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Quick Tips For Updating Your Resume (Today!) Updating a resume might be the only thing more agonizing than filling out a job application. Are your job descriptions too long? What font should you use? Oh, yeah, and what year did you get that certification, again? In my most recent job search endeavor (which spanned 4-5 months) I rewrote my resume a few dozen times. Every time I rewrote it, it was still awful.

Tweaking a resume is not fun, and I’m not going to lie to you and say it eventually becomes enjoyable because I don’t think that will ever happen. However, in the midst of bonaparte all that editing, I learned a few quick tricks that helped me out along the way. Web Pages? First, here’s the resume I submitted for my current job: Keep in mind that in my field (marking, communications, design), it’s ok to have something that looks a little funky. Napoleon Bonaparte Books? Your resume doesn’t need to look pretty—it should always look professional—as long as your content is solid. Read on for some of the starbucks corporate most important things I learned! This sounds like a no-brainer, but sometimes it’s hard to remember everything you do in napoleon books your current role because you’re too busy doing it. Often times your role exceeds what was originally on our job description because you’ve gained responsibilities and proven yourself capable of taking on other tasks. If your job title doesn’t accurately represent the Teen Program work you do, it’s even more important to napoleon books elaborate. Maybe you started out as an assistant, but now you’re managing small projects or spearheading company-wide initiatives. In most cases, your most recent role will be the longest description (3-5 sentences). Essay Student Recreation? Make sure you highlight how your current responsibilities translate into the job description of the new role you’re trying to land.

Even if it doesn’t seem like there’s something on your resume that’s equivalent to “5-10 years of experience,” think of what you do within a broad scope. It’s not each, but you can probably find a way to show you’ve got the necessary knowledge to succeed in the new role. Bonaparte? Rewrite Your Job Descriptions Every Time. This part, to me, was the most painful. Why bother to rewriting a job description for Essay Benefits of the Center, a job I had years ago: it worked then, so why change it? Even though I hated doing this, I also attest my high volume of napoleon first interviews to the fact that I took the time to web pages cater each variation of my resume to a specific job description.

As I read more job postings, I realized some tasks from previous jobs were more applicable than what I currently had on books, my resume. By reworking old job descriptions and starbucks corporate, narrowing my content to only the skills that were most important for the current application, I could bolster my skill set to napoleon speak to cid summary each new job description. Rather than recycling the same old content and books, put useless information in front of a hiring manager, my job descriptions mirrored the Essay job requirements for each role. This helped me look like an expert (or at least a semi-expert) in napoleon books every job application. It’s tempting to make a bulleted list of everything you do in a job. You do a lot of things, and you deserve credit for all the skills you have to offer! However, when it comes to getting your resume read, less is definitely more. Essay Of The Student Recreation? If you can avoid wasting a hiring manager’s time by napoleon, getting right to the point, you’ll definitely make a positive impression. I personally prefer sentences on a resume and Teen Program Essay, utilize very few bullets to draw attention to books specific details I want to stand out. Save some of the broad job overviews for The Development, your cover letter (you should always have a cover letter). Your resume should be as clear and concise as possible.

If you’ve followed the advice above, you should be able to trim a lot of fluff. Napoleon Bonaparte? Determine Your Objective (And Include It) I always thought writing an objective in The Development Systems Essay a resume was tacky. I poured my heart into napoleon my cover letters, so why did I need an objective on Essay, my resume? Well, even though it pains me to say this after sinking so many hours into writing cover letters, a cover letter might not even be read if your resume doesn’t pass the test first. Your objective should mirror the hiring company’s mission and voice. If the organization is focused around youth and napoleon, children, it’s worthwhile to of the cid summary emphasize that these issues are also important to you. Stay true to yourself—don’t lie about your wants in a new role—but make sure you speak the language of the company. As a bonus, this little bit of napoleon bonaparte books research into of Intelligent Systems Essay your company’s purpose will help you stand out both on paper and in the interview.

After you’ve got the written content nailed down, it’s important to napoleon bonaparte include the specific skills you can offer to a company. Include a short (well-organized) section where you list the programs, applications, and tools you know. If a job description asks that you know specific programs, rearrange your list so those appear first. By the corporate same token, if you know how to do something but isn’t relevant to the role you’re applying for, leave it off. For instance, “cash handling” doesn’t mean a lot to an IT department, but it’s a desirable skill sought by banks and small businesses.

Think about this in terms of bonaparte other parts of your resume, too. Low GPA? If it’s not required for poem cid summary, the application, leave it off and napoleon bonaparte books, address it tactfully in the interview if it comes up. Do you have specific metrics measuring your successes? Definitely include these details. Virtual Teen Program? The most important thing to remember when writing a resume is that it should never exceed one page. Books? That doesn’t mean you should make everything 8-point font and cram it into a sheet with narrow margins.

It means you should learn how to present yourself in Essay Benefits Student a direct way. Show your future employer that you have a solid understanding of yourself and your strengths by submitting a resume that is the truest, best version of yourself. Napoleon Books? Minimize the fluff to flaunt your stuff. These tips should be enough to get you started with revising your resume. Feel free to Virtual Teen Program Essay ask questions or share your thoughts in the comments!

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Economy, comparison, and hierarchy in Dakar. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA , CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative. According to Louis Dumont, comparison is the starting point of any anthropological analysis: an bonaparte, experiment that elicits differences to provide ideas and justify analytical standpoints. Yet what difference might fuel a comparative experiment in Student Recreation Center, a global African metropolis such as Dakar, the capital of Senegal? I suggest a comparison with the autonomy and primacy of the economic in Euro-America to produce a radical constrast. Napoleon Bonaparte. This text first examines Dumont#x2019;s work on the #x201C;economic#x201D; as a value conflicting with the political in Euro-America. Then it focuses on Dakar, where money and relations are two sides of the same coin.

Following the money trail, it explores Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and marriage are more highly valued than the local economy, yet vividly condemned in discourses as a local custom preventing the full realization of Essay Benefits of the Recreation, economic development and Islam. Confronting these moral contradictions and the primacy of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over the economic in bonaparte, Dakar#x2019;s sociality, the text proposes to referencing web pages, distinguish between morality and bonaparte, values and acknowledges women#x2019;s ceremonies as an Recreation, #x201C;unavowed#x201D; value. It then argues that moral contradictions of this kind mark the napoleon bonaparte books contrast between different levels of value and the existence of a hierarchy that articulates incompatible conceptions within the same social formation. Keywords: Senegal, value, hierarchy, money, economy, sociality, ceremonial exchange, Islam. Louis Dumont#x2019;s comparative method is radical and purposely unimaginative.

As Dumont (1991: 8) put it: #x201C;I don#x2019;t have any idea, comparison provides it.#x201D; Dumont#x2019;s perspective is not radical because it drastically intensifies cultural differences, but rather because its epistemology is radical: comparison has no a priori object. It is an [152]experiment in which differences are elicited to provide ideas and justify analytical standpoints. I propose in this article that a city such as Dakar, the capital of Senegal, be treated as a challenge for corporate comparative anthropology along the lines of Dumont#x2019;s project. Dakar is a West African metropolis with a population of three million. It is the capital of an bonaparte, independent and virtually democratic state, and a place that has seen massive emigration and Essay Benefits of the Student, immigration. It has been a Muslim society for centuries, has been in contact with Europe for nearly five hundred years, and is located in an area that has always been connected with trans-Saharan trade. In other words, Dakar represents an obvious vantage point for a study of books, globalization, social change, or cultural hybridization. Yet it is not the ideal place for eliciting radical differences. The intertwining of modernity with tradition, of the Virtual Essay local with the global, makes it almost impossible to draw a comparison on any given cultural element#x2014;especially the most enticing for those who seeks out difference#x2014;without immediately essentializing it. What kind of difference might fuel a comparative experiment in this context?

In this article, I suggest an napoleon, answer, famously coined by Bill Clinton: #x201C;It#x2019;s the economy, stupid!#x201D; A familiar and problematic category indeed, and not one of most appealing from an exoticist point of view. Let#x2019;s begin by highlighting different ways of Immigrant Subculture in America, enacting comparison. Marcel Detienne#x2019;s book Comparing the incomparable (2008) is a vibrant manifesto for books a comparative method that roots out differences and Teen Essay, denies the irreducible singularity of the things compared. In the second chapter, #x201C;Constructing comparables,#x201D; he gives a vivid description of how he began his comparative enterprise and outlines his method. Books. It all started with stimulating exchanges within a small group of historians and anthropologists gathered around a common question#x2014;namely, #x201C;What is a site?#x201D; Then, #x201C;in order to access the teeming variety of modes of territorialization,#x201D; they felt the need #x201C;to select a category, making sure that it was generic enough to allow the Immigrant Subculture Essay beginnings of a comparison but neither too general nor too specific to any particular culture#x201D; (ibid.: 25). In other words, Detienne#x2019;s comparative method seeks out differences but still relies on a generic question (#x201C;What is a site?#x201D;) that defines the starting point. Books. Comparison requires preexisting comparative categories that are ultimately the product of a form of of Intelligent Essay, eidetic reduction. In contrast, Dumont#x2019;s radical comparative perspective doesn#x2019;t start with a generic object or question.

It foregrounds difference as the absolute fulcrum (Dumont 1977: 11) upon which comparison draws exclusively. This is so because, according to Dumont, the books meaning of a single feature, however important, can only be grasped from its relations with other particular features within a given social formation. #x201C;A particular feature, if taken not in itself but in its concrete position within a system, #x2026; can have a totally different meaning according to referencing, the position it occupies. That is to say, from a sociological standpoint it is actually different#x201D; (Dumont 1980: 253). One must always take into account the relative value of napoleon, any element within the configuration to Virtual Teen Program, which it belongs. In other words, the napoleon bonaparte hierarchy (i.e., value relations) present in each configuration is Virtual Program Essay, essential.

However, there is much that is implicit in any configuration and especially its fundamental tenets, that is to say, value relations (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). Thus, the issue with comparison is not merely that we cannot avoid [153]#x201C;misunderstanding others#x2019; views,#x201D; but also that we are required to deal with the implicit dimension of books, both #x201C;their#x201D; views and #x201C;ours.#x201D; According to Dumont (1986: 8), the only way to explore this complexity #x201C;is when comparison shows discord between two different hierarchies.#x201D; Each comparison, thus, can only uncover a partial aspect, and yet evinces necessary but unexpressed relations on which the analysis can draw afterward. Dumont repeated many times that this kind of comparison is a recursive and Virtual, an almost endless process. He has always been very elusive on where and how it should start. In his work, the anthropologist appears somehow compelled by ethnography to rediscover a familiar but problematic notion of our common thought, which provides a comparative perspective (in Dumont#x2019;s case, India elicited hierarchy: ibid.: 7).

Drawing on books, Dumont#x2019;s work on economy as a value in Euro-America, and my ethnography in Thiaroye-sur-Mer, a Wolof-speaking poor suburb of Dakar, in poem of the cid summary, this article I explore Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are more highly valued than the local economy but unanimously condemned in bonaparte, the name of both economic rationality and Virtual, Islam. I then develop the argument that comparison can also reveal whether moral contradictions evince a conflict bewteen competing values or eclipse an unavoyed hierarchy. Dumont#x2019;s work was profoundly inspired by Karl Polanyi#x2019;s book The great transformation (1944), and especially by his fundamental thesis on the disembedding of economies from society. According to Dumont, Polanyi demonstrated that the constitution of the economic components of social life in a separate subsystem that subordinates the rest, which took place over the course of the nineteenth century, was an exceptional event in human history. Dumont#x2019;s first comparative work on Euro-America addressed the autonomy and primacy of the economic aspect as a key expression of books, individualism, and as the triumph of a form of on The of the Recreation Center, social life marked by the separation and unresolved tension between economics and politics (Dumont 1977). He repeatedly praised The great transformation as an anthropological masterpiece (Dumont 1977, 1983, 1986, 1994), and helped bring Polanyi#x2019;s ideas to a French audience. 1 He was also a fierce critic of Polanyi#x2019;s subsequent work (1957) as an economic anthropologist. 2 His criticism revolved around the definition of the word #x201C;economic.#x201D; Polanyi made a famous distinction between two meanings of the napoleon bonaparte term, one formal and the other substantive:

The substantive meaning of economic derives from man#x2019;s dependence for his living upon of the cid summary nature and his fellows. It refers to the interchange with his natural and social environment, in so far as this results in supplying him with the means of material want-satisfaction. The [154]formal meaning of economic derives from the logical character of the means#x2013;ends relationship, as apparent in such words as #x201C;economical#x201D; or #x201C;economizing.#x201D; It refers to a definite situation of choice, namely, that between the napoleon bonaparte books different uses of means induced by poem, an insufficiency of those means. Napoleon. (Polanyi 1957: 243) For Polanyi, the formalist definition only applied to Transportation Systems Essay, market economies, whereas the napoleon substantive definition was universal, and Teen Essay, thus of use to books, comparative anthropology. The Development Of Intelligent Essay. This distinction gave rise to a vigorous debate in the 1960s, which saw two trends in economic anthropology (formalist and substantivist) taking opposite sides on how to identify the books economic aspect in comparative anthropology (Isaac 2005).

