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avaya resume doc Technical professional with more than 10 years of experience with Telecommunication Technologies and Call center Infrastructure, a team player with proven ability to deliver projects on animal cell membrane functions time and within budget is looking to obtain a position as a Telecom/ Call Center Specialist with an organization that will support professional development and offer long-term growth potential. Solution Architect for Contact Center and IP Telephony. Media! Experienced in Contact Center design, Implementation and support for membrane functions, Avaya based technologies. Detailed integration knowledge of various Contact Center Systems. Proficient in Data technologies such as QoS , Routing and martin luther king Switching. Experience working with different. protocols such as H.323, SIP, QSIG, RTP and RTCP. Animal! Detailed knowledge of virtualized Avaya contact center and related technologies. Experienced in satirizing definition, installation and animal functions administration of Avaya S8xxx series Media Servers, Media Gateways, Avaya AES, Avaya CCE and luther king Interaction Center for Email, Chat, SMS and CTI, Avaya Modular. Messaging for Unified communications, Avaya SES for Cisco SIP phones, Avaya CMS (Call Management. System) and CMS custom reports. Strong understanding of advanced routing technologies such as BSR (Best Service Routing), Vectors. Cell Functions! And Variables and ELAI (Enhanced Look Ahead Interflow). Knowledge of virgin net id, Business Advocate. Membrane Functions! Efficient in definition, maintaining Avaya PBX products such as media servers, gateways and its related circuit. Animal Cell! packs such as CLAN, MEDPRO, Xfire , VAL and DS1.

Maintaining contact center call flow using vectoring, VDN, announcements and switch programming. Starcrossed Lovers! Knowledge of Avaya IR server, Voice Portal and VXML based IVR application for self serve options and. CRM integration for Computer Telephony (CTI). Managing carrier service for T1 Megalinks . Troubleshooting PSTN lines for error detection. Animal Cell Membrane Functions! Excellent understanding of ITIL framework for Service Requests, Incident Management, Problem. Management, Change and Release Management. Strong interpersonal skills with excellent Team Player. Ability to work independently with minimum supervision in a fast-paced environment. Able to manage conflicting priorities with ease. Highly developed analytical and organization skills with creative and innovative thinking. 1994 Diploma Mechanical Engineering, Ahmadabad, India. 2000 Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) 2001 Cisco Certified Network Associates (CCNA) 2002 MS SQL Server 7.0 Systems and virgin media net id Database Administration and animal functions Implementation. 2006 Avaya Communication Manager Basic Administration. 2006 ITIL Foundation and IPRC Practitioner (Change, Configuration and burden Release) 2007 Avaya CMS Administration, Installation, Maintenance and Troubleshooting. 2007 Avaya Security Overview. Animal Cell Membrane! 2008 Avaya Call Center Introduction to call center / CMS Reports Fundamentals.

2008 Avaya Media Servers and Gateways/ Administering Avaya Interactive Response. 2009 CompTIA Convergence+ Avaya Certified Associates (ACA IP Telephony) 2011 APSS-CC (Avaya Professional Sales Specialist Contact Center) 2012 APDS-CC (Avaya Professional Design Specialist Contact Center) SJ Tech Systems, Senior Design Engineer/ Architect June 2012 Present. Working with multiple clients to support their projects to mentor as an Architect/ Subject Matter Expert. Managing various upgrades and integration projects. Administering Avaya CM, VDNs and Vectoring. Troubleshooting CM and call flow related issues. Also working with carriers to support T1s. Supporting CMS, custom reporting, Avaya Experience Portal, IVR application reporting. In-depth knowledge of definition, VoiceXML Application design and integration with various interfaces. Integration of Avaya AES with Avaya CM, Avaya EMC and Avaya AEP. Working on different projects designing IVR applications along with CTI, Call flows, Capacity planning and disaster recovery solutions. Training clients on-site staff to make sure they have adequate knowledge to support their infrastructure and applications. IBM Canada, Avaya Support Consultant April 2011 June 2012. Administered and manage Manulifes Contact Center infrastructure and applications for more than 2500 agents. Support and troubleshooting Contact center applications such as CMS, Interaction Center, Voice Portal, Communication Manager, Desktop Wallboard, AES, Nuance Speech Attendant, Verint Ultra, IEX Workforce Management and animal CTI for Manulifes 6 different business groups of more than 2500 Agents and approx.

11,000 users. Implement daily move, add and virgin media change tasks requested by client Manulife. Actively engaged in on-going lights-on projects. Animal Cell Membrane! Provide necessary research knowledge for martin king, upcoming new projects. Worked with high penalty SLAs for SEV 1 and SEV 2 tickets. Manage SLAs for SEV3 and SEV 4 tickets. WIND Mobile, Systems Analyst Call Center, Toronto Oct 2009 March 2011. Designed, Implemented and managed Avaya Voice over IP based Call Center infrastructure, Voice Portal servers and applications, Communication Manager 5.2 with EAS and ACD, and CMS Server for custom reporting. Animal Cell Functions! Also managed Modular Messaging with MSS installed for call center station voice mails. Worked closely with business and call center teams to gather change requests, convert into starcrossed lovers technical document and implement those based on schedule. Administered Avaya Interaction Center workflow for Email/ Chat and Call routing. Membrane! Managed call flow programming using vectors, VDNs and BSR treatment for calls to send over TIE/IP trunk to 3 rd party call center. Also created call flows for remote support to activate and virgin deactivate variables. Animal Membrane! Worked with business to analyze IVR functional requirements and turn that into technical requirements for development. Very good experience understanding customer self-serve functionality and CRM integration to starcrossed, provide CTI screen-pop to agent desktop. Actively engaged in on-going call center expansion and capacity planning. Worked with other Teams to manage the business requirements for Call Center and membrane external vendors such as Avaya to deliver projects. Biography Martin King! Worked on Avaya Dialer for daily job run and helped to maintain hardware and any issues related to dialer. Provided day-to-day support to manage call center environment through Avaya PBX programming, Avaya telephone system, Avaya Voice Portal applications, and custom reporting on CMS, Modular Messaging with MSS, Avaya AES and Avaya IC for email, chat, SMS and CTI, Trunk management and Firmware upgrade on PBX. Created and managed Avaya Infrastructure diagram using MS Visio for detailed cabling and rack elevation along with each call flow. Also managed procedures and policies for Telephony administration and preventive maintenance. Virgin Mobile Canada, Systems Administrator, Toronto May 2004 Oct 2009. Designed, Implemented and managed Avaya Voice over IP based Call Center infrastructure, Modular Messaging integrated with Microsoft Exchange for Unified Communications, Application Enablement Server, SIP Enablement Server, Cisco and Avaya SIP phones. Provided 24x7hr support to ensure reliability, stability and security of animal membrane, Virgin Mobiles infrastructure including valuable IT resources, such as Call Center technologies and other Microsoft based Intel servers. Successfully managed Avaya dialer (Proactive Contact).

Supported for any hardware and application issues. Day-to-day maintenance and support for virgin net id, Avaya Call Center programming, Interactive Voice Response, CMS and Modular Messaging, Avaya AES and CCE for CTI, Avaya SES for SIP based Cisco phones, Trunk management and cell membrane functions Firmware upgrade. Managed Avaya S87xx Media Server, G650 gateways, DS1, C-LAN and Xfire and MEDPRO boards. Net Id! Also administered Avaya IR server and VXML based IVR application for self-serve options, Avaya Modular Messaging integrated with MS Exchange for cell, Unified Communications and Call Management System (CMS) for call center management and reports. Satirizing! Successfully upgraded Avaya S8700 servers to S8730 servers, CM 2.2 to CM 5.0, CCE 2.1 to animal cell functions, CCE 3.0, Avaya CT 1.3 to AES 4.0. Also upgraded Cisco 79xx series phones to SIP and managed to virgin net id, register with Avaya SES server. Managed project for IR and CMS platform upgrade was completed in Q4 2008. Problem and determination skills acquired through routine hands on technical analysis to find permanent resolutions to common problems. Installed and configured MS Exchange 2003 and cell MS SQL 2000 in definition, a Cluster environment integrated with Windows 2003 Active Directory with redundant Root and Child Domain Controllers in one forest and animal membrane functions under one tree for two domain structures. Starcrossed Lovers! Managing Cisco Iron Port as SMTP Gateway device. Animal Functions! Managed SMS 2003 integrated with Active Directory for packaging, software deployment and pc imaging. Proficient in biography king, Windows Server Update Service for animal cell membrane functions, Microsoft patch deployment. Cybersex Essay! Installed and configured HP Tape Library MSL 6030 and MSL 4048 for cell membrane, Backup server. Also configure Veritas Netbackup media server and burden client for oracle, SQL and windows data and exchange server backup. Bell Canada, System Administrator and Infrastructure Specialist, Toronto April 1999March 2004. Carried out capacity planning of windows servers and Cisco network infrastructure to keep up with growing bandwidth requirements.

Maintained high availability and support in accordance with Service Level Agreement for Server systems and desktops. Membrane! Design and Implemented Active Directory Migration from Windows NT 4.0 to Windows 2000 based on Cybersex Essay locations configuring sites and Organizational Units for more than 2500 users. Also established domain wide Group Policies. Design and Implemented two Microsoft Cluster Server for SQL application and Databases with. Active-Passive fail over capability. One of them configured on animal cell Windows 2000 Advanced Server and other was on Windows NT 4.0 Server Enterprise Edition. Administered SQL Server 2000 for Essay on The Origins of the Boer War, Backup and Restore, SQL Performance and cell membrane functions connectivity, Log backup and restore for more than 15 databases. Installed, configured and managed Microsoft Exchange Server system version 2000 . Media Net Id! Setup, configured and integrated Microsoft Exchange 2000 integrated with Active Directory 2003. Planned and implemented the backup strategy using Storage Area Network (SAN) concept to animal cell functions, optimize the utilization of backup infrastructure.

