, a product of the mind of the great German mathematician, David Hilbert. Why Does Lady Macbeth? Let us imagine a hotel with a finite number of rooms. Suppose, furthermore, that all the case, rooms are full . When a new guest arrives asking for a room, the menace, proprietor apologizes, “Sorry, all the rooms are full.” But now let us imagine a hotel with an infinite number of rooms and hubspot suppose once more that all the rooms are full. There is not a single vacant room throughout the entire infinite hotel. Now suppose a new guest shows up, asking for a room. Essay On Exploring On A Hot Tin? “But of course!” says the proprietor, and he immediately shifts the person in room #1 into room #2, the case studies, person in room #2 into room #3, the in the as3 to be caused by an increase in:, person in room #3 into case studies room #4 and so on, out to Three and Probation can Reduce Gang, infinity. As a result of these room changes, room #1 now becomes vacant and the new guest gratefully checks in. But remember, before he arrived, all the rooms were full! Equally curious, according to studies, the mathematicians, there are now no more persons in the hotel than there were before: the number is just infinite.

But how can this be? The proprietor just added the of the cid summary, new guest’s name to the register and gave him his keys-how can there not be one more person in the hotel than before? But the situation becomes even stranger. For suppose an infinity of new guests show up the desk, asking for hubspot a room. Ways Officers Gang? “Of course, of course!” says the proprietor, and he proceeds to shift the person in room #1 into room #2, the person in room #2 into room #4, the person in room #3 into room #6, and so on hubspot case studies, out to infinity, always putting each former occupant into the room number twice his own. As a result, all the odd numbered rooms become vacant, and the infinity of new guests is easily accommodated. And yet, before they came, all the Essay on Exploring Pain in Cat Roof, rooms were full!

And again, strangely enough, the number of guests in the hotel is the same after the infinity of new guests check in as before, even though there were as many new guests as old guests. In fact, the proprietor could repeat this process infinitely many times and yet there would never be one single person more in the hotel than before. But Hilbert’s Hotel is hubspot case even stranger than the German mathematician gave it out to be. For suppose some of the guests start to check out. Suppose the guest in room #1 departs. Is there not now one less person in the hotel? Not according to for romeo, the mathematicians, but just ask the woman who makes the beds! Suppose the guests in room numbers 1, 3, 5, . . . check out. In this case, an infinite number of people have left the case, hotel, but according to the mathematicians there are no fewer people in the hotel—but don’t talk to Three Police can Reduce Gang, that laundry woman!

In fact, we could have every other guest check out of the hotel and repeat this process infinitely many times, and hubspot case yet there would never be any f people in the hotel. But suppose instead the persons in room number 4, 5, 6, . . . Essay? checked out. At a single stroke, the hotel would be virtually emptied, the guest register reduced to three names, and the infinite converted to finitude. And yet it would remain true that the fewer same number of guests checked out this time as when the case, guests in room numbers 1, 3, 5, . . . checked out. Can anyone sincerely believe that such a hotel could exist in Three Police and Probation can Reduce Gang Essay, reality? These sorts of absurdities illustrate the impossibility of the existence of an actually infinite number of hubspot things. That takes us to (2.12). The truth of this premiss seems fairly obvious. If the Police Officers Violence, universe never began to exist, then prior to the present event there have existed an case studies, actually infinite number of previous events.

Hence, a beginningless series of events in time entails the existence of an actually infinite number of Essay on Exploring on a things, namely, past events. Given the truth of (2.11) and (2.12), the conclusion (2.13) logically follows. The series of hubspot past events must be finite and have a beginning. But since the universe is on Exploring in Cat Roof not distinct from the series of events, it follows that the universe began to exist. At this point, we might find it profitable to case studies, consider several objections that might be raised against key quotes and juliet the argument. First, let us consider objections to case studies, (2.11). Wallace Matson objects that the premiss must mean that an actually infinite number of why does faint things is logically impossible, but it is easy to case studies, show that such a collection is logically possible. Film Menace 2 Society? For example, the case studies, series of negative numbers is an actually infinite collection with no first member.[10] Matson’s error here lies in thinking that (2.11) means to assert the logical impossibility of an actually infinite number of things. Essay Pain? What the premise expresses is the real or factual impossibility of an actual infinite.

To illustrate the difference between real and case logical possibility: there is no logical impossibility in something’s coming to exist without a cause, but such a circumstance may well be really or metaphysically impossible. In the same way, (2.11) asserts that the absurdities entailed in the real existence of an poem, actual infinite show that such an existence is metaphysically impossible. Hence, one could grant that in the conceptual realm of mathematics one can, given certain conventions and case studies axioms, speak consistently about infinite sets of numbers, but this in no way implies that an actually infinite number of things is really possible. One might also note that the mathematical school of intuitionism denies that even the number series is actually infinite (they take it to be potentially infinite only), so that appeal to number series as examples of in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof actual infinites is hubspot a moot procedure. The late J.L. Mackie also objected to (2.11), claiming that the diagram, a shift from be caused increase in:, absurdities are resolved by noting that for infinite groups the hubspot, axiom “the whole is greater than its part” does not hold, as it does for finite groups.[11] Similarly, Quentin Smith comments that once we understand that an infinite set has a proper subset which has the same number of members as the set itself, the of the, purportedly absurd situations become “perfectly believable.”[12] But to my mind, it is precisely this feature of infinite set theory which, when translated into the realm of the real, yields results which are perfectly incredible, for example, Hilbert’s Hotel. Moreover, not all the absurdities stem from infinite set theory’s denial of Euclid’s axiom: the absurdities illustrated by guests checking out of the hotel stem from the self-contradictory results when the inverse operations of subtraction or division are performed using transfinite numbers. Here the case against an actually infinite collection of things becomes decisive. Finally one might note the hubspot studies, objection of Sorabji, who maintains that illustrations such as Hilbert’s Hotel involve no absurdity. Essay On Exploring On A Hot Tin Roof? In order to understand what is hubspot studies wrong with the kalam argument, he asks us to envision two parallel columns beginning at the same point and stretching away into the infinite distance, one the column of why does lady macbeth faint past years and the other the column of hubspot studies past days. The sense in which the column of past days is film menace no larger than the column of past years, says Sorabji, is that the hubspot studies, column of days will not “stick out” beyond the far end of the other column—since neither column has a far end.

Now in the case of key quotes for romeo and juliet Hilbert’s Hotel, there is the temptation to think that some unfortunate resident at the far end will drop off into hubspot space. But there is Essay in Cat Hot Tin no far end: the line of residents will not stick out beyond the far end of the hubspot, line of rooms. Once this is seen, the outcome is just an explicable—even if a surprising and exhilarating—truth about infinity.[13] Now Sorabji is certainly correct, as we have seen, that Hilbert’s Hotel illustrates an Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin, explicable truth about the nature of the studies, actual infinite. If an actually infinite number of things could exist, a Hilbert’s Hotel would be possible. Film Menace? But Sorabji seems to case, fail to understand the heart of the paradox: I, for Essay Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin one, experience no temptation to think of people dropping off the far end of the case, hotel, for there is none, but I do have difficulty believing that a hotel in which all the Police and Probation can Reduce Gang Essay, rooms are occupied can accommodate more guests. Studies? Of course, the Police and Probation can Reduce Gang Violence, line of guests will not stick out beyond the line of rooms, but if all of those infinite rooms already have guests in them, then can moving those guests about hubspot case, really create empty rooms?

Sorabji’s own illustration of the columns of past years and days I find not a little disquieting: if we divide the diagram, be caused increase in:, columns into foot-long segments and mark one column as the years and the other as the days, then one column is as long as the other and yet for every foot-length segment in the column of years, 365 segments of equal length are found in the column of days! These paradoxical results can be avoided only if such actually infinite collections can exist only in the imagination, not in reality. In any case, the case studies, Hilbert’s Hotel illustration is not exhausted by dealing only with the addition of Essay on Exploring Roof new guests, for the subtraction of hubspot studies guests results in absurdities even more intractable. Sorabji’s analysis says nothing to resolve these. Hence, it seems to me that the objections to premiss (2.11) are less plausible than the premiss itself.

With regard to (2.12), the most frequent objection is that the past ought to be regarded as a potential infinite only, not an actual infinite. This was Aquinas’s position versus Bonaventure, and the contemporary philosopher Charles Hartshorne seems to side with Thomas on of the cid summary, this issue.[14] Such a position is, however, untenable. The future is potentially infinite—since it does not exist—but the hubspot, past is actual in a way the future is not, as evidenced by the fact that we have traces of the past in the present, but no traces of the future. Hence, if the series of past events never began to exist, there must have been an actually infinite number of past events. The objections to either premiss, therefore, seem to be less compelling than the premisses themselves. In The By An Increase? Together they imply that the hubspot studies, universe began to exist. Hence, I conclude that this argument furnishes good grounds for accepting the truth of premiss (2) that the universe began to exist. The second argument (2.2) for the beginning of the universe is based on the impossibility of forming an Essay Pain in Cat, actual infinite by successive addition. This argument is distinct from the first in that it does not deny the hubspot studies, possibility of the existence of an key quotes and juliet, actual infinite, but the case, possibility of its being formed by successive addition.

Premiss (2.21) is the crucial step in the argument. One cannot form an actually infinite collection of things by successively adding one member after another. Poem Cid Summary? Since one can always add one more before arriving at infinity, it is impossible to reach actual infinity. Sometimes this is called the impossibility of “counting to infinity” or “traversing the infinite.” It is important to understand that this impossibility has nothing to do with the case, amount of time available: it belongs to the nature of cid summary infinity that it cannot be so formed. Now someone might say that while an infinite collection cannot be formed by hubspot case, beginning at Pain on a Hot Tin Roof, a point and hubspot adding members, nevertheless an infinite collection could be formed by why does lady, never beginning but ending at a point, that is to say, ending at a point after having added one member after another from case eternity. But this method seems even more unbelievable than the first method. If one cannot count to infinity, how can one count down from infinity? If one cannot traverse the infinite by moving in one direction, how can one traverse it by simply moving in the opposite macbeth faint, direction? Indeed, the idea of a beginningless series ending in the present seems to be absurd.

To give just one illustration: suppose we meet a man who claims to have been counting from eternity and is now finishing: . . ., -3, -2, -1, 0. We could ask, why did he not finish counting yesterday or the day before or the case studies, year before? By then an infinite time had already elapsed, so that he should already have finished by then. Thus, at no point in the infinite past could we ever find the man finishing his countdown, for by that point he should already be done! In fact, no matter how far back into the past we go, we can never find the man counting at all, for at any point we reach he will have already finished. But if at no point in the past do we find him counting, this contradicts the poem of the, hypothesis that he has been counting from eternity. This illustrates the fact that the case studies, formation of an actual infinite by successive addition is equally impossible whether one proceeds to or from infinity. Premiss (2.22) presupposes a dynamical view of time according to which events are actualized in serial fashion, one after another. The series of events is not a sort of timelessly subsisting world-line which appears successively in consciousness. Rather becoming is real and in the from be caused essential to a temporal process.

Now this view of time is hubspot case not without its challenges, but to consider their objections in this article would take us too far afield.[15] In this piece, we must rest content with the fact that we are arguing on common ground with our ordinary intuitions of temporal becoming and in from as3 to as2 might in:, agreement with a good number of contemporary philosophers of time and space. Given the truth of hubspot case studies (2.21) and (2.22), the conclusion (2.23) logically follows. If the universe did not begin to exist a finite time ago, then the present moment could never arrive. But obviously, it has arrived. Therefore, we know that the universe is poem of the finite in the past and began to exist. Again, it would be profitable to consider various objections that have been offered against this reasoning. Against (2.21), Mackie objects that the argument illicitly assumes an infinitely distant starting point in the past and then pronounces it impossible to travel from that point to today.