Dumont took an original#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;position in starbucks, this debate. He argued that, contra Polanyi, the question of the status of the economy in social formations alone could not lead to napoleon bonaparte, an anthropological comparison, because it assumes the empirical existence of #x201C;the economy#x201D; as an Virtual Program, external reality present in any given social formation. On the napoleon contrary, according to Dumont, the primacy of the economic dimension is not the Virtual disembedding of a fundamental domain of social life that is or was already present: #x201C;It should be obvious that there is nothing like an economy out there, unless and until men construct such an object#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 33). Dumont#x2019;s methodological stance is not, however, to disclose an error or a truth regarding the books mode of existence of the economy (e.g., Latour and L#x00E9;pinay 2009). From a comparative point a view, the economy is a construct, and not a given on which a plurality of competing definitions 3 may be identified but none is beyond discussion. Instead, according to Dumont (1977: 24), one should start from Polanyi#x2019;s thesis on Subculture in America, the primacy of the economic dimension and identify the presupposition on which the object of economics is constructed in the location of this same object in Euro-American social formations. Napoleon Bonaparte Books. In From Mandeville to Marx , he studied the genesis of economics as an Subculture in America, intellectual category distinct from politics.

One of his conclusions was that #x201C;the economic category rests on a value judgment, an implicit hierarchy. Bonaparte. It supposes that something else is excluded or subordinated#x201D; (ibid.: 26). Dumont never sought to on The of the Student Center, define economics, or to compare it with something else (such as a cosmology, a religion, or a culture). Instead, he drew on a comparative difference to elicit a value: the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension as a peculiar feature of Euro-American social formations. The economic category can be defined not in itself, but as a function of its value relation with other categories, especially the move, described by napoleon bonaparte, Polanyi, toward a valueencompassing relation of the Subculture in America Essay economic over the political (Dumont 1986: 104#x2013;12). Dumont concluded his study of the genesis of economic ideology by considering the consequences of the conflicting relation of value between economics and politics. He was perplexed by well-meaning thinkers#x2014;and especially economists such as Keynes#x2014;who proposed that we cease behaving like slaves of the economic process and books, downgrade the economy to Program Essay, the status of a means for achieving #x201C;the real human ends, which are social#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 107). For Dumont, a program such as this would most likely fail, or succeed at the cost of napoleon books, weakening or destroying the individual as a value.

According to him, [155]In such a case, we should likely return to subordination, unless we are able to produce at short notice a consensus bearing a still unseen third path. #x201C;The economic#x201D; is a major category of our thought, and constraints inherent to our ideology are such that we are not at of Intelligent Transportation Systems, liberty to decree that, from now on, it will be downgraded to the rank of bonaparte books, a servant. (Dumont 1977: 107) In the second French edition of From Mandeville to Marx , Dumont felt the need to introduce a clarification of his views. #x201C;Until further notice, subordination in its natural form, as a value, is excluded from our ideology. Virtual Teen Essay. It would therefore only be reintroduced in napoleon books, a shameful, pathological form, that is to say, as oppression#x201D; (Dumont [1977] 1985: 132). Two pages later, he concludes: #x201C;So far, the choice between wealth as an end and forced, pathological, forms of subordination is our fate#x201D; (ibid.: 134). Dumont#x2019;s contention, and especially the last conclusion, may appear to be an uncompromising neoliberal view; however, his true position is radically different. This is not a claim on the order of facts that would, for web pages example, call into question the legitimacy of or possibility for a political body to act upon the economy as an external, objective reality.

Rather, it is a warning about the limits and constraints exerted by value systems on power, especially on what Dumont called #x201C;artificialism#x201D;: the idea that power or strength of will has an unlimited capacity to fully transform the world in accordance with an ideal and therefore to sift the good aspects, which will be kept, from the bonaparte bad, which will be discarded. #x201C;Ideology has the Virtual Program Essay power to transform social reality only napoleon, between certain limits and when we ignore those limits we produce the contrary of what was desired#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 12). Dumont#x2019;s aim was neither to naturalize nor to eradicate power, but to understand its limits. His work is haunted by totalitarianism, and he repeatedly highlighted the dangers and tragic consequences of the idea that power can transform society rapidly and fundamentally. Referencing Web Pages. #x201C;There are other limits to modern artificialism than those ecology has begun to teach us, limits that follow from the social nature of man as thinking being#x201D; (ibid.: 108). For Dumont (1986: 92), artificialism clashes with society as whole, not in napoleon, the corporate sense of Systems, a group that would oppose a resistance to change (brought by another group) in the name of moral principles (Thompson 1971), but as a system of values. The question of the economy illustrates particularly vividly the limits imposed by a system of values. The autonomy of the economic dimension has tangible consequences, a set of bonaparte, constraints that seem to impose themselves on cid summary, social formations that politics is not able to napoleon books, fully control. This situation is dramatically illustrated by the consequences of economic and financial globalization in general, especially in recent years, and portrays the predicaments of Western states that are struggling with markets against a background of financial crisis and social turmoil. However, according to Dumont, the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension is neither the expression of an objective fact (social formations are subjected to natural #x201C;economic laws#x201D;) nor the result of a power relation between social units and poem cid summary, ideas (such as class struggles, the power of finance, or government corruption). The autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension is a paramount value, which, like any value, can never be fully realized. However, this value includes a [156]claim#x2014;or a tendency#x2014;to move toward a value-encompassing relation over the whole of society, 4 thereby challenging the political. Dumont is also one of the few commentators on Polanyi to explicitly agree with the other major thesis of napoleon bonaparte, The great transformation : that the emancipation of the of the cid summary economic domain is a major social and bonaparte, ideological fact, but that at an empirical level, economic liberalism combines with its opposite.

This is what Polanyi (1944: 136) calls the #x201C;double movement#x201D;: market societies are constituted by a movement of liberalism to expand the scope of the Immigrant Subculture in America market, and a countermovement resisting the #x201C;disembedding#x201D; of the economy. Polanyi#x2019;s double movement is a fair illustration of what Joel Robbins refers to as #x201C;hierarchical dynamism#x201D; in his contribution to this issue: a value is bonaparte, never homogeneously dominant; it is always found in combination with other values, in of the Recreation Center, this case economy and political power (Dumont 1994: 8#x2013;9). Dumont (1983: xv) writes in this regard: #x201C;One can observe in the economic field something called otherwise the #x2018;coexistence of napoleon bonaparte books, opposites.#x2019; It is an Transportation Essay, empirical coexistence, more or less obscure or shameful, a kind of mixture with no specific formula.#x201D; In sum, Dumont#x2019;s contention, contra Polanyi, is that the bonaparte books economic domain is starbucks corporate, not a comparative object. However, the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension as a #x201C;modern Euro-American#x201D; value, conflicting with politics, contains a comparative potential for anthropology, provided that it elicits a difference between social formations. Books. In the comparative experiment that follows, I compare Dumont#x2019;s view of the economy and the limits a value system imposes on artificialism with my ethnography of Dakar. The Euro-American configuration forms the backdrop against which difference in Dakar, or at least certain aspects of it, can be grasped. I will start again by highlighting a contrast. In Euro-America, although everyday life requires money almost constantly, entire sectors of social life function through a minimization or condemnation of the circulation of money and the idea of on The of the Recreation, a distinction between intimacy and economy. In Dakar, on napoleon, the other hand, there is no domain in social life in which money does not play a continuing role. Money is central to the economy as well as matrimonial relations and Virtual Program Essay, kinship (from solidarity between relatives to the countless exchanges of cash that take place during family ceremonies), politics (such as through patronage and corruption), or religious practices (Muslim disciples offer cash to bonaparte books, their religious masters every time they visit them). Thus, everyone seems to Transportation Systems, be permanently engaged in a quest for what they call #x201C;means#x201D;: that is, money.

However, the centrality of money in social life, its penetration into bonaparte books, the heart of intimacy, the constant haggling and starbucks, the seeming generalization of napoleon bonaparte, venality, does not imply that sociality is a global market in which every relation can be bought or sold. Here, we are skirting the debate on Essay Benefits of the Student Center, the corrosive power of money, which goes back at least to bonaparte, Greek antiquity, and is one of [157]anthropology#x2019;s greatest achievements as a discipline. After intense discussions on money, commodity, and social transformation, anthropologists have contradicted Aristotle, Shakespeare, Goethe, and Marx and on The Benefits of the Student Recreation, put an napoleon books, end to this debate (see, e.g., Bloch and Parry 1989; Geschiere 2000; Akin and Robbins 2001). Everyone is Virtual Teen, now more or less in agreement that the equivalence between monetarization and commodification is an error. Bonaparte. This does not mean that the pervasive presence of money in Dakar#x2019;s social life is harmless and of no consequence: money is the most valuable form of relationship, and mediates not only of Intelligent, commodity or economic relations, but all social relations. Furthermore, there can be no enduring and meaningful relationship if money is not involved at one point or another, especially the more intimate bonds, like those between spouses, or kinship and friendship. In Dakar, no matter what people do and how much they earn, money always seems to be running short. Obviously, it is scarce because most people in Dakar are poor and have very low incomes, but there is also a deeper, sociological, reason. The scarcity of money is combined with two other elements: firstly, because money and social relations are two sides of the same coin, people are constantly engaged in numerous financial relationships, from credit#x2013;debt or business to payments of all kinds during family ceremonies, contributions to napoleon bonaparte books, prayer groups or local associations, and corporate, so on; and, secondly, because of the moral value of solidarity (Marie 1997, 2000), whoever has money must cope with continuing demands from a constantly needy entourage: friends, neighbors, and bonaparte, especially relatives.

For example, a young man who had found a good wage-paying job at the Senegalese National Telecommunications Company (SONATEL) described the #x201C;moral imperative#x201D; of solidarity to me as follows: My family owns this house. There was still room in of Intelligent Transportation Systems Essay, the courtyard when I got the bonaparte SONATEL job, so I built a bedroom wing and got married. I also bought a small motorcycle to go to work and move around. It#x2019;s been a year now. The Development Of Intelligent. I#x2019;m trying to save money with Ahmed, my older brother, and hopefully, if everything goes well, we will be able to afford to connect our house to the water mains. From this point of view, I can#x2019;t complain. Here, with a salary, you earn esteem and consideration, that#x2019;s for sure. But in fact, I don#x2019;t have any more money than before, when I was unemployed. Now, almost every day, someone comes here and talks to me about one problem or another.

And almost every time, I have to give money to somebody. I#x2019;m not only speaking of my wife here. Relatives, friends, it#x2019;s everyone, every day. This is books, my main problem. The problem is Essay on The Benefits of the Student Recreation Center, that I am bombarded. Anyone who might have some cash, especially a salaried employee, a migrant living abroad, or an ethnographer, is under permanent and continuous fire from claims and bonaparte, demands of all kinds from relatives, friends, neighbors, creditors, commercial partners, and Essay on The Benefits of the Center, so on. In Dakar, people cope with these #x201C;bombardments#x201D; by putting their cash out of reach: liquidity (i.e., cash) is converted in financial relations. Some literally put a [158]physical distance between themselves and bonaparte books, their money.

For example, one woman opened a bank account on the opposite Essay Benefits of the Center, side of town. Accessing her savings was expensive because she had to pay the bus fare to go to bonaparte, the bank and return home. Most of the time, however, money is put out of Student, reach by converting liquidity into mutual debt, especially in rotating savings and credit associations, or #x201C;tontines.#x201D; A tontine is a group of persons, usually women, who gather for a series of meetings. Each member contributes to books, a collective #x201C;pot,#x201D; which is then given to one member, who is subsequently excluded from receiving the pot in future meetings, while still being obliged to contribute to it. The meeting process is repeated until each member has received the of the cid summary pot. The order in which they do so is decided at the beginning of the process, usually by the leader of the group (the #x201C;mother#x201D; of the tontine). Once money circulates in a tontine, or is lent to someone, or is engaged in any kind of credit relationship, it is out of reach for a given period of time. Napoleon Books. In this way, people save money without keeping any cash. Program. There is then no alternative but to turn down those who ask for help, because cash is not available immediately.

Money is bonaparte books, thus put out of reach in numerous financial networks. In other words, financial management is based on an #x201C;illiquidity preference#x201D; (Shipton 1990: 16#x2013;19). If liquidity, as Keynes stated ([1936] 1973: 293), is a link between the present and the future, it takes the form here not of speculative hoarding, but of a network of relations. Illiquidity preference also means that money is Virtual Program, available to irrigate financial networks. The velocity of napoleon books, money is extremely high, because no cash is left idle.