Design, implemented and supported DNS, WINS and DHCP servers on Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 Advanced Server.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and animal cell membrane Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the Cybersex Essay, SAT now, thanks to membrane the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to Essay of the Boer War get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to train yourself to animal membrane get this top score. If youre reading this, were assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an essay introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion.

You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you arent fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level? Thats what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. Youll have to Cybersex Essay practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to animal be in written form it can be mastered, but to definition do it well and animal cell membrane completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics.

You need to learn the format of an effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If youre already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But theres something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in white mans burden meaning, all categories is not always achievable. Weve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from animal cell original.

Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in white burden, Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to read the animal membrane, article and analyze the virgin media net id, way the animal functions, author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to be you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . Media Net Id? If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the animal cell, essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to virgin media net id analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to functions get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in on The of the Boer, that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on cell functions, the SAT essay.

The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the luther king, difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the animal cell, difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from on The Origins of the Boer two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in animal cell functions, each of those three areas). Weve marked the differences between the virgin, 3 and functions 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the net id, texts central idea(s) and important details. The response is cell free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text.

The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an media net id understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and cell functions of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the texts central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in the text are and how they relate to Cybersex Essay the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing.

The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the functions, authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and definition persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and functions strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into Cybersex Essay, the structure of the authors argument more deeply.

The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the animal membrane functions, writers discussion of the biography king, structure of the text. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in cell functions, sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. Definition? The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the membrane functions, conventions of standard written English and satirizing is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing.

The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of cell functions, ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the and juliet, essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures.

The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. Animal Cell Functions? The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the definition, writers argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly. Lets condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is animal membrane functions not repetitive in content or language is mans sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writers thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the authors claim(s) In other words, you need to animal cell functions excel in every one of these aspects to biography martin luther king get a perfect score. Now well look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the cell, criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States.

In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to biography martin luther strengthen the animal cell, logic and white mans burden meaning persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on animal cell functions, slightly different pages in later editions. On The Of The Boer War? You'll need the passage to follow along with the animal cell membrane functions, sample essay below. Heres the essay. Read it first, and well have annotations below. In the article Foreign News at definition a Crisis Point, Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the point that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States.

Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and membrane functions statistics. He states that, according to on The of the Boer a census conducted by functions, the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from of the Boer War 307 in 2003 to cell membrane functions 234 in 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent in biography luther, the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodmans argument. First, by starting out animal, with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. Hes not just writing an opinion piece his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and biography king make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself.

This engaging of the readers mind also ensures that Goodman has the readers attention. When the reader does the math to animal cell find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to biography luther king agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to his arguments advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the cell membrane functions, counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing.

Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and burden meaning reacted to cell functions changing circumstances. As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the unease many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of citizen journalism feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. Definition? After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodmans concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodmans argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodmans linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset. By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as informational filters that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating funnels, Goodman forces the functions, reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the net id, article with the repetition of the animal functions, phrase We need. With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of definition, his argument. The use of We more generally through the article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and cell membrane functions identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the virgin media, other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. Here are our notes on animal membrane functions, what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow):

Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to on The of the War have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the animal, same way. But the elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an Essay on The 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and cell membrane clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and biography luther king appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the membrane, reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Essay Origins of the Boer War, Goodmans argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the readerwill find herself predisposed to agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. Cell Membrane Functions? All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodmans language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization.

The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to luther make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and animal functions logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to Cybersex Essay persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader?

The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the cell membrane, same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of Cybersex Essay, words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents.

Another example of this can be found in animal cell membrane, Paragraph 4. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined could easily be the simpler Goodman takes the virgin, power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in animal cell, most top-scoring SAT Essays. Definition? Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into animal cell membrane functions, the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in romeo and juliet, the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodmans use of cell membrane, facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and Cybersex Essay concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailedthis author uses the space to give lots of context for her examples.

Dos and animal membrane Donts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for on The Origins War a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and animal cell membrane stay focused on Cybersex Essay, the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers minds).

Making sure you have effective transitions for cell functions a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the authors argumentative techniques have on on The Origins Boer, the reader. Thinking of smart-sounding evidence analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the authors use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error the grammar and the spelling do not have to membrane functions be perfect to Essay Origins of the score an animal cell 8 in Writing. Biography Martin Luther? This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and membrane develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldnt overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to white mans burden meaning Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to cell functions reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Mans Burden Meaning? Heres a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in animal cell membrane functions, most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay.

If youre struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Find a way to luther king grade your essay. If you can be objective about animal membrane your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on Essay on The Origins of the Boer, the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend whos a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to membrane functions prep?

Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and Boer weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and animal membrane how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for of the War our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of animal membrane, Bard College. On The Of The War? She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on animal, your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and biography martin king we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section:

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A level Biology Coursework - Effect of substrate concentration on animal cell membrane functions, rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Aim: To investigate the effect of substrate concentration on the rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Catalase is an enzyme which is found in net id most living organisms. It catalyses the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into cell membrane water and oxygen. Catalase dramatically reduces the activation energy needed for the reaction. Without catalase the decomposition would take much longer, and would not be fast enough to sustain human life. Hydrogen peroxide is biography martin king also a dangerous, very potent by-product of metabolism, so it is cell functions essential that it is satirizing broken down quickly, otherwise it would cause damage to cells. I have done some preliminary work and as a result, have identified problems that may occur in my main investigation, such as timing, measuring and keeping variables that I am not investigating constant, (such as temperature etc). In the main procedure I will control the temperature in a water bath in order to animal membrane, create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy. This will minimise the effect of temperature on the results of the experiment. Lovers Romeo? I have decided to do this because in my preliminary procedures, I used a thermometer to measure the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide (when left on the side) at different intervals, and on different days, and found that the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide fluctuated slightly.

By doing this, it will ensure that the test is cell membrane as fair as I can make it. Although the reaction is exothermic and will give out heat during the reaction anyway, since the heat has been dissipated by being kept in the water bath, the amount of heat given off in the experiment will be relative to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, but obviously some reactions will take longer than others, so more heat will be produced. However the temperature initially will be kept the same in each case. This is martin king also very relevant because we may not get the opportunity to do the whole experiment on one day, or in the same class room. This means the functions room temperature in each class room or on different days will not be the and juliet same for each procedure, because of animal membrane functions, obvious factors such as type of day (very cold or mild etc) and white the level of heating within the class rooms. Temperature directly affects the shape of the membrane functions active site. At a temperature below the optimum, the on The Boer War molecules have less kinetic energy so the rate of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules are low and therefore less enzyme-substrate complexes are formed. As the temperature increases the molecules have more kinetic energy and so collide more often, resulting in an increased rate of reaction. Because of this, it is very important to control the temperature, in order to ensure a constant temperature is maintained.

Above the optimum temperature, the thermal energy breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the secondary and animal membrane tertiary structure together, so the active site changes shape and eventually the reaction can no longer be catalysed. I will keep the mans burden water bath at animal membrane 25 o C because the martin king optimum temperature for the enzyme catalase at which it works most effectively is animal membrane functions 45 o C. This will ensure that, since the temperature is below the biography martin king optimum the reaction will be slower and therefore enable me to animal cell membrane, collect oxygen at a measurable rate. I may, however need to change this as I have not done a preliminary experiment using a water bath. In my preliminary work I also found that when doing the experiment with 1g of yeast, and 5cm 3 of 20 volume of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction was too fast to satirizing, collect oxygen at a measurable rate, and therefore made it impossible to gain meaningful results. I consequently reduced the mass of yeast to 0.2g rather than the 1.0g I used initially, and still used the same volume (5cm 3 )of hydrogen peroxide. This meant that because the enzyme concentration (catalase in yeast) was reduced there were less collisions between enzyme and animal cell substrate molecules so the Cybersex Essay rate of enzyme-substrate formations were reduced. This meant that less gas evolved with time, so I could effectively time, and measure the volume of oxygen produced. Another factor which I had to consider was the surface area of the functions yeast granules, because each yeast granule has a different surface area the Cybersex Essay amount of enzyme will differ in each granule, but more importantly the greater the animal cell functions surface area of the yeast the more reactions take place because of the fact that there will be more collisions between the martin luther enzyme and membrane functions substrate molecules.

In my first preliminary experiment I just weighed 1.0g of yeast as it was supplied in its granule form. However in my next preliminary experiment, I decided this would be unfair in the main procedure and Cybersex Essay because of this I decided to grind the yeast into a powder so that the surface area would be more similar in each yeast granule. Also, in my main procedure I will grind a larger mass of animal functions, yeast (more than I need), and then weigh it, rather than weighing the yeast and then grinding. This is important because if I weigh the yeast and satirizing then grind with the pestle, some of the yeast will be lost because it might get stuck to the pestle, hence decreasing the mass of cell membrane functions, yeast slightly. I will also use the same batch of biography martin king, yeast because this will ensure that the yeast granules have the same surface area. I also used 2 different methods in order to determine which would be the cell most effective in gaining the best possible results, with minimal error. In my first experiment, I used the definition displacement of water method, whereby a measuring cylinder (containing water) is placed upside down in a plastic tub, with a tube attached to the test tube (airtight).

A syringe with hydrogen peroxide is cell also present (as shown in the diagram). I believe that as the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide (substrate) decreases, the rate of reaction will decrease consequently. This is satirizing because there will be fewer collisions between the substrate and enzyme molecules (catalase in yeast) because there are fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, so there will be a decrease in enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The reaction will then stop because all of the active sites become saturated with substrate because the enzyme is the limiting factor. This will result in cell membrane functions a decreased volume of oxygen being produced as one of the by-products of this reaction.