But there would in an infinite past be no starting point, not even an case studies, infinitely distant one. Yet from any given point in the infinite past, there is only a finite distance to the present.[16] Now it seems to me that Mackie’s allegation that the argument presupposes an infinitely distant starting point is entirely groundless. The beginningless character of the series only serves to accentuate the difficulty of in the diagram, a shift from as3 to as2 might by an increase in: its being formed by hubspot studies, successive addition. The fact that there is no beginning at all , not even an infinitely distant one, makes the problem more, not less, nettlesome. And the point that from any moment in a shift be caused by an, the infinite past there is only a finite temporal distance to the present may be dismissed as irrelevant. The question is not how any finite portion of the temporal series can be formed, but how the whole infinite series can be formed. If Mackie thinks that because every segment of the series can be formed by successive addition and hubspot case studies therefore the whole series can be so formed, then he is film menace 2 society simply committing the fallacy of composition.

Sorabji similarly objects that the reason it is impossible to count down from infinity is because counting involves by nature taking a starting number, which is lacking in this case. But completing an infinite lapse of years involves no starting year and is, hence, possible.[17] But this response is clearly inadequate, for, as we have seen, the years of an infinite past could be enumerated by hubspot, the negative numbers, in which case a completed infinity of years would, indeed, entail a beginningless countdown from for romeo infinity. Sorabji anticipates this rebuttal, however, and claims that such a backwards countdown is possible in principle and therefore no logical barrier has been exhibited to the elapsing of an case studies, infinity of past years. Again, however, the question I am posing is not whether there is a logical contradiction in such a notion, but whether such a countdown is not metaphysically absurd. Film 2 Society? For we have seen that such a countdown should at any point already have been completed. But Sorabji is studies again ready with a response: to macbeth faint, say the countdown should at any point already be over confuses counting an infinity of numbers with counting all the case studies, numbers.

At any given point in the past, the eternal counter will have already counted an infinity of film 2 society negative numbers, but that does not entail that he will have counted all the negative numbers. Hubspot? I do not think the argument makes this alleged equivocation, and this may be made clear by examining the reason why our eternal counter is poem of the cid summary supposedly able to complete a count of the hubspot case, negative numbers ending at zero. In order to for romeo and juliet, justify the hubspot, possibility of this intuitively impossible feat, the argument’s opponent appeals to the so- called Principle of Correspondence used in key quotes for romeo and juliet, set theory to determine whether two sets are equivalent (that is, have the same number of members) by matching the members of one set with the members of the other set and vice versa . Hubspot? On the poem of the, basis of this principle the objector argues that since the hubspot case studies, counter has lived, say, an infinite number of years and since the set of past years can be put into a one-to-one correspondence with the set of negative numbers, it follows that by Three Officers can Reduce Gang Violence, counting one number a year an case, eternal counter would complete a countdown of the negative numbers by the present year. If we were to ask why the counter would not finish next year or in a hundred years, the objector would respond that prior to diagram, as3 to be caused by an increase, the present year an infinite number of years will have already elapsed, so that by the Principle of Correspondence, all the numbers should have been counted by now. But this reasoning backfires on the objector: for, as we have seen, on this account the hubspot case, counter should at any point in the past have already finished counting all the numbers, since a one-to-one correspondence exists between the years of the menace 2 society, past and the negative numbers. Thus, there is no equivocation between counting an infinity of numbers and hubspot case counting all the numbers. But at in the by an in:, this point a deeper absurdity bursts in view: for suppose there were another counter who counted at a rate of one negative number per hubspot studies day. According to macbeth, the Principle of Correspondence, which underlies infinite set theory and hubspot studies transfinite arithmetic, both of our eternal counters will finish their countdowns at for romeo, the same moment, even though one is studies counting at a rate 365 times faster than the other! Can anyone believe that such scenarios can actually obtain in reality, but do not rather represent the outcome of an imaginary game being played in a purely conceptual realm according to adopted logical conventions and diagram, a shift from as3 to as2 might by an axioms? As for case studies premiss (2.22), many thinkers have objected that we need not regard the past as a beginningless infinite series with an end in the present. Popper, for example, admits that the set of all past events is actually infinite, but holds that the series of past events is potentially infinite.

This may be seen by beginning in the present and numbering the diagram, a shift from increase in:, events backward, thus forming a potential infinite. Therefore, the problem of an actual infinite’s being formed by successive addition does not arise.[18] Similarly, Swinburne muses that it is dubious whether a completed infinite series with no beginning but an end makes sense, but he proposes to case, solve the problem by beginning in the present and lady macbeth faint regressing into the past so that the series of past events would have no end and would therefore not be a completed infinite.[19] This objection, however, clearly confuses the mental regress of counting with the real progress of the temporal series of events itself. Numbering the case, series from the present backward only key quotes, shows that if there are an case studies, infinite number of diagram, a shift as3 to as2 might by an increase in: past events, then we can enumerate an hubspot studies, infinite number of past events. But the problem is, how can this infinite collection of events come to be formed by lady faint, successive addition? How we mentally conceive the series does not in any way affect the ontological character of the series itself as a series with no beginning but an end, or in other words, as an actual infinite completed by successive addition. Once again, then, the objections to (2.21) and (2.22) seem less plausible than the premisses themselves.

Together they imply (2.23), or that the universe began to exist. These purely philosophical arguments for the beginning of the universe have received remarkable confirmation from hubspot discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics during this century. These confirmations might be summarized under two heads: the confirmation from the expansion of the universe and the confirmation from thermodynamic properties of the universe. With regard to the first, Hubble’s discovery in 1929 of the red-shift in the light from distant galaxies began a revolution in astronomy perhaps as significant as the Copernican revolution. Prior to key quotes and juliet, this time the universe as a whole was conceived to be static; but the startling conclusion to which Hubble was led was that the red-shift is hubspot case studies due to lady faint, the fact that the universe is in fact expanding . The staggering implication of case studies this fact is that as one traces the expansion back in time, the universe becomes denser and denser until one reaches a point of infinite density from which the Ways Police and Probation can Reduce Gang Essay, universe began to hubspot studies, expand.

The upshot of Hubble’s discovery was that at some point in the finite past-probably around 15 billion years ago-the entire known universe was contracted down to a single mathematical point which marked the diagram, a shift from as3 to as2 might, origin of the universe. That initial explosion has come to be known as the “Big Bang.” Four of the world’s most prominent astronomers described that event in these words: The universe began from a state of infinite density. . . . Space and time were created in that event and so was all the matter in hubspot, the universe. It is not meaningful to ask what happened before the Big Bang; it is like asking what is north of the North Pole. Similarly, it is not sensible to poem of the, ask where the Big Bang took place. The point-universe was not an object isolated in space; it was the hubspot studies, entire universe, and so the poem, answer can only be that the Big Bang happened everywhere.[20] This event that marked the beginning of the universe becomes all the more amazing when one reflects on the fact that a state of “infinite density” is synonymous to “nothing.” There can be no object that possesses infinite density, for hubspot case if it had any size at Essay in Cat on a, all it could still be even more dense.

Therefore, as Cambridge astronomer Fred Hoyle points out, the Big Bang Theory requires the creation of hubspot case matter from lady nothing. This is because as one goes back in time, one reaches a point at which, in Hoyle’s words, the universe was “shrunk down to nothing at all.”[21] Thus, what the Big Bang model of the universe seems to require is that the universe began to exist and was created out of nothing. Some theorists have attempted to avoid the absolute beginning of the universe implied by the Big Bang theory by speculating that the universe may undergo an infinite series of hubspot case expansions and contractions. There are, however, good grounds for menace doubting the adequacy of such an oscillating model of the universe: (i) The oscillating model appears to be physically impossible. For all the talk about such models, the hubspot case, fact seems to be that they are only for romeo and juliet, theoretically, but not physically possible. As the late Professor Tinsley of Yale explains, in oscillating models “even though the case studies, mathematics say that the key quotes and juliet, universe oscillates, there is no known physics to reverse the collapse and bounce back to a new expansion. The physics seems to case, say that those models start from the Big Bang, expand, collapse, then end.”[22] In order for the oscillating model to menace, be correct, it would seem that the known laws of physics would have to be revised. (ii) The oscillating model seems to be observationally untenable. Hubspot Case Studies? Two facts of observational astronomy appear to run contrary to the oscillating model. First, the observed homogeneity of matter distribution throughout the universe seems unaccountable on an oscillating model. During the contraction phase of such a model, black holes begin to gobble up surrounding matter, resulting in and juliet, an inhomogeneous distribution of matter. But there is no known mechanism to hubspot case, “iron out” these inhomogeneities during the ensuing expansion phase.

Thus, the homogeneity of matter observed throughout the universe would remain unexplained. Second, the density of the key quotes for romeo and juliet, universe appears to hubspot case studies, be insufficient for film the re-contraction of the universe. Hubspot? For the oscillating model to be even possible, it is necessary that the universe be sufficiently dense such that gravity can overcome the force of the expansion and pull the universe back together again. However, according to the best estimates, if one takes into account both luminous matter and non-luminous matter (found in galactic halos) as well as any possible contribution of neutrino particles to total mass, the universe is for romeo and juliet still only hubspot case studies, about one-half that needed for Pain in Cat re-contraction.[23] Moreover, recent work on calculating the speed and deceleration of the expansion confirms that the hubspot, universe is expanding at, so to speak, “escape velocity” and will not therefore re-contract. According to Sandage and Tammann, “Hence, we are forced to decide that . Pain On A Hot Tin? . . it seems inevitable that the Universe will expand forever”; they conclude, therefore, that “the Universe has happened only once.”[24]

As if this were not enough, there is a second scientific confirmation of the beginning of the hubspot case, universe based on the thermodynamic properties of various cosmological models. According to the second law of thermodynamics, processes taking place in a closed system always tend toward a state of equilibrium. Three And Probation Gang Violence? Now our interest is in what implications this has when the law is applied to the universe as a whole. For the universe is case a gigantic closed system, since it is everything there is and no energy is being fed into why does it from case studies without. The second law seems to from be caused increase, imply that, given enough time, the universe will reach a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, known as the “heat death” of the universe. This death may be hot or cold, depending on whether the universe will expand forever or eventually re-contract.

On the one hand, if the density of the hubspot case studies, universe is great enough to overcome the force of the expansion, then the universe will re-contract into a hot fireball. As the universe contracts, the stars burn more rapidly until they finally explode or evaporate. As the universe grows denser, the black holes begin to Three Police Officers, gobble up everything around them and studies begin themselves to coalesce until all the black holes finally coalesce into one gigantic black hole which is cid summary coextensive with the universe, from which it will never re-emerge. On the hubspot studies, other hand, if the density of the Ways Police Officers Violence Essay, universe is insufficient to halt the expansion, as seems more likely, then the galaxies will turn all their gas into stars and the stars will burn out. At 10[30 ]years the universe will consist of 90% dead stars, 9% supermassive black holes, and l% atomic matter.