People often say that cash burns their fingers: as soon as it is received, it is either spent or converted into a financial relation, as an #x201C;investment,#x201D; as my interlocutors#x2014;and especially women#x2014;often put it. Financial relations form numerous circuits, each of which has a different temporality, which may be from a few days to several years, hence the importance of synchronization of the financial networks. Financial networks, which are mostly managed by women, are not simply the Program financial basis of the local economy; because money is the most valuable form of bonaparte, relation, they are also, and above all, the warp and woof of sociality. The bombardment image and Transportation Essay, the idea of social or relational investment are used by my interlocutors to describe their financial practices. These are very evocative metaphors for the financial logic at stake, and are quite easy to understand, but they are also profoundly misleading. Napoleon Bonaparte Books. The conversion of referencing web pages, liquidity into bonaparte books, relations is not a mere financial strategy; it lies at the very foundations of sociality. In America Essay. Illiquidity is the means by which people manage their relations. In a monetarized and pervasive sociality such as Dakar#x2019;s, it is the napoleon bonaparte very condition for action. Agency hinges on Virtual Teen Program Essay, two elements: firstly, the books conversion of liquidity into financial relationships; and, secondly, the synchronization of financial relations#x2014;that is, the Virtual Teen Program Essay possibility of having access to napoleon books, cash when it is The Development of Intelligent Transportation, needed. The trouble here is that the temporality of the various sociofinancial relations in which a person is involved is never homogeneous. In Dakar, only lifecycle ceremonies in which women ostentatiously exchange hundreds of gifts to honor kinship relations can efficiently synchronize financial networks in order to gather large amounts of money, whereas one of the napoleon basic propositions of economics is that only markets can synchronize in this way.[159]

Hierarchy: Economy and ceremonial exchanges. Financial relations in the local economy are continually being disrupted by the illiquidity of debtors. Corporate. On the napoleon bonaparte supply side, the illiquidity preference is indeed a means of making savings and thus a way of financing investment, but on the demand side, it is also a significant insolvency factor. Furthermore, small businesspeople have to cope with the constant claims and problems of their relatives, in a context where there is no distinction between the money allocated to households and businesses. In order to maintain their economic activities, people strive to separate commercial circuits from the Virtual Program Essay rest of napoleon bonaparte, their sociofinancial relations as clearly as possible, especially to preserve working capital (Guerin 2003, 2006; Moya forthcoming). In general, people find it very hard to successfully synchronize even a small number of sociofinancial networks at the same time in order to maintain or develop their economic activities. Likewise, because solidarity is Essay of the Student Center, always a relation between two individuals, even in the case of an napoleon bonaparte, unexpected problem such as illness, people can never activate more than a few relations in their search for funds unless they have a wealthy relative who is Teen Program Essay, able to support them (i.e., in this context, a migrant or someone earning a salary). On the other hand, ceremonies performed by books, women for of Intelligent Systems Essay lifecycle events, especially birth and marriage ceremonies, usually mobilize dozens of the very same financial networks (Moya 2004; Buggenhagen 2012). They often involve more than two hundred people and napoleon, huge amounts of money. It is not unusual to see more than one year of an web pages, entire household#x2019;s annual income collected in just a few days and put into circulation for bonaparte a birth ceremony by one woman in a single evening.

In marriage and birth ceremonies, women exchange money and Immigrant Subculture in America, clothes to honor kinship relationships, especially affinity. It is impossible to describe the complex logic of the ceremonial exchange system here owing to lack of space, but it might be summarized by saying that the ceremonial gifts among women in bonaparte books, birth and marriage ceremonies represent the manner by starbucks corporate, which affinity and the succession of bonaparte books, generations are construed as having value, and become operative in the order of Virtual Program Essay, social relations (Moya forthcoming). Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are the only events that can ensure the synchronization of all of books, a person#x2019;s sociofinancial relations and their transformation into cash. For example, in corporate, each tontine (rotating savings and credit association), the order of recipients is fixed at the beginning of each cycle. Regardless of the napoleon books purpose of the tontine (savings, business, clothing, or a ceremony), if a participant (and almost all of them are women) is web pages, involved in a marriage or birth ceremony, she will be systematically moved to the top of the books list, thereby disrupting any expectations the remaining recipients might have, or any calculations they might have made. Every woman involved in a ceremony also brings or sends a gift of Systems Essay, money#x2014;called ndawtal#x2014; for one of the main actors of the ceremony they have come to support, whether it be a relative, a friend, or a neighbor . Ndawtal are reciprocal solidarity gifts that are clearly conceptually distinguished from ceremonial acts ( teraanga ). Every ndawtal received will require a return of twice 5 the sum given initially. Napoleon Bonaparte. Each [160] ndawtal is recorded in a ledger, which the recipient is supposed to consult (but usually women have a very precise memory of it) prior to the next ceremony (birth or marriage). While people who lend money usually struggle to get it back, no one is ever concerned in the case of ndawtal . Virtual Teen Essay. A woman will commonly receive dozens of these gifts for a birth ceremony. In other words, unlike solidarity or economic activities, lifecycle ceremonies organized by women activate numerous financial networks simultaneously in order to honor kinship relations through ceremonial gifts, thereby collecting funds that it would be impossible to raise for napoleon books any other purpose. I carried out a limited survey of 350 individuals that suggests that women#x2019;s ceremonial funding mobilizes nearly one-third of overall savings. The sociofinancial system in Dakar has a peculiar morphology.

There are no boundaries between financial spheres of exchange (Bohannan 1955) comparable to those described by numerous authors, such as Parker Shipton (1989) among the Luo of Keyna, Sharon Hutchinson (1996) among the Program Nuer of Sudan, Jean and John Comaroff (1990) among the Tshidi of South Africa, or Viviana Zelizer (1994) in American households in the 1940s (see also Bloch and Parry 1989). In each case, moral boundaries are drawn between financial spheres of exchange, which in some cases can be overcome by forms of napoleon books, conversion (Guyer 2004). Immigrant Subculture In America Essay. For example, among the Luo of books, Kenya (Shipton 1989), money obtained from theft, won in a lottery, or gained from the sale of lineage land, gold, tobacco, or cannabis is considered #x201C;bitter#x201D;: that is, dangerous and associated with spirits. It cannot be used for transactions involving kinship relations unless purification ceremonies are performed. Essay. In Dakar, there is one single monetary circuit without moral boundaries of any kind, especially when it comes to ceremonial exchanges: the origins of money given at a ceremony to honor a relative are of no concern to napoleon, the recipient and vice versa. It very common to use a 500 CFA franc note received at Virtual Essay, a ceremony for napoleon books the fare back home, or to The Development Systems Essay, purchase the next morning#x2019;s breakfast. Some people even repay debts of all kinds with money received as bridewealth payments or given by relatives by marriage to honor them at a birth or a marriage ceremony.

Urban sociality is comprised of flows of [161]financial relations activated by individuals. It is not structured by books, morally bounded spheres of exchange. Sociality is hierarchized 6 in terms of Immigrant Subculture in America Essay, agency: that is, the capacity to synchronize relations and convert them into bonaparte books, cash. In the local financial system, and thus in sociality, economy is Immigrant in America, subordinated to women#x2019;s ceremonies. This is not to suggest that women#x2019;s exchanges in marriage and bonaparte, birth ceremonies collect more money than anything else: in absolute terms, more money circulates in the economy than in poem of the cid summary, women#x2019;s ceremonies.

Nor is it the case that the entire economy of Dakar is organized through ceremonial exchanges or even relationality. Napoleon Bonaparte Books. Rather, my argument is Immigrant Subculture in America, that from the point of view of finance and agency, women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are valued more highly than economics. When they perform a marriage or birth ceremony, women manage to activate (i.e., to synchronize and convert into cash) all the financial relations they are involved in, whereas this is bonaparte books, not possible for economic (or any other) purposes. On the contrary, economic life suffers from the desynchronization of financial relations, and the illiquidity preference generates structural insolvability and a constant disruption of financial temporalities. The hierarchy between the economy and ceremonies in Dakar is meaningful from a comparative perspective: that is, from the point of view of the primacy of the referencing economic dimension in Euro-America. I am not contrasting two distinct types of economies here and assuming that they are somehow comparable (e.g., as a gift economy and a commodity economy). Books. My argument rests on the placement of two very different economic forms within two different social formations: primacy and autonomy in relation to politics in Euro-America, and subordination in relation to on The Benefits of the Student Recreation Center, ceremonies in Dakar. This comparison both elicits and justifies the purpose of an investigation, and in this case the purpose is not women#x2019;s birth and marriage exchange ceremonies as such, but a value: the primacy of these ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. Financial hierarchy is a structural fact, but not a matter of morality: men and bonaparte books, women constantly complain about ceremonial expenses, and denounce them as a waste ( yaax ) of money. Of course, my interlocutors in Dakar also usually acknowledge that feasting and performing family ceremonies, especially gift exchanges, is prestigious, and even fun.

Everyone, especially women, has a lot to say when it comes to ceremonies: how they are absurdly costly, yet very pleasant, [162]events ( neex ); how this or that ceremony should be performed; how this or that ceremony has been performed; how this ceremonial gift was carried out, or how this or that praise was offered#x2014;rightly or wrongly; how this (e.g., Muslim rituals) is absolutely mandatory, or that (e.g., bridewealth or ceremonial gifts) is optional; how there are times when one should not skimp on expenses and times when one should not spend too much, and so on. Of Intelligent Transportation Systems. In other words, everyone has an napoleon books, opinion on a number of issues, and Subculture in America Essay, each ceremony gives rise to books, numerous comments. Organizing and attending and spending large sums of money on lifecycle ceremonies is something of an inevitable fact, for women in particular, even though everyone also complains about the excessive spending, and starbucks corporate, condemns these ceremonies as wasteful events. The amount of money mobilized and spent in bonaparte books, ceremonies perplexes my interlocutors deeply. For example, a few days after a birth ceremony that she had organized (she spent more than one million CFA francs that day), Sokhna S., a forty-five-year-old woman, said to me: You know, in Immigrant in America, France, downtown [i.e., Dakar city centre], or even among migrants [the families who receive remittances from migrants living in places such as France, Italy, Spain, or the United States], one can always find money.

Here it is not good: family ceremonies exhaust everyone, especially the girl#x2019;s mother [the person who organizes marriage and birth ceremonies]. It is books, so hard for her. But even those who receive a lot, they never manage to corporate, keep something at the end of the day. Everybody condemns that. Every one of us. Napoleon Books. Even me. I disagree with this enormous waste. We could have done business with that money, we could have done development [in French].

I am an activist for of the cid summary development. Ceremonial events ( xew ) #x2026; our husbands, they also moan about them all the time#x2026;. But you know, these are just words. We only talk. And we do the ceremonies, that#x2019;s all. That#x2019;s what we do here, we do ceremonies, maximum ! [in French, then she laughs] That#x2019;s the way it goes. I will now focus on the nature of this apparent contradiction and the feeling of perplexity that stems from it.

When asked why they need to perform ceremonies, or why so many people and so much money come together on these occasions, my interlocutors#x2019; answer has always been the same: #x201C;It is our aada #x201D; ( su#x00F1;u aada la ). Napoleon Books. This answer is Essay, hard to napoleon books, understand. The word aada comes from Arabic, and is in common use from poem, Senegal to books, Indonesia ( aadet ). In Wolof, it means #x201C;custom.#x201D; The term does not convey any idea of referencing web pages, tradition in the sense of continuity, repetition over books time, or practices inherited from the past, however, whether from ancestors or relatives from a previous generation. Rather, aada means the common, well-established ways of being and doing things. When my interlocutors gave me this answer, it was obviously a way of signifying the difference between how they do things such as ceremonies and how they imagine white #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; ( tubab ) like me do comparable things. But it has never been a justification based on tradition: in fact, the term aada is also often used more or less explicitly to Essay on The Benefits Student, signify a synchronic distinction. People distinguish their own aada from that of others: for example, to compare the Wolof ways of bonaparte, doing things with those peculiar to corporate, other regional ethnic groups such as the Serer ( seereer ), Tukulor ( haalpulaar#x2019;en ), or Moors ( naar ). Napoleon Bonaparte. However, my interlocutors have never been especially concerned with identity claims or the idea of following a tradition inherited from the past. Furthermore, the term aada not only signifies an external differentiation (us versus others); it also distinguishes one particular type of institution and practice from another, especially when it comes to the financial dimensions of women#x2019;s ceremonial practices.

There are numerous types of costly and ostentatious gifts: mutual exchanges ( joqalante ) based on The Development of Intelligent Systems, civility and honor; ceremonial gifts that honor relations ( teraanga ) and countergifts ( njukkal ); bridewealth payments ( may bu j#x00EB;kk and warugar ); the various gifts before ( waajtaay ) and during ( yeebi ) ceremonies celebrating the entry of the bride into her husband#x2019;s home; the various gifts before ( ruy ) and during birth ceremonies, especially gifts to honor female husbands ( teral nj#x00EB;kke ) 7 or affinity in general ( teral goro ); gifts before a journey to books, and from Mecca; offerings to Essay Benefits of the Student Recreation Center, affines during Ramadan ( suukaru koor ); or reciprocal gifts for ceremonial support ( ndawtal ). All of these are thought of as aada because they are ostentatious exchanges that require a considerable amount of money. In other words, aada means female exchange ceremonies in general ( xew ), but above all lavish spending and financial exuberance during ceremonies. In this sense, the napoleon books custom ( aada ) designates what seems a priori to be its most modern [163]dimension, namely the financial aspect of female ceremonies. One of my interlocutors, alternating between French and Wolof, explained to me: Awa [in French]: This should be nothing but reasonable mutual aid. But whenever we can, we lapse into folklore.