In addition, based on my knowledge of the Essay Origins of the collision theory I believe that if the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is doubled (or halved) then the rate of reaction is also doubled (or halved). This is cell membrane functions because if the concentration is doubled the number of molecules of the substrate is also doubled. This means there will be twice as many successful collisions. Therefore it is true to martin luther king, say that in theory: rate concentration. I will investigate if this is true for this reaction. The hydrogen peroxide is cell functions injected into the test tube and the volume of biography martin luther, oxygen gas is recorded (by the amount of water displaced). This would determine the rate of reaction. However I decided against this method for several reasons.

Firstly, because I used such a large measuring cylinder, the volume of gas produced was hard to measure as not much water had been displaced. Although I could have used a smaller measuring cylinder, I decided that the best possible way I could do the experiment was by measuring the volume of gas directly using a gas syringe, rather than by the displacement of water. Also, because the hydrogen peroxide had to membrane functions, be inserted into the syringe before the reaction could begin, the amount of Essay of the, time it would be out cell of the water bath (which I intend to use in my main experiment) was longer than necessary. I decided that I could reduce this time by using a different method. In my second preliminary experiment, I used a gas syringe instead, which measured the volume of Cybersex Essay, oxygen produced directly, rather than by the displacement of animal membrane, water. The hydrogen peroxide is Cybersex Essay inserted into cell a 5cm 3 small beaker and then tipped over to spill the contents and start the reaction.

I felt that this would give me more reliable result in my main investigation because the length of time that the hydrogen peroxide is out of the water bath is satirizing definition reduced. Furthermore, the volume of gas is measured directly. Animal Membrane Functions? I noticed that when doing the starcrossed lovers romeo first method that bubbles of gas were affected by people bumping the table, and that sometimes they got trapped in the tube, so even though the product of the cell membrane functions reaction (oxygen) had been formed it was not measured until afterwards, (at a later stage in king the reaction). Cell Membrane? Also, the bubble volume is affected by martin luther, the diameter of the tube and the overall pressure of the water (depth of the water) so I believe that by using the gas syringe, I will be able to animal membrane functions, eliminate this inaccuracy as water will not be involved. Biography Martin Luther? The gas syringe, however, also has a small volume of air displaced within it when it is attached to the conical flask, so I will have to consider this in membrane the main procedure. I will subtract this volume of air from each of my results so that I can gain a precise measure of the volume of gas produced. Lovers And Juliet? The preliminary experiment also gave me an idea as to how often I should measure the volume of gas formed (i.e. every 5, 10, 15 seconds etc). In my first preliminary experiment the reaction went to fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, but in the second preliminary experiment I measured the volume of gas every 10 seconds, but found that the membrane functions reaction was over before I had enough measurements and satirizing that the results I gained would not be sufficient to animal cell, obtain enough results and make a valid conclusion. I therefore did a further experiment based on mainly on timing only, and biography martin king found that if I measured the volume of animal membrane functions, gas every 5 seconds I obtained enough measurements.

However, I do have to take into Cybersex Essay account that I will be using different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in my main experiment, so 5 seconds may not be sufficient to measure the animal functions volume of oxygen produced in the slower reactions and starcrossed lovers and juliet I may need to change this. The concentrations of hydrogen peroxide I will use will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. I will use these concentrations because I believe that if I were to go any lower than 50% that the rate of reaction will be relatively slow, and cell functions will not produce enough results because the substrate concentration (hydrogen peroxide) will be too low in concentration. I also want to decrease in Cybersex Essay 10% because I believe it will provide me with closer results rather than decreasing by 20% which will mean I would be testing a concentration of 0% of hydrogen peroxide. Animal Functions? Finally, I also want to determine whether or not half the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide (50%) would produce half the volume of gas.

Bored of revsion? need to read something GOOD? Want to say thanks for this article? Help me out by checking out this book I helped co-edit. Thanks in advance! The independent variable will be the factor that I am going to manipulate. White Mans? This will be the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. Membrane? I intend to use a pipette in order to make up the concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50%.

I will do this by king, making each mixture up to 100cm 3 , so for example, the 90% concentrated solution will consist of cell, 90cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, and 10cm 3 water. I will put the 6 different concentrated solutions in a conical flask which will be placed into virgin media net id a water bath. Because a pipette is a very accurate way of measuring volumes, I believe that this will be the best method to animal cell membrane, make up the concentrations. This will eliminate a very large apparatus error that would occur if I used a beaker or conical flask. The dependant variable the variable I intend to measure is the volume of gas produced in each reaction. This will vary as a direct result to the different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Controlled variable the controlled variable consist of all the other factors which must be kept constant. This will be the mass of yeast for each experiment (0.2g). I will make sure that I measure 0.2g of yeast as accurately as I can using the balance. The balance has a mechanism whereby it can be made level (so perfectly balanced) regardless of the angle of the desk or counter it is placed on. I have explained this is my method below.

I will also consider the apparatus error of the balance (and indeed all the equipment I use) so I can work out the overall error derived from the apparatus and identify this in Origins Boer War my conclusion. I am also controlling the temperature, so this has to be considered, because I am controlling 2 variables. This will affect my results, but I believe it will make them more accurate since the temperature will be constant, and so eliminate any fluctuations in temperature (as I have explained earlier). It will also rule out the fact that if I have to animal, do my procedures in different rooms/days, the temperature in the room might be different. Burden? Conical flask 20 vols hydrogen peroxide Water Yeast Gas syringe Stop clock Clamp stand 50cm 3 pipette 20cm 3 pipette 25cm 3 pipette Water bath Syringe Stopper Pestle and mortar Thermometer Tweezers 5cm 3 Beaker. Firstly I am going to measure out the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I have decided on. This will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%.

I will do this by adding different volumes of water to make up 100cm 3 .For example, the 80% concentrated solution will consist of 80cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide and 20cm 3 of water, (as shown in the table below). Instead of using a conical flask or a measuring cylinder, I will use a pipette because they are very accurate for measuring volumes. Animal Cell Membrane Functions? I will then place the 6 conical flasks in a water bath, at satirizing 25 o C, to animal cell membrane functions, create a constant external temperature to mans burden, dissipate the heat energy. I will do this first to ensure that the mixtures have enough time to animal cell, reach a constant temperature, rather than only lovers romeo and juliet putting them in for a short time because this will mean there may be fluctuations in temperature of the different molecules which I was initially trying to eliminate. Next, I will grind the animal cell membrane yeast into a powder using a pestle and mortar.

I will grind up more than I need, so that I can use the same (ground) yeast for lovers romeo, all of my experiments. This will also be fairer than grinding the yeast on different days or for different procedures, because the time spent grinding may be different. Animal Functions? Hopefully this will mean that each yeast granule will have the same (or a very similar) surface area. I will then set up my apparatus. Finally, on media net id, setting up the apparatus, I will place the balance on the table, making sure the bubble in animal cell membrane functions the spirit level is in the middle level, thereby eliminating any deviation from the balance position. This means that even though the table may not be level, the pan (or weighing basin) is perfectly level. I will set up my apparatus this way every time I need to, e.g. when I need another lesson to complete my investigation.

Once the apparatus is biography martin king set up, I will place a conical flask on animal functions, the balance, and set the balance to 0, so that I can weigh the yeast only, which I will place in the conical flask using a spatula until the right weight (0.2g) is in the conical flask. I will weigh the yeast directly into the conical flask, not a Petri dish, because then I do not have to worry about definition transferring the animal functions yeast from the Petri dish to white mans burden, the conical flask. Next I will place the membrane functions conical flask under the gas syringe and place an airtight stopper in biography martin king the top, with a single tube attached to the gas syringe as shown in the diagram. I will then take the conical flask with the 100% hydrogen peroxide out of the water bath and measure exactly 5cm 3 of the mixture using a syringe, and animal place it into the 5cm 3 small beaker. Being very careful as not to spill the mixture, I will take the stopper off the conical flask and definition lower the beaker into the conical flask using tweezers. I will then put the stopper back on the conical flask so the procedure is ready to commence. Using a stop clock I will time from the moment the small beaker is tipped over to when the reaction stops, measuring the volume of gas evolved every 15 seconds. The reaction is over when I record 3 volumes of gas that are concordant or very similar. This indicates that no more gas is being produced because the enzyme is the limiting factor as all the active sites are occupied. I will repeat this method using the different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide making sure to wash the animal cell functions equipment thoroughly after each reaction.

I will carry out each reaction 3 times for each to gain an average. I hope to record concordant results for each repeat, so if an net id anomaly occurs I can discount it and repeat the procedure again. I will record the cell membrane functions data in a table and allow me to work out the rate of reaction. I will then represent the results in satirizing a graph. This will enable me to work out the membrane functions gradient and make a conclusion based on the evidence I have obtained. Hydrogen peroxide, if inhaled or has contact with the skin or eyes, can be very dangerous and toxic. I will therefore be wearing safety goggles whenever I am handling the hydrogen peroxide and during the reaction, and will also wear gloves. I will also make sure that my hair is tied back at all times and that I am not wearing any jewellery or articles of clothing that may come into contact with the hydrogen peroxide. I will also clean up any spillages immediately. I believe that the graph will firstly start of steep in all the reactions, but steepest in the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreasing as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decrease.

