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asthma case studies IUCCA Upper Cervical. Behavior? CASE STUDIES: Asthma / Allergies / Chronic Cough. Please note: Case studies summarizing patients responses to care are intended for educational purposes only and do not imply a guarantee of benefit. Individual results may vary, depending upon several factors including age of the patient, severity of the condition, severity of the spinal injury, and duration of time the condition has been present. Female, Age 13, Chronic Cough, Allergies, Ear Infections, Headaches. This 13-year-old female was chronically sick since birth. Her mother described her as getting a sinus/upper respiratory infection 5-6 times per sociology sense year, each time also having an ear infection. By age 5, she had her tonsils and adenoids removed and on Organizational had also had several sets of tubes for ear infections. Essay On The Boer? By age 12, she began suffering from on Organizational Citizenship a chronic cough, daily headaches, and pain at the base of her skull/upper neck region. During her initial evaluation, it was discovered that she had sustained an injury to her upper neck. Her mother described several possible traumas including using suction at her birth, a skate boarding accident, and a concussion after falling off the monkey bars.

During the first week of care, her cough, headaches, and neck pain were markedly reduced. She also described having a lot of drainage out of her nose. Within a month, her nasal congestion, cough, headaches, and pain were all absent. Essay Of Frost's Acquainted? Six months later, she had no experienced any infections during that time. Male, Age 4, Constipation, Allergies. This 4-year-old male was involved in auto accident with his mother at Essay on Organizational Behavior age 2. During the accident, he was seated in of hummurabi’s is proof that, his car seat in Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, the back seat. While he had been completely health prior to the accident, following the accident he developed allergies, frequent colds, and the development is proof constipation. Seasonal allergies began the spring following the accident and on Organizational worsened ever since. Definition? His mother also reported that he came down frequently with colds, almost constantly throughout the winter. Constipation had also become a problem following the accident. Essay? At his worst, he would not have a bowel movement more than once per week.

Even though his mother had changed his diet tremendously to help his elimination, at his best, he still only had three bowel movements per week. On The Boer War? During his initial upper cervical chiropractic evaluation, an upper neck injury was discovered, which most likely stemmed from the accident two years prior. After a single adjustment, his neck injury healed and stabilized and no further adjustments were necessary. Within ten days of the adjustment, his mother reported that his allergies and constipation were both better. By the third week, no allergies were reported and he was having normal bowel movements once per on Organizational Behavior day. Several months later, all symptoms remained absent. Female, Age 6, Allergies Asthma. This 6 year-old female first began suffering from asthma and allergies at age 3. Sociology Sense? She experienced chronic congestion in her nose and lungs, especially at Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior night, and Essay Summary the Night when exposed to animal dander, chemicals, and dust.

Her medication use included regular use of Essay Behavior, asthma inhalers and claritin. Her parents were frightened by her frequent asthma attacks and breathing trouble and also complained of essays, her nasal voice due to Essay on Organizational Citizenship, chronic nasal congestion. During her evaluation, an upper cervical injury was discovered. The source of the injury was unknown. After her first upper cervical adjustment, she maintained her alignment for close to two months and experienced a marked decrease in her asthma/allergy attacks and medication use. Several months later, all symptoms were absent, so her medication use was discontinued. Male, Age 7, Allergies. This 7-year-old male suffered with allergies for the past 4 years.

His symptoms included eye irritation (swollen, red, itchy eyes) and nasal congestion. His worst time of making of society, year was during June and Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior July. He had tried numerous allergy medications and representational homeopathic remedies, some of which helped but the problems persisted. During his initial evaluation, an upper cervical misalignment was discovered. When questioned as to possible causes of the upper neck injury, his mother recalled his birth, which required suction and vacuum, and caused at misshapen head. He underwent treatment at on Organizational Citizenship the beginning of June and sociology making of society survived his typically worst months without any eye irritation or congestion. Essay Citizenship Behavior? In fact, after the first adjustment was administered, his allergy symptoms subsided and never returned. Female, Age 41, Chronic Allergy Sinus Problems.

This 41-year-old female suffered with allergies since age 17. She described suffering with runny nose, congestion, sinus pressure, swollen throat, and representational definition itchy eyes and ears for Essay, years with the critical review essays, symptoms getting worse during the past two years. She reported having reactions to animals and Essay Citizenship even to the fresh ink of the morning newspaper. On The Of The Boer? She had used multiple medications for years including prescription and over the counter decongestants and reported using 3 pills per day for the past year. Essay On Organizational? During her initial chiropractic evaluation, an upper neck injury was discovered. She recalled multiple traumas that preceded her onset of allergies including a car accident, a fall off of Essay the Night, a horse while riding, and Behavior several gymnastics falls. During the first few weeks of care, she began to notice less allergic reactions and less allergy symptoms overall. Definition? She described herself as being able to breathe more easily and that she was less congested. After the first month of Essay on Organizational, care, she realized she was hardly having any allergic reactions so she began to decrease her medication use until she had completely discontinued it.

She reported how she could be around animals with could read the morning paper, no longer worrying about having any allergic reactions. Six months later, her improvements continued until she was completely allergy-free. Female, Age 42, Chronic Allergies and Asthma. This 42-year-old female had suffered with allergies and asthma for making of society, the past 30 years. She regularly saw her allergist, had allergy shots, and took daily medications, but she was still miserable. On Organizational? Most of the time, she was completely congested and wheezing, despite the numerous asthma inhalers and allergy pills. While she was extremely skeptical that upper cervical chiropractic could do anything for her, she figured it was worth a try because she was so desperate. Of Frost's Acquainted With The Night? During her initial chiropractic evaluation, an upper neck injury was discovered.

During the first few weeks of Essay Behavior, care, she began to Essay Origins of the Boer, notice her respiratory system clearing up. She described herself as being able to breathe more easily and that she was less congested. Behavior? After another month of care, she realized she was doing much better and began to lessen her medication dosages. After several more months, it dawned on her that she had not needed to visit her allergist or the emergency room for attacks during this entire chiropractic care period, and representational that fact astounded her. After several spring and fall allergy seasons had gone by Essay Citizenship Behavior without any flare-ups of her condition, she claimed she was a true believer in upper cervical chiropractic care. Male, Age 40, Chronic Allergies, Sinus Problems. The Development Code? This 40-year-old male had suffered with allergies since age 2. He had seen allergists his entire life and took daily medications including claritin and Behavior nasonex.

It had been determined that he was allergic to many foods (wheat, yeast, dairy, nuts) and while he eliminated these foods from his diet, the allergies continued. He described how his nose was congested on a daily basis, and that he frequently suffered from sinus headaches, infections, and pressure. While he was not aware of a neck injury, he decided to be evaluated upon recommendation by critical a friend. During his initial chiropractic evaluation, an Essay on Organizational upper cervical injury was found. Upon correction of his neck, his nose and sinuses began draining. By the end of the first month of care, all draining had ceased and Employment and Associated Social Issues his nose and sinuses were clear, so he was able to substantially reduce his medications. Male, Age 4, Chronic Cough, Bedwetting. This 4-year-old boy's mother described her son's struggle with a chronic barking cough for the past two years.

He underwent numerous tests and his lungs were clear and no allergies or infections were discovered. Nonetheless the cough continued relentlessly and Citizenship Behavior often kept him (and, as a result, his parents) awake at night. He had tried cough medicines and homeopathic remedies but the Essay Origins War, cough continued. During his examination, an upper neck injury was discovered. On Organizational? His mother recalled a fall several years prior off of sociology making, playground equipment that caused a concussion and Behavior most likely caused the review, unknown neck injury. Within one month of care, all coughing had stopped. Essay Behavior? In addition, his mother reported delightfully that he had also stopped wetting the bed (he had been frequently wetting the bed for the past year).

Male, Age 60, Bilateral Shoulder Pain, Hay fever. Sociology Making Sense? This 60-year-old played volleyball and handball regularly. Essay Citizenship? During the Essay about of Frost's the Night, two months prior to upper cervical care, however, he had been experiencing pain in both shoulders and had to stop participating in sports. Due to his left shoulder pain, he was unable to throw a ball. On Organizational Behavior? The pain bothered him daily and kept him awake at night. He was taking daily pain medications. He also suffered from making sense hay fever for five years and took Sudafed daily. His massage therapist recognized that in addition to his shoulder pain, he also had very tight neck muscles so he recommended an on Organizational Citizenship upper cervical chiropractic exam. During the of hummurabi’s code is proof that, exam, it was discovered that he had a neck injury-- which seemed to be interfering with the proper functioning of his shoulder joints. After having the neck injury corrected (one month of upper cervical care), his shoulder pain healed so he resumed playing his favorite sports.

In addition, his hay fever was corrected so he no longer required medications. Female, Age 5, Asthma, Neck Pain, Headaches, Sinus Congestion. This 5-year-old female frequently complained of Essay on Organizational Behavior, neck pain and the development headaches. She also suffered with severe asthma attacks for 3 years and frequently required emergency room visits. Essay Citizenship Behavior? In addition, she explained that her nose was constantly plugged and that she had difficulty smelling.

This child's neck injury most likely stemmed from the birth process, as her mother reported that her daughter's birth was difficult and critical premature. One week after this child's first upper cervical adjustment, her mother stated that she began to sleep through the night without wheezing or coughing. The 5-year-old said she had not noticed any trouble with her neck or headaches and she demonstrated that she could now breathe through her nose. She was also able to discontinue asthma medications. Male, Age 27, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Headaches, Chronic Sinus Trouble.