Islam condemns it. Folklore #x2026; Isma#x00EB;l [in French]: Folklore? What do you mean? Awa [in French and poem of the, Wolof]: Folklore, you know#x2026;. All of this is aada. Here, we put aada everywhere. Here, we go too far at every opportunity. Books. Money matters, clothes, teraanga and the like, this is aada , folklore. Ceremonies, exuberant expenses, squandering, this is our aada . Custom ( aada ) is also thought of as negative and harmful.

We do not, therefore, find justification of a particular culture in relation to a hegemonic culture comparable to Essay on The Student Recreation Center, the one Dumont (1994) studied in the case of Germany facing French revolutionary ideas. It is the exact opposite: according to my interlocutors, financial exuberance in birth and marriage ceremonies is napoleon bonaparte, not only a local cultural idiosyncrasy but, above all, constitutes a formidable obstacle that inhibits the full realization of universal values: development and Islam. Contradictions: Economic development and Islam. My interlocutors usually say that money spent on ceremonies is #x201C;wasted#x201D; ( yaax ) because otherwise it could be invested in economic activities. The structural adjustment programs imposed on the Senegalese government by the IMF in the 1980s and 1990s in on The Benefits Center, the wake of the debt crisis and the neoliberal policies of the bonaparte books last two decades have significantly reduced the role of the postcolonial state, partly to poem, the benefit of NGOs. Numerous organizations dedicated to development operate in Dakar. Women are the privileged targets and recipients of development assistance funds and microfinance projects. These financial flows irrigate the local financial system, but are of limited effectiveness owing to issues of financial mismanagement that are largely attributable not only to embezzlement but also to ceremonial expenditure (Ndione 1992; Guerin 2006). In the napoleon bonaparte books last twenty-five years, the Senegalese state (government, municipalities, and paragovernmental organizations), international agencies, NGOs, and microfinance institutions have dedicated a good deal of energy and Teen Essay, resources to bonaparte, advertising good governance and development. A local consequence of this global movement has been the growing importance of ideas of fiscal austerity and control of expenditure. This rhetoric was not limited to the public sphere, to politicians, religious or community leaders (Buggenhagen 2012: 201#x2013;3); the Essay Benefits Student Recreation discourse on austerity and the NGOs#x2019; rhetoric on bonaparte, development and good governance is echoed by Essay of the, many ordinary people, women as well as men, even in poor suburbs.

My interlocutors denounce ceremonial expenditure as irresponsible and in conflict with what they usually refer to as #x201C;good practice#x201D; or #x201C;good development practices#x201D;: that is, ultimately, economic rationality. In a poor country such as Senegal, economic development means improved living conditions. It is a key sociopolitical goal, and also the napoleon bonaparte way most of Teen Essay, my [164]interlocutors 8 perceive the future. Development is seen as an event that will result in radical, profound, and positive change. This change, which is books, still to come, will occur as soon as #x201C;the obstacles to development#x201D; have been overcome, after which economic rationality will prevail, and people will enjoy a better life. Many of these obstacles are attributed to local practices, to ceremonies as well as to corruption or patronage. As emphasized by Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan (1999) on the subject of West Africa, the same moral economy favors both corruption and Program Essay, ceremonial financial exuberance: gifts made as a result of a moral duty (such as solidarity, or thanks for service rendered), the importance of ostentation, redistribution, kinship relations, or interpersonal mutual aid networks. Almost everyone condemns corruption and family ceremonies as vigorously as they put them into practice. On the subject of bonaparte books, corruption, Olivier de Sardan (1999: 48) evokes #x201C;the general feeling of helplessness in Teen Program Essay, the face of an infernal mechanism#x201D;; this is comparable to what I have called my interlocutors#x2019; feeling of perplexity.

The problem is identical in the case of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies: in both instances, particular local institutions prevent full realization of a universal moral ideal (economic rationality and development). Bonaparte Books. The money that should be devoted to economic purposes is embezzled or wasted on lavish ceremonial expenditures. Aada, be it corruption or ceremonies, represents an Transportation, inevitable obstacle that everyone wants to overcome, although no one knows how. Aada in general, and ceremonies in particular, are also contrary to Islam and bonaparte, condemned in referencing web pages, its name. Napoleon Bonaparte Books. Sufi leaders sometimes argue that money spent on ceremonies should instead be used for religious purposes, such as zakat 9 (Buggenhagen 2012: 177). Mostly, however, the issue is Immigrant Subculture in America, not so much one of the allocation of funds per se as the fact that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are contrary to Islam as an order of value. Books. In the late 1980s, religious leaders#x2014;Sufi as well as reformist#x2014;began issuing negative opinions on women#x2019;s expenses and clothing during religious celebrations and family gatherings, or even in everyday life. The discussions focused on the veil, of course, 10 but also on the low-cut necklines of their robes ( boubous ), erotic dances ( sabar ), music, or the practice of poem of the, appearing in public wearing sumptuous clothing and make-up ( sa#x00F1;se ) in family ceremonies (Heath 1992).

The greatest problem, however, has almost always been ostentatious female exchange ceremonies celebrating a birth or a marriage. Reformist Muslims condemn women#x2019;s ceremonies and aada in napoleon bonaparte books, general as pre-Islamic unholy practices. Sufi leaders are more moderate, but also denounce ostentatious and lavish spending on Virtual Teen, the same grounds (#x201C;God prohibits squandering#x201D;). Religious leaders do not have a monopoly of discussions such as these, however. My interlocutors also condemn aada and the huge ceremonial expenditure in the name of Islam, but they rarely denounce ceremonial practices as inherently unholy. For the most part, they condemn them because the extravagant spending [165]and ostentatious ceremonial exchanges of gifts contradict the temperance and restraint required of every Muslim. Ostentatious behavior and financial intemperance are viewed as #x00EB;ppal , which means both excess and napoleon books, an excessive desire for fame and superiority over poem cid summary others. Books. More broadly, ostentation and financial exuberance in marriage and birth ceremonies are attributed by many men and women, religious leaders and ordinary believers, to custom ( aada ): that is, as a local peculiarity that contradicts the universal principles of Islam.

From contradictions to hierarchy: Unavowed value. I began this article by quoting vintage Bill Clinton. In a spirit of comparative fairness, I should mention that on Essay Center, October 18, 2014, Macky Sall, the current president of Senegal, made a vivid speech in napoleon books, which denounced #x201C;wastefulness#x201D; ( gaspillage in French) in referencing, family ceremonies as a fundamental problem in Senegal. Books. Yet he is Immigrant Essay, hardly the first. Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1905, in The Development of Intelligent Systems, Kaolack, prominent citizens unsuccessfully tried to limit bridewealth payments by napoleon bonaparte books, creating a price scale (Geismar 1933). Program Essay. Over the last hundred years, many religious and napoleon, political authorities have initiated failed attempts to keep ceremonial expenses under control (e.g. Robin 1947).

In 1950, prominent members of the native community of Dakar ( Lebu ), who were mainly religious leaders, took the of the initiative to write a code reforming #x201C;custom#x201D; ( aada ) entitled the #x201C;Matrimonial Pact of napoleon bonaparte books, Dakar#x201D; ( Pacte matrimonial de Dakar ), which included, among other things, capping expenses for marriage, birth ceremonies, and poem cid summary, funerals (Anonymous 1951). Napoleon Books. Soon after this, the colonial administration adopted the code in the Jacquinot Decree of September 14, 1951. A few years after independence (in 1961), a law on ceremonial spending was passed on February 24, 1967 (Law No. 67-04); this law has been included in the Family Code since 1972. It is still in cid summary, effect, even though its lack of effectiveness has never been denied throughout the past five decades. Not a month goes by in Senegal without heated public discussions launched by bonaparte, a prominent politician or religious leader that condemn ceremonial expenditure. In other words, when it comes to ceremonial expenditure, any power, be it religious or political, local or national, takes a stand against the harsh protraction of The Development of Intelligent Transportation Systems, women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges in bonaparte, marriages and birth ceremonies. Virtual Essay. In this case, artificialism is directed not toward the books transformation of society against the goodwill of individuals but to control of one element of local social life in order to realize universal values (economic rationality or Islam). The paradox is Systems, that everyone, and not only political or religious leaders, 11 agrees that ceremonial expenditures are harmful to the economic and moral wellbeing of individuals and the future of napoleon, society in general. But over the last century, the countless condemnations and corporate, numerous attempts to ban or control them have had no effect at all.

So far, the situation may seem absolutely paradoxical, unless aada is napoleon books, considered as a sort of mysteriously powerful deus ex machina that pushes everyone to act reprehensibly. The Development Transportation. Women and men are puzzled by the contradictions at the core [166]of their own social life in the same way, I think, as we #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; are affected by napoleon books, the consequences of the corporate autonomy and primacy of the economy, be they financial crises, climate change, or other issues. Napoleon Bonaparte. To follow Dumont#x2019;s ideas, I would argue that this apparent paradox, and the profound sense of perplexity and helplessness shown by my interlocutors in Dakar, is generated by the impossibility of recognizing value as such in the realm of referencing web pages, discourse when it comes to women#x2019;s ceremonies. Or, to bonaparte books, put it differently, the paradoxical moral contradictions that result in perplexity on the part of actors facing the limits of artificialism are indicators (for the anthropologist) that values are at stake. These configurations can#x2019;t simply be described as a contradiction between discourse and practice or even as a situation in which people are caught between competing values (cf. Joel Robbins#x2019; contribution to this issue). Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are explicitly condemned in moral terms as #x201C;wastefulness,#x201D; as a local peculiarity ( aada ) that prevents the on The Recreation full realization of Islam and development. Bonaparte. Condemnation of ceremonies represents the way contradiction is resolved in the realm of moral discourse and Immigrant Subculture Essay, justification. My interlocutors condemn ceremonies when they have to justify them. Yet the primacy of ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality suggests that we (anthropologists) nevertheless need to acknowledge that women#x2019;s ceremonies relate to something inescapably valuable, albeit implicit or inarticulate in my interlocutors#x2019; discourse#x2014; an unavowed value#x2014;hence their perplexity. This is a fundamental aspect of what Dumont called #x201C;an ideology.#x201D; In my opinion, Dumont#x2019;s formulas on ideology are usually cryptic and mislead a lot of his readers.

However, the originality of his view is to claim that since the fundamentals aspect of an ideology are likely to be implicit, only comparison can evince the necessary, yet sometimes unavowed, relations by napoleon books, which the different parts of an ideology hang together (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). The discourse that sets ceremonies and economic development against each other is framed as a moral issue relating to the allocation of (scarce) financial resources: money is wasted on women#x2019;s ceremonies, whereas it should be devoted to economic development. I described above the intimate link between money and sociality. Because the basic principle of sociality (and thus finance) is the preference for illiquidity, individuals cannot allocate financial resources according to their moral preferences. Financial resources are elicited from others: the Immigrant in America Essay amount of money collected depends almost entirely on the social actors#x2019; opportunity to synchronize relations for napoleon bonaparte a given purpose. Here, moral discourse and the paradigm of choice eclipse value: from a financial point of view, women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are more highly valued than economics. As to Islam, it is not simply opposed to ceremonies as another potential alternative in referencing web pages, the allocation of financial resources; the napoleon bonaparte books problem is referencing, that ostentatious behavior and financial exuberance in women#x2019;s ceremonies contradict the Muslim morality of temperance and restraint.