This is because there will be more collisions between the enzyme and substrate molecules so more enzyme-substrate complexes. The curve will then level off and this represents the net id point where most of the enzymes active sites are saturated. Cell Functions? The curve will eventually stay constant and this is because the enzyme molecules are fully saturated. This is called the maximum velocity of reaction or Vmax. The substrate concentration at this point, even if increased, will not affect the rate of reaction because it is the enzyme which is in low concentration. I believe that the graph for one of the concentrations, for example 100% hydrogen peroxide, will look similar to the one below.

I believe that each curve for each concentration will look like the one above, but for each decreased concentration 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%, the value of the Vmax will decrease too, as will the satirizing initial rate of reaction, This is because of the fact that there will be less substrate molecules in each successive concentration, so fewer collisions between particles that can react with each other. This means that the number of animal membrane, collisions that reach the activation energy also decreases. This can be explained by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve: THEN Draw the graph using your results or the one's in the above table. Based on the information above, I therefore believe that the graph with all the concentrations plotted will look similar to the one below. I will record my results in a table like the one below, and then record further, average results, in a similar table. I will draw a graph based on satirizing, the average results, and draw a curve of best fit for each concentration which will help me analyse my results. Animal Membrane? I will then work out the gradient of martin luther, each curve and plot a further graph of functions, percentage of H 2 O 2 against rate of reaction on luther, the y-axis. Functions? I would expect this graph to be linear as this would show that as the concentration increases, time taken for a set volume of gas would decrease - in other words, the rate is proportional to the concentration. I expect this graph to look similar to the one I have drawn previously. I will work out the white mans burden rate of reaction from the results gained in the first 5 seconds as this will be the point where the greatest volume of gas is animal functions evolved. I had to change the volume of hydrogen peroxide used from 5cm 3 to 4cm 3 because in the first reaction with 100% hydrogen peroxide went too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate.

When I did repeat the procedure with 4cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, I could effectively measure the volume of gas. I also had to change the gas syringe because at first the reaction did not occur, and this was because a large volume of gas was leaking from a tear in the tube. I also had to repeat the whole of the 70% concentration of hydrogen peroxide because the results were all anomalous when compared to the rest of the data. I will talk about why this might have been in my evaluation. * Another factor which I found out later when I drew my graphs was that there were limitations to the range of lovers romeo, results I collected, so I decided to cell functions, collect some more results. I have explained this later on. Cybersex Essay? Below is a table of the animal cell membrane results I collected, including all the results which I had to repeat. Starcrossed Lovers Romeo? The raw results can be seen in the appendix. Because my results where mostly concordant, and at the very least there was only a 2cm 3 difference between any 2 repeats out of animal cell, 3, I decided that I did not need to repeat any of the procedures, apart from the media net id whole of concentration 7 which I will discuss later.

This then enabled me to work out an average by adding up 3 three repeat values and animal membrane functions dividing by 3. For example the 100% concentration average would be (48+49+48) ? 3). Below is a table showing the average results. From these results, I can see instantly that less gas was evolved in the first 5 seconds as the concentration decreased and on The Origins Boer War that the membrane functions overall volume of gas also became successively lower in each decreased concentration. This is because there were more molecules of hydrogen peroxide in Cybersex Essay the higher concentrations, so more collisions took place and so there was a greater probability of membrane functions, successful collisions. This resulted in more enzyme-substrate complexes formed in the higher concentrations, and less in on The Boer War the each decreased concentration. This supports the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve I drew earlier. Animal Cell Membrane? I have drawn a graph based on these average results, with a curve of best fit for Cybersex Essay, each concentration which will allow me to identify any anomalies. From the graph I can see that as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreased, the animal membrane functions volume of oxygen produced decreased as a direct result. This is because as the concentration decreased, the number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide also decreased. This decreased the number of particles that can react with each other, and so the number of collisions that reached the activation energy also decreased. This means that there are also less successful collisions, and Cybersex Essay so less enzyme-substrate complexes formed.

The final volume of oxygen produced also decreased as the concentration decreased, and this is because less collisions overall took place, and so a reduced number of collisions reached the activation energy. This was because there were fewer molecules initially, and animal membrane this resulted in a lower probability that the molecules would collide. Media? This means that there were less successful collisions overall. For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final volume of animal membrane, oxygen of 88.3cm 3 , 90% concentration evolved 73.3cm 3 of oxygen, 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and the 50% concentration evolved 37cm 3 of oxygen. The initial rate of reaction is fastest for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreases as the concentration decreases. This can be explained by the collision theory, which states that the time taken for Cybersex Essay, a reaction to take place, and animal cell membrane so a set volume of satirizing, gas to be evolved, becomes shorter for higher concentrations substrate. This is because at higher concentrations there are more substrate molecules than in lower concentrations. Subsequently, if there are more molecules, then there will be more collisions taking place, and therefore more reactions between enzyme and substrate molecules take place in 1 second, and so oxygen is evolved more rapidly. So at the 100% concentration of cell membrane, hydrogen peroxide, the oxygen was given of more rapidly because there were more substrate and enzyme molecules reacting in a second.

From the curves of best fit, I can also see that there were no anomalous results, only some results which were slightly above or below the curve, though they were not excessively distorted. This shows that my results were relatively accurate for each concentration alone. To find out if the concentrations together were accurate, I worked out the rate of reaction. This enabled me to find out satirizing definition if each concentration, based on the number of molecules of substrate in each decrease of functions, 10%, was similar or even showed a pattern which I failed to identify with my previous results. I did this by media net id, working out the gradient of each curve and plotting these values against the concentrations on the x- axis. The method which I used to do this can be seen on membrane, the next page. By plotting these values on a graph I could also see if there was a relationship between the different concentrations. On the next page is a graph showing the Origins of the Boer rate of cell, reaction, with a line of best fit. (again - on media net id, your graph showing rate of reaction, draw a line of best fit) Overall, I believe my experiment went well and I believe that I gained sufficient results because I repeated each concentration 3 times, and investigated 8 concentrations in total. I believe that my results were also relatively reliable because as you can see from the graph I plotted with the curve of best fit for each concentration, as the concentration decreases the volume of oxygen produced also decreases.

For example, the 100% concentration of membrane, hydrogen peroxide evolved a final average volume of gas of lovers and juliet, 77cm 3 of animal, oxygen while the white burden 90% concentration evolved a final average volume of 73.3cm 3 . Also most of the points were on or close to the curve of best fit for each concentration. However there are some factors that I must take into cell membrane functions consideration. Firstly, there were limitations of the apparatus that I used. Each piece of apparatus has an apparatus error in which there is an upper and lower limit. Virgin? For example the balance had an apparatus error of 0.01 which means that since I used 0.2g of cell functions, yeast, this value could either be 0.21g or 0.19g. Starcrossed Romeo And Juliet? This obviously affects the animal membrane functions amount of catalase present, and this means that there could be more or less collisions and so successful collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules depending on the greater or lower mass of white meaning, yeast. For example, if there were more molecules of yeast the rate of reaction would increase because there would be more collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules which would result in a greater probability of successful collisions, and animal functions therefore more enzyme-substrate complexes being produced. This means that in my results, the volume of gas produced in the first 5 seconds may have been higher than it should have been if I had used exactly 0.2g of starcrossed lovers and juliet, yeast.

This could have been a reason for the very fast rate of reaction of the 100% hydrogen peroxide, which showed up as an anomalous result on membrane, the first rate of reaction graph. This would apply for the substrate concentration too, in that the pipettes also had an apparatus error. Mans? This would also mean the cell functions amount of substrate molecules could have been different for each repeat, even though I used the same concentration. For example in the 100% concentration I used two 50cm 3 pipettes which had an apparatus error of 0.01. Media Net Id? So in 100cm 3 the functions actual volume could have been either 99.98cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide or 100.02cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide so there would have either been more or fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide. If there were fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, there would have been fewer collisions between molecules of enzyme and substrate, resulting in fewer enzyme-substrate complexes being made.

However, I do not believe they were significantly different because each of my repeats were mostly concordant, so a similar amount of oxygen was produced which must mean that there was a similar number of substrate molecules in each. For example, from my results, in the 100% concentrated solution on the first repeat, 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced. In the second repeat, 49cm 3 was and in Cybersex Essay the third repeat 48cm 3 of animal cell functions, oxygen was produced. I tried to select the best method with which I considered would be most accurate. I decided on luther, the gas syringe method because, as I explained in my plan, it measured the volume of membrane, gas directly and would also minimise the volume of oxygen which could potentially dissolve in satirizing water. However, some oxygen was displaced in the gas syringe and I had to solve this by subtracting this small volume from the volumes produced in cell membrane functions each of the reactions. Also, I noticed if the barrel was wet, the syringe often got stuck for a short time before it recorded the volumes of gas. Media? To prevent this I had to cell membrane functions, dry out the Origins Boer barrel and syringe before commencing the cell membrane procedure. It was very hard to insert the small 5cm 3 beaker into the conical flask, and when it came to tipping it over, some of the substrate was still trapped inside the beaker. I solved this by swirling the conical flask constantly throughout the virgin media reactions and this seemed to solve the problem.

Although, this means that the amount of cell, swirling had to be the virgin same in order to ensure a fair test. I tried to keep this constant by making sure I swirled the conical flask evenly. The accuracy of the results showed that this factor did not distort the results too much, and so a similar amount of substrate molecules were present in each reaction. For example, the animal cell membrane functions repeated concentration of 80% had values of 32cm 3 ,33cm 3 and 32cm 3 which means that a similar number of substrate was present in each reaction. Another factor which was hard to virgin net id, measure was the volume of gas produced because some of the higher concentration reactions were very fast, so it was hard to read off the animal correct values every time. I tried to make this as accurate as possible by making sure my eyes were level with the gas syringe. Again, judging by the accuracy of my repeat results, I believe that this factor was not an issue. Although I did not check for gas leaks beforehand, there was good agreement between my replicates.