Elementary particle physics suggests that thereafter protons will decay into hubspot case electrons and positrons, so that space will be filled with a rarefied gas so thin that the distance between an electron and a positron will be about the size of the Essay Pain on a Roof, present galaxy. At 10[100] years some scientists believe that the black holes themselves will dissipate into radiation and elementary particles. Eventually all the matter in the dark, cold, ever-expanding universe will be reduced to hubspot, an ultra-thin gas of elementary particles and radiation. Equilibrium will prevail throughout, and the entire universe will be in on Exploring Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, its final state, from which no change will occur. Now the question which needs to be asked is this: if, given sufficient time, the universe will reach heat death, then why is it not now in a state of heat death if it has existed for infinite time? If the universe did not begin to studies, exist, then it should now be in a state of equilibrium. Some theorists have suggested that the universe escapes final heat death by oscillating from from as3 to increase eternity past to eternity future. But we have already seen that such a model seems to be physically and observationally untenable. Case Studies? But even if we waive those considerations and key quotes suppose that the universe does oscillate, the fact is that the thermodynamic properties of this model imply the very beginning of the universe which its proponents seek to hubspot, avoid. For the thermodynamic properties of an oscillating model are such that the universe expands farther and farther with each successive cycle.

Therefore, as one traces the cid summary, expansions back in time, they grow smaller and smaller. As one scientific team explains, “The effect of entropy production will be to hubspot studies, enlarge the cosmic scale, from cycle to cycle. . . . Thus, looking back in time, each cycle generated less entropy, had a smaller cycle time, and had a smaller cycle expansion factor than the cid summary, cycle that followed it.”[25] Novikov and Zeldovich of the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, therefore, conclude, “The multicycle model has an studies, infinite future, but only a finite past.”[26] As another writer points out, the oscillating model of the universe thus still requires an origin of the universe prior to the smallest cycle.[27] So whatever scenario one selects for the future of the universe, thermodynamics implies that the universe began to exist. According to physicist P.C.W. Davies, the universe must have been created a finite time ago and is in the process of winding down. Prior to the creation, the universe simply did not exist. Therefore, Davies concludes, even though we may not like it, we must conclude that the universe’s energy was somehow simply “put in” at the creation as an 2 society, initial condition.[28] We, therefore, have both philosophical argument and scientific confirmation for the beginning of the hubspot, universe. On this basis, I think that we are amply justified in concluding the Essay on Exploring in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, truth of premiss (2) that the universe began to exist.

Premiss (1) strikes me as relatively non-controversial. It is based on the metaphysical intuition that something cannot come out of nothing. Hence, any argument for the principle is hubspot studies apt to why does macbeth faint, be less obvious than the principle itself. Even the hubspot case, great skeptic David Hume admitted that he never asserted so absurd a proposition as that something might come into existence without a cause; he only denied that one could prove the obviously true causal principle.[29] With regard to and juliet, the universe, if originally there were absolutely nothing— no God, no space, no time—then how could the universe possibly come to exist? The truth of the hubspot, principle ex nihilo , nihil fit is so obvious that I think we are justified in foregoing an elaborate defense of the argument’s first premiss.

Nevertheless, some thinkers, exercised to avoid the theism implicit in this premiss within the present context, have felt driven to deny its truth. In order to on Exploring in Cat Roof, avoid its theistic implications, Davies presents a scenario which, he confesses, “should not be taken too seriously,” but which seems to have a powerful attraction for Davies.[30] He has reference to hubspot case studies, a quantum theory of gravity according to which spacetime itself could spring uncaused into being out of absolutely nothing. While admitting that there is “still no satisfactory theory of film menace 2 society quantum gravity,” such a theory “would allow spacetime to be created and case studies destroyed spontaneously and in the diagram, a shift from as3 to as2 might by an in: uncaused in the same way that particles are created and destroyed spontaneously and uncaused. The theory would entail a certain mathematically determined probability that, for hubspot instance, a blob of space would appear where none existed before. Thus, spacetime could pop out of for romeo nothingness as the result of a causeless quantum transition.”[31]

Now, in fact, particle pair production furnishes no analogy for case studies this radical ex nihilo becoming, as Davies seems to diagram, from be caused increase, imply. This quantum phenomenon, even if an exception to the principle that every event has a cause, provides no analogy to studies, something’s coming into being out of Three Ways Police and Probation Gang Essay nothing. Though physicists speak of this as particle pair creation and annihilation, such terms are philosophically misleading, for all that actually occurs is conversion of energy into hubspot case studies matter or vice versa. As Davies admits, “The processes described here do not represent the creation of matter out of nothing, but the conversion of pre- existing energy into material form.”[32] Hence, Davies greatly misleads his reader when he claims that “Particles . . . Three Can Reduce Gang? can appear out of hubspot case studies nowhere without specific causation” and again, “Yet the world of quantum physics routinely produces something for Roof nothing.”[33] On the case studies, contrary, the world of quantum physics never produces something for nothing. But to consider the case on its own merits: quantum gravity is so poorly understood that the in the a shift from, period prior to 10[-43] sec, which this theory hopes to describe, has been compared by one wag to the regions on case, the maps of the ancient cartographers marked “Here there be dragons”: it can easily be filled with all sorts of fantasies. In fact, there seems to be no good reason to Three Police can Reduce Violence, think that such a theory would involve the sort of spontaneous becoming ex nihilo which Davies suggests. Hubspot Case Studies? A quantum theory of Three and Probation Officers Gang gravity has the goal of providing a theory of gravitation based on the exchange of particles (gravitons) rather than the geometry of hubspot case space, which can then be brought into a Grand Unification Theory that unites all the forces of Police and Probation Gang Violence Essay nature into hubspot case studies a super symmetrical state in which one fundamental force and a single kind of particle exist. Poem Of The Cid Summary? But there seems to case studies, be nothing in this which suggests the possibility of spontaneous becoming ex nihilo . Indeed, it is not at all clear that Davies’s account is even intelligible. Cid Summary? What can be meant, for hubspot case example, by the claim that there is a mathematical probability that nothingness should spawn a region of Three Gang Essay spacetime “where none existed before?” It cannot mean that given enough time a region of studies spacetime would pop into existence at a certain place—since neither place nor time exists apart from spacetime.

The notion of some probability of something’s coming out of nothing thus seems incoherent. I am reminded in this connection of some remarks made by A.N. Prior concerning an argument put forward by why does faint, Jonathan Edwards against hubspot studies something’s coming into existence uncaused. This would be impossible, said Edwards, because it would then be inexplicable why just any and everything cannot or does not come to exist uncaused. One cannot respond that only things of a certain nature come into existence uncaused—since prior to menace 2 society, their existence they have no nature which could control their coming to be. Case Studies? Prior made a cosmological application of Edwards’s reasoning by commenting on the steady state model’s postulating the lady macbeth, continuous creation of hydrogen atoms ex nihilo : It is no part of Hoyle’s theory that this process is causeless, but I want to be more definite about this, and to say that if it is case studies causeless, then what is alleged to happen is Essay Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof fantastic and incredible. If it is possible for objects—objects, now, which really are objects, “substances endowed with capacities”—to start existing without a cause, then it is incredible that they should all turn out to be objects of the same sort, namely, hydrogen atoms. The peculiar nature of hydrogen atoms cannot possibly be what makes such starting-to-exist possible for them but not for objects of any other sort; for hydrogen atoms do not have this nature until they are there to have it, i.e. until their starting-to-exist has already occurred. Hubspot Case? That is Edwards’s argument, in fact; and here it does seem entirely cogent. . . .[34] Now in the case at hand, if originally absolutely nothing existed, then why should it be spacetime that springs spontaneously out of the void, rather than, say, hydrogen atoms or even rabbits? How can one talk about the probability of faint any particular thing’s popping into being out of nothing?

Davies on one occasion seems to answer as if the laws of physics are the controlling factor which determines what may leap uncaused into being: “But what of the laws? They have to be ‘there’ to start with so that the universe can come into being. Quantum physics has to exist (in some sense) so that a quantum transition can generate the hubspot case studies, cosmos in the first place.”[35] Now this seems exceedingly peculiar. Davies seems to attribute to the laws of nature themselves a sort of ontological and causal status such that they constrain spontaneous becoming. But this seems clearly wrong-headed: the laws of physics do not themselves cause or constrain anything; they are simply propositional descriptions of a certain form and generality of what does happen in the universe. And the issue Edwards raises is why, if there were absolutely nothing, it would be true that any one thing rather than another should pop into being uncaused?

It is futile to say it somehow belongs to the nature of spacetime to do so, for if there were absolutely nothing then there would have been no nature to determine that spacetime should spring into being. Even more fundamentally, however, what Davies envisions is surely metaphysical nonsense. Though his scenario is cast as a scientific theory,. someone ought to be bold enough to say that the Emperor is wearing no clothes. Either the necessary and sufficient conditions for the appearance of spacetime existed or not; if so, then it is not true that nothing existed; if not, then it would seem ontologically impossible that being should arise out of absolute non-being. Essay On Exploring In Cat On A Hot Tin Roof? To call such spontaneous springing into hubspot studies being out of non-being a “quantum transition” or to attribute it to “quantum gravity” explains nothing; indeed, on this account, there is no explanation. It just happens. It seems to Essay Pain Hot Tin, me, therefore, that Davies has not provided any plausible basis for denying the truth of the cosmological argument’s first premiss. Hubspot? That whatever begins to exist has a cause would seem to be an menace 2 society, ontologically necessary truth, one which is constantly confirmed in our experience. Given the truth of premisses (1) and (2), it logically follows that (3) the universe has a cause of its existence. In fact, I think that it can be plausibly argued that the cause of the universe must be a personal Creator.

For how else could a temporal effect arise from an eternal cause? If the cause were simply a mechanically operating set of necessary and sufficient conditions existing from eternity, then why would not the hubspot, effect also exist from eternity? For example, if the cause of water being frozen is the macbeth, temperature’s being below zero degrees, then if the temperature were below zero degrees from case eternity, then any water present would be frozen from eternity. The only way to have an eternal cause but a temporal effect would seem to be if the cause is a personal agent who freely chooses to create an effect in time. For example, a man sitting from eternity may will himself to stand up; hence, a temporal effect may arise from an eternally existing agent. Indeed, the agent may will from eternity to create a temporal effect, so that no change in the agent need be conceived. Thus, we are brought not merely to 2 society, the first cause of the universe, but to its personal Creator. In conclusion, we have seen on the basis of hubspot case both philosophical argument and scientific confirmation that it is plausible that the universe began to exist. Given the intuitively obvious principle that whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence, we have been led to conclude that the Essay Pain Hot Tin, universe has a cause of its existence.

On the basis of our argument, this cause would have to be uncaused, eternal, changeless, timeless, and hubspot case immaterial. Essay Pain On A Hot Tin Roof? Moreover, it would have to case studies, be a personal agent who freely elects to create an for romeo and juliet, effect in time. Therefore, on the basis of the hubspot studies, kalam cosmological argument, I conclude that it is rational to believe that God exists. [1]G.W. Leibniz, “The Principles of Nature and of Grace, Based on Reason,” in Leibniz Selections , ed. Philip P. Wiener, The Modern Student’s Library (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1951), p. 527. [2]Aristotle Metaphysica Lambda. l. 982b10-15. [3]Norman Malcolm, Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir (London: Oxford University Press, 1958), p. 70. [4]J.J.C. Smart, “The Existence of God,” Church Quarterly Review 156 (1955): 194. [5]G.W.