Furthermore, the path of Islam 12 ( yoon 13 ) is thought to be universal, but above all represents the highest value order, that of napoleon bonaparte books, absolute submission of the individual to God. The Development Of Intelligent Transportation Systems. It means abiding by what is commanded in [167]the divine words revealed in the Qur#x2019;an and the five pillars of Islam, and following the #x201C;highly recommended tradition#x201D; of imitation of the Prophet ( sunnah ), which includes lifecycle rituals such as that for a wedding ( takk ) or for naming a newborn ( tuddu ). According to bonaparte, all my interlocutors, the rituals recommended by on The Benefits Center, Islam ( takk and napoleon, tuddu ) are the only ones that need to be carried out when (respectively) a couple is married or a baby is born. Referencing. However, Islam and women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies actually combine in napoleon books, the ritual organization of the lifecycle. On the Teen Program occasion of a marriage or the bonaparte books birth of referencing, a child, particularly a firstborn, a Muslim wedding or a Muslim naming ritual are always followed by costly ceremonies during which women exchange lavish gifts to honor kinship relations. In other words, despite what my interlocutors say (#x201C;the others#x2019; view#x201D;), the recommended rituals of Islam are never enough in themselves. To put it bluntly, ceremonial exchanges among women in bonaparte books, birth and marriage rituals are the manner in which affinity and the succession of generations are construed as having value and become operative in the order of of the Student Recreation Center, social relations (Moya forthcoming). To sum up, not only should we acknowledge the value of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies, even though they may be condemned in the name of Islam and economic rationality, but Islam and women#x2019;s ceremonies belong to napoleon, two complementary orders of web pages, value in a hierarchical relation: on the one hand, that of Islam, which is a universal and transcendent order that defines the relationship between the individual and God, without whose blessing ( Baraka ) no action or relationship is possible; and on the other hand, at a subordinate level, the ceremonial agency of women, who operate relations, especially kinship. Women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges of money and clothing implement, as it were, the relations created (among men) in napoleon, Muslim rituals under the auspices of God#x2019;s blessing ( Baraka ), otherwise the Immigrant Essay relations created in the order of Islam will have no value and books, no effect as relations. Although it is not made explicit by social actors, it is a hierarchical relationship in which each element has to play its part, and which structures the sociality of corporate, Dakar. This configuration is not a mere #x201C;coexistence of opposites #x2026; with no specific formula#x201D; between competing values, as in the case of economics and politics in Euro-America. In Dakar, the #x201C;formula#x201D; is napoleon books, a hierarchical one, even though it is not recognized as such by my interlocutors.

In this case, moral contradictions eclipse hierarchy. In other words, the way values relate to each other cannot merely be described as a struggle, that is, a relation of power between them, even if moral contradictions dominate in both cases. From a comparative point of view, in poem cid summary, the Euro-American case, economics and politics have been competing since the nineteenth century to napoleon bonaparte, fully realize the individual: that is, for the paramount position within an individualistic configuration. Of Intelligent. It a question of power. In Senegal, on the other hand, Islam and bonaparte books, ceremonial exchanges in poem, lifecycle events have been opposed for at least a century, however, individualistic values (Islam and economic development) are superior values that are encompassed in a hierarchical relation. In Senegal, the issue of ever-rising expenditure in family ceremonies is far from new. The phenomenon has been sufficiently striking that for more than a century, [168]religious and political authorities have struggled incessantly (and fruitlessly) to limit them. Ceremonial practices have evolved over napoleon bonaparte books time. Starbucks. However, the ethnography of the mid-1970s on the Wolof countryside around Senegal (e.g., Diop 1985; Rabain 1994) suggests that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and marriage were far more modest, but already costly, and had a structure that was similar to that observed in Dakar since 2000 (Buggenhagen 2012; Moya forthcoming).

This does not mean that society does not change, or that urbanization has had only a superficial impact: on the contrary, the transformations brought about by the city are far from superficial or meaningless. For example, in Dakar, the urbanization process has almost wiped out the lineage system that was commonly thought of napoleon books, as the Essay on The Benefits Recreation basis of books, kinship and social organization in this region. Kinship is nevertheless still essential in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. Poem Cid Summary. The role of kinship networks in African cities is well known in the organization of napoleon bonaparte, residential systems, the urban integration of migrants, solidarity, or economic activities (Houseman 1995). In Dakar, however, kinship is of the cid summary, not only a network capital that is mobilized as a resource to cope with other issues: on the contrary, every sociofinancial network is susceptible to being mobilized to napoleon, finance women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies. Virtual Teen. The urban situation did not generate, or even reveal, the bonaparte #x201C;ceremonial phenomenon#x201D; itself; the transformations induced by the city fueled, and referencing web pages, thus shed light on, a trend in Wolof sociality that was probably already there, albeit far less visible. Firstly, in napoleon, a metropolis of three million inhabitants, the number of possible (financial) relations is extremely high: people can potentially take part in a large number of web pages, financial networks of various sizes. Secondly, in napoleon, Dakar, most women are involved in income-generating activities, and they also manage household finances. Accordingly, the amounts of liquidity managed by women are also very significant.

These two dynamics (more relations and starbucks, more money) combine with the preference for bonaparte illiquidity. Sociofinancial networks developed exponentially, as did the amounts collected by Essay on The of the, women for birth and marriage ceremonies. 14. The amount of money spent on women#x2019;s ceremonies is in itself an bonaparte, isolated feature. It is not proof of a fundamental difference between social formations. Essay Benefits Of The. In Euro-America, marriage and birth ceremonies also generate a great deal of expense, but in napoleon, Dakar, money and relations are two sides of the same coin: the financial system is the starbucks other side of sociality. Napoleon Bonaparte Books. In Dakar#x2019;s pervasive sociality, agency hinges on the illiquidity preference and the synchronization of sociofinancial relations, and only lifecycle ceremonies, in which women honor kinship relations through ceremonial actions, successfully manage to synchronize all types of financial relations. Essay. The primacy of ceremonies and books, the subordinate position of the economic aspect in Dakar#x2019;s sociality elicit an important#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;distinction between Senegal and Euro-America.

However, following Dumont, this difference is merely a starting point: it needs to be relativized from within, that is, replaced in a broader configuration. Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies do not appear to Immigrant in America Essay, be morally valued: on the contrary, they are explicitly condemned. Napoleon. I have suggested that the primacy of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over economics in Dakar#x2019;s sociality leads to a distinction between morality [169]and values: women#x2019;s ceremonies are an #x201C;unavowed value.#x201D; Moral contradictions of this kind mark the contrast between the various levels of value and, possibly, the poem cid summary existence of a hierarchy that is a configuration in bonaparte, which partially incompatible conceptions not only coexist or impinge on each other, but are articulated within the same social formation. Finally, the Immigrant Subculture persistence and development of women#x2019;s ceremonies illustrate how value systems actually limit artificialism, especially when it comes to unavowed values. But recognizing hierarchy does not amount to forgoing the will to change, whether it be in regard to napoleon books, lavish spending on women#x2019;s ceremonies in Dakar, the primacy of the economic dimension in Euro-America, or any other subject. If there is a political stance to be found in Dumont#x2019;s anthropology, it might be that awareness of the Immigrant Essay limitations that values impose on power (individual will or politics) is the very condition for effective action. Bonaparte Books. It is Subculture Essay, worth noting that, thirty-six years after the first edition of his first book, La Tarasque , Dumont wrote a postscript (#x201C;Late generalization#x201D;) about the persistence of hierarchical relations in individualist social formations.

He concluded with a comment on Gregory Bateson#x2019;s analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous (Bateson 1972: 309#x2013;37). Napoleon Books. 15 According to Dumont, addiction is an expression of hierarchy in individualist terms, and AA is an example of the limits to and conditions for change. In Dumont#x2019;s terms: The principle is simple: the patient is doomed to fail as long as he feels able to tackle the bottle, which is equivalent to trying to Virtual Teen Program, pull oneself up by books, one#x2019;s bootstraps. The necessary condition for getting out of this vicious circle is for the subject to in America, understand that he cannot be defined independently of his dependency; and bonaparte books, that solely the recognition of his self-will, the acceptance of a more comprehensive and on The Benefits Student Center, powerful addiction, can allow him to escape his torment. Bonaparte. (Dumont [1951] 1987: 237) To summarize, according to Dumont, an alcoholic is confronted by a seeming paradox: on starbucks corporate, the basis of napoleon bonaparte, his ideals, he believes in his own free will and Systems, independence, but empirically he is an addict. And Dumont (1987: 238) concludes that #x201C;the necessary condition of his salvation is the full recognition of his addiction, before resting on another to overcome the former. If one can generalize, the lesson is harsh for the modern ego.#x201D; Akin, David, and Joel Robbins, eds.

1999. Money and modernity: State and local currencies in contemporary Melanesia . Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Bateson, Gregory. 1972. Steps to an ecology of mind . Bonaparte. New York: Ballantine. Bloch, Maurice, and Jonathan Parry, eds. 1989. Money and the morality of exchange . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [170]Bohannan, Paul.

1955. #x201C;Some principles of exchange and investment among the Tiv.#x201D; American Anthropologist 57 (1): 60#x2013;70. Buggenhagen, Beth. 2012. Muslim families in global Senegal: Money takes care of shame . Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Comaroff, Jean, and John L. Comaroff. 1990, #x201C;Goodly beast, beastly goods: Cattle and commodities in on The Recreation, a South African context.#x201D; American Ethnologist 17 (2): 195#x2013;216.

Detienne, Marcel. Comparing the incomparable . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Diop, Abdoulaye Bara. 1985. La famille wolof: Tradition et changement . Paris: Karthala. Dumont, Louis. (1951) 1987. La Tarasque: Essai de description d#x2019;un fait local d#x2019;un point de vue ethnographique . Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1977.

From Mandeville to books, Marx: The genesis and triumph of economic ideology . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. (1977) 1985. Teen. Homo Aequalis I: Gen#x00E8;se et #x00E9;panouissement de l#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie #x00E9;conomique . Napoleon Bonaparte. Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Referencing. 1980. Bonaparte Books. Homo hierarchicus: The caste system and its implications . Immigrant. Translated by Mark Sainsbury, Louis Dumont, and Basia Gulatit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1983. #x201C;Pr#x00E9;face.#x201D; In La grande transformation: Aux origines politiques et #x00E9;conomiques de notre temps , Karl Polanyi, i#x2013;xx. Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;.

1986. Essays on individualism: Modern ideology in anthropological perspective . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1991. Homo #x00E6;qualis II: L#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie allemande: France-Allemagne et retour . Napoleon Books. Paris: Gallimard.

#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1994. German Ideology: From France to Germany and back . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Geismar, Lucien. 1933. Recueil des coutumes civiles des races au S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal . Saint-Louis: Imprimerie du Gouvernement. Geschiere, Peter. 2000. #x201C;Money versus kinship: Subversion or consolidation? Contrasting examples from Africa and in America, the Pacific.#x201D; Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 1 (1): 54#x2013;78. Guerin, Isabelle. 2003.

Femmes et #x00E9;conomie solidaire . Paris: La Decouverte. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 2006. #x201C;Women and money: Lessons from bonaparte, Senegal#x201D;, Development and Change 37 (3): 549#x2013;70. Guyer, Jane. 2004. Marginal gains: Monetary transactions in Atlantic Africa . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Heath, Deborah.

1992. #x201C;Fashion, anti-fashion, and heteroglossia in urban Senegal.#x201D; American Ethnologist 19 (1): 19#x2013;33. Houseman, Michael. 1995. #x201C;Kinship networks in Africa: Past and future#x201D;, African Anthropology 4: 11#x2013;23. Hutchinson, Sharon Elaine. 1996. Nuer dilemmas: Coping with money, war, and The Development Transportation Essay, the state . Berkeley: University of California Press.

[171]Isaac, Barry. 2005. #x201C;Karl Polanyi.#x201D; In Handbook of economic anthropology , edited by James G. Napoleon Books. Carrier, 14#x2013;25. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Keynes, John Maynard. (1936) 1973. Teen Essay. The general theory of employment, interest, and money . Bonaparte. London: Macmillan and Cambridge University Press. Latour, Bruno, and Vincent A. L#x00E9;pinay. 2009. The science of passionate interests: An introduction to Gabriel Tarde#x2019;s economic anthropology . Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. Marie, Alain, ed. 1997.

L#x2019;Afrique des individus: Itin#x00E9;raires citadins d#x2019;Afrique contemporaine (Abidjan, Bamako, Dakar, Niamey) . Paris: Karthala. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 2000. #x201C;Individualization strategies among city dwellers in contemporary Africa: Balancing the shortcomings of community solidarity and the individualism of the struggle for survival.#x201D; International Review of poem of the cid summary, Social History 45 (S8): 137#x2013;57. Moya, Isma#x00EB;l. Napoleon Books. 2004. #x201C;Le brouet c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniel: Jeu financier ou institution sociale? Thiaroye sur Mer (Dakar, S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal).#x201D; In Exclusion et liens financiers , edited by Isabelle Guerin and Immigrant Subculture Essay, Jean-Michel Servet, 121#x2013;36. Paris: Economica. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Forthcoming. De l#x2019;argent aux valeurs: Economie, genre et islam #x00E0; Dakar . Books. Nanterre: Soci#x00E9;t#x00E9; d#x2019;ethnologie. Ndione, Emmanuel.

1992. Teen. Le don et le recours . Dakar: Enda Editions. Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre. 1999. #x201C;A moral economy of corruption in Africa?#x201D; Journal of Modern African Studies 37: 25#x2013;52. Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time , Boston: Beacon Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Napoleon Books. 1957, #x201C;The economy as an instituted process.#x201D; In Trade and markets in the early empires , edited by Essay of the Student, Karl Polanyi, Conrad M. Arsenberg, and Harry W. Pearson, 243#x2013;70.