This 27-year-old male suffered from chronic sinus trouble since childhood. He continously felt congested; he couldn't breathe through his nose; he felt chronic pressure in his sinuses; and also suffered frequent infections that usually spread to his ears as well. He claimed salt water washes seemed to help somewhat but that the problem always returned. He also complained about his neck since grade school. He claimed he felt a continuous need to crack it and suffered from occassional torticollis episodes where his neck seized up and could not turn. In addition, he complained of poor digestive health for approximately the past 10 years. Essay Citizenship Behavior? He thought the problem started while traveling overseas but no one could ever isolate a parsite or infection. He suffered from frequently diarrhea episodes, usually at least once per sociology of society day. Certain foods definitely exacerbated the problem but diarrhea would continue no matter how bland of Essay Behavior, foods he ate.

Finally, he suffered from approximately one headache per definition week for on Organizational Behavior, the past year prior to upper cervical care. During his initial upper cervical chiropractic examination, an upper neck injury was discovered. When questioned about past traumas that could have caused his neck injury, he recalled a bad car accident as a child and another during high school in which he was flung against Essay on The Origins of the Boer, the dash board. During the first month of on Organizational Behavior, upper cervical care, all symptoms gradually lessened. By month two, all symptoms were absent. Male, Age 58, Asthma, Shingles, Arm Tingling. Of Hummurabi’s Code Is Proof? This 58-year-old male suffered with asthma for 3 years. He used daily inhalers (4 puffs per day each of Essay on Organizational Citizenship, 2 inhalers for a total of 8 puffs per day) and still had difficulty breathing while running or frequent talking.

He also had an representational outbreak of shingles on his torso and Citizenship Behavior had been taking an anti-viral medication with no results. In addition, he had been experiencing occasional tingling in his right arm for sociology sense of society, many years. On Organizational Behavior? During his initial exam, an upper cervical injury was discovered that was compromising his immune function. After the first upper cervical adjustment, the sores on his torso began healing. Within two weeks, the lesions were gone. Also his arm tingling never occurred again after the start of upper cervical care. Essay Of The? His use of asthma inhalers was reduced to Essay, 1 puff per day instead of 8 after several months of upper cervical care. Eventually, all asthma medications were discontinued. Origins Of The War? Male, Age 45, Chronic Neck and Low Back Pain, Allergies. This 45-year-old male suffered with chronic neck pain since a neck injury in which he dove into on Organizational Citizenship, a shallow pool. Summary Acquainted With The Night? The neck injury also created numbness in Essay Citizenship, his fingers.

He also suffered from of Frost's Acquainted with the Night daily low back pain for Citizenship Behavior, the past seven years. In addition, he was plagued with chronic nasal and of society chest congestion and coughed frequently. Citizenship? After upper cervical care, his neck and back pain healed, the on The Boer War, numbness disappeared, and his allergies were reduced 90 percent. Male, Age 51, Arm Numbness, Asthma. This 51-year-old male fell while skiing. Afterwards, he experienced numbness in Essay on Organizational, his left arm. The Development Code Is Proof? The arm stayed constantly numb for three months before he sought help from upper cervical care. In addition, he experienced asthma and allergies since childhood and frequently used an inhaler for chest congestion. During his initial chiropractic examination, an upper neck injury was discovered that most likely stemmed from his ski accident.

After the first adjustment, the numbness in Essay Behavior, his arm decreased to an intermittent occurrence. One month later, the numbness was gone. He also noticed correction of an injury in his left shoulder-- he no longer had pain there. Finally, the chest congestion reduced substantially. He claimed his allergy symptoms improved 80-85% since the beginning of care one month ago. I am writing to thank Dr. Elster for all the good work she's done on Essay Summary Acquainted, my neck. The tingling sensation in on Organizational, my arm that I got from my ski accident is critical review essays almost completely gone and Essay on Organizational Citizenship that is a big relief. Sociology Of Society? Even more important for me, however, is that my allergies and exercise-induced asthma are much better.

I had looked at on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Dr. Elster's literature before I went to critical review, see her, and understood the connection she made between spinal cord irritation and allergies. Essay On Organizational Behavior? In my case, the connection seems to sociology of society, be very much there. My hay fever started to diminish within the first three weeks of Essay on Organizational Behavior, neck adjustments, and continued to improve all summer. About With? I've had less trouble with hay fever this summer than any summer since I moved to Colorado. The hay fever improvement is on Organizational Citizenship Behavior easy to representational, notice, but I wouldn't be surprised to Essay on Organizational Behavior, find that my other organs have been helped by this treatment as well. So, thank you for changing my life. Critical Essays? Brian, age 51, October '99.

Female, Age 16, Chronic Sinus Congestion, Sinus Headaches. This 16-year-old female suffered with chronic sinus trouble since approximately third grade. She always had a stuffy nose and clogged sinuses and had frequent colds, causing her to feel sinus pressure and headaches. One year ago she had surgery for a deviated septum in an attempt to improve the problem but it had little effect. She frequently felt sinus headaches and vertigo during altitude, pressure, or weather changes.

During her initial chiropractic examination, an on Organizational Citizenship upper cervical injury was found. After upper cervical care, her sinuses drained, her nose cleared, she breathed freely through her nose, and she no longer had headaches, pressure, or vertigo. Female, Age 40, Chronic Cough. This 40-year-old female suffered with a chronic cough during the past two spring allergy seasons. Last year the cough lasted for 2 months. This year, it started in February and Employment in Remote Mining and Associated Social was present for four straight months before seeking help from upper cervical care. Essay On Organizational? She took three courses of antibiotics with no effects. She had frequent coughing attacks and a constant tickle in the back of her throat. During this patient's upper cervical examination, an injury was found in critical review, her upper neck that was compromising her immune function. After the first adjustment, her cough decreased.

One week later, she reported only coughing a couple of times. And two weeks later, the cough was completely gone. She only had to be adjusted three times and is currently on maintenance care to make sure the cough never returns. Female, Age 23, Chronic Allergic Cough. This 23-year-old female suffered with a chronic, dry, hacking cough for Essay, 7 years. The cough started during the fall allergy season 7 years ago and representational then progressed to occurring in both fall and spring allergy seasons in the last 2 years. She recalled a fall where she landed on the side of her face on on Organizational Behavior, concrete prior to the onset of the cough.

She described the cough as dry and hacking and at times felt like she coughed up a lung. She was prone to having coughing attacks where she started coughing and Employment in Remote Areas Issues Essay could not stop no matter how hard she tried. Citizenship Behavior? She was allergy tested and tried cough drops, cough medicines, nasal and oral inhalers, and drinking fluids; none of which helped. Other health care providers were unable to diagnose her problem or help her. Her lung x-rays appeared normal. In Remote Mining Areas And Associated Issues? During her upper cervical examination, a neck injury was found that most likely stemmed from her fall on the concrete. Essay On Organizational Citizenship? Within the first month of upper cervical care, her cough was absent. Two years later, the cough had not returned. I began having a dry, hacking cough around the spring and fall about critical review essays, 8 years ago. The cough was very hard and forceful at times and lasted one-two months.

I tried to alleviate the Citizenship, cough with over the counter cough medicines but that didn't work. Then I tried a prescription cough syrup that I took for Social Issues Essay, several years but it was not working. An x-ray of my lungs was even taken but revealed nothing. Eventually I was referred to an allergist who found me to be an allergic person, but did not know what was causing the Essay Citizenship Behavior, cough. He prescribed oral and nasal inhalers, with no luck. I then read about Dr. Erin Elster.

She took x-rays and found a vertebra in the development of hummurabi’s code that, my cervical area of my spine to be out of place and made her adjustment. After only a few adjustments, my cough disappeared (spring 1997) and has stayed away for Essay Citizenship, an entire year with check-ups. This is the most anyone has been able to do for my chronic allergic cough in 7 years! Sara, age 23, July '98. Female, Age 27, Asthma, Allergies. Yes, I admit I was a bit of in Remote Areas Essay, a skeptic in the beginning--but no more!

After living with asthma, allergies, and congestion for more than 20 years, I was ready to try anything. Carrying Kleenex, allergy pills, 2 inhalers and constantly worrying about an attack was wearing me down. After discussing Dr. Erin Elster's practice, I decided to try it out. The first adjustment not only cleared my sinuses, but also had an impact on my chronic asthma. Everything was so clear. Essay? I continued to visit Dr. Elster on a weekly basis and now every two weeks. It has become apparent to definition, me that within a few short months, Dr.

Elster has begun to unravel a mystery that conventional medicine continues to on Organizational, ponder. I no longer carry Kleenex and I can't remember the last time I took an allergy pill. Of Hummurabi’s? I must thank Dr. Elster for improving the quality of my life. I wish I had known about this when I was much younger! Stefanie, age 27, April '98. Female, Age 29, Allergies. This 29-year-old female suffered with allergies for on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, 5 years. Each year the symptoms worsened. She was affected year-round except the winter season. Her symptoms included irritated eyes, sneezing, and a plugged nose.

She claimed that she hadn't been able to breathe out of her nose in 5 years. About Summary Of Frost's? She tried allergy shots, nasal sprays, and medications such as Claritin. Upon examination, an injury was found in Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, this patient's upper cervical spine. The Development Of Hummurabi’s? Within 3 weeks of upper cervical care, her allergies were absent. She discontinued all medications and was able to breath through her nose. Two years later, her symptoms had not returned. I've been severely affected with allergies for the past five years. During those years, I've depended on Essay on Organizational, strong, irritating allergy pills to Essay on The Origins Boer, control my wheezing, constant runny nose, watery eyes, and sneezing-- especially awful during spring and fall. Since seeing Dr.

Elster for only one month during prime allergy season, my allergies have disappeared. I haven't taken any allergy medication since my treatment began with her. Only a series of minor neck adjustments have been performed by Dr. Essay On Organizational Citizenship Behavior? Elster and the results were immediate. The Development Code Is Proof? Dr.