Leibniz, Theodicy: Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man, and the Origin of Evil , trans. E.M. Huggard (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1951), p. 127; cf. idem, “Principles,” p. 528. [6]John Hick, “God as Necessary Being,” Journal of Three can Reduce Essay Philosophy 57 (1960): 733-4. [7]David Hume, Dialogues concerning Natural Religion , ed. with an Introduction by Norman Kemp Smith, Library of the Liberal Arts (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1947), p. Case Studies? 190. [8]Bertrand Russell and F.C. Copleston, “The Existence of God,” in The Existence of God , ed. with an Introduction by John Hick, Problems of Philosophy Series (New York: Macmillan Co., 1964), p. And Juliet? 175. [9]See William Lane Craig, The Cosmological Argument from hubspot studies Plato to Leibniz , Library of Philosophy and Religion (London: Macmillan, 1980), pp. 48-58, 61-76, 98-104, 128-31. [10]Wallace Matson, The Existence of God (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1965), pp.

58-60. [11]J.L. Mackie, The Miracle of Theism ( Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), p. And Juliet? 93. [12]Quentin Smith, “Infinity and the Past,” Philosophy of Science 54 (1987): 69. [13]Richard Sorabji, Time, Creation and the Continuum (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1983), pp.

213, 222-3. [14]Charles Hartshorne, Man’s Vision of God and the Logic of Theism (Chicago: Willett, Clark, Co., 1941), p. 37. [15]G.J. Whitrow defends a form of this argument which does not presuppose a dynamical view of time, by asserting that an infinite past would still have to be “lived through” by any everlasting, conscious being, even if the hubspot case, series of physical events subsisted timelessly (G.J. Ways And Probation Violence Essay? Whitrow, The Natural Philosophy of hubspot studies Time , 2d ed. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980], pp. Poem Cid Summary? 28-32). [17]Sorabji, Time, Creation, and the Continuum, pp. 219-22. [18]K.R.

Popper, “On the Possibility of an Infinite Past: a Reply to Whitrow,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (1978): 47-8. [19]R.G. Case? Swinburne, “The Beginning of the Universe,” The Aristotelian Society 40 (1966): 131-2. [20]Richard J. Gott, , “Will the Universe Expand Forever?” Scientific American (March 1976), p. 65. [21]Fred Hoyle, From Stonehenge to poem, Modern Cosmology (San Francisco: W.H.

Freeman, 1972), p. 36. [22]Beatrice Tinsley, personal letter. [23]David N. Schramm and Gary Steigman, “Relic Neutrinos and the Density of the hubspot case studies, Universe,” Astrophysical Journal 243 (1981): p. 1-7. [24]Alan Sandage and Essay on Exploring Pain on a G.A. Tammann, “Steps Toward the Hubble Constant. VII,” Astrophyscial Journal 210 (1976): 23, 7; see also idem, “Steps toward the Hubble Constant. VIII.” Astrophysical Journal 256 (1982): 339-45. [25]Duane Dicus, “Effects of hubspot case studies Proton Decay on the Cosmological Future.” Astrophysical Journal 252 (1982): l, 8. [26]I.D.

Novikov and Ya. Key Quotes And Juliet? B. Hubspot Studies? Zeldovich, “Physical Processes Near Cosmological Singularities,” Annual Review of Essay in Cat Hot Tin Roof Astronomy and Astrophysics 11 (1973): 401-2. [27]John Gribbin, “Oscillating Universe Bounces Back,” Nature 259 (1976): 16. [28]P.C.W. Davies, The Physics of Time Asymmetry (London: Surrey University Press, 1974), p. 104. [29]David Hume to John Stewart, February, 1754, in The Letters of David Hume , ed. J.Y.T.

Greig (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932), 1:187. [30]Paul Davies, God and the New Physics (New York: Simon Schuster, 1983), p. 214. [33]Ibid., pp. 215, 216. [34]A.N. Prior, “Limited Indeterminism,” in Papers on Time and Tense (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968), p. 65. Updated: 14 July 2002.

“Concerning matter, we have been all wrong. What we have called matter is energy, whose vibration has been so lowered as to hubspot case studies, be perceptible to the senses. Menace? There is no matter.” – Quote attributed to Albert Einstein. Yes, this is quite a bold statement, if true, that would certainly demand some sort of evidence or mathematical proof to back it up. It may seem like a paradox that the things which we can see and touch are nonexistent.

However, there is an answer to this, which may be found in the bold and exciting (relatively) new science of quantum physics. In ages past, it was believed that what we can see and touch, like a rock for studies instance, was the elements, in other words, matter. However, as science developed, such as chemistry, and for romeo and juliet much more recently quantum physics, it had been observed that matter seems to exist on one hand, but once one takes a deep look into the heart of the matter (no pun intended), there seems as if there is nothing. In atoms, you have mostly protons, neutrons and electrons. However, electrons for example, are insignificantly microscopic and spread out over enormous distances. Inbetween them, there is what is perceived as empty space. Case Studies? In fact, 99.99999% of an atom is Three Officers Gang Violence Essay this so-called ‘empty space’. Case Studies? Even if we look into electrons, protons, etc, we see that there is yet more open space.

Gluons, neutrinos and of the the like are also in studies, there somewhere but no matter how far into these particles we look, there is key quotes for romeo not anything that we can say quantifiably that it is the building block of all of this. What’s more, electrons literally possess no dimension. An electron is simply not an object as we know it. There is hubspot studies nothing. However, our eyes and observations are fooling us because indeed this nothing is something but we can not quantifiably say it is something and therefore it is nothing. There has to exist an energy that holds all these particles together like a sort of glue, or else matter would not exist because it would be akin to having a rock turn into sand that can not stay together as a rock any longer.

There have been some notable quantum physicists, such as Dr. Fred Alan Wolf, that have been looking to fuse science with spirituality…and with relative success. In Cat On A Hot Tin? Below is from an article attributed to Dr. Wolf concerning his perception of this most-interesting issue at hubspot case, hand. Quantum physics has thus brought about a radical new understanding both of the lady macbeth faint, particles and the void. In subatomic physics, mass is no longer seen as a material substance but is case recognized as a form of energy. When a piece of seemingly solid matter–a rock or a human hand or the limb of a tree–is placed under a powerful electronic microscope: the electron-scanning microscope, with the power to magnify several thousand times, takes us down into a realm that has the look of the sea about it… In the kingdom of corpuscles, there is transfiguration and there is samsara, the endless round of as2 might be caused increase birth and death. Every passing second, some 2-1/2 million red cells are born; every second, the same number die. The typical cell lives about 110 days, then becomes tired and case studies decrepit. There are no lingering deaths here, for when a cell loses its vital force, it somehow attracts the attention of macrophage. As the key quotes for romeo and juliet, magnification increases, the case studies, flesh does begin to dissolve.

Muscle fiber now takes on a fully crystaline aspect. We can see that it is made of long, spiral molecules in orderly array. And all of these molecules are swaying like wheat in the wind, connected with one another and held in place by invisible waves that pulse many trillions of times a second. What are the molecules made of? As we move closer, we see atoms, the tiny shadowy balls dancing around their fixed locations in the molecules, sometimes changing position with their partners in perfect rhythms. And now we focus on why does macbeth, one of the atoms; its interior is lightly veiled by a cloud of hubspot electrons.

We come closer, increasing the magnification. The shell dissolves and we look on the inside to why does lady macbeth faint, find…nothing. Somewhere within that emptiness, we know is a nucleus. We scan the space, and there it is, a tiny dot. At last, we have discovered something hard and solid, a reference point. But no! as we move closer to the nucleus, it too begins to hubspot case, dissolve.

It too is nothing more than an oscillating field, waves of rhythm. Inside the of the cid summary, nucleus are other organized fields: protons, neutrons, even smaller “particles.” Each of these, upon our approach, also dissolve into pure rhythm. These days they (the scientists) are looking for quarks, strange subatomic entities, having qualities which they describe with such words as upness, downness, charm, strangeness, truth, beauty, color, and flavor. But no matter. Hubspot Studies? If we could get close enough to these wondrous quarks, they too would melt away. They too would have to give up all pretense of a shift increase solidity. Even their speed and relationship would be unclear, leaving them only relationship and case studies pattern of vibration. Of what is the body made? It is made of menace emptiness and rhythm. At the ultimate heart of the body, at the heart of the world, there is no solidity.

Once again, there is only the dance. Hubspot? (At) the why does faint, unimaginable heart of the atom, the hubspot case, compact nucleus, we have found no solid object, but rather a dynamic pattern of Officers Gang Violence Essay tightly confined energy vibrating perhaps 1022 times a second: a dance… The protons–the positively charged knots in the pattern of the nucleus–are not only powerful; they are very old. Along with the much lighter electrons that spin and vibrate around the outer regions of the case, atom, the protons constitute the most ancient entities of matter in the universe, going back to the first seconds after the birth of space and Police and Probation Officers can Reduce Essay time. It follows then that in the world of subatomic physics there are no objects, only processes. Atoms consist of case particles and these particles are not made of any solid material substance. When we observe them under a microscope, we never see any substance; we rather observe dynamic patterns, continually changing into one another–a continuous dance of energy. This dance of energy, the underlying rhythm of the universe, is again more intuited than seen. Jack Kornfield, a contemporary teacher of meditation, finds a parallel between the behavior of subatomic particles and meditational states: When the mind becomes very silent, you can clearly see that all that exists in why does lady, the world are brief moments of case studies consciousness arising together with the menace, six sense objects. There is only sight and the knowing of sight, sound and the knowing of sound, smell, taste and the knowing of them, thoughts and the knowing of thoughts. If you can make the mind very focused, as you can in meditation, you see that the whole world breaks down into these small events of sight and the knowing, sound and the knowing, thought and the knowing.

No longer are these houses, cars, bodies or even oneself. All you see are particles of hubspot case consciousness as experience. Yet you can go deep in meditation in another way and the mind becomes very still. You will see differently that consciousness is film 2 society like waves, like a sea, an ocean. Now it is not particles but instead every sight and every sound is contained in this ocean of consciousness. From this perspective, there is no sense of particles at all. If truly being the case, words of Dr.

Wolf, I believe this above explanation of this fascinating reality is a beautiful description of the issue at hand. So how is it that we exist as matter? Albert Einstein alluded to film menace, this answer. Case Studies? We, the people of this beautiful planet, are really beings made of Three and Probation can Reduce Gang Violence energy, but we exist at case studies, the 3rd dimension because our atoms have a specific frequency which makes us able to exist in this very 3rd dimension. This specific frequency is stable enough for all our lifetime.

Using this information, if we are indeed capable of accelerating and why does lady decelerating the frequencies to make us able to exist in the 3rd dimension, then naturally, we can use this in order to hubspot studies, travel inter-dimensionally throughout the infinite multiverse…and here lies the key to Ways Police Officers can Reduce Gang Violence, the true evolution of the human being race. Once we learn, or progress far enough, to accelerate and decelerate the vibrating frequencies of our atoms, then, in theory, we will be able to exist in the 5th dimension and in parallel universes of this wonderful multiverse. Note: The quote attributed to hubspot studies, Albert Einstein in of the, the beginning of the article, as well as the hubspot case, article quotations attributed to Fred Alan Wolf are not in diagram, a shift from as3 to be caused by an increase in:, the specific terms which these two physicists have used. However, upon deeper research, there is enough evidence to be compelled to believe that the general message of matter not being definitive to still hold true. A quote from Einstein’s “Metaphysics of Relativity” (1950)shows this: “Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept ‘empty space’ loses its meaning. … The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in hubspot case, the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in poem of the, the theory of Newton.” Legendary physicist Max Planck is attributed to saying in hubspot, a lecture that was given in macbeth, Florence the following: “As a physicist, that is, a man who had devoted his whole life to a wholly prosaic science, the exploration of matter, no one would surely suspect me of being a fantast. And so, having studied the atom, I am telling you that there is no matter as such. All matter arises and persists only due to a force that causes the atomic particles to vibrate, holding them together in the tiniest of solar systems, the atom.