New York: Free Press. Rabain, Jacqueline. 1994. L#x2019;enfant du lignage: Du sevrage #x00E0; la classe d#x2019;#x00E2;ge . Paris: Payot. Robin Jacques. 1947. #x201C;L#x2019;#x00E9;volution du mariage coutumier chez les musulmans du S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal.#x201D; Africa XVII (3): 192#x2013;201. Shipton, Parker. 1989. Bitter money: Cultural economy and some African meanings of forbidden commodities . Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.

#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1990. #x201C;How Gambians save and what their strategies imply for international aid.#x201D; Agriculture and Rural Development Department, World Bank, Washington, DC. Thompson, Edward P. 1971. #x201C;The moral economy of the English crowd in the eighteenth century.#x201D; Past #x0026; Present 50: 76#x2013;136. Zelizer, Viviana A. 1994. The social meaning of money: Pin money, paychecks, poor relief and other currencies . New York: Basic Books. Une valeur inavouable: Economie, comparaison, et hi#x00E9;rarchie #x00E0; Dakar. R#x00E9;sum#x00E9; : Toute analyse anthropologique, selon Louis Dumont, a pour point de d#x00E9;part une comparaison: c#x2019;est une exp#x00E9;rimentation qui, suscitant des diff#x00E9;rences, [172]apporte des id#x00E9;es et justifie un point de vue analytique. Sur quelle sorte de diff#x00E9;rence une exp#x00E9;rience comparative peut-elle s#x2019;appuyer dans une m#x00E9;tropole africaine globalis#x00E9;e comme Dakar ? Je sugg#x00E8;re que l#x2019;autonomie et la primaut#x00E9; de l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique peut fournir le point de d#x00E9;part d#x2019;un contraste radical.

Ce texte examine tout d#x2019;abord le travail de Louis Dumont sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique comme une valeur en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique en relation au politique. Il porte ensuite sur Dakar, o#x00F9; l#x2019;argent et les relations sont les deux faces de la m#x00EA;me m#x00E9;daille. L#x2019;#x00E9;tude des circuits financiers permet d#x2019;explorer la socialit#x00E9; dakaroise dans laquelle les #x00E9;changes c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniels entre femmes sont plus valoris#x00E9;s que l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, tout en #x00E9;tant vivement condamn#x00E9;s comme des pratiques coutumi#x00E8;res emp#x00EA;chant l#x2019;av#x00E8;nement du d#x00E9;veloppement #x00E9;conomique et de l#x2019;islam. En confrontant ces contradictions morales #x00E0; la primaut#x00E9; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, le texte propose de distinguer moralit#x00E9; et valeurs et de reconna#x00EE;tre la valeur #x00AB; inavouable #x00BB; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines. Les contradictions de ce type signalent le contraste entre diff#x00E9;rents niveaux de valeur et l#x2019;existence d#x2019;une hi#x00E9;rarchie qui articule des valeurs contradictoires au sein de la m#x00EA;me soci#x00E9;t#x00E9;. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA is a former economist who converted to social anthropology under the influence of his ongoing fieldwork in a poor suburb neighborhood of Dakar, Senegal. He is Charg#x00E9; de Recherche at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France), and a member of the napoleon books Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative (Universit#x00E9; de Nanterre, France). His current research interests includes ritual, gender, social hierarchies, Islamic reformism, and forms of representation. CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative, UMR 7186. Maison Arch#x00E9;ologie #x0026; Ethnologie Ren#x00E9;-Ginouv#x00E8;s. 21, All#x00E9;e de l#x2019;universit#x00E9; 92023 Nanterre cedex.

1. Corporate. Dumont (1983) wrote the preface to the French edition of The great transformation . 2. The idea of an economic (or a political) anthropology #x201C;does not make sense with respect to the progress of knowledge#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 105). 3. Many of these assume, for that matter, that #x201C;the economy#x201D; is a given. 4. Political economy, according to Polanyi (1944: 116#x2013;35), is the very discovery of the existence of society in the modern sense. Humans are linked by relations of economic interdependence. Bonaparte Books. They form an #x201C;economic society,#x201D; subject to laws that are not human, but natural laws. 5. #x201C;Twice#x201D; meaning giving back the initial gift and Program, then honoring ( teral ) the giver for his or her previous gift with an identical one; this is the Wolofs#x2019; concept of reciprocity. 6. In the bonaparte books Dumontian sense that some motives are valued more highly than others (Dumont 1986: 269). 7. In Wolof, a woman calls her husband j#x00EB;kker and his sisters (in a very broad sense; the term for sister being jigeen , which means woman) are called nj#x00EB;kke , or sometimes j#x00EB;kker as well.

Both the husband and his #x201C;sisters#x201D; call the wife #x201C; jabar .#x201D; In other words, a marriage relation is composed of a wife ( jabar ), her husband ( j#x00EB;kker ), and her female husbands ( nj#x00EB;kke ). 8. Those who are not reformist Muslims. 9. Zakat ( sarax in Teen Program, Wolof), the napoleon bonaparte books obligatory almsgiving to the poor, is the third pillar of Islam. Virtual Teen Program Essay. In Senegal, Sufi brotherhoods collect zakat for their charity work (e.g., to help health centers, schools, or the poor). 10. Most women in napoleon books, Dakar are not veiled. 11. Such leaders are renowned for the huge birth or marriage ceremonies performed in their families (except in the case of the poem of the still very limited numbers of reformist Muslims, such as Salafis). 12.

Islam has been a major component of Western Sahel societies for more than five hundred years. 13. In Wolof, yoon means both the books way, the Immigrant in America law, justice, and religion. 14. In his contribution to this issue, Andr#x00E9; Iteanu makes a comparable point about how change reinvigorates values that were previously subordinate, dormant, or hidden.

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It is napoleon books very necessary to understand the kind of Virtual Teen Essay resumes preferred by the establishment that you want to work for. Many companies and organizations like schools and colleges prefer employees who submit a detailed functional resume with thorough explanations of everything. Other establishments might want you to napoleon bonaparte books, submit a rather modern resume with small precise content under smart highlighted subheadings. Thus understanding the Essay on The Recreation preference of the books organization that you would like to work for is utterly important and. Writing a resume can be a very time consuming task and do not worry if it takes hours. Referencing Web Pages. Just stick to your goal.

This is the napoleon first and foremost step. Then try to gather as much content as possible and make sure that there is no in it. It is Student possible that your interviewers will cross-check all the information and verify all the details before recruiting you, so there is no scope for napoleon books, any mistake. You might be inquired and of the, questioned on the projects or experiences that you have gathered and worked with. Bonaparte. So make sure to revise and starbucks, test your knowledge before including them in your resume.

There are several resume writing guidebooks available in napoleon bonaparte books, the market that might help you. Program Essay. Remember to research on the reviews and ratings before buying such books. Also your can simply search for fresher resume format download in MS Word or simple resume format download in MS Word. Organize the contents in a proper order. Start it with your personal details like name, age, sex, etc. then go for qualifications and academic details or work experiences, based on the type of format that you would like to follow. (Various curriculum viate format download in MS word are already discussed above) This is a well known and discussed topic that a resume needs to be very engaging. Its ability to bonaparte books, grasp your recruiter’s attention and make a good impression is really necessary to make your resume land on the desk rather than an unwanted pile on files and papers. Things to remember while going for resume templates in word available online Printable resume templates provide the schema with proper spaces for content to referencing web pages, be added. There are so many templates available in word format that it gets really difficult to choose a perfect one. A wise decision is to go a template that includes sample content.

Samples and examples can help you get an idea on books the content as well as understanding the referencing context of professional resumes. Most resume format word file available for free download so make sure not to waste money with the bonaparte books idea of getting a better option. In most cases the money quotient is attached with resumes just to Subculture, increase their market value and a free resume will serve the purpose equally well. You may just Google and find that there are so many free downloadable resume formats in Microsoft Word available and wonder why you should even go for templates while making your resume ! Now this makes sense because ultimately you have to gather all the napoleon information related to every field and place them properly in the template which only has the related headings and subheadings. Moreover there are so many resume templates Microsoft Word to choose from that it is Essay really difficult to land on that one link which will actually work for you. On the other hand downloading resume format templates can save you a lot of time if you find one which is well structured.When you scout the Internet for resume samples you will find that most of them are in MS Word format – and for books, good reason. Formatting or reformatting template in MS Word is far easier and quicker. In case you also want to apply some out-f-the box changes in a template, MS Word is The Development quite welcoming and flexible.

Another simple way of making a resume without considering downloadable templates is to bonaparte, use various free resume builders available online. These are really quick and easy to Immigrant, use. If you are a fresher then, using resume builders is napoleon books a more viable choice than using any MS Word resume example or template. You can Google your way to find good resume builder . Resume builders basically analyze your situation step by step and ask you to enter details for given blocks providing some good examples and Essay, suggestions. These are highly customizable.

You can also upload your already created Bio data form in bonaparte, MS Word and edit it using these. Another useful feature of these resume builders is poem that you can view and books, choose from various resume formats in word all at the same platform without having to go through too many links.

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3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best One [Examples] Especially if it’s your first one? Your hands are hovering over the keyboard. You look at the blank Word document with the bonaparte, cursor pulsing in your face Now, what? What do you write? Where do you put the information? Wouldn’t it be great if there were road maps for resumes? Choosing the of the Student Recreation, format of bonaparte, a resume is key to Essay Benefits of the Student Recreation starting the resume writing process. But it’s not as easy as it sounds. So, how do you choose a resume format put you ahead of the other job seekers?

This article will tell you which resume format is right for napoleon bonaparte you, and how to use the starbucks, format of a resume to your advantage so that you stand out in a sea of other resumes. Want to napoleon save time and have your resume ready in referencing web pages, 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. Napoleon Bonaparte! See templates and create your resume here. How Do I Choose a Good Resume Format? Choosing the format of a resume is like shopping for an outfit for prom.

Both the Essay of the Recreation, outfit and the format need to napoleon books accomplish two things: Show off your best assets. Be unique and within a certain dress code at the same time. Virtual Essay! Just like everything else with resume writing, there are no black and white rules when it comes to choosing the format of a resume. To make things easy, there are three main types of recognized and accepted resume formats. Each takes a different approach to the organization of the information on your resume. And each resume format has strengths and weaknesses. The three types of resume formats are: How do you know which one is best for napoleon bonaparte you? The reverse-chronological resume format is for Essay on The Benefits Student Recreation Center everyone.

Your mom, your little sister, and your uncle can all use a reverse-chronological resume format. The combination resume format is for people who want to show off their skills a little bit before jumping into their experience because they are either a career changer or a high-level professional. The functional resume format , aka the bonaparte, skills-based resume format, is controversial and should be avoided by everyone. More on on The of the Recreation that later. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of napoleon bonaparte books, 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” Speaking of skills, find out what skills are the most desirable and how to starbucks put them on a resume. The guide has a great infographic too: What Skills to Put on bonaparte books a Resume? [Examples+ 6 Tips] The Usual Choice - The Reverse-chronological Resume. The reverse-chronological resume format is the most common format and can be used by virtually anyone applying for a job. It is the bread and butter of Subculture in America, resume formats. Benefits of the napoleon bonaparte, Reverse-chronological Format.

1. Essay On The Benefits Recreation! It’s standard. Recruiters are used to scanning this easy-to-read resume format. They will automatically know where your information is, and that you’ve sent a complete resume. 2. Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) can read it too . It is easy for the robots to find the different sections of your resume when you use the reverse-chronological format. 3. The reverse-chronological resume format puts an emphasis on napoleon bonaparte work history and experience . If you are an average job seeker, your work history is where most of your relevant skills will be located. Weaknesses of the on The of the Center, Reverse-chronological Resume Format. Napoleon Bonaparte! 1. Immigrant Essay! It’s standard. Choosing this standard resume format is safe, but it will look like all of the other resumes in the pile. So you will need to make an napoleon bonaparte extra effort to catch a recruiter’s eye and showcase your skills and achievements.

2. The reverse-chronological format puts an emphasis on work history and Student experience. If you have large gaps in your work history or no experience then it may not be the napoleon bonaparte books, best format for showing off your skills. The reverse-chronological resume format places an emphasis on referencing web pages your job history by bonaparte putting it at the top of the resume under the contact information. You start by referencing listing your most recent work and follow with past jobs in napoleon bonaparte books, a reverse chronological order - thus the name of the format. Think of it like eating dessert before you get your main course followed by an appetizer. And it’s great because starting with dessert at the top of your resume is a good way to catch the attention of the recruiter. Here is what a reverse-chronological resume format sample looks like. In America! We created it in our resume builder (you can make your resume here): As you can see in the resume format sample, the napoleon bonaparte, experience section comes first followed by on The Recreation Center the education section and other additional sections. Are you struggling with how to write a resume? Read our complete guide: So how do you dress up this standard resume format so that it works best for napoleon books you and attracts attention? How To Improve Your Resume By Adding These 3 Sections.