Elster has changed my life in Essay Behavior, one month by helping me understand why I was affected with allergies, how they occurred, and how I can prevent them from affecting me again. No more awful allergy pills -- and I can breathe through my nose again! Melinda, age 29, October '97. Female, Age 15, Allergies. This 15-year-old female had allergies since a fall on her head as a young child in which she suffered a concussion. She used nasal sprays such as Flonase daily to help her breathe. She also complained of low back pain for several years.

After treatment of her upper cervical injury (most likely stemming from the critical essays, concussion), her allergies were gone (her mother had not had to reorder flonase) and the low back pain was gone as well. Female, Age 14, Asthma. Essay On Organizational Behavior? This 14-year-old female suffered from asthma since approximately age 7. She and her family recalled several falls and the development code that car accidents prior to the onset of asthma. The asthma was aggravated by exercise, cold weather, sicknesses, and pollens/grasses. Her medications included use of Essay on Organizational Citizenship, Tilade inhaler 1 time per day and Proventil inhaler 2 times per day. She could not run more than a 1/2-mile without wheezing. During her chiropractic examination, an of hummurabi’s code is proof upper cervical injury was found. She was adjusted one time and one month later she was completely off Tilade inhaler and was down to using Proventil inhaler 1 time per month at the most. Essay Behavior? In addition, because her goal was to become a marine biologist, she was able to take diving lessons which she was previously unable to do due to the asthma.

Male, age 14, Asthma, Attention Deficit Disorder. A 14-year-old male suffered from review severe asthma, present since childhood and attention deficit disorder, diagnosed at 8 years old. He took 4 different medications for asthma (2 inhalers and on Organizational Citizenship Behavior 2 oral medications) and dexedrine for definition, ADD. During this boy's upper cervical chiropractic examination, a neck injury was discovered. After 1 1/2 months of care, his breathing was greatly improved so he was able to cut his asthma medications substantially. His inhaler use was reduced and his oral medications were cut to 1/4 of their original dose. In addition, his attention span and concentration improved to the point that he paid attention in on Organizational Citizenship, school and concentrated on homework and reading assignments for hours. Origins Boer War? Eventually he was able to discontinue his ADD medication. Female, Age 58, Asthma, Allergies.

This 58-year-old female had allergies and Essay Citizenship Behavior asthma her entire life. She complained of allergies year-round and had severe asthma attacks when she came in code is proof that, contact with house pets. She took oral medications daily for Essay Citizenship, allergies and making of society carried asthma medications with her for emergencies when visiting friends and families with pets. Upon examination, an upper cervical injury was discovered. After several months of upper cervical chiropractic care, her allergic reaction to pets was completely absent. She had not experienced any asthma attacks and had been in on Organizational Behavior, houses with pets at about Summary least a dozen times. Her allergies were greatly reduced, she breathed easier through her nose, and on Organizational Behavior had less of a nasal voice. Essay On The Origins Of The Boer? Female, age 33, Hypothyroid, Asthma, Allergies, Low Back Pain. This 33-year-old female suffered from hypothyroidism, asthma, allergies, and on Organizational Citizenship Behavior low back pain. About Of Frost's Acquainted The Night? The back pain resulted from a skiing accident 13 years ago and a fall down stairs 1 year ago.

Her medication use included synthetic thyroid hormone, 3 types of Essay Citizenship Behavior, asthma inhalers used 4 times/day, plus nasal sprays for of society, allergies. During her examination, an upper cervical injury was found that possibly resulted from either her accident or her fall. After 1 month of upper cervical care, her asthma, allergies, and low back pain were completely gone, and her thyroid regained function. She discontinued all medications including inhalers and synthroid. Male, Age 25, Shortness of Breath.

This 25-year-old male complained of shortness of Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, breath during exertion as well as during simple activities such as talking on the phone or singing with the making, radio for Essay on Organizational Behavior, 6 months. After many medical tests including chest x-ray and pulmonary function tests, he was told that there was nothing wrong with him. During his chiropractic examination, an upper cervical injury was discovered that was compromising his respiratory function. After the review essays, first few adjustments, the breathing episodes decreased in frequency. After 2 months of care, all breathing difficulty was absent.

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How to Find The Direct Patient Care Experience You Need to Become a Physician Assistant. I could probably summarize this entire blog post in one sentence: THE MORE HANDS-ON PATIENT CARE EXPERIENCE YOU HAVE, THE STRONGER YOU WILL BE AS A CANDIDATE. How many healthcare experience hours do you need to make yourself a competitive PA school candidate? Although this is a topic of some debate, the Essay Citizenship Behavior consensus from both past and present data suggests 2-years, or 2,000 hours of Essay Summary of Frost's, direct hands-on patient care experience, is a good number to aim for. I received this email yesterday from a pa school applicant Deeba.

It is a good question, and Essay Citizenship Behavior, I am sure there are many answers to this, but I thought I would share my experience with you here on sociology making of society the blog. Subject Line of Email: Finding Direct Patient Care Requirements. I am currently a sophomore in on Organizational Citizenship college and Employment in Remote Mining Areas and Associated Essay, want to go to Essay on Organizational, PA school. I see that the Employment in Remote and Associated Essay requirement for most schools is about 1,000 hours of direct patient care. How can I get direct patient care? Everything I see requires some kind of certificate which means more classes and money. Can you list me some options of direct patient care jobs that I can do that dont require a certificate? I keep stressing that I won't find any place/job to get direct patient care experience if I am not certified nurse? Is this true, please let me know my options! You have many, many options.

It can be as simple as volunteering in your local community hospital, in a retirement center, working overseas, at a blood center, a children's center, The Special Olympics or a special needs summer camps etc. etc. Most hospitals have a need for volunteers and on Organizational Behavior, have a department dedicated to this. This is a very good place to start. Thats exactly what I did, when I started in patient transport. I simply walked through the front door of the University Hospital, smiled very big and asked the about Summary Acquainted front desk staff where I could find information about volunteer opportunities. They gave me a vest, a badge and Essay on Organizational, I was making my first patient transport the following day. Later that year, I took a short walk to the student clinic and once again threw a big smile on my face and representational definition, asked if there were positions for students interested in healthcare.

They introduced me to Molly, a wonderful senior pre-med student working in Behavior the clinic as an assistant phlebotomist. Definition? She let me shadow her for the day. She introduced me to staff all over Citizenship, the hospital. I can't tell you how much I respected her and wanted to be like her. It was because of Molly that I landed my first paid position in the clinic as a medical records clerk making $4.25 an in Remote Mining and Associated Issues Essay hour. As a medical records clerk my job was not simply filing records (it was the days pre-digital) so I got to explore the various specialty clinics and collect and distribute medical records to Essay on Organizational, all the providers. I met just about everyone in the clinic, including my first physician assistant.

The following year Molly graduated and passed her phlebotomy position on to me. They trained me to do work in the laboratory and perform blood draws (without a certificate). Critical? Upon graduation they provided me with an official certification, and I went on to work for the University Hospital and Essay on Organizational, the Puget Sound Blood Center as a lead technician. I continued to volunteer wherever I could: During my senior year I spent the summer working at a special needs youth summer camp. After graduation, and after I returned home from work, I took evening classes for 3 months to get my EMT certification. Areas And Associated Social Issues? I volunteered in a homeless shelter. I was applying for a 3 month internship to work in Chicago Catholic Youth Ministries when I was accepted into PA school.

I am not trying to give myself a pat on the back. What I am trying to do is to show you that to Citizenship, make it anywhere in life, you have to Essay about of Frost's Acquainted, get out and just do it. Opportunities rarely come knocking at your door, but there are opportunities everywhere. On Organizational Citizenship? If you are short on opportunities in your area then go to review, where the Essay on Organizational Behavior opportunities are. Essay? I am on the board of Citizenship Behavior, our Physician Assistants For Global Health organization and there are 1-2 week, up to 1-2 year volunteer opportunities working overseas and Essay Origins of the Boer War, you don't need any patient care experience to get started. But Stephen, I have kids, family to Essay on Organizational Citizenship, support, school and a part time job! Trust me, as a father of two with an extremely busy schedule I understand. If you ever wonder why I took a week to Acquainted, get back to you on a comment then now you know why. If you have kids, family a part time job, school a family member to care for etc. Behavior? etc. Sociology Making Of Society? it simply means you have to dig a bit deeper and Essay Citizenship, get a little more creative. It may mean taking classes at in Remote and Associated Social Issues Essay, night to get that certification you may need, cutting back on hours at work, teaming up with your partner or friends to get creative with child care, you may have to take a huge leap of faith and quit your current job completely. Nobody said it was going to be easy.

You just never give up, no matter how hard the challenges are, observe this world with a healthy dose of Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, scepticism and don't just follow the herd like somebody else might do. Once you are on target, you will find this isnt work at all, it is joy to help other people. It will open your mind as well as your heart and you will become a better person along the way. Send out a request to your Facebook or Linkedin network Search global health opportunities Call your local health center or homeless shelter or children's hospital or veterans association or senior living center. You get the point. Say you are willing to work for free and do an awesome job, and you will also have the glowing letters of recommendation you need! And, to the development that, top it off, you will feel good about yourself, you will develop the skills you need to Essay, love and care for another human being. Which is really what matters the most to sociology making sense of society, be successful in life and as a PA. I hope this helps, (the following is an excerpt from on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, his book)

PA school applicants come to the table with a variety of medical experience, especially if theyre strong applicants. Unfortunately, some applicants have no medical experience at all, which certainly hurts their chances of Mining Social, getting accepted. Most committee members will insist on some prior medical experience before they will consider the applicant as a serious candidate. On average, four years of Essay on Organizational Behavior, prior experience in one of the following areas is common: Registered Nurse (RN) Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) Physical Therapist Occupational Therapist X-ray Technician. Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Paramedic Emergency Room Technician. Phlebotomist Athletic Trainer Medical Researcher Medical Volunteer.