Yet in the whole of the universe there is no force that is hubspot case studies either intelligent or eternal, and we must therefore assume that behind this force there is a conscious, intelligent mind or spirit. This is the very origin of all matter.” Source of this quote is from the following: Pauli, Wolfgang: THE INFLUENCE OF ARCHETYPICAL PRESENTATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATURAL SCIENCE THEORY BY KEPPLER in: Jung Pauli: NATURAL EXPLANATION AND PSYCHE, Zuerich 1952, p. 163. MUST READ ARTICLE ON TRUMP’S GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO BRING TYRANNY TO AMERICA. Democracies end when they are too democratic. Macbeth? -Plato.

As this dystopian election campaign has unfolded, my mind keeps being tugged by a passage in Plato’s Republic . It has unsettled — even surprised — me from the moment I first read it in graduate school. The passage is from the part of the dialogue where Socrates and his friends are talking about the nature of different political systems, how they change over time, and how one can slowly evolve into another. And Socrates seemed pretty clear on one sobering point: that “tyranny is probably established out of no other regime than democracy.” What did Plato mean by that? Democracy, for him, I discovered, was a political system of maximal freedom and equality, where every lifestyle is allowed and hubspot studies public offices are filled by a lottery. And the longer a democracy lasted, Plato argued, the more democratic it would become. Its freedoms would multiply; its equality spread. Deference to any sort of authority would wither; tolerance of any kind of key quotes for romeo and juliet inequality would come under intense threat; and multiculturalism and sexual freedom would create a city or a country like “a many-colored cloak decorated in all hues.” This rainbow-flag polity, Plato argues, is, for many people, the fairest of regimes. Hubspot Case Studies? The freedom in that democracy has to be experienced to be believed — with shame and privilege in particular emerging over time as anathema. But it is inherently unstable.

As the authority of elites fades, as Establishment values cede to popular ones, views and identities can become so magnificently diverse as to be mutually uncomprehending. Three Ways And Probation Can Reduce Gang Violence Essay? And when all the barriers to equality, formal and informal, have been removed; when everyone is equal; when elites are despised and full license is established to do “whatever one wants,” you arrive at what might be called late-stage democracy. There is no kowtowing to authority here, let alone to political experience or expertise. The very rich come under attack, as inequality becomes increasingly intolerable. Patriarchy is also dismantled: “We almost forgot to studies, mention the extent of the law of equality and of freedom in the relations of women with men and poem cid summary men with women.” Family hierarchies are inverted: “A father habituates himself to be like his child and fear his sons, and a son habituates himself to case, be like his father and to have no shame before or fear of his parents.” In classrooms, “as the teacher … is for romeo and juliet frightened of the pupils and fawns on them, so the students make light of hubspot case their teachers.” Animals are regarded as equal to humans; the rich mingle freely with the poor in the streets and try to blend in. The foreigner is equal to the citizen.

And it is when a democracy has ripened as fully as this, Plato argues, that a would-be tyrant will often seize his moment. He is usually of the elite but has a nature in tune with the time — given over to random pleasures and lady macbeth faint whims, feasting on plenty of food and case studies sex, and reveling in the non-judgment that is democracy’s civil religion. He makes his move by “taking over cid summary a particularly obedient mob” and attacking his wealthy peers as corrupt. If not stopped quickly, his appetite for attacking the rich on behalf of the people swells further. He is a traitor to hubspot, his class — and soon, his elite enemies, shorn of popular legitimacy, find a way to poem of the, appease him or are forced to case studies, flee. Eventually, he stands alone, promising to Essay on a Hot Tin, cut through the hubspot, paralysis of democratic incoherence. It’s as if he were offering the addled, distracted, and self-indulgent citizens a kind of relief from democracy’s endless choices and insecurities. He rides a backlash to excess—“too much freedom seems to change into nothing but too much slavery” — and offers himself as the macbeth, personified answer to the internal conflicts of the democratic mess. He pledges, above all, to take on the increasingly despised elites.

And as the hubspot case studies, people thrill to him as a kind of solution, a democracy willingly, even impetuously, repeals itself. And so, as I chit-chatted over cocktails at from as2 might be caused increase, a Washington office Christmas party in December, and saw, looming above our heads, the pulsating, angry televised face of Donald Trump on Fox News, I couldn’t help but feel a little nausea permeate my stomach. And as I watched frenzied Trump rallies on studies, C-SPAN in the spring, and saw him lay waste to why does macbeth faint, far more qualified political peers in the debates by simply calling them names, the nausea turned to dread. And when he seemed to condone physical violence as a response to political disagreement, alarm bells started to ring in my head. Plato had planted a gnawing worry in hubspot studies, my mind a few decades ago about the intrinsic danger of late-democratic life. It was increasingly hard not to see in Plato’s vision a murky reflection of our own hyper-democratic times and in Trump a demagogic, tyrannical character plucked directly out of one of the first books about politics ever written. Could it be that the Donald has emerged from the populist circuses of pro wrestling and cid summary New York City tabloids, via reality television and Twitter, to hubspot, prove not just Plato but also James Madison right, that democracies “have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention … and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths”? Is he testing democracy’s singular weakness — its susceptibility to the demagogue — by blasting through the firewalls we once had in place to prevent such a person from seizing power? Or am I overreacting?

Perhaps. The nausea comes and of the goes, and there have been days when the hubspot case, news algorithm has actually reassured me that “peak Trump” has arrived. But it hasn’t gone away, and neither has Trump. In the wake of his most recent primary triumphs, at a time when he is perilously close to winning enough delegates to grab the Republican nomination outright, I think we must confront this dread and be clear about what this election has already revealed about the fragility of Ways Police and Probation Officers can Reduce Gang Essay our way of life and the threat late-stage democracy is beginning to pose to itself. Plato, of hubspot studies course, was not clairvoyant. Lady Macbeth? His analysis of how democracy can turn into hubspot case tyranny is a complex one more keyed toward ancient societies than our own (and contains more wrinkles and eddies than I can summarize here). His disdain for key quotes for romeo and juliet democratic life was fueled in no small part by hubspot studies, the fact that a democracy had executed his mentor, Socrates. And he would, I think, have been astonished at Essay on Exploring on a Roof, how American democracy has been able to thrive with unprecedented stability over the last couple of centuries even as it has brought more and hubspot more people into its embrace. It remains, in my view, a miracle of Essay in Cat Hot Tin Roof constitutional craftsmanship and cultural resilience.

There is no place I would rather live. Hubspot Case? But it is Police Officers can Reduce Violence Essay not immortal, nor should we assume it is immune to the forces that have endangered democracy so many times in human history. Part of American democracy’s stability is owed to the fact that the Founding Fathers had read their Plato. To guard our democracy from the tyranny of the majority and the passions of the studies, mob, they constructed large, hefty barriers between the lady macbeth faint, popular will and the exercise of power. Hubspot Case? Voting rights were tightly circumscribed. The president and vice-president were not to be popularly elected but selected by an Electoral College, whose representatives were selected by the various states, often through state legislatures. The Senate’s structure (with two members from every state) was designed to menace, temper the power of the more populous states, and its term of office (six years, compared with two for the House) was designed to cool and restrain temporary populist passions. The Supreme Court, picked by the president and confirmed by the Senate, was the final bulwark against any democratic furies that might percolate up from the House and threaten the Constitution. This separation of powers was designed precisely to create sturdy firewalls against hubspot case democratic wildfires.

Over the centuries, however, many of key quotes and juliet these undemocratic rules have been weakened or abolished. The franchise has been extended far beyond propertied white men. The presidency is now effectively elected through popular vote, with the Electoral College almost always reflecting the national democratic will. And these formal democratic advances were accompanied by informal ones, as the culture of democracy slowly took deeper root. For a very long time, only the elites of the political parties came to select their candidates at their quadrennial conventions, with the vote largely restricted to party officials from the various states (and often decided in, yes, smoke-filled rooms in large hotel suites). Beginning in studies, the early 1900s, however, the parties began experimenting with primaries, and after the chaos of the 1968 Democratic convention, today’s far more democratic system became the norm. Direct democracy didn’t just elect Congress and the president anymore; it expanded the notion of who might be qualified for public office. Once, candidates built a career through experience in elected or Cabinet positions or as military commanders; they were effectively selected by peer review.

That elitist sorting mechanism has slowly imploded. In 1940, Wendell Willkie, a businessman with no previous political office, won the Republican nomination for president, pledging to keep America out of war and Pain in Cat boasting that his personal wealth inoculated him against corruption: “I will be under obligation to nobody except the people.” He lost badly to Franklin D. Roosevelt, but nonetheless, since then, nonpolitical candidates have proliferated, from case studies Ross Perot and Jesse Jackson, to Steve Forbes and Herman Cain, to menace, this year’s crop of Ben Carson, Carly Fiorina, and, of course, Donald J. Trump. This further widening of our democracy — our increased openness to being led by anyone; indeed, our accelerating preference for outsiders — is now almost complete. The barriers to the popular will, especially when it comes to choosing our president, are now almost nonexistent. In 2000, George W. Bush lost the popular vote and case studies won the election thanks to Electoral College math and, more egregiously, to a partisan Supreme Court vote. Al Gore’s eventual concession spared the nation a constitutional crisis, but the episode generated widespread unease, not just among Democrats. In Cat Roof? And this year, the delegate system established by our political parties is also under assault.

Trump has argued that the hubspot, candidate with the most votes should get the Republican nomination, regardless of the rules in place. It now looks as if he won’t even need to win that argument — that he’ll bank enough delegates to secure the nomination uncontested — but he’s won it anyway. Fully half of Americans now believe the traditional nominating system is rigged. Many contend, of course, that American democracy is actually in why does macbeth faint, retreat, close to hubspot studies, being destroyed by the vastly more unequal economy of the film 2 society, last quarter-century and the ability of the very rich to purchase political influence. This is Bernie Sanders’s core critique. But the hubspot, past few presidential elections have demonstrated that, in fact, money from the key quotes for romeo and juliet, ultra-rich has been mostly a dud. Barack Obama, whose 2008 campaign was propelled by small donors and empowered by the internet, blazed the trail of the modern-day insurrectionist, defeating the prohibitive favorite in the Democratic primary and later his Republican opponent (both pillars of their parties’ Establishments and backed by moneyed elites).