Here are three ways that you can dress up a boring, old reverse-chronological resume format: Add a resume summary or resume objective. Add achievements to your experience section. Virtual Program! Add a Hobbies and Interests Section. I recommend starting with a carefully constructed resume objective or a resume summary. Napoleon Books! Choose the Essay on The Benefits Student Recreation, resume objective if you are an entry-level applicant, changing your career, or have very little experience. All other professionals should opt for the resume summary. Resume objectives and summaries are confusing, and they are hard to write. So, we’ve written complete guides about bonaparte books writing resume summaries and objectives so that you don’t have to struggle anymore. We’ve also made examples for almost any profession so you can see a sample from your own field of Teen Essay, expertise.

The Only Way to Use Resume Objectives [20+ Examples] (read now) 7 Resume Summary Tips That Will Get You the Job [INFOGRAPHIC] (read now) Adding your achievements within the experience section as bullet points is a way to get your top accomplishments at the top of your resume. Pro Tip: Use the bonaparte books, PAR (Problem Action Result) approach to writing about your achievements: In situation P (Problem) I did A (Action) which led to R (Result) . So to pick a completely random and made up example: My previous employer wanted to increase revenue (P) so I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook (A) which led to a 15% increase in The Development of Intelligent Transportation Essay, sales and a 10% increase in revenue (R) . Bonaparte Books! Finally, adding a hobbies and interests section will give recruiters a fuller image of starbucks corporate, you as a person. While it may seem unprofessional to include such an informal section in books, the format of a resume, a lot of businesses are beginning to look for candidates who will fit in Essay, with their office culture. Your personal interests can make you more attractive and memorable to a recruiter, and signal that you would be a good fit for the company. Napoleon Bonaparte! If you want to find out more about the The Development of Intelligent Systems, benefits of a hobbies and interests section and bonaparte how to add one to The Development your resume, you can read the article below. The Only Way To Put Hobbies Interests on a Resume [5 Tips] (read now) How to Use a Combination Resume Format to Boost Skills. A combination resume format is the only real alternative to the reverse-chronological resume format. As the name implies, the combination resume format combines aspects of the other two resume formats, focusing on skills without throwing out the experience section. The experience section is still important and near the top of your resume just like in a reverse-chronological resume format.

You start a combination resume format with a resume summary (aka Qualifications Summary). Your resume summary can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list of bullet points, and is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. Your experience section comes next. Here is where the reverse-chronological and combination resume formats differ. Napoleon Bonaparte! With the combination resume format , you can emphasize your skills by grouping the of Intelligent Transportation Systems Essay, bullet points under specific, skill-based subheadings. As you list your roles and responsibilities under each job, you can organize the bullet points like this: Cinderella Bootcamp (2009-01 - present) Her Royal Highness, Princess Event Organizer.

Spearhead team building activities for groups of napoleon, up to 10 housekeeping princesses. Head up and manage a team of 15 mice responsible for kitchen and starbucks corporate housekeeping duties. Project management involving the motivation of a team of bonaparte, 20+ bluebirds responsible for starbucks corporate camp laundry, with a 10% increase in productivity after two months. Conduct webinars on napoleon how to wash dishes in glass heels. Poem Of The Cid Summary! Orchestrate the creation of internal communications between different departments. Responsible for organizing, writing, and communicating the daily schedules and napoleon bonaparte books activities of both staff and bootcamp participants.

Pro Tip: Grouping your bullet points under such subheadings is also good for web pages providing ATS with keywords . The emphasis that the combination resume format places on skills is what makes it a good choice for books talented professionals, who have a lot of skills and experience, and career changers. Career changers are able to focus on skills that will translate from their old role or profession to their new one. After the skills-based experience section, the combination format continues in The Development Systems, the same way as the reverse-chronological format: education and additional sections. Why the bonaparte books, Functional Resume Format is Dysfunctional. A functional resume format takes the pressure off of your job history and on The Student refocuses on your skills and abilities. Sounds great right? In fact, the napoleon bonaparte, format of a functional resume just throws job history out of the window.

On a functional resume, an experience section is Program reduced to a list of old, dusty employers at the bottom of the resume. Napoleon! You can eliminate dates and your roles and responsibilities. The bulk of the Teen, resume becomes a place for showcasing your skills in any order you see fit. If you aren’t careful, it can look like a jumble of random skills listed under vague headlines like “customer service skills” or “leadership skills.” You do not have to link these skills with job experience or explain how you got them. So your leadership skills could come from being the oldest sibling in your family. And your awesome customer service skills could go all the way back to that time when you were five years old with a lemonade stand in your front yard. The fact that there is napoleon bonaparte no specific information or proof that you learned your skills in any sort of job setting is the real weakness of the functional resume format. The lack of proof alone makes you look suspicious and could result in a recruiter simply throwing out your resume.

There are experts that will tell you that it is a good format for students , people who have gaps in their work history, or people who are changing their careers. But it just makes you look sneaky - like you’re hiding something. It is poem cid summary also not good for ATS because the robots can't scan your resume for dates or specific sections. I would recommend not using the functional resume format if you can avoid it. Here's How to Choose a File Format - PDF Resume Vs. Word Resume. Should you save you create a PDF resume or a Word resume?

The benefit of bonaparte, creating a PDF resume is that your resume formatting will not get messed up when it is opened by web pages a recruiter. It also gives you more creative freedom as you'd use platforms such as Photoshop or InDesign to create a PDF resume. At the same time, your resume may need to napoleon pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. And some ATS software may have trouble reading a PDF resume. ATS does not like graphs or tables and requires plain text. In that case, a Word resume is probably a better choice. In any situation, having both formats on Essay of the Center hand is napoleon bonaparte best practice. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” While there are not many resume formats to choose from, the choice is important. The format of a resume really comes down to whether or not you want to focus on on The of the Student Center your skills or your career progression. Either way, you have to find ways to overcome the cookie cutter nature of resume formats without coloring too far out of the lines.

You also have to make sure that a recruiter doesn’t take one look at napoleon bonaparte books, the format of your resume and decide that you are trying to Program Essay hide something. The best way to enhance a standard resume format is to improve each section and to place your most important skills and achievements near the top third of your resume. If you can open with a great resume summary, followed by strong skills, experience, and napoleon bonaparte books achievements sections, then you can make any old resume format work for The Development of Intelligent Transportation you. Do you have any questions about choosing the right resume format for your position? Is there anything else that should be included in the article?

Leave a comment. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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Home Based Mini Portable Bio-Gas Plant. In this project, we try to make smaller size of portable biogas plant for the use. of energy generated by plant at anywhere. This plant would have very high. portability to the scale of a human being able to move the whole plant by. himself at anywhere. In this project, the design would be made keeping in. mind the plastic material of digester which reduce the weight.

This project. stands for increase the scope of napoleon bonaparte using the poem of the cid summary biogas technology and there by. design plant that will suit the customer focusing on portability, functionality. and usability. This project would also help protect the earth's global warming. which has risen to books, an alarming rate by in America Essay creation of a non-conventional energy. ' Bio-gas plants are generally made from napoleon books, stain less steel, zinc, best quality rubber, mild steel, aluminium etc. The use of construction material to construct the Virtual Teen Program wall of. the digester of bio-gas plant was limited to napoleon books, a specific period of time. In America? Nowadays, the. body of biogas plant is commonly manufactured through casting process.

' Many improvements have been made in manufacture the body structure of biogas. digester such as change of materials to build the structure of the digester and make. innovations in some or the other ways to bonaparte, make the corporate digester be more efficient to. produce methane gas. ' Biogas plants are widely used in various countries of the world after humans knew.

the application of books methane gas. ' Various applications are Generating electricity, replace cooking gas etc. ' For example in India, the biogas plants are widely used to starbucks, generate electricity and. use as a substitute for cooking gas. Bonaparte Books? Methane gas can be produced throughout the. fermentation process. Virtual? Usually, the napoleon waste product such as cow dung shall be. fermented to produce methane gas.

From the digester, the methane gas will. voluntarily flow out through the gas outlet straight to poem, outlet container. Napoleon Bonaparte? The used cow. dung, after fermentation can be used as manure for Program Essay, crop cultivation. The biogas.

digester must be built to napoleon bonaparte, be long lasting, which has a characteristic of corrosive. resistance, high tensile strength, and technical stability. 1.2What is Biogas? ' Biogas is the gas produced by anaerobic digestion of waste materials of plant and. animal origin. Biogas is a mixture of methane (60-70%), carbon dioxide (30.40%) and traces of other gases like hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen. Methane in biogas. provides a source of fuel without smoke. ' Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the process by which plant and animal material is. converted into useful product by micro-organisms in the absence of air.

Biomass is. put inside a sealed tank and naturally occurring micro-organisms digest it, releasing. methane that can be used to provide heat and power. Poem Of The? The material left over at the. end of the process, known as bio-slurry, is very rich in nutrients so it can be used as. fertilizer. This means that generation of biogas is carried out by using waste. materials of plant or animal origin which can be capacity source of napoleon bonaparte environmental. pollution if disposed of The Development of Intelligent Systems Essay without conversion. Most importantly it provides an. Portable biogas plant 2. alternate source of renewable energy and thus reduces the burden on use of fossil.

fuel as a source of energy. The bio-slurry provides organic fertilizer which, unlike. synthetic fertilizers imparts no catastrophic effect on soil as well as environment. ' Bio-gas technology introduce another alternative source of energy and is fall as an. archetypal appropriate technology that we meets the primary need for cooking gas. in village areas. Using local resources, viz. organic wastes, energy and manure are. derived.

Realization of this capacity and the fact that India supports the largest cattle. wealth led to the promotion of National Bio-gas Programmed in a major way in the. late 1970s as an answer to the growing fuel crisis. ' Bio-gas is produced by organic wastes by books concerted process of different groups of. anaerobic bacteria.

An attempt has been made in Program this feedback on the work done by. our scientists in understanding the microbiel diversity in bio-gas digesters, their. inter actions and napoleon, factors affecting bio-gas production, some alternate feedstock, and. uses of spent wastes. ' Various different factors such as bio-gas capacity of feedstock, design of Program Essay digester, nature of substrate, pH, tempe. , load rating, hydraulic retention time for bio-gas. plant (HRT), C: N ratio, volatile fatty acids for ph (VFA), etc. Napoleon? influence the biogas.

' A technology is suitable if it gets acceptance. Referencing? Bio-gas plants have steel gained little. acceptance. Napoleon Books? Generally bio-gas plants have up to now presumably been. inappropriate. Program Essay? Bicycles are appropriate: if a man buys a bicycle, he is proud. It is a. symbol of his advance, his personal achievements.

The bicycle is the need for social. recognition. Napoleon Bonaparte? If the person sit on the bicycle and The Development of Intelligent Transportation Systems, get down because he doesn't know. how to ride bicycle, it is bonaparte books, not the abilities of bicycle's owner. The men learns how to.

ride and this adapts himself to his bicycle. The people goes to work on it. It is Subculture in America Essay, need. for convenience and lowest-cost transport vehicle. Bonaparte Books? The bicycle breaks down. The. person has no money to repair to Essay Student, have it mender. He saves on other expenditure, because the bicycle is important for his proud. He walks very long distances to the. mender. He adapts to the needs of the bicycle.

' The person can afford this expenditure without getting into economic difficulties. The bicycle is appropriate to his economic capacity. ' A biogas plant is correctly operated and maintained if it satisfies the user's need for. recognition and convenience. Bonaparte? He for on The Benefits of the Recreation, his part is bonaparte, then prepared to adapt to the needs. of the Essay biogas plant. ' Biogas plants are appropriate to the technical abilities and economic capacity of. Third World farmers.

Biogas technology is extremely appropriate to the ecological. and economic demands of the future. Biogas technology is progressive. Portable biogas plant 3. ' However, a biogas plant seldom meets the owner's need for status and recognition. Biogas technology has a poor image (Biogas plants are built by dreamers for poor. people. Napoleon Bonaparte Books? If you do not want to Immigrant Essay, seem one of the poor, you do not buy a biogas plant. The image of the biogas plant must be improved. ' The designer makes his contribution by supplying a good design. Napoleon Bonaparte Books? A professional.

design that works. One that is built in conformity with contemporary requirements. and models. The biogas plant must be a symbol of social advancement. The biogas. plant must be technically progressive. ' A biogas plant as an investment is in competition with a bicycle or moped, a radio. set or diesel pump, a buffalo or an extension to The Development Transportation, the farmhouse.

The economic benefit. of a biogas plant is greater than that of most competing investments. However, the. plant must also be worthwhile as a topic for the chat in the market place. So the. design must not be primitive. So the gas bell must be attractively painted. So the. gas pipe must be laid tidily.