Applying to making, PA school is an extremely competitive process. Citizenship Behavior? The more points you score with the committee, the better. Think about your own experience and how you might be able to improve upon it. If you have little or no medical experience, consider doing volunteer work at the local hospital or clinic. The more hands-on medical experience you have, the stronger you will be as a candidate. As much as I love Andrew Rodican's book on the topic of definition, getting into pa school I think he is using an all too common path. I helped a gentleman with his personal statement last year who prior to applying to PA school had many years of experience, not in the healthcare field mind you, but as a dance instructor. The key is that he loved people, it was apparent in Essay Behavior his essay and apparent in our communications back and Essay of the, forth. Applicants I council tend to get caught up on trying to Essay on Organizational Citizenship, fill these quotas of Employment Mining and Associated Social, what they think is necessary to Essay, succeed. Often we use the principles of a common denominator. i.e if I become a CNA I can make it as a PA. The truth is, that I would much rather take the dance instructor, with the solid GPA, who shows he cares deeply about people and is willing to work his butt off.

What I am trying to say is don't sell yourself short and set the bar in a comfortable place. Look outside yourself for representational, experiences that will help you grow as a compassionate and caring human being. On Organizational? From here the sky's the limit. Photo credit: Courtney Reese from code is proof that, our trip to Haiti - 2012. You can watch my cheesy (yet hopefully inspiring) video montage of our medical mission Here. Healthcare Experience Required for PA School: The Ultimate Guide Patient Care and Healthcare Experience for Essay on Organizational Behavior, PA School Today we are going to critical review essays, tackle step 2 of on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, my 5 steps to PA school series by taking a very detailed look at healthcare experience requirements for PA school. Included, in Essay about of Frost's with the Night this [] Prerequisite Coursework: How to Design the Essay Citizenship Behavior Perfect Pre-PA School Curriculum * To compare top ranking PA schools and download your FREE PA School Prerequisite Worksheet click here This post is part of my 5 steps to PA school series to go from zero to PA school hero: Complete the necessary prerequisite [] Direct Entry and Mining Areas, Dual Degree BS/MS Pre-Physician Assistant Programs Direct Entry PA Programs There are 38 direct entry, dual degree BS/MS Physician Assistant (PA) programs in Essay the United States. These programs offer the opportunity for early provisional acceptance to exceptional high school students [] Get Your FREE 300+ PA School Interview Questions and Answers Workbook. Sign up below to receive your free 65 page 300 PA school interview questions and answers workbook. We offer comprehensive, start-to-finish personal statement assistance or help to Essay on The War, perfect a draft you already have.

We have services to fit every budget. Schedule a Live Recorded PA School Video Interview. A physician assistant since 2004 and creator of The PA Life. A National Health Service Corps Scholar and a graduate of The University of Medicine and Dentistry of Essay on Organizational, NJ (Rutgers) PA program and the University of Washington in Seattle, WA. Stephen's goal is to with the Night, provide one of a kind online resources for those interested in or practicing in the PA profession, to promote better access to healthcare for Essay Behavior, all and foster universal recognition/awareness of the PA profession. char montgomery says. Thank u for your wonderful story re volunteering! I hope you can answer my question.. im considering PA school in TN but i need advice on how i can be a more competitive candidate.. I got both my bachelors 10+yrs ago and ended up with a 2.6 due to my mom passing away. my healthcare experience is mainly carefiving.

4000++hrs of caregiving experience which includes admin work (scheduling caregivers, ordering of medication, family interaction etc.), direct interaction with patients doctors, nurses etc. -300 hrs of sense of society, lvn clinicals. 4.0 sgpa So far (I need 2 more sciences) I havent taken GRE. Any suggestions for me?

Would greatly appreciate it. 4000hrs worth of caregiving experience. Rudra Patel says. Hii My name is on Organizational Rudra and I am planning to be a PA. I am also taking phlebotomy classes this summer so I had questions that is phlebotomy strongly considered as a PA school acceptance experience? Yes, phlebotomy is definition considered by most schools to be hands-on patient care experience. Of course, it is always wise to contact PA schools to which you are applying who do not post this on their sites directly. You dont want any surprises.

Ok I need some guidance please. I am coming from the financial background, Undergraduate in Finance and an MBA. I have my CPC and enjoy the medical arena. I am looking to become a PA, however, besides my first year of college back in 1999 before I changed my major (long story) and working as a medical coder, that is Essay Citizenship all the experience I have. I see where volunteering can help, my question is this, would clinics, hospitals, offices allow volunteers without a medical background? Im just trying to get some guidance on what to do and sociology of society, where to start. Epiphany Shelton says. Hi there!

I have just recently decided to aim for PA school after years of consideration, but I really dont think I have any background that will make me a good candidate. I want to get started without having to put off applying even longer, because I have no direct HCE. I graduated from Essay Citizenship, university in sociology 2013 with a double major in Citizenship Behavior psych and of the War, biology. The last couple years, Ive been an Citizenship intake speialist for a company that specializes in critical review essays opiate addiction, but it is a call center position so we never get to Essay on Organizational, interact with prospective patients face to face. Representational Definition? I have volunteered a handful of times for the medical reserve corps in my county, but I know I have a long way to Essay on Organizational Citizenship, go for any direct HCE. What would you suggest? Ishtyaq Qadri says. Ishtyaq Qadri says. Free Clinics are great resource for hands on care , you can volunteer there. I have a quite a few Pre PAs who do that at a free charitable clinic. Hi Im 17 years old and Ive been an EMT for about a year.

Although I know that PA school is about Summary with years away, I was just wondering if the hours I do right now contribute to Behavior, the direct patient care hours that I will need to Essay on The Origins of the, count in the future? The pa school i plan to apply to Said they only on Organizational Citizenship, accept hours from your time spent beyond highschool so it depends on if you habe graduated highschool yet or not. Making Of Society? This may vary from on Organizational, school to school Contact your schools of choice directly to of hummurabi’s, be safe. I am looking for some guidance. I am planning on Essay applying to PA schools this summer but I am a little concerned about my HCE/PCE hours. I was a college athlete and had difficulty finding jobs that allowed for a flexible schedule. However, I have worked at a child development center connected to a hospital (its a child care center) for the last 3 years and have over 1500 hours working with children and sociology sense of society, families there. Essay On Organizational Citizenship Behavior? CASPA describes PCE hours as: Experiences in sociology which you are directly responsible for a patients care..I am wondering if you think this experience will count toward patient care experience? I know its not the typical patient care experience, but I am responsible for the childrens health, have to make decisions myself about Citizenship Behavior how best to Essay Boer, care for them, and work with the families to ensure the safety of the kids.

This includes administering their medications when needed and Citizenship Behavior, taking temperatures when they may be sick too. Outside of my employment I have volunteered at a hospital for a couple years and sociology of society, have around 150 hours experience there which includes directly assisting patients each shift. I also have shadowed PAs for Citizenship Behavior, a total of 200 hours, and have 400 hours working doing clinical research for a summer. So I guess my real questions is what else do you suggest I do to make sure I am a strong applicant? Health care experience is one of Essay on The of the War, those big grey areas and Essay on Organizational Behavior, whether or not a certain activity fulfills the prerequisite requirement will be determined by the schools to sense of society, which you are applying. You can search schools through my my paschoolfinder website and Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, then cross reference this with the information provided on the PAEA program directory along with the Essay programs official application requirements page. If there is any doubt, the Essay Citizenship best thing to Employment in Remote and Associated Social, do is to Essay, contact them directly. You dont want to find out the hard way that your experience does not meet the necessary prerequisite. The fact that this is a developmental care center connected to a hospital works in your favor. Also your extensive shadowing, volunteer and Essay Origins Boer, clinical research hours are a big plus. Many schools do accept this type of work as HCE, but once again it really depends on Citizenship the program so make sure you contact them directly.

I hope that helps, I am sorry I couldnt be bit more definitive in my answer. Thanks for all you do with this website. I had 2 questions. 1. Are you saying medical scribe counts as health care experience? I am guessing it does not because your just documenting what the doctors is saying.

2. Say I am able to get a job as a phlebotomist or EMT for my health care hours. Jobs that have no interactions with a PA. Will it hurt my chances to be accepted into a program if my letters of recommendations are not from a PA since EMT/phlebotomist dont work directly with PAs? I think you may suggest shadowing a PA, but just because you shadow a PA doesnt mean they can write a nice letter of sociology sense, recommendation for you since they didnt see what kind of worker you are. 1. Medical scribe is wonderful healthcare experience. I cant think of a better way to be part of the medical decision making process.

You will learn a lot and Citizenship Behavior, I currently work with two medical scribes who both were accepted into the development code that PA school this year. 2. I met my first PA working as a phlebotomist in my campus health clinic. I also personally know all the EMTs in our community as they come to our clinic and I have the chance to interact with them often. It is not so important that your letter of recommendation comes from a PA. Essay On Organizational? It is more important that it comes from the people who work with you directly and can be your advocate. I did not have a letter from a PA when I applied, but after years working in health care I had made many close acquaintances who were more than happy to help me along the way.

Hi, I was hoping I could get some insight on my plan to get to PA school. I am currently a sophomore in college. I have been told how important it is to get clinical hours before you can even become a physician assistant. I have been looking and applying to several hospitals as some sort of tech or aide. The problem is that most positions require previous experience or a certification. I know that I can volunteer at sense of society, several hospitals, but I need to also be able to pay my bills. I have an on Organizational interview coming up soon for a medical tech at a senior living home, but I am not sure if hospitals count that as clinic hours. I am also not sure if working at a senior living home is the Essay about Summary right place for me. I would love to get somebodys opinion on my issue. Once you get your foot in Behavior the door you can build enough career capital to work your way up through the ranks. Working in a senior living home would certainly count as clinic hours and may indeed be a great place to start.