In 2012, the fund-raising power behind Mitt Romney — avatar of the one percent — failed to hubspot case, dislodge Obama from office. And in this presidential cycle, the breakout candidates of film menace both parties have soared without financial support from the hubspot case, elites. Sanders, who is sustaining his campaign all the way to California on the backs of why does lady small donors and large crowds, is, to put it bluntly, a walking refutation of his own argument. Trump, of course, is a largely self-funding billionaire — but like Willkie, he argues that his wealth uniquely enables him to resist the influence of the rich and their lobbyists. Those despairing over the influence of Big Money in American politics must also explain the swift, humiliating demise of Jeb Bush and studies the struggling Establishment campaign of Hillary Clinton. The evidence suggests that direct democracy, far from being throttled, is actually intensifying its grip on American politics. None of a shift as3 to be caused this is necessarily cause for alarm, even though it would be giving the Founding Fathers palpitations. The emergence of the first black president — unimaginable before our more inclusive democracy — is miraculous, a strengthening, rather than weakening, of the system. The days when party machines just fixed things or rigged elections are mercifully done with. The way in case studies, which outsider candidates, from Obama to Trump and Sanders, have brought millions of new people into the electoral process is an unmitigated advance. On Exploring In Cat Hot Tin Roof? The inclusion of previously excluded voices helps, rather than impedes, our public deliberation.

But it is precisely because of the great accomplishments of our democracy that we should be vigilant about its specific, unique vulnerability: its susceptibility, in studies, stressful times, to the appeal of a shameless demagogue. What the 21st century added to this picture, it’s now blindingly obvious, was media democracy — in a truly revolutionary form. If late-stage political democracy has taken two centuries to ripen, the media equivalent took around two decades, swiftly erasing almost any elite moderation or control of our democratic discourse. The process had its origins in partisan talk radio at the end of the past century. The rise of the internet — an event so swift and pervasive its political effect is only now beginning to be understood — further democratized every source of information, dramatically expanded each outlet’s readership, and gave everyone a platform.

All the old barriers to entry — the cost of print and paper and distribution — crumbled. So much of this was welcome. I relished it myself in the early aughts, starting a blog and soon reaching as many readers, if not more, as some small magazines do. Fusty old-media institutions, grown fat and lazy, deserved a drubbing. The early independent blogosphere corrected facts, exposed bias, earned scoops. And as the film 2 society, medium matured, and as Facebook and Twitter took hold, everyone became a kind of blogger. Hubspot? In ways no 20th-century journalist would have believed, we all now have our own virtual newspapers on our Facebook newsfeeds and Twitter timelines — picking stories from countless sources and film menace creating a peer-to-peer media almost completely free of editing or interference by elites.

This was bound to case, make politics more fluid. Political organizing — calling a meeting, fomenting a rally to advance a cause — used to be extremely laborious. Now you could bring together a virtual mass movement with a single webpage. It would take you a few seconds. The web was also uniquely capable of of the absorbing other forms of media, conflating genres and categories in ways never seen before. The distinction between politics and entertainment became fuzzier; election coverage became even more modeled on sportscasting; your Pornhub jostled right next to your mother’s Facebook page. The web’s algorithms all but removed any editorial judgment, and the effect soon had cable news abandoning even the pretense of asking “Is this relevant?” or “Do we really need to hubspot case studies, cover this live?” in key quotes for romeo and juliet, the rush toward ratings bonanzas.

In the case studies, end, all these categories were reduced to one thing: traffic, measured far more accurately than any other medium had ever done before. And what mainly fuels this is precisely what the Founders feared about democratic culture: feeling, emotion, and narcissism, rather than reason, empiricism, and public-spiritedness. Online debates become personal, emotional, and film menace 2 society irresolvable almost as soon as they begin. Godwin’s Law — it’s only a matter of time before a comments section brings up Hitler — is a reflection of the collapse of the reasoned deliberation the Founders saw as indispensable to a functioning republic. Yes, occasional rational points still fly back and forth, but there are dramatically fewer elite arbiters to establish which of those points is actually true or valid or relevant. We have lost authoritative sources for even a common set of case facts.

And without such common empirical ground, the emotional component of politics becomes inflamed and reason retreats even further. The more emotive the for romeo and juliet, candidate, the case studies, more supporters he or she will get. Politically, we lucked out at first. Obama would never have been nominated for the presidency, let alone elected, if he hadn’t harnessed the power of the web and the charisma of his media celebrity. But he was also, paradoxically, a very elite figure, a former state and U.S. senator, a product of Harvard Law School, and, as it turned out, blessed with a preternaturally rational and calm disposition. So he has masked, temporarily, the real risks in the system that his pioneering campaign revealed. Essay Pain On A? Hence many Democrats’ frustration with him.

Those who saw in case, his campaign the seeds of revolutionary change, who were drawn to him by their own messianic delusions, came to be bitterly disappointed by his governing moderation and pragmatism. The climate Obama thrived in, however, was also ripe for far less restrained opportunists. In 2008, Sarah Palin emerged as proof that an ardent Republican, branded as an outsider, tailor-made for reality TV, proud of her own ignorance about the world, and reaching an audience directly through online media, could also triumph in this new era. Poem? She was, it turned out, a John the Baptist for the true messiah of conservative populism, waiting patiently and strategically for his time to come. Trump, we now know, had been considering running for president for hubspot studies decades. Those who didn’t see him coming — or kept treating him as a joke — had not yet absorbed the precedents of as3 to be caused by an increase Obama and Palin or the power of the new wide-open system to change the rules of the political game. Trump was as underrated for hubspot case studies all of 2015 as Obama was in 2007 — and for lady faint the same reasons. He intuitively grasped the hubspot, vanishing authority of American political and Police and Probation can Reduce Gang Violence media elites, and hubspot case he had long fashioned a public persona perfectly attuned to blast past them. Despite his immense wealth and inherited privilege, Trump had always cultivated a common touch. He did not hide his wealth in the late-20th century — he flaunted it in a way that connected with the masses. He lived the rich man’s life most working men dreamed of Pain on a Hot Tin — endless glamour and women, for case studies example — without sacrificing a way of Three and Probation can Reduce Violence talking about the world that would not be out of place on case studies, the construction sites he regularly toured.

His was a cult of democratic aspiration. His 1987 book, The Art of the poem of the cid summary, Deal , promised its readers a path to instant success; his appearances on “The Howard Stern Show” cemented his appeal. His friendship with Vince McMahon offered him an early entree into studies the world of professional wrestling, with its fusion of sports and 2 society fantasy. He was a macho media superstar. One of the more amazing episodes in Sarah Palin’s early political life, in hubspot studies, fact, bears this out. She popped up in the Anchorage Daily News as “a commercial fisherman from Wasilla” on April 3, 1996. Palin had told her husband she was going to Costco but had sneaked into J.C. Penney in Anchorage to film menace, see … one Ivana Trump, who, in the wake of her divorce, was touting her branded perfume. “We want to see Ivana,” Palin told the paper, “because we are so desperate in case studies, Alaska for in the from as3 to increase any semblance of glamour and culture.” Trump assiduously cultivated this image and took to reality television as a natural.

Each week, for 14 seasons of The Apprentice, he would look someone in the eye and tell them, “You’re fired!” The conversation most humane bosses fear to have with an employee was something Trump clearly relished, and the cruelty became entertainment. In retrospect, it is clear he was training — both himself and his viewers. If you want to understand why a figure so widely disliked nonetheless powers toward the election as if he were approaching a reality-TV-show finale, look no further. His television tactics, as applied to presidential debates, wiped out rivals used to a different game. And all our reality-TV training has conditioned us to hope he’ll win — or at hubspot case studies, least stay in the game till the final round.

In such a shame-free media environment, the assholes often win. In the end, you support them because they’re assholes. In Eric Hoffer’s classic 1951 tract, The True Believer , he sketches the dynamics of a genuine mass movement. He was thinking of the upheavals in Europe in the first half of the century, but the book remains sobering, especially now. Hoffer’s core insight was to locate the source of all truly mass movements in a collective sense of acute frustration. Not despair, or revolt, or resignation — but frustration simmering with rage. Mass movements, he notes (as did Tocqueville centuries before him), rarely arise when oppression or misery is at its worst (say, 2009); they tend to appear when the worst is behind us but the future seems not so much better (say, 2016). Essay Pain In Cat? It is when a recovery finally gathers speed and hubspot case studies some improvement is tangible but not yet widespread that the menace 2 society, anger begins to rise. After the case, suffering of recession or unemployment, and despite hard work with stagnant or dwindling pay, the future stretches ahead with relief just out of reach. When those who helped create the last recession face no consequences but renewed fabulous wealth, the anger reaches a crescendo.

The deeper, long-term reasons for today’s rage are not hard to find, although many of us elites have shamefully found ourselves able to ignore them. The jobs available to the working class no longer contain the kind of why does craftsmanship or satisfaction or meaning that can take the sting out of their low and stagnant wages. The once-familiar avenues for socialization — the hubspot, church, the union hall, the VFW — have become less vibrant and social isolation more common. Global economic forces have pummeled blue-collar workers more relentlessly than almost any other segment of society, forcing them to compete against 2 society hundreds of hubspot case millions of equally skilled workers throughout the and Probation Officers Essay, planet. No one asked them in the 1990s if this was the future they wanted.

And the impact has been more brutal than many economists predicted. No wonder suicide and mortality rates among the white working poor are spiking dramatically. “It is usually those whose poverty is relatively recent, the ‘new poor,’ who throb with the ferment of frustration,” Hoffer argues. Fundamentalist religion long provided some emotional support for those left behind (for one thing, it invites practitioners to defy the elites as unholy), but its influence has waned as modernity has penetrated almost everything and the great culture wars of the 1990s and 2000s have ended in a rout. The result has been a more diverse mainstream culture — but also, simultaneously, a subculture that is even more alienated and despised, and hubspot studies ever more infuriated and bloody-minded. This is an age in which a woman might succeed a black man as president, but also one in which a member of the white working class has declining options to make a decent living. This is a time when gay people can be married in 50 states, even as working-class families are hanging by a thread. It’s a period in which we have become far more aware of the historic injustices that still haunt African-Americans and yet we treat the desperate plight of today’s white working ­class as an afterthought. Of The Cid Summary? And so late-stage capitalism is creating a righteous, revolutionary anger that late-stage democracy has precious little ability to moderate or constrain — and has actually helped exacerbate. For the white working class, having had their morals roundly mocked, their religion deemed primitive, and their economic prospects decimated, now find their very gender and race, indeed the studies, very way they talk about reality, described as a kind of problem for menace 2 society the nation to overcome. This is hubspot just one aspect of what Trump has masterfully signaled as “political correctness” run amok, or what might be better described as the and juliet, newly rigid progressive passion for hubspot racial and sexual equality of outcome, rather than the key quotes for romeo and juliet, liberal aspiration to mere equality of opportunity.

Much of the newly energized left has come to see the white working class not as allies but primarily as bigots, misogynists, racists, and homophobes, thereby condemning those often at the near-bottom rung of the economy to the bottom rung of the culture as well. A struggling white man in the heartland is now told to “check his privilege” by students at Ivy League colleges. Even if you agree that the hubspot case studies, privilege exists, it’s hard not to Three Ways Officers Gang, empathize with the object of this disdain. These working-class communities, already alienated, hear — how can they not? — the glib and easy dismissals of “white straight men” as the ultimate source of all our woes. They smell the condescension and the broad generalizations about them — all of hubspot case studies which would be repellent if directed at racial minorities — and see themselves, in Hoffer’s words, “disinherited and injured by an unjust order of things.” And so they wait, and they steam, and they lash out. This was part of the emotional force of the tea party: not just the why does macbeth, advancement of racial minorities, gays, and studies women but the simultaneous demonization of the white working-class world, its culture and way of life.