In the 60% concentration the repeats at 5 seconds were 20, 21 and 20cm 3 , which is lovers romeo concordant. If my replicates had not been so close I would have had to animal membrane, change the tube. I ground up the yeast to try to make the surface area as similar as possible, because surface area is a major factor in my experiment. A larger surface area means there is more molecules being exposed to collisions with other molecules, with sufficient energy to cause a reaction. This means that having the same surface area of yeast in each reaction is very important in ensuring a fair test because the number of mans meaning, molecules exposed to animal membrane functions, collisions must be the same. Temperature is a major factor which affects rate of reaction. This is because at virgin media higher temperatures, molecules of animal, both enzyme and substrate have more kinetic energy and so collide more often. This results in a bigger proportion of media net id, molecules having a higher energy greater than that of the activation energy. More collisions are therefore successful so more substrate is converted into product. The reaction is exothermic, and so heat is cell membrane functions obviously produced in the reaction.

The higher the satirizing concentration the cell membrane functions more heat will be produced because the molecules of both substrate and enzyme have more energy, and mans meaning so collide more often producing more heat energy. This heat energy is transferred to the environment. Although I tried to control the temperature in a water bath, and to good effect because a constant external temperature was produced and so the heat energy was dissipated, I could not control the amount of heat given off in each reaction. This would have affected my results for several reasons. Firstly, more oxygen dissolves in water at a lower temperature than at high temperatures and this means that for the reactions involving low concentrations more oxygen would have dissolved than in the higher concentrations because of the animal cell membrane decreased amount of heat energy given off. Because the satirizing volume of oxygen dissolved in the reaction is not constant for all the reactions, because less oxygen is dissolved in water at cell membrane higher temperatures, this would have affected my results. Of The Boer War? This may have been why the animal cell membrane difference in virgin media net id the final volume of oxygen produced was not equal, but instead decreased in steps of 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 . The different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I made up could not have been exactly accurate because this would have meant that the volume of gas evolved would have increased in equal steps which it did not. For example, the final average volume of gas for 100% hydrogen peroxide was 77cm 3 , and for 90% was 73.3cm 3 , 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and 50% it was 37cm 3 . As I have mentioned earlier, this decreases in cell steps of 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 , which is far from equal.

This may have been because I only used a pipette when measuring the hydrogen peroxide, and only poured the water into the volumetric flask to satirizing definition, make up the animal functions 100cm 3 . I believed this was accurate, but upon king reflection using a pipette would have been much more accurate as pipettes have a much lower apparatus error than the volumetric flask. Animal Cell? This may have also been a reason why I had to Origins, repeat the whole of the 70cm 3 concentration, which initially had a final volume of animal cell, gas, 72cm 3 , which was greater than the mans meaning final volume of oxygen produced in the 80% concentration, 64cm 3 . Also I had to make sure I washed out the conical flask and beaker thoroughly with distilled water and addition I made sure they were also dried sufficiently. If I hadnt I could have risked diluting the solutions more and this would have affected the number of cell membrane, molecules of of the Boer War, hydrogen peroxide present which in turn would have affected the number of collisions between enzyme and animal cell substrate molecules. For example, if there was still only 1cm 3 of water still remaining in Essay on The Origins of the the conical flask and beaker combined, then in say the 80% concentration of animal functions, hydrogen peroxide, the concentration would have been closer to 79%. Romeo? This can be shown by the simple calculation of functions, 80 ? 101 x 100 = 79.2%. Overall I believe that my data does reflect my hypothesis that as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreases that rate of on The, reaction will decrease consequently because there will be few collision between enzyme and substrate molecules due to a decreased number of molecules . This is shown by my rate of reaction graph which shows that for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction was 8cm 3 second -1 , and the 90% concentration was only 7.4cm 3 second -1 . My results also showed that the reaction will gradually slow and eventually stop because the enzyme will become the limiting factor. This is shown when oxygen stops being produces and the same results is recorded 5 times. So for membrane functions, example, I knew that the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide reaction was over because I recorded 88cm 3 at least 5 times.

However, I also believed that if I halved the concentration then the rate of reaction (volume of oxygen produced) would also be halved, and so the rate would be proportional to the concentration. This would show that the reaction is a first order reaction. Though in theory this should be the trend, my results did not show this pattern. So, although my results did show a positive correlation, it doesnt necessarily mean I have an accurate correlation, because my results do not follow specific trends. For example the Cybersex Essay final value at membrane 50% was 37cm 3 whilst the white burden meaning volume of oxygen produced at 100cm 3 was 77cm 3 which is not double 37. Again the final volume of oxygen produced at cell membrane 30% was 27.3cm 3 , whilst the final value produced in the 60% concentration was 44.7cm 3 which also not double. As can be seen from the rate of reaction graph, the concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are relatively even, and would suggest that the line of starcrossed lovers, best fit should be drawn where I have drawn the functions line of luther, best fit (1). However this does not account for the fact that a concentration of 0% hydrogen peroxide produces 0cm 3 of oxygen. If the line of best fit (1) is correct it would make this value an anomaly, which clearly it is not since it is the animal functions most accurate value on the graph. The line of Cybersex Essay, best fit (2) therefore makes much more sense, because it is crosses through (0,0), and also shows that the concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are still quite even.

However, this presents a problem because this either suggests that the concentration of animal membrane, 100% is not accurate and is an anomaly, or that the line of best fit should in fact be a curve of satirizing, best fit. This presents me with a problem in cell the fact that I now have limitations because I did not test any of the concentrations below 50%, which would clearly define whether the graph should have a line or a curve of best fit. Consequently I have decided to media, do further experiments with concentrations of 10% and 30% hydrogen peroxide. I will use exactly the same method as I did previously, and since I still have some yeast left, I can still use the same batch of yeast. Functions? I will then work out the gradient of the lovers and juliet 2 concentrations and membrane plot them on a rate of reaction graph along with the other concentrations. I will also repeat the 100% concentration of Cybersex Essay, hydrogen peroxide, because I believe this was an anomalous result. Because it had a rate of reaction that was so much higher than the other values. Hopefully, with the new and repeated results I will be able to analyse my results further and therefore evaluate them with more evidence than I had previously. I will work out the gradient of these new results and plot them on a new rate of reaction graph. This should tell me whether the reaction is indeed is a first order reaction, or if a curve of best fit is cell membrane required. Now I have carried out the satirizing definition repeats and plotted the points on the rate of functions, reaction graph I can see that the graph is in fact clearly linear.

This means that the starcrossed lovers and juliet reaction a first order reaction, so the rate is proportional to the concentration. I believe that the data also shows strong positive correlation, and there are few outliers which show that my results are accurate. I have drawn a line of best fit to membrane, clearly illustrate this trend. Luther King? The line of best fit also suggests values of concentrations which I have not investigated. Membrane? I can find out what these values might be by drawing a line up and across from the line of best fit. So, for example the 40% concentration should have a curve gradient near to the value of 3 (shown by red line on the graph) Overall, the there is on The Origins War a pattern showing a constant trend in cell membrane functions that as the concentration decreases the rate of reaction decreases too, and that the overall volume of gas evolved also decreases. This is because at higher concentration there is more molecules of substrate , so more collision take place, resulting in more enzyme-substrate complexes being formed. Cybersex Essay? This is shown in the table with all the animal cell membrane functions results I have gained. Apparatus error was one of the main factors in my experiment which I tried to keep at a minimal.

I did this by only using pipettes which have a very small apparatus error when compared to beakers. I also avoided using apparatus more than I had to when measuring amounts. The balance proved to be the biggest apparatus error and this would have been much bigger if I had used only 0.1g rather than 0.2g of yeast. Below is a summary of all the percentage errors. 50cm 3 pipette 0.01. 20cm 3 pipette 0.03. 10cm 3 pipette 0.02. Balance 0.01 ? 0.2 x 100 = 5% Making up concentrations.

100% using 2 x 50cm 3 pipettes: 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% x 2. 90% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 2 x 20cm 3 pipette: 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% x 2 = 0.3% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette, 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% 0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.10% 70% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% 60% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.02 % 50% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% Total apparatus error for Essay of the Boer, apparatus used for concentrations = 0.66% Total error for apparatus 5.66% Considering the whole experiment, 5.66% is a relatively small apparatus error, and taking into account that the fact that the balance contributed to 5% of animal membrane, this error, the remaining error is minimal. Remembering that a apparatus error on the balance is 0.01, this would mean that the yeast could weigh 2.01g or 1.19g and virgin media this either increases or decreases the number of molecules present. I will talk about this in my evaluation. for membrane functions, original and martin luther inspiring surf photography, articles and membrane functions interviews with your favourite surfers. A grade GCSE chemistry coursework - Rates of reaction Decomposition of sodium thiosulphate. Essay On The Origins Of The Boer? Oxygenate Your Body - Proper Regimen for Powerful Results. by Fairwitness 0. The Enzyme Catalase Activity at Different Conditions Lab Report. by cell, hyunchang 70. Martin King? Why is the study of basic chemistry essential to cell, understanding human body systems ? by Liwayway Memije-Cruz 86. Classification of Insulating Materials. by OSBERT JOEL C 3. MemeMachine 4 months ago. Everybody knows that luno2012 has some of the dopest fresh swag. I like memes tbh. Are you of insultings me.

I am of here to the learn of biology not for the English. English of no importants to Cybersex Essay, of becomings doctor. Please shut off. This is the very good the piece of the animal functions work but i think the conclusion could be the better man so the marks could the burden be the highest. Nice hub with great information about enzyme kinetics. (Ignore the membrane functions last question) What board gave the grade? What mark did this get? Thanks, this is great! full marks..nice!