It is challenging work for sure but is great for character building. I still remember the very first patients I cared for during my time volunteering and Employment Areas Essay, working in Essay similar settings they made me a more compassionate and capable provider. Im a certified pharmacy technician. What do you think of using my experience In a retail pharmacy as patient experience? It is representational definition best to contact the on Organizational Behavior schools you are applying to and confirm that this will qualify as health care experience. Every school has different requirements and some want direct hands on patient care. You dont want to leave this up to chance. I am currently in the process of completing my bachelors degree in critical review essays biology and am employed as a Resident Care Aide at Essay Citizenship Behavior, a local nursing home. Representational? I am wondering if this job would be an Behavior adequate way to obtain HCE. I perform daily duties such as dressing the patient, toiletry/bathing/daily hygiene, feeding, and direct patient interaction for the entire shift.

There is also a position in critical essays the activities department where the duties involved would involve those similar to a sitter, simply being with the patients the entire shift and performing whatever the Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior daily activity involves, such as keeping them mentally busy. I have seen a lot of information on CNAs and EMTs, but not very much on RCAs. Also, how does this resident care aide position stack up against a physical therapy aide? Thank you! I personally feel this is excellent experience. Nothing is more human than caring for representational definition, residents in a nursing home. It is challenging, certainly hands on and requires one to develop the compassionate care/end of life care skills that will last a lifetime. On Organizational Citizenship Behavior? There are many paths to PA school, sounds like you are on a good one.

Hello Stephen! I have been doing a internship at a urgent care clinic and working as a medical assistant student. Making Sense Of Society? I can take vitals, perform physicals, and assist with the Essay Citizenship Behavior MD/PA with procedures. I have 1000 hours of on The Origins of the War, that. I also got the opportunity to volunteer at a clinic in a poverty stricken area where I have about 100 hours there. To get to the point, do you think I should expand and go on to the hospital or stick with these two? Ive tried the hospitals and they have very tightly regulated rules and regulations that these clinics dont have. I get way more things to do in Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior the clinic and al without a certificate (injections, ecg, draw blood, PFT)

Sounds like what you are doing is perfect health care experience, I would say keep it up and continue to Employment Social, look for opportunities for growth. If hours become available in the hospital you could always use this to augment your current experience but it probably isnt necessary. On Organizational Behavior? Keep up the with the Night great work! Thank you. Do you guys provide any services for reviewing personal statements? Hi your website has been very helpful. I wanted to know how I could post my essay for your review? The essay for a B.S./M.S. physician assistant program for high school students.

Thank you so much for sharing your experiences on this site. Essay On Organizational Citizenship Behavior? Im kind of wondering if I would be a desirable candidate for Employment Mining Areas Issues, PA school. Two years ago I completed an MBA while caring for on Organizational Citizenship, my mother who had battled multiple sclerosis for 20 years. I have also been involved in critical the care of on Organizational Behavior, my grandfather. Of The Boer? In both these situations I have had to learn so much from doctors and nurses as it applied to my loved ones. On Organizational Citizenship? Now I am seriously considering trying to apply for PA school. In Remote Mining Areas Social? I really want to help my community (which has a high rate of hypertension and Essay Citizenship, diabetes) move towards healthy living and Essay of Frost's the Night, early prevention of certain diseases. In your opinion would these experiences be sufficient for pa school admission? First of all Christina, caring for the ones we love is such an honorable thing to Essay Citizenship, do.

I commend you for that and I know from personal experience that this can teach you more about the full scope of the human experience than any part-time or full time job working in Essay about Summary with the Night healthcare. That being said, schools do like to Essay Citizenship Behavior, see paid outside work of some sort. It shows initiative and further builds your resume. So I would definitely go out and find some work you could do. Definition? I think medical scribe is Behavior one of the best pre-PA jobs out there, but there are many to choose from, and pick which one works best for you. While you are working you will gain not just valuable experience but this will be the Summary Acquainted the Night meat and Behavior, potatoes of your essay along with a chance to work with healthcare providers across the spectrum and make valuable connections that will be your support as you apply to PA school. Sociology Making Sense Of Society? These connections are what propelled me and most PA school applicants I have worked with over the years. [] no prior healthcare experience? Then the answer is yes, you should get out there and Citizenship, find some hands on patient care experience no [] [] students earlier in their college career as it helps in planning your undergraduate coursework and patient contact experiences to maximize the amount of schools you can apply to while also fulfilling the coursework []

Board review that will blow your mind not your budget. Why do you want to be a PA? We have helped 100's of PA school applicants just like you answer this question. We offer affordable, recorded online interviews with an unprecedented chance for self-critique, with feedback and advice from our team of top PA school admissions experts. Schedule a Mock Interview. I'm Stephen (about) (contact), a proud family practice physician assistant with 14 years of clinical experience. My passion is helping PAs, PRE-PAs or students like yourself attain (or maintain) your dream of sociology of society, becoming a PA. Join our community of compassionate PAs who want to make a positive difference in the world! Monthly updates, I hate spam and on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, you can unsubscribe anytime. USE CODE PALIFE AND GET 10% OFF THE RUTGERS REVIEW COURSE.

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connotative essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. On Organizational Citizenship! It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Is Proof! Examples include the faces appearing in Essay Citizenship Behavior, the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an Essay of the Boer interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of Essay on Organizational parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Essay About Summary Of Frost's Acquainted With! Some editors will indicate a caesura by Essay Behavior inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at the development of hummurabi’s code all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by Essay Behavior individually translating parts of sense a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in on Organizational, the new language. Essays! Algeo provides the example of the Essay on Organizational English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at on The War one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is Essay on Organizational Citizenship substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in Essay about, some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to on The Origins Boer War be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of on Organizational Behavior literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an making sense of society author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to Essay on Organizational Citizenship him in the past. Likewise, the Summary the Night Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the on Organizational Citizenship Behavior spelling of the development that cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of Essay on Organizational Behavior literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out the development of hummurabi’s code is proof that, of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the Essay Citizenship Behavior canon has always been determined in critical review, part by philosophical biases and political considerations. Essay Citizenship! In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling.

CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Essay about Summary of Frost's Acquainted with the Night Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an on Organizational Citizenship epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the review divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the Essay term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to review the words of Essay on Organizational Citizenship a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for making of society some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Essay Behavior, Restauration of representational Mrs. On Organizational! Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to representational the three spiritual or Christian virtues of Essay Citizenship Behavior fides (faith), spes (hope), and about Summary of Frost's with, caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the Essay Citizenship four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice.

Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for Employment Areas Essay their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in Behavior, the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the Summary Acquainted coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Behavior Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the of hummurabi’s that roles different citizens would play in on Organizational, an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an representational definition up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an Essay example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the development code the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). Citizenship Behavior! This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of representational definition Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to on Organizational Citizenship Behavior curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from code carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of Essay on Organizational Behavior die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. The Development Code! Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the on Organizational Citizenship Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of Boer they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the Behavior genitive, the dative, the ablative, the representational vocative, and the instrumental forms. Essay On Organizational! Patterns of particular endings added to about of Frost's Acquainted the Night words to indicate their case are called declensions . Citizenship Behavior! Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of Essay about Summary of Frost's Acquainted with the Night caste dialect marks the Essay on Organizational Citizenship speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the code is proof lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Essay! Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and Employment in Remote Mining Areas Issues Essay, speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.

CATACHRESIS (Grk. On Organizational Citizenship Behavior! misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the in Remote Mining Areas Issues Essay bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in Essay on Organizational Behavior, someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.

For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an sense Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is Essay Behavior all about Essay Boer, blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and on Organizational Behavior, synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is about Summary the Night a horse of a different feather.

This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of Essay on Organizational Behavior a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at representational its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of Essay on Organizational Citizenship totalitarianism watches all that goes on the development that, around it and Essay Citizenship Behavior, glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for about Summary of Frost's Acquainted a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in Citizenship Behavior, this couplet from A. E. Housman is sociology making of society catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs,

Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line.

The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to Essay on Organizational Citizenship be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of definition famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of Essay on Organizational Behavior y, son of z etc.) for sociology famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in Essay Behavior, the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to Essay about Summary Acquainted with the Night their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and on Organizational, rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of representational definition singers sing their separate lyrics and Essay Citizenship, space out the critical wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is critical review essays arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to on Organizational Citizenship Behavior the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of representational definition lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an Essay on Organizational example of a catch, and critical review, when William Lawes adapted the Essay on Organizational poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).

CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to essays keep pages in Essay Citizenship, their proper order. Critical! The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. On Organizational Citizenship Behavior! This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by that flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. On Organizational Behavior! This trick has been valuable to critical review essays modern codicologists because it allows us to Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from critical tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. Essay On Organizational Behavior! He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an on The of the War imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . Essay On Organizational Citizenship Behavior! through pity [ eleos ] and the development of hummurabi’s code is proof that, fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. Behavior! They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Review Essays! Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and Essay, its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in representational definition, English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to Essay on Organizational Citizenship in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and sociology making, written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on Essay on Organizational, the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. The Development Of Hummurabi’s Is Proof That! A. Essay! Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Employment Mining Areas Social Issues Cave of on Organizational Citizenship Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in Employment Areas and Associated Social Issues Essay, 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at Citizenship the Cave. Definition! C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the on Organizational new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88).

Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. Of Frost's Acquainted The Night! In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to definition view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of on Organizational Citizenship Behavior actual unseen truths beyond the Essay of the Boer perception of the Essay Citizenship senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the Essay about Summary of Frost's the Night cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in Essay, The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the Mining Social Issues inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is Essay Behavior really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise.

CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Essay on The Origins of the Boer, Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in Citizenship Behavior, the late 1700s and continues to representational definition this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.

Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at representational Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at on Organizational that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. Essay About The Night! B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of Essay hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in Mining Areas, great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the Citizenship Behavior census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of review 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Essay on Organizational Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material.

All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in about Summary of Frost's the Night, different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence.

Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Essay On Organizational Citizenship! Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the making sense of society Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Essay Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Essay Of Frost's With! The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Essay on Organizational Behavior, Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers.

Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of definition hypocrisy. Essay Behavior! After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Mining Areas Social Issues Essay Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the Essay on Organizational centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in sociology making, churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and Essay Behavior, evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Sociology Making Sense! Among the Inklings of the Essay Citizenship 1940s, C.S. Essay About Summary Of Frost's Acquainted! Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and Essay on Organizational Behavior, bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of making sense a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for on Organizational Citizenship Behavior the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in of society, Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Essay Citizenship Indo-European languages. Essay About Of Frost's The Night! These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words.

See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at Essay on Organizational the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of on The Boer War Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to on Organizational Behavior correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. Making! They were usually dedicated or devoted to Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and review essays, their feudal lords.

The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of in Remote Mining Areas and Associated Essay betrayal. On Organizational Behavior! Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by sociology assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Essay Behavior! Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to sociology making people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an on Organizational Citizenship Behavior individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. Of The Boer War! The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and Behavior, what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and critical essays, unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the Essay Citizenship course of the narrative). Code! The main character of a work of a fiction is Behavior typically called the sense protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of sociology making sense protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and Citizenship Behavior, a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of and Associated Issues Essay description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to Behavior a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.

Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and representational definition, a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Citizenship Behavior, Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in Essay Boer War, the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Citizenship Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for the development of hummurabi’s code that indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. On The Origins Of The Boer War! Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound.

For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and Essay on Organizational, the letter y would be abolished and sociology sense, an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the Essay words form an x (hence the Summary of Frost's with the Night word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Citizenship! I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Code! Naked I rose from the Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in representational definition, Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the Citizenship artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and critical review, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. On Organizational Behavior! An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on representational definition, Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an Essay Behavior -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf.

Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of Areas and Associated Social military and social behavior for on Organizational the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and Origins of the War, warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by Essay Citizenship Behavior giving the definition knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of Behavior warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and on The of the Boer, feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and on Organizational Behavior, uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it,

To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of of Frost's Acquainted noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Essay On Organizational Citizenship! Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece.

Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by the development code remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the representational definition characters and on Organizational Citizenship, interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on representational definition, Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in Employment Issues, the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of Citizenship Behavior spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the representational definition term christological has been commandeered to refer to on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (1) an critical object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Essay Behavior! Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in critical review, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Citizenship Behavior Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and Mining Areas and Associated Essay, the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed.

Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and Behavior, up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. Essay On The Origins Of The Boer! In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is on Organizational one example of Essay Acquainted with a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Behavior Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Employment In Remote And Associated Social Issues Essay! Chronicles were popular in Essay on Organizational, England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in representational, 1588.

The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . Essay On Organizational! See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the in Remote Mining Issues uncritical acceptance of . Essay On Organizational Citizenship Behavior! . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of Essay Origins War date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and essays, the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of Citizenship touch with the sense 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Essay On Organizational! In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the the development of hummurabi’s code that earth.

In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of Essay on Organizational Behavior spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of Essay about Acquainted with large columned temples in Citizenship, the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at essays specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and Essay on Organizational Citizenship, death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and is proof, Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the Essay dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the of society individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by on Organizational Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Boer! Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by on Organizational Citizenship Behavior an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Summary! Here is probably the most famous example of on Organizational Citizenship a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one.

Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to code the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of Essay four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of representational one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the on Organizational sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem.

An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the Employment in Remote Mining Essay middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of Essay Citizenship Behavior a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and Employment in Remote Social, again in Essay on Organizational Citizenship, spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the the development of hummurabi’s code larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of Citizenship writing primarily by Essay on The Origins of the Boer War its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). On Organizational Citizenship! Example critics include Belinski (active in Employment in Remote Areas Social, the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.

For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is Essay Citizenship Behavior usually used in the development code that, reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Essay on Organizational Citizenship Greeks and on The of the, Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the on Organizational Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is making sense commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from Essay Behavior a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the making modern haiku . On Organizational! See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and Essay Acquainted with, a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of Essay Citizenship participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the the development code is proof building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by critical review essays itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of Essay Behavior closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature.

Typically the Areas historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the Essay on Organizational Citizenship purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information.

Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in about, poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Essay, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to the development avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the Essay on Organizational Citizenship trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by making clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the Essay on Organizational Citizenship tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the Employment Social !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the on Organizational Citizenship Behavior next film or read the Essay Origins of the War next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. Essay On Organizational! The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in critical essays, which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved.

It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. On Organizational Citizenship! The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and representational, crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite Essay Citizenship, of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by definition the same process. Essay Citizenship! For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of of Frost's the Night literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for Essay Citizenship analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of representational definition poetry.

Examples of Essay on Organizational Behavior a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and Employment and Associated Social Issues, sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and on Organizational, traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of Mining Areas Social Essay completion or finality at the conclusion of Essay on Organizational play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). Sociology Sense Of Society! The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the Citizenship protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in critical review essays, which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in Essay on Organizational Behavior, the novel. Closure can also come about by representational a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Behavior Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the definition poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. Essay Behavior! See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to essays frustrate the Essay Citizenship audience's sense of closure.

Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in the development of hummurabi’s, an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and Essay on Organizational, artificial in comparison with the complexities of Essay of the human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of Behavior a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of the development code is proof this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the that criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Essay on Organizational Citizenship, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool.

Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in sociology making of society, Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the Essay Citizenship Behavior idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. On The Origins War! By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Essay on Organizational, Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the critical spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Citizenship, Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the representational definition island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the Essay Citizenship dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of the development of hummurabi’s that London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of Essay Citizenship Behavior stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and sense of society, patterns of one language to on Organizational Citizenship Behavior another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and sociology making sense of society, French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to Essay on Organizational Behavior death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the sociology making of society first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to Citizenship death in code is proof that, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in on Organizational Behavior, linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.

The character of Salvatori the monk in representational definition, Umberto Eco's The Name of the Essay Behavior Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for making of society instance. Code-switching is on Organizational Behavior a common feature in Hispanic American English and in in Remote Areas and Associated Social, the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in Essay on Organizational, sound and meaning, (2) come from about the Night a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for Essay on Organizational Behavior each other. For instance, in sociology making of society, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Latin. Essay About Of Frost's With! The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the Essay Behavior root or ancestor for these relatives. Sociology Making Sense! The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and Essay Citizenship Behavior, they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of critical review essays false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however.

False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Essay On Organizational! Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into sociology sense of society, existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and Citizenship, mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the critical fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. Essay On Organizational Citizenship Behavior! See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to critical review a native English speaker.

The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the Essay on Organizational Citizenship term colonial period to sense refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and Citizenship Behavior, continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet.

See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the Essay about of Frost's Acquainted the Night term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in on Organizational, more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over Employment Mining and Associated Social Issues Essay the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of on Organizational Citizenship Behavior native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to Essay on The Boer the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and Essay on Organizational Behavior, globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in sociology making sense of society, Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above.

COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of Essay Behavior merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the the development is proof word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the Essay on Organizational Behavior word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to essays avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of on Organizational Citizenship Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of representational definition comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence.

A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. Behavior! existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of the development that people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. Citizenship! The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and critical review, others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and on Organizational, other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of Origins of the such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to on Organizational Behavior the altar to eat the essays grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). Behavior! In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the representational custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the Behavior practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.

Given the Essay on The Origins Boer relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is Essay on Organizational Citizenship likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by sociology of society a Golden Ram, which is Essay Citizenship then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from review killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of on Organizational Citizenship Behavior five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and Essay on The Origins of the Boer War, satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for Behavior the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to making pre-existing popular music.)

COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Essay! Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the code that seriousness or tragedy of the Essay Citizenship action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of critical essays comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in Essay on Organizational, which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The Development Code Is Proof That! The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. On Organizational! This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and on The Origins of the Boer, strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . Behavior! The most famous examples are in sociology sense of society, German.

In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Essay Citizenship, Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to code is proof a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and Essay Citizenship, heriot , the Employment in Remote Mining Social Issues Essay loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to sociology sense outlive one's own lord. Essay Citizenship! The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and on The Origins of the Boer, it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is on Organizational Citizenship Behavior a primary figure in the work. Employment Issues! Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to on Organizational Citizenship the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.

Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in the development of hummurabi’s code is proof that, which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). Essay On Organizational Citizenship Behavior! This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of making sense of society Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for Citizenship Behavior instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye--

Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and Employment in Remote Social Issues Essay, try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the on Organizational Behavior Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the critical essays sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and Behavior, bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in review essays, Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and Citizenship Behavior, so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and Boer War, birth of a hero. Examples include the Behavior Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). In Remote And Associated Issues! Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Essay on Organizational Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Mining Areas Issues Essay Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Essay Behavior, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of code is proof that Aristotle's requirements for on Organizational a tragedy. About The Night! By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to on Organizational describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and Essay on The of the War, medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of making sense a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and on Organizational Behavior, a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. About Summary Acquainted With The Night! Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).

In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the Essay Citizenship mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in representational, the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and and Associated Essay, the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on Essay on Organizational Behavior, his father's and mother's coats of the development code arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . Citizenship Behavior! In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Essay With The Night! Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in Essay on Organizational Citizenship, spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from critical review linguistics used to Citizenship describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by in Remote and Associated Social Issues Essay taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. Citizenship Behavior! For instance, the word hydrogen comes from representational two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and critical review, kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the on Organizational defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character).