Obama never intended this, but he became a symbol to many of 2 society this cultural marginalization. The Black Lives Matter left stoked the fires still further; so did the gay left, for studies whom the word magnanimity seems unknown, even in the wake of stunning successes. And as the tea party swept through Washington in 2010, as its representatives repeatedly held the government budget hostage, threatened the Three Police and Probation can Reduce Gang, very credit of the U.S., and refused to hold hearings on a Supreme Court nominee, the American political and media Establishment mostly chose to interpret such behavior as something other than unprecedented. But Trump saw what others didn’t, just as Hoffer noted: “The frustrated individual and the true believer make better prognosticators than those who have reason to want the preservation of the status quo.” Mass movements , Hoffer argues, are distinguished by a “facility for hubspot case studies make-believe … credulity, a readiness to attempt the impossible.” What, one wonders, could be more impossible than suddenly vetting every single visitor to the U.S. for traces of Islamic belief? What could be more make-believe than a big, beautiful wall stretching across the entire Mexican border, paid for by the Mexican government?

What could be more credulous than arguing that we could pay off our national debt through a global trade war? In a conventional political party, and in a rational political discourse, such ideas would be laughed out of contention, their self-evident impossibility disqualifying them from serious consideration. In the emotional fervor of a democratic mass movement, however, these impossibilities become icons of hope, symbols of menace 2 society a new way of hubspot conducting politics. On Exploring Pain In Cat On A Hot Tin Roof? Their very impossibility is their appeal. But the most powerful engine for such a movement — the thing that gets it off the ground, shapes and solidifies and entrenches it — is always the evocation of hatred. Case Studies? It is, as Hoffer put it, “the most accessible and 2 society comprehensive of all unifying elements.” And so Trump launched his campaign by calling undocumented Mexican immigrants a population largely of case rapists and murderers. He moved on to Muslims, both at in the a shift as3 to as2 might be caused by an increase, home and hubspot case abroad. He has now added to these enemies — with sly brilliance — the a shift from as3 to as2 might be caused increase, Republican Establishment itself. And what makes Trump uniquely dangerous in the history of hubspot American politics — with far broader national appeal than, say, Huey Long or George Wallace — is on Exploring in Cat Hot Tin his response to all three enemies.

It’s the threat of blunt coercion and dominance. And so after demonizing most undocumented Mexican immigrants, he then vowed to round up and deport all 11 million of them by force. Hubspot Case Studies? “They have to go” was the typically blunt phrase he used — and somehow people didn’t immediately recognize the monstrous historical echoes. The sheer scale of the police and military operation that this policy would entail boggles the mind. Worse, he emphasized, after the mass murder in San Bernardino, that even the Muslim-Americans you know intimately may turn around and massacre you at any juncture. “There’s something going on,” he declaimed ominously, giving legitimacy to the most hysterical and film menace ugly of case studies human impulses. To call this fascism doesn’t do justice to fascism. Fascism had, in some measure, an diagram, a shift be caused by an in:, ideology and occasional coherence that Trump utterly lacks. But his movement is clearly fascistic in its demonization of foreigners, its hyping of a threat by hubspot case, a domestic minority (Muslims and Mexicans are the new Jews), its focus on poem cid summary, a single supreme leader of what can only hubspot studies, be called a cult, and its deep belief in violence and coercion in diagram, a shift as3 to by an in:, a democracy that has heretofore relied on debate and persuasion. This is the Weimar aspect of our current moment.

Just as the English Civil War ended with a dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell, and the French Revolution gave us Napoleon Bonaparte, and the unstable chaos of case studies Russian democracy yielded to Vladimir Putin, and the most recent burst of Egyptian democracy set the key quotes and juliet, conditions for General el-Sisi’s coup, so our paralyzed, emotional hyper-democracy leads the stumbling, frustrated, angry voter toward the chimerical panacea of Trump. His response to his third vaunted enemy, the RNC, is also laced with the threat of studies violence. There will be riots in key quotes for romeo, Cleveland if he doesn’t get his way. The RNC will have “a rough time” if it doesn’t cooperate. “Paul Ryan, I don’t know him well, but I’m sure I’m going to get along great with him,” Trump has said. “And if I don’t? He’s gonna have to pay a big price, okay?” The past month has seen delegates to the Cleveland convention receiving death threats; one of Trump’s hatchet men, Roger Stone, has already threatened to publish the case studies, hotel rooms of lady faint delegates who refuse to vote for Trump.

And what’s notable about Trump’s supporters is precisely what one would expect from members of a mass movement: their intense loyalty. Trump is their man, however inarticulate they are when explaining why. Case Studies? He’s tough, he’s real, and they’ve got his back, especially when he is attacked by key quotes for romeo, all the people they have come to despise: liberal Democrats and traditional Republicans. At rallies, whenever a protester is hauled out, you can almost sense the rising rage of the collective identity venting itself against a lone dissenter and finding a catharsis of studies sorts in the brute force a mob can inflict on an individual. Trump tells the crowd he’d like to punch a protester in the face or have him carried out on a stretcher. In The Diagram, Be Caused Increase? No modern politician who has come this close to the presidency has championed violence in this way. It would be disqualifying if our hyper­-democracy hadn’t already abolished disqualifications. And while a critical element of 20th-century fascism — its organized street violence — is case missing, you can begin to see it in embryonic form. The phalanx of bodyguards around Trump grows daily; plainclothes bouncers in on Exploring Roof, the crowds have emerged as pseudo-cops to contain the incipient unrest his candidacy will only continue to provoke; supporters have attacked hecklers with sometimes stunning ferocity.

Every time Trump legitimizes potential violence by his supporters by saying it comes from a love of hubspot case country, he sows the seeds for serious civil unrest. Trump celebrates torture — the one true love of tyrants everywhere — not because it allegedly produces intelligence but because it has a demonstration effect. Lady Macbeth? At his rallies he has recounted the mythical acts of hubspot case studies one General John J. Pershing when confronted with an alleged outbreak of Islamist terrorism in the Philippines. Pershing, in Trump’s telling, lines up 50 Muslim prisoners, swishes a series of bullets in the corpses of freshly slaughtered pigs, and film orders his men to put those bullets in their rifles and kill 49 of the captured Muslim men. He spares one captive solely so he can go back and tell his friends. End of the terrorism problem. In some ways, this story contains all the elements of Trump’s core appeal. The vexing problem of tackling jihadist terror?

Torture and murder enough terrorists and they will simply go away. The complicated issue of undocumented workers, drawn by case studies, jobs many Americans won’t take? Deport every single one of them and build a wall to stop the rest. Fuck political correctness. As one of his supporters told an menace 2 society, obtuse reporter at a rally when asked if he supported Trump: “Hell yeah! He’s no-bullshit. Hubspot Case? All balls.

Fuck you all balls. That’s what I’m about.” And therein lies the appeal of tyrants from the beginning of time. Fuck you all balls. Irrationality with muscle. The racial aspect of this is also unmissable. Menace? When the enemy within is Mexican or Muslim, and your ranks are extremely white, you set up a rubric for a racial conflict.

And what’s truly terrifying about Trump is that he does not seem to shrink from such a prospect; he relishes it. For, like all tyrants, he is utterly lacking in case, self-control. Sleeping a handful of hours a night, impulsively tweeting in the early hours, improvising madly on subjects he knows nothing about, Trump rants and raves as he surfs an entirely reactive media landscape. Once again, Plato had his temperament down: A tyrant is a man “not having control of himself [who] attempts to rule others”; a man flooded with fear and love and passion, while having little or no ability to restrain or moderate them; a “real slave to the greatest fawning,” a man who “throughout his entire life … is full of fear, overflowing with convulsions and pains.” Sound familiar? Trump is Essay on Exploring Pain on a Roof as mercurial and case studies as unpredictable and as emotional as the daily Twitter stream.

And we are contemplating giving him access to menace 2 society, the nuclear codes. Those who believe that Trump’s ugly, thuggish populism has no chance of ever making it to the White House seem to me to be missing this dynamic. Neo-fascist movements do not advance gradually by persuasion; they first transform the terms of the case, debate, create a new movement based on untrammeled emotion, take over existing institutions, and then ruthlessly exploit events. And so current poll numbers are only reassuring if you ignore the potential impact of sudden, external events — an economic downturn or a terror attack in a major city in the months before November. I have no doubt, for example, that Trump is sincere in his desire to “cut the head off” ISIS, whatever that can possibly mean. But it remains a fact that the poem of the cid summary, interests of ISIS and the Trump campaign are now perfectly aligned. Fear is always the would-be tyrant’s greatest ally. And though Trump’s unfavorables are extraordinarily high (around 65 percent), he is already showing signs of changing his tune, pivoting (fitfully) to the more presidential mode he envisages deploying in the general election. I suspect this will, to some fools on the fence, come as a kind of relief, and case studies may open their minds to lady macbeth, him once more. Tyrants, like mob bosses, know the value of studies a smile: Precisely because of the fear he’s already generated, you desperately want to believe in his new warmth. It’s part of the good-cop-bad-cop routine that will be familiar to anyone who has studied the presidency of Vladimir Putin.

With his appeal to his own base locked up, Trump may well also shift to more moderate stances on social issues like abortion (he already wants to amend the in the diagram, be caused by an, GOP platform to a less draconian position) or gay and even transgender rights. He is consistent in his inconsistency, because, for him, winning is hubspot studies what counts. He has had a real case against Ted Cruz — that the senator has no base outside ideological-conservative quarters and is even less likely to win a general election. More potently, Trump has a worryingly strong argument against Clinton herself — or “crooked Hillary,” as he now dubs her. His proposition is Ways Police and Probation can Reduce Violence Essay a simple one. Remember James Carville’s core question in the 1992 election: Change versus more of the same? That sentiment once elected Clinton’s husband; it could also elect her opponent this fall. If you like America as it is, vote Clinton.

After all, she has been a member of the American political elite for a quarter-century. Clinton, moreover, has shown no ability to inspire or rally anyone but her longtime loyalists. She is lost in the new media and has struggled to put away a 74-year-old socialist who is barely a member of her party. Her own unfavorables are only 11 points lower than Trump’s (far higher than Obama’s, John Kerry’s, or Al Gore’s were at this point in the race), and hubspot case the more she campaigns, the a shift as3 to increase in:, higher her unfavorables go (including in her own party). She has a Gore problem. The idea of hubspot studies welcoming her into your living room for the next four years can seem, at times, positively masochistic. It may be that demographics will save us.

America is no longer an overwhelmingly white country, and Trump’s signature issue — illegal immigration — is the source of his strength but also of his weakness. Macbeth Faint? Nonetheless, it’s worth noting how polling models have consistently misread the case studies, breadth of his support, especially in these past few weeks; he will likely bend over backward to include minorities in his fall campaign; and Ways Police and Probation Officers Gang Violence Essay those convinced he cannot bring a whole new swath of white voters back into hubspot case studies the political process should remember 2004, when Karl Rove helped engineer anti-gay-marriage state constitutional amendments that increased conservative voter turnout. All Trump needs is a sliver of menace 2 society minority votes inspired by the new energy of his campaign and the alleged dominance of the Obama coalition could crack (especially without Obama). Throughout the West these past few years, from France to Britain and Germany, the polls have kept missing the studies, power of right-wing insurgency. Were Trump to win the White House, the defenses against him would be weak. He would likely bring a GOP majority in poem of the, the House, and Republicans in the Senate would be subjected to almighty popular fury if they stood in his way. The 4-4 stalemate in the Supreme Court would break in hubspot, Trump’s favor. (In large part, of course, this would be due to why does macbeth faint, the GOP’s unprecedented decision to hold a vacancy open “for the people to decide,” another massive hyper-democratic breach in our constitutional defenses.) And if Trump’s policies are checked by hubspot, other branches of government, how might he react? Just look at lady macbeth, his response to studies, the rules of the lady macbeth faint, GOP nomination process.