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and of the War respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of cell membrane, their respective owners. Media Net Id? HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on cell functions, this page based on affiliate relationships and Cybersex Essay advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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essays of epilepsy THE intention of the Author, under this genus Epilepsia, is to describe that disease which has been most com?monly in animal cell, this island, called the Falling Sick?ness: The reason why we chuse to give it the title of Epilepsy is, it being the Cybersex Essay general Term now in use amongst the most accurate and re?cent Systematics: But before I attempt to enumerate the phaenomena and cell membrane, different symp?toms accompanying it, I think it necessary, in Essay on The Origins, order to avoid the animal cell danger of its being con?founded with any other Genera, of the class of Neuroses of Dr. Cullen, or of the Cybersex Essay Spasmi of Sauvage, to which it pertains; to give it a Definition, which I shall endeavour to be as concise in as the matter will admit. THE Epilepsy is a disease of the membrane functions convulsive kind, returning periodically, affecting the ex?tremities with various and irregular motions; every sense, as well as the faculties of the mind, for a certain time are altogether obli?terated. HAVING thus defined the disease, I shall next endeavour to illustrate its appearance more accurately in a detail of the particular symp?toms attending it; but as I have before re?marked that it is a periodical one, and as many circumstances shew the approach of media net id these pe?riods, it seems most proper to take our first observations from them. Cell Membrane Functions! Before any one is seized with an Epileptic Fit, as it is called, he or she generally perceives the head to be in some degree affected by stupor, or a kind of on The of the Boer swimming, which we express by the name Vertigo; the countenance is animal cell membrane functions sometimes red and satirizing, bloated, at other times in a collapsed state, the cell membrane functions eyes sparkle and appear highly excited, a small inflammation or red spot is frequently perceived upon the white of them, increasing gradually till the starcrossed time of accession; the animal cell membrane cir?cumambient parts are considerably distended; Page 7 vision is diminished and vitiated in some de?gree, sometimes indeed altogether absent. The Iris has very different appearances, sometimes purple, at others black; the ears tingle, and virgin media net id, sounds are difficultly heard; dis?agreeable smells and animal functions, tastes are also perceived. The patient's discourse deviates much from what it is in on The Origins of the, health, being either quicker or slower, and at this time saliva is emitted from the animal cell membrane functions mouth very copiously; the jugular veins are enlarged, and at virgin, last a loss of sense takes place. Neither are the parts below these altogether free from complaint, but are affected with symptoms common to other spasmodic dis?eases, particularly those of hysteria and hypo?chondriari; but it frequently varies here, act?ing differently in different temperaments; sometimes a pain is felt between the shoulders, the abdomen is drawn upwards, the tendons are convulsed, the animal heart and meaning, extremities trem?ble, yawning and difficult respiration succeed, the extremities grow cold, the penis is prae?ternaturally distended a sense of air or warm vapour is animal cell functions often perceived from the hypochon?dria, extremities or lowest parts, ascending to the higher and to the senorium. The eructions also are very irregular, for media net id besides the profusion of saliva, which has been spoken of above, the digestions of the in?testines are foetid and very offensive, the urine Page 8 is also discharged in greater quantity than is customary, and not sufficiently elaborated. Nocturnal emissions of animal cell membrane semen frequently happen from salacious dreaming, a sense of inflation is satirizing definition also perceived at the praecordia, the abdomen begins to animal functions, swell and murmur, the appetite vitiated, requiring food either in too great or small quantity, some are excited by anger, others are depressed by sorrow or fear; others again are distracted by definition, anxious cares, some transported by joy, by foolish and intemperate laughing; others within a short space of time run through all their different affections, sleep is either too profound or dis?turbed with terrifying dreams; the cell membrane functions incubus or night-mare frequently is an addition to these calamities.

By the increase of these symptoms, at Cybersex Essay, last the occasion appears, by which the patient is prostrated on the ground by a groan, all the senses and the faculty of the mind being abandoned. Violent convulsions seize the whole body, the muscies of the face being differently dis?torted, seem to animal cell membrane functions, express different senses of the mind as those of grief, joy, anger, love, c. there is also a violent grinding or grating of the teeth takes place, to virgin media, such a degree as some?times to cell, destroy part of their extremities; it is not unusual for the tongue to protrude a little out of the mouth, and the closing of the jaws frequently cause the teeth to satirizing definition, cut it ex?ceedingly; Page 9 a livid appearance of the lips and under parts of the eyes takes place, which, in a short time, runs over the whole face; the palpebrae of the eyes are irregularly moved, but never are so far constricted as to cover all the white; the mouth is dry, sparm prevail?ing in the beginning, afterwards it pours forth its saliva, the sparm not being solved; respi?ration is performed with the greatest difficul?ty and animal cell, labor, as if a person was actually under efforts of strength, and the hands are clinched with great force, neither are the heart and ar?teries free from distress, the pulsations of which are at first quick and small, in a short time they become full and slow, not having their proper force, and can scarcely be numbered, wanting their regular order; after this the venis of the face, also the praecordia and abdomen begin to swell; the excretions are also considerably disturbed, for instead of sa?liva, which was before very profusely secreted, a soam arises in the mouth, also stools, urine, sweat and semen, are spontaneously evacuated, in an excited system, endued with great sen?sibility; vomiting also happens sometimes. All these symptoms by media net id, degrees begin to vanish, and cell functions, the Convalescent Epileptic has not the appearance of death, or a moribund state, but a more natural sleep at last returns again; but yet not so sufficiently natural but that it Page 10 represents Apoplexy. The breathing at last becomes less laborious; and a short space of time intervening, the patient, not conscious of Cybersex Essay any thing that has happened, is restored to his natural state: it rarely occurs that a per?son recovers immediately all his faculties, upon the paroxysm subsiding; for generally there remains an inactivity to motion, in all the extremities, dullness of conception, pains of the head, and dimness of animal sight; all which continue some time. Media Net Id! The times of cell functions in?terval between these accessions are very diffe?rent; some are attacked every day, or some?times twice in burden, the day; others once in the month; and others again, at animal cell functions, a much greater distance of time; but the accessions do not observe regular periods, even in the same per?son; and the continuance of the accession also differs greatly, some only virgin net id, being distressed for a few minutes, others whole days: and here we conclude our account of the symptoms attend?ing Epilepsy. THE different remote causes, and the ef?fects of those visible upon the brain of dis?sected Epileptics, sufficiently demonstrate, that Epilepsy most frequently depends on a turgid state of the brain; these causes, whether they Page 11 act directly upon the brain, or primarily on another part of the cell functions body, are at last transfer?red to it, and there act * . Those that act within the brain may, as sar as at present we have learnt from dissections, be properly reserred to six heads: 1. Mecha?nical StimuliAs a fractured cranium, and all cases of depression. 2. Virgin Net Id! Chemical Sti?muliCollections of acrid fluids. 3. Mat?ters preventing the free circulation of the blood, or proper action of the nerves, under which are comprehended tumor, ossifications, and compressions. 4. Where the vessels of the brain are preternaturally filled with blood. 5. Animal Cell Membrane! Effusions of blood.

6. Effusions of Se?rum. It is obvious, beyond a doubt, that all these causes consist in a full and turgid state of the Cybersex Essay brain, which is the fourth cause; and an in?crease of this, the cell membrane functions fifth and the sixth follows either of these, when no hydropic habit is present; which may be easily detected by its symptoms, and distinguished from that state of turgiscency which we are endeavouring to in?vestigate; an impeded circulation in the sinu?ses of the brain, or jugular veins, will cause the arterious blood to act with greater impe?tus, upon their exhalents, which will cause an effusion of white mans serum; and a small effusion in the Page 12 brain is more liable to do harm than in any other part; because here we have no absorb?ents, and the veins only perform this office; so that a small quantity of serum effused, must accumulate by stagnation for want of this ab?sorbent system. The sixth cause is therefore an effect of the two foregoing; nor does the animal cell functions first act imme?diately, unless by giving that full habit we have been discussing, or in some degree assist?ed by that, we are certain it does not give a more certain Epilepsy, and the cure of every Epilepsy coming from this origin, consists in a diminution of the full habit.What per?tains to the second, I agree that acrid chemi?cal Stimuli are both obnoxious to, and capable of giving Epilepsy; but as such I deny its ca?pability of biography luther giving one where the paroxysm is continued longer, and when the stimulus is present, and animal membrane functions, the fit has been more durable, and serous colluvies found extravasated; I contend that it is the effect of the luther disease, and of the impetus of the blood, which before has been elucidated. The third cause is the only one remaining to be reconciled to our general opinion, under which are classed, hard tumors and membrane functions, consertions in the brain, impeding the free circulation through it: this is media net id pretty well explained by the first and second cause; such is a compres?sion of the softer parts into a praeternatural Page 13 hardness: this cause therefore seems to me to act as a stimulus, quickening the circulation of the blood through its vessels; therefore this, as well as the first cause, if not directly, yet in effect produces the plenitude necessary for our proposition; and the same may be added with respect to the other four causes, which have been before enumerated, and properly reconciled, as terminating similarly. These conclusions are or the greatest advan?tage in membrane, practice, and clearly shew us how we ought to diminish the Plethoric habit of Epi?leptics, and recommend abstinence: this is an excellent example of the use of dissections in investigating proximate causes of diseases, though much neglected at present by Cybersex Essay, phy?sicians. Not that I mean to affirm, or give it as my opinion, that there is no Epilepsy but what depends on Plethora; many depend on inani?tion, others on neither cause: more are how?ever to animal cell membrane, be referred to it than at Cybersex Essay, first view we imagine. I remember a case of Epilepsy, remarked by my most ingenious master and illustrious pro?fessor, Dr.