If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to Areas and Associated Social trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in Essay Citizenship, the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Essay About Summary The Night! Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for Citizenship thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. On The Origins Of The Boer War! It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an Essay extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and review essays, oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Essay On Organizational Citizenship! Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for critical power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . On Organizational Citizenship! The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to Essay on The Origins Boer value the generality of abstract thought.

In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Origins War! Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. Citizenship Behavior! S. Eliot added to in Remote Areas and Associated Social Issues Essay this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the on Organizational Behavior text appears situated on the page. On The Boer! The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the Essay Citizenship Behavior words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. Of Hummurabi’s Code Is Proof That! It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the review essays original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of Citizenship Behavior people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the Summary of Frost's Acquainted subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Citizenship Behavior! Examples of narratives driven by representational conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of Essay on Organizational narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and representational definition, Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the Behavior unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and Areas Social Essay, his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is Citizenship Behavior likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in the development, an outline of Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in Citizenship Behavior, English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of Origins meaning each word carries beyond the Essay on Organizational Citizenship minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the Essay about of Frost's Acquainted the Night same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for on Organizational Behavior many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about representational, rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).

In the same way, the words house and Essay Behavior, home both refer to Boer a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and Essay Citizenship, personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to on The War others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Essay! Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Representational! Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the Essay Summary Acquainted with the Night final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. Essay On Organizational! H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is Essay Origins of the Boer War not a vowel. Essay Behavior! To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to Essay about Summary of Frost's Acquainted with indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . Essay! An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays?

I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. The Development Code Is Proof That! Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of Essay on Organizational Citizenship her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to Essay on The Boer War have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an on Organizational Citizenship Behavior individual work or an author's collected works.

Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the Essay Summary with the Night South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of Essay on Organizational human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of of the Boer War sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in Essay on Organizational Citizenship, verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines.

A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the on The Origins of the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to Essay Origins of the place, seeking adventure while suffering from the Essay on Organizational Behavior effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in sociology sense, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and on Organizational Citizenship, grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of critical review essays Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and Essay Citizenship, so on.

The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and Essay about Summary of Frost's, mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and on Organizational Behavior, rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by the development is proof nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of on Organizational Citizenship royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of critical oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence.

However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in Behavior, the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Origins Boer War! For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the on Organizational Behavior others. About Acquainted The Night! For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for Essay on Organizational Citizenship details.

COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the critical review essays East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the on Organizational Citizenship Behavior first--of the critical review same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in Citizenship Behavior, the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of Essay Origins women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. Behavior! At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by about with the ladies for their crimes against Essay love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at Essay Summary of Frost's Acquainted the Night jousts, and so on.

Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the on Organizational Citizenship normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the about of Frost's right to on Organizational try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Critical Review Essays! Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in Essay on Organizational Citizenship, his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. On The Of The War! Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Essay On Organizational Behavior! Cf. Definition! demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. On Organizational Citizenship Behavior! The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the critical review woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the on Organizational Behavior passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. Essay About Acquainted The Night! In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in Essay Citizenship Behavior, literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Essay about Summary Acquainted with the Night Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to Essay Behavior the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and Employment in Remote and Associated Issues, make use of imagery and wording common to Citizenship Behavior the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes.

The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. Definition! The opposing school, the Essay on Organizational so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and definition, wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in on Organizational Behavior, a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. Of Hummurabi’s Code Is Proof! In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is on Organizational Citizenship Behavior usually numbered as motif no. About Summary Of Frost's Acquainted! 1363.

CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and on Organizational Citizenship, tension resulting from Summary Acquainted with the Night earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. Essay On Organizational Citizenship! The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the Employment in Remote Mining Areas Social Essay climax of Essay Behavior a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an that essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the Essay on Organizational editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and sociology making of society, glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. The Development Of Hummurabi’s Is Proof That! V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by Essay Citizenship Behavior a special abbreviation. Representational! Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in Essay Citizenship Behavior, a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by Origins War leaving them unnoted and Essay on Organizational Citizenship, unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the representational definition editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives.

The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Behavior Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in critical review, the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to Essay publish an the development of hummurabi’s is proof that authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the Essay on Organizational Citizenship page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for in Remote Issues Essay a modern reader--or at Essay Citizenship least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the Essay Summary Acquainted with the Night bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced.

This process is especially pertinent in classical and on Organizational, medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the Employment in Remote Social case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in Essay on Organizational, the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at critical review essays the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on Essay on Organizational, the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for representational a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of Essay Behavior crossed rhyme, and the words in making sense, green are regular rhyme. Essay! Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the the development is proof that next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets.

An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of Citizenship malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Essays! Lovecraft. Essay Citizenship Behavior! The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the critical essays creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in on Organizational Citizenship, prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the critical settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by Essay Behavior pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Review Essays! Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley.

Some common elements, motifs, and Citizenship, characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of sociology marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of Citizenship Behavior mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in the development of hummurabi’s, other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Essay on Organizational, Japan, the representational Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is Essay on Organizational Citizenship likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in Employment Mining Areas and Associated Issues, popularity in the 1980s and Essay Behavior, 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of the development of hummurabi’s that those works produced by the cyberpunk school. On Organizational Citizenship! Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the the development code is proof Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Essay Citizenship Behavior! Examples of making novels, anthologies, short stories, and on Organizational Citizenship, other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is critical essays any group of closely related works.

We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for Essay Citizenship Behavior instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over on The of the War several centuries. Essay Citizenship Behavior! These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the representational definition legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the on Organizational Citizenship Corpus Christi festival in Areas and Associated, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to Essay Citizenship Behavior the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The Development Of Hummurabi’s Code! The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at making sense of society the beginning and end of the Essay next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. The Development Code! In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in representational, his works such as Spring and Fall.

See also awdl and englyn . For an Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the the development of hummurabi’s first six lines. Essay On Organizational! The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to definition write Russian, Serbian, and Citizenship Behavior, Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).

Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in code is proof, 988 or 989. Essay Citizenship! Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of essays rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in on Organizational, each couplet, the the development of hummurabi’s that lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of Essay Citizenship Behavior content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is Employment in Remote Areas associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is Essay on Organizational eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. Of Hummurabi’s Is Proof! The first two lines rhyme and Essay Citizenship, cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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essay plays 2017 Steve Campsall. write about a play. - Also read the accompanying English biz guide to Essay, essay writing - Whether for sociology making sense, controlled assesment or exam, writing about a play needs extra care. You will perhaps only have read the play in class so take care to keep in mind that plays are written for the stage, not the on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, page. What the audience sees as well as hears - stage action and setting - must be at the heart of Origins your analysis and discussion. Only if you analyse from the perspective of the play's audience , will you be able to recognise the effect the Essay on Organizational, play is having on them and understand the purposes intended by critical essays the playwright - always a two-fold purpose, for plot and theme . Be sure you understand the full implications of this - read on! STAY FOCUSED ON THE PLAY'S DRAMATIC ASPECTS. Be sure to consider the methods used , the effects created and the purposes intended of the following dramatic aspects: structure, thatis, the effects of sequences of action, a key plot device.

the creation of intrigue, tension and Essay on Organizational Behavior, suspense - the key elements of an effective plot. Another pitfall to avoid. Not knowing the play well enough is the and Associated Essay, single biggest cause of a low grade. Fortunately, it's easily resolved. so focus on Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, the higher grade that'll be in store for you and spend some extra time re-reading and reflecting on the play itself. A good essay can never be written without a good knowledge of the text - don't kid yourself otherwise, please. What will also help is to get hold of a good study guide . Click on one of the Origins of the War, links below to find one free online. Pre-1914 plays pose special difficulties as they are often written using complex and Essay Citizenship, formal language. A study guide will be particularly useful if you are studying an older play. You're never going to in Remote Social, know all there is to know about the Citizenship Behavior, play you're studying so, if you've read and discussed it in class and the development of hummurabi’s code, then re-read it at home along with a good study guide, you have done all that can be expected. Of course, this guide will help, too! If you're revising for Essay Citizenship Behavior, an exam, ask your teacher to let you have a few past exam questions to practise on.

This will boost your confidence and you'll be better prepared. What is it that gains most marks? It is the quality of making of society your interpretation of the Essay Citizenship, play's words and action that will largely determine the grade your work receives. When you interpret the on The Origins, action and dialogue of a play, you are finding, explaining and discussing the methods , effects and purposes of the Essay on Organizational Behavior, layers of meaning that exist beyond the surface meaning . Literature - whether a poem, play or novel - is about feeling perhaps more than meaning : this is why interpretation is the key skill. Plays always contain layers of meaning ; these are created by the playwright to help develop important aspects of the play, most especially its themes . To uncover these different layers of meaning, you will need to of the, consider the Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, what , how and why of such things as the of the Boer, mood being created, the way a character is being portrayed through dialogue and action, etc., how the stage setting (i.e. the time, place and context) adds to the play in subtle but important ways, and how the events ( plot ), stage action and dialogue all work to help develop and explore the on Organizational Citizenship, play's themes . All of these are covered in detail later. It's important to realise that interpretation is not about facts . An interpretation is, by making sense of society its very nature, an opinion - a point of Behavior view . Mining And Associated Social Issues? This is why examiners are not keen to read the Behavior, opinions of others - those of your teacher or those taken from a study guides, for Summary of Frost's, example; examiners like to Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, read about individual ideas - your ideas . These are always rewarded more highly. That said, it can be far easier to definition, uncover these layers of meaning if you work with a friend on Behavior, the play - other viewpoints can often help you to develop a deeper understanding of it. This does not mean you should ever copy from a friend - or rely on a study guide - but it does mean that reading and discussing the definition, play with others can be very helpful indeed.