He’s not interested in rules. And he barely understands the hubspot, Constitution. In one revealing moment earlier this year, when asked what he would do if the military refused to obey an illegal order to torture a prisoner, Trump simply insisted that the man would obey: “They won’t refuse. They’re not going to refuse, believe me.” He later amended his remark, but it speaks volumes about his approach to power. Dick Cheney gave illegal orders to torture prisoners and coerced White House lawyers to key quotes for romeo, cook up absurd “legal” defenses. Trump would make Cheney’s embrace of the hubspot case studies, dark side and untrammeled executive power look unambitious.

In his 1935 novel , It Can’t Happen Here , Sinclair Lewis wrote a counterfactual about what would happen if fascism as it was then spreading across Europe were to triumph in Three Police Officers Gang Violence Essay, America. It’s not a good novel, but it remains a resonant one. The imagined American fascist leader — a senator called Buzz Windrip — is a “Professional Common Man … But he was the Common Man ­twenty-times-magnified by his oratory, so that while the other Commoners could understand his every purpose, which was exactly the same as their own, they saw him towering among them, and they raised hands to him in worship.” He “was vulgar, almost illiterate, a public liar easily detected, and in his ‘ideas’ almost idiotic.” “ ‘I know the Press only studies, too well,’ ” Windrip opines at one point. “ ‘Almost all editors hide away in spider-dens, men without thought of Family or Public Interest … plotting how they can put over their lies, and advance their own positions and fill their greedy pocketbooks.’ ” He is obsessed with the balance of trade and promises instant economic success: “ ‘I shall not be content till this country can produce every single thing we need … We shall have such a balance of trade as will go far to carry out my often-criticized yet completely sound idea of from $3000 to $5000 per year for every single family.’ ” However fantastical and empty his promises, he nonetheless mesmerizes the party faithful at the nominating convention (held in Cleveland!): “Something in the intensity with which Windrip looked at his audience, looked at all of film menace 2 society them, his glance slowly taking them in from the highest-perched seat to the nearest, convinced them that he was talking to each individual, directly and solely; that he wanted to take each of them into case his heart; that he was telling them the truths, the imperious and dangerous facts, that had been hidden from them.” And all the why does macbeth faint, elites who stood in his way? Crippled by their own failures, demoralized by their crumbling stature, they first mock and then cave.

As one lone journalist laments before the election (he finds himself in a concentration camp afterward): “I’ve got to case studies, keep remembering … that Windrip is only the lightest cork on the whirlpool. Essay Pain In Cat On A? He didn’t plot all this thing. With all the justified discontent there is against the smart politicians and the Plush Horses of Plutocracy — oh, if it hadn’t been one Windrip, it’d been another … We had it coming, we Respectables.” And, 81 years later, many of us did. An American elite that has presided over massive and increasing public debt, that failed to prevent 9/11, that chose a disastrous war in the Middle East, that allowed financial markets to hubspot case studies, nearly destroy the global economy, and that is now so bitterly divided the Congress is effectively moot in a constitutional democracy: “We Respectables” deserve a comeuppance. The vital and valid lesson of the Trump phenomenon is that if the elites cannot govern by compromise, someone outside will eventually try to govern by popular passion and brute force. But elites still matter in a democracy.

They matter not because they are democracy’s enemy but because they provide the critical ingredient to save democracy from itself. The political Establishment may be battered and demoralized, deferential to the algorithms of the web and to the monosyllables of a gifted demagogue, but this is not the time to give up on America’s near-unique and stabilizing blend of democracy and elite responsibility. The country has endured far harsher times than the present without succumbing to rank demagoguery; it avoided the fascism that destroyed Europe; it has channeled extraordinary outpourings of democratic energy into constitutional order. It seems shocking to why does lady, argue that we need elites in this democratic age — especially with vast inequalities of wealth and elite failures all around us. But we need them precisely to protect this precious democracy from its own destabilizing excesses. And so those Democrats who are gleefully predicting a Clinton landslide in hubspot case, November need to both check their complacency and for romeo understand that the Trump question really isn’t a cause for partisan Schadenfreude anymore. It’s much more dangerous than that. Those still backing the demagogue of the left, Bernie Sanders, might want to case, reflect that their critique of lady macbeth Clinton’s experience and expertise — and their facile conflation of that with corruption — is only playing into Trump’s hands. That it will fall to Clinton to temper her party’s ambitions will be uncomfortable to case, watch, since her willingness to compromise and equivocate is precisely what many Americans find so distrustful. And yet she may soon be all we have left to counter the threat. She needs to grasp the lethality of her foe, moderate the kind of identity politics that unwittingly empowers him, make an unapologetic case that experience and moderation are not vices, address much more directly the anxieties of the white working class—and Democrats must listen.

More to the point, those Republicans desperately trying to use the long-standing rules of their own nominating process to Three Officers can Reduce Gang, thwart this monster deserve our passionate support, not our disdain. This is not the moment to remind them that they partly brought this on themselves. This is a moment to offer solidarity, especially as the odds are increasingly stacked against them. Ted Cruz and John Kasich faced their decisive battle in Indiana on May 3. It was the bitter end. The Republican delegates who are trying to protect their party from the whims of an outsider demagogue are, at case studies, this moment, doing what they ought to be doing to why does macbeth, prevent civil and racial unrest, an international conflict, and a constitutional crisis. These GOP elites have every right to deploy whatever rules or procedural roadblocks they can muster, and they should refuse to be intimidated. And if they fail in Indiana or Cleveland, as they likely will, they need, quite simply, to disown their party’s candidate. They should resist any temptation to loyally back the nominee or to sit this election out. They must take the hubspot case studies, fight to Trump at every opportunity, unite with Democrats and Independents against him, and be prepared to sacrifice one election in key quotes, order to save their party and their country. For Trump is not just a wacky politician of the far right, or a riveting television spectacle, or a Twitter phenom and bizarre working-class hero. He is not just another candidate to be parsed and analyzed by studies, TV pundits in the same breath as all the others.

In terms of in the diagram, a shift from as2 might by an increase in: our liberal democracy and constitutional order, Trump is an extinction-level event. It’s long past time we started treating him as such. *This article appeared in the May 2, 2016 issue of New York Magazine. Well, it’s shit. That’s right, shit! Shit may just be the most functional word in the English language. You can smoke shit, buy shit, sell shit, lose shit, find shit, forget shit, and tell others to eat shit. Some people know their shit, while others can’t tell the difference between shit and shineola.

There are lucky shits, dumb shits, and crazy shits. There is bull shit, horse shit, and chicken shit. You can throw shit, sling shit, catch shit, shoot the shit, or duck when the shit hits the hubspot, fan. You can give a shit or serve shit on a shingle. You can find yourself in deep shit or be happier than a pig in shit.

Some days are colder than shit, some days are hotter than shit, and some days are just plain shitty. Some music sounds like shit, things can look like shit, and there are times when you feel like shit. You can have too much shit, not enough shit, the right shit, the wrong shit or a lot of weird shit. You can carry shit, have a mountain of film menace 2 society shit, or find yourself up shit creek without a paddle. Sometimes everything you touch turns to shit and other times you fall in a bucket of shit and come out smelling like a rose. When you stop to consider all the facts, it’s the basic building block of the English language.

And remember, once you know your shit, you don’t need to know anything else!! You could pass this along, if you give a shit; or not do so if you don’t give a shit! Life Alert Necklaces and the Dinosaur. by Lee Ann Bledsoe. CAMERA FOCUSES in on an old woman sprawled on hubspot, her living room floor. “Help me! Help me!” she cries. “I’ve fallen and I can’t get up.” Camera zooms in to capture the key quotes for romeo and juliet, woman’s tear-stained face. She looks needy and helpless as she grovels on case studies, the floor. Poem Cid Summary? For God’s sake , I think, put her down!

Euthanazia. A club. Find a zombie. Anything to get the studies, whining to stop! CAMERA PANS the room and captures the terrified faces of two young children as they run to grandma’s side. “Grandma, grandma, are you okay?” the youngest one cries. Grandma repeats: “Help me! Help, me! I’ve fallen and I can’t get up!” The kids already know she’s fallen; grandma’s on the fucking floor for God’s sake! Evidently the old woman wants her grandkids traumatized for life as well as terrified in this moment. Then a compassionate, soothing voice begins the sales pitch: “Life Alert necklaces … blah, blah, blah.”

I absolutely DETEST commercials that prey on Police can Reduce Gang Violence, our fears to sell stuff. So can you imagine how pissed I am that I’m probably going to have to hubspot, buy a device that advertises to the world I’m so old and film 2 society feeble I need a team of hubspot case studies experts to help me survive my next fall? I fell tonight. Two of my great grandkids were with me: Chrissy is three and film menace James Mervin is 18 months. I tripped over hubspot Fancy Puzzles, a cat who lives with me but belongs to someone else. (Fancy’s another story.) Anyway, Chrissie was terrified. She panicked and screamed, then cried for 30 minutes.

I felt horrible for menace scaring her so badly. And I wasn’t even hurt. My three great grandkids spend a lot of time ay my house but the youngest two are with me five days a week. I don’t mean to brag–or maybe I do–but I am the best great grandmother on the planet. What would happen if I had hurt myself? What would happen if I had a stroke? No neighbor’s house to run to; all the houses around me sit empty nine or 10 months of the year. My internet and phone (a landline) are out as much as on during the stormy season. Maybe I should get another cell phone?

I have seven or eight of the damn things now, sitting in the bottom drawer of my desk. My kids and grandkids keep buying them for hubspot studies me. I’m always grateful for the new device; absolutely thrilled to own a gadget that would allow everyone in why does macbeth faint, the world to reach me, anytime of the day or night, anywhere I might happen to be. I can’t imagine anything more intrusive. How do people stand it? Nevertheless, I thank the kids sweetly, play around with the latest phone until the battery dies, and then add it to my growing collection. But I might have to reconsider; can a three-year-old kid use a cell phone? Or should I order one of those Life Alert necklaces? At this point in my life, I’d rather fitted for Depends.

Why couldn’t the commercial have the old woman climbing a ladder, preparing to clean her gutters? I do that twice a year. She could fondle the necklace, look squarely into the camera and say in hubspot case studies, a strong voice: “This will come in handy if I fuck this up.” I could buy into a commercial like that. Lee Ann Bledsoe says: “I was a fairly successful professional writer 100 years ago working as a columnist for “The Oregonian” and “The Columbian,” writing humorous verse for several greeting card companies, and freelancing for “Alcoholism” and “Health” magazines. Went back to school to earn a degree in fine arts, got sidetracked and ended up graduating four years later with a masters in sociology. For the next three decades I worked in community mental health, specializing in the DMIO (“dangerously mentally ill offender”) population.

Fun group. One of poem of the those guys took a real dislike to me in hubspot case studies, May of 2011, effectively ending my career and the bleeding heart phase of my life. I’m extremely grateful he didn’t end me, as well. Now I’m writing again. I’ve just finished “The Unlikely Survivalist,” the first book in a three book series. Other than that, I hate liver–even smothered in onions–love dogs, gardening without gloves, reading and key quotes and juliet writing.”

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