Cullen, at Edinburgh, which was brought on by fear; and yet before every re?turn of the paroxysm an animal membrane inflammation of one of the eyes was clearly perceived. As we have gone pretty fully through these causes, which act within the Cranium, let us Page 14 endeavour, in media, order more certainly to estab?lish the nature of the disease, as depending on this plethoric state of the animal cell membrane Brain, to shew how causes originally acting elsewhere, or at a distance, produce the same effects. Impressions of different kinds, acting upon the senses in general, give Epilepsy, according to their degree of impulse; they do not act as being of definition distinct or different kinds, but by force of impression, or reflect sensations, ex?cited (as they are called) and this may be re?conciled to all the senses, except that of smell, upon which odours seem to act parti?cularly; neither have these the power of animal functions act?ing, unless sufficiently strong. Lovers Romeo! So a consider?able degree of pain, of any partjoy, and what is still more, fear, which is carried to a degree of cell membrane terror, have produced Epilepsy.Terror acts more powerfully as a stimulus than joy; because we are modified by nature to attend more peculiarly to those motions of the mind, which free us from martin danger, than those which elevate us to sudden prosperity.And why not? when we consider, that sud?den destruction is escaped in one case, and only transitory pleasure acquired in the other.Chemical Stimuli act also in like manner; some upon the whole system, others only on a particular part, as by stimulating the sto?mach; and these do not act specifically, but according to their strength do they produce Page 15 Epilepsy.Odours, indeed, as we have be?fore said, seem to cell functions, have a peculiar mode of Cybersex Essay action, and animal membrane, some other causes produce the dis?ease from white meaning encreased irritability of the patient; as among children, dentition, calculi, and membrane, worms. And these causes act in the same manner as those within the white mans meaning brain, viz. by stimulating the brain to more violent motions, and quickening the circulation of the blood through it; which, from our former ob?servations, seems to be the most frequent cause of Epilepsy. But having before said, that Epilepsy might arise from a contrary state, we shall run over these causes, as not being of cell functions so much consequence and impor?tance, with less precision. Perturbations of the mind, by diminishing the action of the brain, produce a tempora?ry Epilepsy, quickly terminating in either death or health, as is observed in the effects of lovers and juliet great and sudden joy, or terror; but it would have been sufficient only to have men?tioned these once, as they very commonly bring on death in membrane, a similar manner; as by starcrossed, Palsy, Apoplexy, Syncope, and Convulsions.Some of the membrane functions affections of the mind give a more con?tinued Epilepsy, and one more pertinent to our proposition, as Fear; which, by diminish?ing in a certain manner the mobility of the Cybersex Essay nervous power, seems, by an inherent law in our system, to cell, give in a certain ratio, a re?action Page 16 of the efforts of the brain, which is even greater than natural; or the remem?brance of this same cause of biography fear is often very surficient to bring back the disease.There is a fact of a pregnant woman being fatigued with trying a new gown, which by diminish?ing the excitement of the Sensorium, gave that reaction necessary for animal membrane the production of an Epileptic fit; the sight of which gown, for sometime after, was sufficient to renew the paroxysm. Atonia of the stomach some?times is sufficient to give Epilepsy; such as is made by distention after eating, as is ob?served by Galen.Fumes of Ipecacuana taken into the stomach, are capable of producing the white mans meaning same effects; also Mercury, and many other matters; the Variolous contagion, induced by inoculation; and the Aura Epileptica, and finally, compression of the animal brain, which pro?duces Epilepsy, such as generally precedes Apoplexy or Palsy. There causes, from the effects, and method of cure, are very clearly seen to act, by giv?ing a state of the brain, contrary to excite?ment, which we chuse to call by the name Collapse; but then these act very rarely when compared with the former; neither do they essentially deviate from our proposition.

From innumerable dissections of Lieutaud, Morgagni, and others, of meaning Epileptic patients; also in the opinion of the greatest characters in Page 17 Physic, Albertinius and functions, Hossman, and many others, truly honoured and esteemed for their practice, it appears, that they, for the most part, frequently treated Epilepsy as a disease strictly connected with Plethora; and virgin media, this also particularly agrees with the opinions and doctrines of my late most worthy Master and Instructor, Doctor Cullen, of Edinburgh, Pro?fessor of the Institutes and cell functions, Practice of Physic; whole name I am at a loss for words to adorn with that reverence, gratitude, and affection, that it demands of me; but will always en?deavour to keep it in view in definition, my practice.I am also of opinion, that this turgescent state, which we have been endeavouring to establish, will, argued fairly, most easily in?vestigate the nature and cure of the cell membrane Epilepsy. For the more clear and accurate elucida?tion of the proximate cause of this disease, let us consider those habits that are most pre?disposed to it.Those Systems inclined to Epilepsy, are generally endowed with encreas?ed mobility: by this I mean persons subject to sudden, irregular and violent motions of the mind; and is it not highly probable, that the state of the brain in these habits, which is moved by every impulse of stimuli, and every change of tension, is similar? This mobility is on The Boer encreased by repetition, and, after sometime, become habitual, and al?most natural, according to the law of irrita?bility, Page 18 (by which I mean the power of con?traction of muscles) it is encreased and fa?cilitated by membrane functions, motion.This explains the rea?son why, after one paroxysm others can be produced by less active and weaker stimuli, and seems as if they were produced even spon?taneously; for which reason it has been called a voluntary and feigned disease. Essay On The Origins! This mobi?lity assists us much in the investigation of the proximate cause of membrane functions every Epilepsy.There are two causes of mobility: 1. Cybersex Essay! Debility of muscular fibres. Animal! 2. Excess of tension. The first cause is clearly elucidated in in?fants, who are particularly obnoxious to Epi?leptic fits, a debile state of muscular fibres, or of the original stamina, can give such a cer?tain condition of the nervous power, which makes it more adapted to irregular motions, which we call encreased mobility: but per?haps this reasoning may appear too subtile; so I shall pass to biography luther king, the other cause of mobi?lity, viz. Excess of tension.This giving mobility, remains by some means now more clearly to be explained. Stretching fibres beyond their tone, gives encrease of mobility: so fibres immoderately distended by the Potentiae No?centes; Page 19 such as exercise, heat, drunkenness, c. especially in a Plethoric system; when the force of these is removed, they immediate?ly relax themselves, in a certain ratio, as they have been before distended; and in membrane functions, like man?ner are their oscillations encreased; which re?mission, or relaxation, must frequently neces?sarily take place in the brain.This tension, which depends on the quantity and impetus of the humours, frequently remits; an Cybersex Essay ex?planation of which, by an example of an functions elas?tic cord, may perhaps render it more easy to conceive: if such a cord is extended, by force or by any weight, to a certain length, it will require a greater force, or weight, to stretch it as much more, than was at first applied: and in a ratio, according to the degree of disten?sion, so will be the resilition, the Essay on The Boer War distending power being removed: or, I may explain the same thing by a pendulum; as far as you re?move it by the hand from the center of gra?vity in one direction, giving it liberty, it will, in a certain ratio, go so much farther from it on the reverse side.A full, turgid state of the animal cell brain is analogous to this; the oscillations of which are produced either spontaneously, or by Essay Origins Boer War, faults occuring elsewhere; as Plethora al?ways encreases itself. But besides this cause of Epilepsy, consist?ing in animal cell, the excitement of the brain, or in its greater oscillations, that is excess of tension Page 20 connected with debility; a defect of tension, debility being present, will produce the mans same effects.This is a peculiar law of animal membrane functions our system; as excitement produces Collapse, so, in return, does sedative powers produce Excitements.For the motions of our minds run into con?trary extremes.Terror produces this disease by exciting the brain; but in a short time it produces a contrary state, the impetus being a little moderated. Cybersex Essay! Exquisite titillation brings about the same phaenomenon, as is cell membrane observed by Aristotle: And other sedative causes act in like manner.

We shall however leave these discussions, and pass to the cure of Epilepsy, depending on a turgescent state of the vessels of the brain.

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Katherine Kolcabas Comfort Theory Essay. Katherine Kolcabas Comfort Theory fits best with my philosophy of nursing and my current work environment. Animal Cell Membrane Functions! As a hospice nurse comfort is the top priority. The goal of hospice care is to provide comfort and dignity at the end of satirizing definition life. The technical term for comfort for health care is the immediate state of functions being strengthened by having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence addressed in the four context of Essay of the Boer holistic human experience: physical, psychospiritual, sociocultural, and environment.

The change goal would be to implement Kolcabas taxonomic structure of comfort as a way for the hospice unit staff to functions, measure comfort. Katherine Kolcabas Comfort Theory Kolcaba was born as Katherine Arnold on December 8th, in Cleveland, Ohio. She received her diploma in nursing from St. Lukes Hospital School of Nursing in 1965. She graduated from the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University in 1987. She graduated with a PhD in nursing and received a certificate of authority clinical nursing specialist in 1997. She specialized in lovers and juliet Gerontology, End of Life and Long Term Care Interventions, Comfort Studies, Instrument Development, Nursing Theory, and Nursing Research. She is currently and associate professor of nursing at the University of Akron College of Nursing.

She published Comfort Theory and Practice: a Vision for Holistic Health Care and Research (Nursing Theories, 2011). Description Comfort Theory is a middle range theory for membrane functions health practice, education, and research. Comfort is viewed as an outcome of care that can promote or facilitate health-seeking behaviors. On The Origins Of The War! Increasing comfort can result in animal cell having negative tensions reduced and positive tensions engaged. Cybersex Essay! Kolcaba (as cited in McEwin Wills, 2011) defined comfort within nursing practice as the satisfaction of the functions basic human needs for relief, ease, or transcendence arising from health care situations that are stressful (p.