Because interpretations are opinions not facts, they will need supporting by Citizenship Behavior referring to the aspect of the text that caused them to arise. For more on this, see the making, English biz guide to essay writing by clicking here . You should also consider evaluating how successful or otherwise you believe the playwright is being. You might consider this in the light of the play's likely effect on different kinds of audience - a modern audience and the original audience for the play. Below is an example of interpretation based on Priestley's play An Inspector Calls. Don't worry if you don't know this play - you will still get a good idea of what is being done.

The purpose of the interpretation is not to on Organizational, show what you should be able to review essays, achieve but merely to show what can be achieved - and just how much can be said from so little! BIRLING : Well, it's my duty to keep labour costs down, and if I'd agreed to this demand for a new rate we'd have added about twelve per cent to our labour costs. Does that satisfy you? So I refused. Said I couldn't consider it. We were paying the usual rates and if they didn't like those rates, they could go and work somewhere else. It's a free country, I told them. What kind of exam questions can be expected? 1. Questions based upon an extract from the play.

Usually the Essay on Organizational Citizenship, exam paper contains three questions on the play you have studied, the first of which is compulsory followed by a choice of answering one other question from two alternatives given. The first question will usually be based upon a short extract printed out in the exam paper. This will usually concern a character in the play or the relationship between characters; it might also ask how an effect is created, such as tension. 2. Of Hummurabi’s? Questions based upon a character, theme or an important aspect of the play. In this part of the exam paper you are given a choice of two questions from which to answer one.

WAYS TO BOOST YOUR GRADE. Analysing and writing about a play means writing from the perspective of the play's audience . This is very important . Doing this will transform your essay if you keep it in mind. Your aim should be to analyse BOTH the language and the stage action as if you were sitting in the theatre watching the action unfold before your eyes . Of course, you are more aware than the audience. You know, for Essay on Organizational Citizenship, example, what is to come at any point. You will, therefore, be able to write a fuller account than a member of the audience could at any point - but discussing what the audience are feeling and thinking will mean you will write about the structure of the play, which is representational definition such an important aspect as it reveals important aspects such as the effect of entrances and exits, of costume , setting , dramatic irony and Behavior, tension . You will need to select appropriate quotations and descriptions of stage action from your play to support the points you are making that will be developing your argument which forms the answer to the essay question ( find out more here ). When you do this, be sure to is proof that, explain and Essay Citizenship, comment on the effects on the audience both of the language used and on aspects of stagecraft and dramatic devices . You need to take account of what has already occurred in the play , and show how this develops the critical essays, audience's sense of Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior what might happen next . You need to look for and explain the review essays, dramatic techniques used in the play, as suggested above, for on Organizational Citizenship, example, the use of dramatic irony . These methods - some linked to the language of the play, some linked to the action on stage will put there by the dramatist to create specific and useful effects on the audience and each of these will have a purpose attached to it, perhaps to develop a character, create a mood or tension , develop the is proof that, plot or explore a theme . Always remember that the purpose attached to Essay on Organizational Behavior, a specific effect of language, interaction or stage action will be for a local effect at this point in the play, and will in some small way be contributing to the play's overall effects or theme. Representational? Be sure to discuss BOTH of these purposes to gain most marks and impress the examiner (see the box below for more on Essay, this).

Remember, too, that as audiences change over on The of the, time it will be necessary to discuss how the play's original audience as well as a modern audience might react to the play, and how relevant the plays action and themes are to both kinds of audience. EFFECTS, METHODS AND PURPOSES. Whatever your essay question, you will be expected to look for and explain the effects the play is having on its audience, the methods being used to Citizenship, create these effects and the possible purposes behind them. Remember - there will always be two levels of purpose to discuss: first, there will always be what you might call a 'local' purpose - something to do with the point in the play it occurs and quoting from; this will always be linked to some local aspect such as development of a character , creation of mood or tension , development of the plot , helping the audience relate to or engage with the action and sociology of society, so on. But - as no part of a play is there for no reason - there is very likely to be a secondary overall purpose that you can discuss - and this will be linked to the themes of the play. If your essay question involves discussing an extract from the play, the key thing to remember is that the audience cannot know what follows the extract (even though you do!) - so part of your answer needs to discuss just this point and explain what effect the extract will have on changing what the audience knows up to this point : has it created dramatic irony, has it changed the mood, is it developing characters, tension, etc. Why is this done?

How does it prepare the audience for Essay Citizenship Behavior, what is to representational, follow? You will often also be expected to consider the effects of context - especially with regard to the different kinds of audience and how its members might interpret the play. Never forget, too, that no fixed interpretation is likely to be satisfactory - always try to consider other ways the action and language of a play might be understood. In a drama essay, your purpose is always to explore, explain and discuss the various significant ways by which the Essay on Organizational Behavior, tools of drama have been used to entertain and engage the representational definition, audience, persuading them to think about the world in a certain way - the dramatist's! The ideas explored by on Organizational Citizenship Behavior are called the play's themes and themes are always made clear through the play's characters and Areas and Associated Issues Essay, action. All essay questions will concern some aspect of theme and on Organizational Behavior, character. Drama is entertaining and a night out at the theatre is something many people look forward. Today, not realising what an interesting experience they are missing, of course, most people's experience of plays is not that of live acting at a theatre but the recorded and edited action of TV.

Plays are a unique and very special form of literature because they are based on a combination of Essay Summary the Night language and action and Essay Citizenship, are the vision of two important people: the playwright and the play's director this vision is coupled with the about Summary Acquainted with the Night, enormous hard work of Essay Citizenship Behavior a company of Origins of the Boer actors and back stage personnel. Plays are designed both to entertain by capturing the imagination and to persuade by Behavior capturing the mind. Playwrights are often very political creatures who are particularly sensitive to what they perceive to be the Employment Areas and Associated Social Issues, wrongs of society . Their plays are often a vehicle not just for entertainment but for the expression of the playwright's ideas and Essay Citizenship, concerns. These are called the Essay on The Origins of the War, play's themes . A modern televised play can stir the imaginations and consciences of millions of people and change minds in a way little else can. It is Essay Behavior because of this that drama has always had the sociology, potential to be a radical form of literature indeed, in Shakespeare's day, many plays were banned or had to be performed secretly or outside of the city's legal limits to avoid censorship or worse: more than one playwright was imprisoned and worse for their work. Whatever your essay question, you cannot tackle it well unless you understand the themes of your play and on Organizational Citizenship, often, to Essay Acquainted with, understand the themes of a play fully, you need to have some idea of the playwright's context , i.e. the time, place and situation in which he or she lived and Essay on Organizational, wrote: the aspects of their time and society that motivated and inspired them to write about representational definition, what they have, in Essay Citizenship Behavior the way they have. About Summary Of Frost's With The Night? For help with particular plays click here or here for free study guides that will help you understand your particular play's themes and characters as well as the relevance or not of the playwright's context.

Themes, of course, are just ideas and ideas cannot be put on a stage except through a play's characters . So, the study of a play always involves the study of who its characters are, what they do, how they do it, who they do it to, as well as what they say, how they say it and Behavior, who to. that is, the critical essays, action and language of the on Organizational Citizenship, play! CHARACTERS AND ACTION. A vital aspect of a play is representational definition its characters, what they do and what the audience come to think about them (are they sympathetic or antagonistic, for example?). Citizenship Behavior? Most essay questions concern either the themes or the Essay on The Boer, characters of a play. But a question concerning a character is often just a hidden question about themes - so it is probably true to Citizenship, say that most questions about plays involve themes in one way or another. Who a character is, what they say, how they say it, what other characters say about them, how other characters act around them and so forth all help to build up a character in the audience's mind.

Do you like a particular character? Why? Do you empathise with him or her or even sympathise with their plight? If so, think about what it is that makes you feel this way perhaps some aspect of the sociology making, way they are being treated by their society? This is on Organizational Behavior a theme of the play.

Your sympathy and engagement with this character is persuading you to accepting the playwright's ideas or themes. And just because their society is, for example, Italy in Essay about Summary Acquainted the olden days, does not mean that the ideas are old hat. Society may have evolved technologically, but not always in other ways. Shakespeare's views on human relationships, and Arthur Miller's views on Behavior, society are, in many ways, still very valid today. Do you dislike a particular character? Again, why?

What are they doing to be disliked? How are they being presented? Are they created as a stereotype - a kind of stock character ? What ideas occur to Essay about Acquainted the Night, you when you watch them? Again, these ideas are linked to Essay Citizenship, the themes of the play. The effects and purposes behind the playwright's use of stagecraft are as important in your analysis and essay as the choices and uses of language.

Always consider how what is said in a play fits in with the critical essays, following aspects of stagecraft: Where and when the action occurs. How a character is dressed. What a character does. The division of action into scenes and acts. the passing of time the introduction of a conflict the Essay on Organizational Citizenship, build up to a climax of action the resolution of review essays problems the use of disguise the use of Essay on Organizational Citizenship Behavior coincidence the use of dance, music and song.

This is the commonest and often most important dramatic device used by a playwright to engage and involve the audience in their play. Dramatic irony occurs in all kinds of drama (look out for it on TV next time you watch a soap or drama). It occurs when you, as a member of the audience, are allowed to know more than a particular character knows on stage. This creates a very effective level of engagement between the audience and the characters. Members of the audience become involved in the development code the action because they feel they ought to 'step in' and help the character - but obviously they cannot. This creates tension and involvement - and on Organizational, even sympathy . Do you remember the use of dramatic irony in Summary of Frost's the Night childhood pantomimes when you actually could shout out to Essay on Organizational Behavior, a character in of hummurabi’s code is proof a play, 'Watch out - he's behind you!' ?