34). Purpose According to Kolcaba, (2010) the overall purpose of Comfort Theory, was to highlight the importance of comforting patients in this high tech world. It is what they want and need from virgin media net id, us. Cell! Origin. To describe the origin or development of Comfort Theory, Kolcaba conducted a concept analysis of comfort that examined literature from several disciplines including nursing, medicine, psychology, psychiatry, ergonomics, and English. First, three types of comfort (relief, ease, transcendence) and four contexts of holistic human experience in differing aspects of therapeutic contexts were introduced. A taxonomic structure was developed to guide for assessment, measurement, and evaluation of patient comfort (Nursing Theories, 2011). Major concepts. Major concepts described in the Theory of Essay of the War Comfort include comfort, comfort care, comfort measures, comfort needs, health-seeking behaviors, institutional integrity, and intervening variables (Kolcaba, 2010).

Propositions. Kolcaba (as cited in McEwin Wills, 2011) defines eight propositions that link the cell functions defined concepts: * Nurses and members of the definition health care team identify comfort needs of animal membrane functions patients and starcrossed lovers romeo, family members * Nurses design and animal membrane functions, coordinate interventions to address comfort needs * Intervening variables are considered when designing interventions * When interventions are delivered in Cybersex Essay a caring manner and functions, are effective, the outcome of enhanced comfort is attained * Patients, nurses and other health care team members agree on desirable and realistic health-seeking behaviors * If enhanced comfort is achieved, patients, family members and/or nurses are more likely to engage in health-seeking behaviors; these further enhance comfort. * When patients and family members are given comfort care and engage in health-seeking behaviors, they are more satisfied with health care and have better health-related outcomes * When patients, families, and nurses are satisfied with health care in an institution, public acknowledgement about that institutions contributions to luther king, health care will help the membrane institution remain viable and virgin media, flourish. Evidence-based practice or policy improvements may be guided by these propositions and the theoretical framework (P. 234). Population According to the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, (NHPCO, 2012) in 2011, an animal functions, estimated 1. 65 million patients received services from hospice and an estimated 44.

6% of all deaths in Origins of the the United States were patients under hospice care. In 2001, an estimated 36. 6% of cancer patients accessed three of more days of hospice care. The median length of service in 2011 was 19. 1 days. 56. 4% of hospice patients were female and 43.

6% were male. 83. % of hospice patients were 65 years of cell age or older, and more than one-third of all hospice patients were 85 years of on The of the War age or older. 82. 8% of hospice patients were white/Caucasian. Patients of minority (non-Caucasian) race accounted for more than one fifth of hospice patients. Cell Membrane! Today cancer diagnoses account for less than half of all hospice admissions (37. Cybersex Essay! 7%). Currently less than 25% of U. S. deaths are now caused by cancer, with the animal cell membrane functions majority of death due to other terminal diseases. The top four non-cancer primary diagnoses for patients admitted to hospice in 2011 were debility, dementia, heart disease, and lung disease (NHPCO, 2012).

Level of biography care There are four general levels of hospice care: routine home care, continuous home care, general inpatient care, and inpatient respite care. The facility where I currently work is a unit for membrane functions general inpatient care. General inpatient care is care received in an inpatient facility for pain control or acute or complex symptom management which cannot be managed in other settings. In 2011, 2. White Mans Burden! 2% of hospice patients received general inpatient care. The percentage of hospice patients receiving care in a hospice inpatient facility increased from cell, 21. 9% in 2010 to 26. 1% in 2011 (NHPCO, 2012). The main reason for a general inpatient admission is for comfort care that cannot be achieved at home or in white mans burden another setting. Nursing Role My current role at the hospice unit is membrane functions, one of a staff nurse. I work three, twelve hour shifts on the dayshift.

My responsibilities include the day to day care of the Cybersex Essay patients that I am assigned. I provide the membrane patients with comfort care and symptom management based on definition, the physicians orders. I do have certain standing orders that can be put in place without making a call to the physician and using my nursing judgment alone. Animal Cell Membrane! I report directly to the unit manager on my unit. Power I feel that I have informal power at my facility. I have been there the longest of all the nurses, including the white meaning manager. I am the person that all the nurses turn to when there is animal functions, a question regarding policy and biography, procedure.

I am the person that others seek out for advice and unfortunately the person that most nurses vent to. I am always willing to pick up extra shifts without complaining. I continually hear from the other nurses, you never complain. Animal Membrane! I love what I do! I love providing comfort care for patients in need. Are there days when things get crazy?

Are there things I wish I could change? Absolutely, but complaining doesnt change anything and Essay on The of the War, I feel that being around someone that complains all the time bring others down as well. Animal Membrane! I always try to stay positive and encourage others. Virgin Media Net Id! The management team comes to me as well to ask me my opinion about certain changes. I feel that I could be a positive influence for change, but ultimately the decision would not be mine to make. Any decision has to membrane, go through my unit manager and then up the Cybersex Essay chain of command to the clinical director, and executive director.

Comfort Theory Best Fit for Hospice According to Kolcaba, (2010) health is considered to be optimal functioning, as defined by the patient, group, family, or community. There are several major assumptions in Comfort Theory. Human beings have holistic responses to complex stimuli. Comfort is a desirable holistic outcome that is germaine to the discipline of nursing, human beings strive to meet, or to have met, their basic comfort needs. It is an active endeavor. When comfort needs are met, patients are strengthened (Kolcaba, 2010). The mission statement of the company that I work for includes: * Recognize that individuals and families are the true expert in their own care; * Support each other so we can put our patients and families first; * Find creative solutions which add quality to life; * Strive for excellence beyond accepted standards, and; * Increase the animal cell membrane communitys awareness of hospice as a part of the continuum of care. I feel that the mission of my company falls in line with the assumptions of Kolcabas Comfort Theory.

The main goal of hospice care is comfort care. Currently we assess pain using a number scale or a face/FLACC cale depending on if the patient is able to verbally respond. The majority of definition our patients are unable to communicate. Pain using a face or FLACC scale can vary from nurse to animal membrane, nurse. Definition! The FLACC scale measures pain using face, legs, activity, cry, and consolability.

Kolcabas taxonomic structure would be an cell, excellent way to measure comfort on a hospice unit such as the one where I work. Development. Definition! Katherine Kolcaba developed an interest in the concept of comfort during her practice as the membrane head nurse of a dementia care unit. Martin King! Her understanding that comfort lead to optimal functioning of the dementia patients, was the beginnings of her comfort theory. Kolcaba realized the relationship between behaviors such as aggression, fighting with others, refusal to cooperate, or tearing up the environment and a patients comfort level.

Interventions to reduce these behaviors were called comfort measures (Kolcaba, 2003). Since that time, the cell theory has been utilized in the fields of hospice (Kolcaba, Dowd, Steiner, Mitzel, 2004; Vendlinski Kolcaba, 1997), orthopaedic care of adult patients (Panno, Kolcaba, Holder, 2000), pediatrics (Kolcaba DiMarco, 2005), and perianasthesia nursing (Kolcaba Wilson, 2002). Kolcaba (1994) stated, the first dimension of the theory of white meaning comfort consists of three states of comfort called relief, ease, and transcendence (p. 1179). Relief is having a specific comfort need meet. An example would be relief from pain. Ease is the state of calm or comfort (Kolcaba, 1994). Animal Membrane! Individuals who feel ease are in a relaxed state.

Ease can add to an individuals health seeking behavior. Transcendence is meaning, each individuals ability to rise above ones pain or trouble (Kolcaba Kolcaba, 1991). The second dimension of the theory consists of the contexts in which comfort occurs. Functions! This is a holistic concept. It can be examined in the physical, psychospiritual, sociocultural, and environmental perspectives. Physical comfort pertains to the body. Musculoskeletal pain, urinary discomfort, gastrointestinal upset would fall into this category.

Psychospiritual comfort pertains to self-esteem, the meaning of ones life, and ones connection with a higher power. Sociocultural comfort pertains to family, personal relationships, and ones cultural background. Satirizing! Environmental comfort pertains to the external surrounding (Kolcaba, 1994). The theory consists of three parts. Part one describes how comfort needs are assessed, appropriate nursing interventions are implemented, and the patient experiences increased comfort. The second part of the theory describes the relationship between comfort and health seeking behaviors. Kolcaba reports that patients whose comfort needs are meet are better able to participate in positive behaviors, which promote health and well-being. The third part of the theory describes the relationship between clients health seeking behaviors and the integrity of the institution (Kolcaba, Tilton, Drouin, 2006). Outcome measures for institutions can be improved when staff utilizes comfort measures.

It is animal membrane functions, desirable that nurses caring for hospice patients are skilled in the art of comfort. Cybersex Essay! Providing physical comfort such as managing pain, positioning an individual with advanced musculoskeletal problems, keeping bowel patterns regular, assisting residents in a toileting program to avoid incontinence, and animal cell membrane, protection fragile skin are skills used on definition, a daily basis. Nurses in hospice care must address psychospiritual concerns such as depression, the loss of physical functioning, as well as the loss of loved ones and cell functions, friends. Most patients in hospice care have been forced by illness and debility to give up their homes and independence. Sociocultural comfort is starcrossed lovers, provided when nurses understand a persons cultural background.

Encouraging family support and understanding a residents background and animal cell, accomplishments assist nurses in developing interventions to support comfort. The environment also plays a part in an individuals comfort and well-being in the long-term care environment. Providing a home-like, active, and joyful environment filled with children, animals, and lovers romeo, treasured items from home are very important. Comfort theory has been utilized as a framework for animal membrane hospice nursing (Vendlinski Kolcaba, 1997). University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of biography martin king paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 1 October 2016.

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