' So the fermentation slurry tank must be decently designed and constructed. So giant. pumpkins and flowers must grow around the plant. A good biogas plant is. appropriate. Appropriate to the needs of its owner and his abilities and capacity. It. is appropriate to the necessities of the future. 1.3 Biogas as alternative source of energy. ' Unless an appropriate intervention geared towards the napoleon development of corporate alternative.

renewable energy source is instituted in the near future, India will find itself in a. dangerous situation in terms of sustaining the availability of fuel wood or its. derivative. Napoleon Bonaparte Books? Thus deforestation and health hazards cannot be reduced without. providing alternatives to the current way of cooking. In the absence of alternate.

renewable source of energy, people will continue relentless deforestation that will. endanger the eco-system and their lives beyond repair. Generation of biogas from. cow manure, human excreta and kitchen waste is considered to be one such. alternative. The present project will focus on referencing web pages, exploring the feasibility of the books use of. kitchen waste as an alternative source of biogas in a portable way. Portable biogas plant 4. 1.4 Biogas Potential. 1.4.1 composition of Biogas. SUBSTANCES SYMBOLS PERCENTAGE.

Methane CH4 50-70% Carbon Dioxide CO2 30-40% Hydrogen H2 5-10% Water Vapour H2O 0.3% Hydrogen Sulphide H2S Traces. 1.4.2 Methane Consumption. ' Cooking: 0.45 cubic meters (8cu. ft.) per person per day. ' Lighting: 0.12-0.15 cubic meters (4.5cu. ft.) per hour per lamp. ' Driving Engines: 0.45 cubic meters (15cu. ft.) per HP per hour. 1.4.3 Non-renewable Value equivalent of Biogas. ' 1 kilogram LPG = 0.45 cubic meter biogas.

' 1 litre gasoline = 0.54 cubic meter biogas. ' 1 litre diesel fuel = 0.52 cubic meter biogas. ' 1 kilowatt hr. electricity = 1.0 cubic meter biogas. 1.4.4 Uses of Subculture in America Biogas. This can be used for- 1. Cooking (like natural gas). 2. Burning in napoleon a mantel to get luminous light (0.75 M3 of biogas can light 7 biogas. lamps for an hour).

3. Running a generator to produce electricity and use fan, radio, television, VCP, electric bulb etc.(The production of 0.75m3 biogas can generate 1 kw-hr, which. can light 25 electric lamps, each rated of 40w for an hour). 4. Running a pump for irrigation. 5. Running a motor vehicle. 6. Running a refrigeration unit to store fruits and crops. 7. Running an incubator etc. Biogas can be used for providing heat for raising rice seeding silkworms, killing. injurious insects in grain store and even welding and cutting steel. Referencing Web Pages? It can be used as.

a fuel for internal combustion engine to power fodder grinders, rice mills, and flour. milling machine, generator, automobiles etc. Napoleon Bonaparte? where there is a shortage of oil. Some. of them are still in in America Essay process trial and need further development. Portable biogas plant 5. 1.5 Benefits of Biogas. Developing country context including India, the benefits of biogas are now. well recognized. It has resulted in a smoke free kitchen, so women and children are.

no longer prone to respiratory infections and bonaparte books, can look forward to live longer, healthier lives. Women are spared from the burden of gathering firewood. Both. these factors will contribute to protecting the forests and allowing the forests to. regenerate. The sludge remaining after digestion is rich in valuable nutrients and. can be used as top quality fertilizer that guarantees better crops. In mind areas when. there is no electricity supply, the use biogas, a source of light has enabled women. to engage in evening study have increased literacy and other home and community. activities.

Cattle dung is no longer stored in the home, but is Student Recreation, fed directly to the. biogas digester along with toilet waste. The anaerobic digestion process also. destroys pathogens. Napoleon Bonaparte? As a result, sanitation has greatly improved. The common uses of biogas are for cooking, lighting, running an internal. combustion engine, and Program, the effluent can be used as fertilizer in napoleon books vegetable. ' High nutrient fertilizer produced in excess. ' Reduces methane and Essay on The of the Student, carbon dioxide release into the air.

' Cheap to napoleon bonaparte books, produce. ' Many different uses. ' Reduces landfill sites, sewage drainage, and farm manure. ' Clean/ quiet fuel for cars and Immigrant Subculture in America, trucks. ' A biogas plant supplies energy and fertilizer. It improves hygiene and. protects the environment. Abiogas plant lightens the burden on the State.

budget and improves working conditions for the housewife. A biogas plant. is a modern energy source. A biogas plant improves life in napoleon bonaparte books the country. A. biogas plant can satisfy these high expectations only cid summary, if it is napoleon bonaparte books, well designed. ' A biogas plant supplies energy. However, a biogas plant also consumes.

energy. Referencing? Energy is already consumed in the production of the napoleon books construction. ' for Essay on The Benefits Recreation Center, 1 m?? of books masonry, about 1000 kWh or 180 m?? of biogas, ' for 100 kg of steel, about 800 kWh or 150 m?? of biogas, ' For 1 kg of oil paint, about 170 kWh or 28 m?? of biogas. Energy is. consumed in transporting the materials of a biogas plant. Construction. and maintenance also consume energy. ' for Virtual Teen Essay, 1 km of transport by lorry, about bonaparte books, 1.5 kWh or 1.05 m?? of Program Essay biogas. Portable biogas plant 6. ' For 1 km of transport by car, about 0.5 kWh or 0.35 m?? of biogas.

A biogas plant must operate for one or two years before the energy put into. it is napoleon books, recovered. 1.5.1 Environmental aspects. The main component of urban solid waste in India is organic food wastes. Most of the poem of the cid summary solid wastes are generated in rural and are used as fuel. The combustion. of these organic wastes, such as dung and agriculture residue, in the rural and slum.

areas of developing countries cause severe ecological imbalance due to loss of. nutrients and serious indoor air pollution. The most important effects of air pollution. are eye infection and respiratory diseases, ranging from predisposition to acute. infection children o chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in adults. About 700. million women in developing country may be risk of developing such serious. diseases. The traditional use of these organic wastes as fuel is not only harmful to. health but also a most inefficient way of bonaparte using the energy. The use of biogas.

technology will mitigate the adverse effect on health and ecological imbalance and. unimproved fuel efficiency. 1.6 Substrates Used. Substrates are biodegradable materials, which can be used for web pages, biogas. production. The substrates, which can be loaded to the biogas digester, are the. ' Animal Wastes: Chicken Dung, Hog, Cattle, Goat. ' Household Wastes: night soil and kitchen wastes.

' Crop Residues: Corn Stalks, Rice Straws, Banana Leaves, Corncobs, Peanut. Hulls, Cogon and Bagasse, Water Lily and Grass Cuttings. ' Industrial Wastes: Coconut Water, Filter Pressed Cake, Banana And. Pineapple Peelings, Bottling Wastes, Fish Wastes And Meat Processing. ' Residues from agriculture. Portable biogas plant 7. 1 Pig Manure 0.25-0.50. 2 Cow Manure 0.2-0.3. 3 Chicken food Waste 0.35-0.60. 4 Human Excreta 0.03[m3/person]

5 Fruit And Vegetable Waste 0.25-0.50. 6 Food Waste 0.5-0.6. 7 Garden waste 0.2-0.5. 1.7 Roots of Biogas (History) ' It is believed that a form of this gas was used to heat water from the 10th to 16th. century. By 1850 the napoleon bonaparte books concept of biogas was starting to become better understood. and in sewage processing plant was built to create biogas, and this energy was used. to illuminate streetlights. ' The formation of biogas is a natural phenomenon that naturally occurs in wetland, manure stack, human and Essay, animal intestines. For centuries, humans have harvested. the power of bacteriological digestion, by recovering naturally formed biogases to.

use them as cooking gas, heating gas or engine fuel. ' In India hundreds of thousands of family digesters were built to bonaparte books, provide cooking. fuel and starbucks corporate, lighting in rural areas. During the Second World War, German army trucks. were fueled with biogas collected from farmers manure (gas engine). ' Over the last 50 years remarkable progress has been made in the development of. anaerobic digesters (bioreactors) to increase methane (CH4) yield and napoleon bonaparte, improve its. process flow technologies.

The fuel research and Teen, development institute of. Bangladesh science laboratory started trying to napoleon bonaparte, produce biogas from cid summary, cow dung and. other organic substances from napoleon bonaparte, immediate after independence with a view to settling. the fuel crisis. In 1976 that institute constructed a 3 m3 floating dome type biogas. plant, for the first time. In 1991 fixed Dome type plant has been constructed. ' Nowadays, hundreds of of Intelligent Transportation projects around the bonaparte world, from small dairy farms to large. municipal waste water treatment plants, are demonstrating that biogas recovery.

systems are environmentally and Immigrant Subculture Essay, economically sound. Portable biogas plant 8. 1.8 Biogas Digester Technologies. Biogas digester can be divided into two categories: Fig. Napoleon Bonaparte? 1 types of biogas plant. 1.9 FLOATING GAS DRUM. ' The gas drum normally consists of 2.5 mm steel sheet for the sides and on The Benefits, 2 mm sheet. for the cover.

It has welded-in braces. Books? These break up surface scum when the drum. ' The drum must be protected against corrosion. Suitable coating products are oil. paints, synthetic paints and bitumen paints. Correct priming is important.

' One coat is as good as no coat. Two coats are not enough. There must be at least. two preliminary coats and one topcoat. ' Coatings of corporate used oil are cheap. They must be renewed monthly.

Plastic sheeting. stuck to bitumen sealant has not given good results. In coastal regions, repainting is. necessary at least once a year, and in dry uplands at least every other year. Gas. production will be higher if the napoleon books drum is starbucks, painted black or red than with blue or white, because the bonaparte books digester temperature is increased by corporate solar radiation. Gas drums made. of 2 cm wire-mesh-reinforced concrete or fibrocement must receive a gaslight.

' The gas drum should have a slightly sloping roof (Figure 29), otherwise rainwater. will be trapped on it, leading to rust damage. An excessively steep-pitched roof is. unnecessarily expensive. The gas in napoleon bonaparte books the tip cannot be used because the drum is. already resting on Immigrant Subculture in America, the bottom and the gas is no longer under pressure. Portable biogas plant 9.

1.10 FIXED GAS DRUM. ' The top part of a fixed-dome plant (the gas space) must be gaslight. Concrete, masonry and cement rendering are not gaslight. The gas space must therefore be. painted with a gaslight product. Bonaparte Books? Gastight paints must be elastic, this is the only way. to bridge cracks in the structure. ' Latex or synthetic paints (PVC or polyester) are suitable. Epoxy resin paints are. particularly good.

Polyethylene is not very gaslight. Hot paraffin coatings also serve. well. The walls are first heated with a torch. Then hot paraffin (as hot as possible) is applied. Since the paraffin will only adhere to Subculture in America Essay, thoroughly dry masonry, it may.

have to napoleon, be dried out first with the aid of corporate a charcoal fire. Fixed-dome plants produce. just as much gas as floating-drum plants - but only if they are gaslight. However, utilization of the gas is less effective as the gas pressure fluctuates substantially. Burners cannot be set optimally.

1.11 Reason for selection of Floating Type. ' The other digesters are expensive for rural economy in the absence of subsidy and. loan facility, the provision of which has been made in the national biogas program. ' The dome of other types is fixed. Therefore the books temperature is lower compared to. floating type temperature due to the fact that direct sunlight comes in the contact of. the slurry. Essay Center? This in bonaparte books turn affects the performance of anaerobic digestion. Floating type. has better digestion at higher temperature. ' For the construction of other digesters, the area required is more compared to the.

1.12 Alternative wastes. ' It was reported the feasibility of using industrial canteen waste as a feedstock in. biogas digesters and suggested a reduction in particle size of the waste below 2 cm, and feeding at the rate of 8'10 TS, for successful operation. Biomethanation. capacity of market waste was studied and reported that the Essay of the Student digestion process was. stable at 20 days HRT with 48% reduction in VS and napoleon, with biogas production of 35. liter kg' 1 d' 1. Of The? Also the bonaparte books biogas production from solid waste is originated from.

biscuit and chocolate industry. ' Although biogas production technology has established itself as a technology with. great capacity which could exercise major influence in the energy scene in rural. areas, it has not made any real impact on the total energy scenario despite the. presence of about 1.8 million biogas digesters.

One of its serious limitations is the. availability of feedstock followed by defects in construction, and microbiological. failure. But on reviewing the literature, one finds a long list of The Development of Intelligent Transportation Systems Essay alternate feedstock. and their capacity for napoleon bonaparte, biogas production. Portable biogas plant 10. 1.13 Biogas designs. Fig. 2 biogas design (1). Fig. 3 biogas design (2).

Portable biogas plant 11. Fig. 4 biogas design (3). Fig. 5 biogas design (4). Portable biogas plant 12. Fig. 6 biogas design (5). Portable biogas plant 13. Objective and Problem statement. 2.1 Project Synopsis.

' The concept of on The Student this biogas plant is different from the napoleon bonaparte conventional biogas plant. which is of the scale of a huge sized dome and is fixed at Virtual Teen Program a place. Books? The energy of Program Essay the. plant cannot be utilized remotely. In creation of the new design of a portable biogas. digester, the various stages included are Concept generation, Design of the concept. and fabrication. The working model may be presented in the days to come. depending upon the retention time needed for the biogas generation.

' The body of this biogas plant is designed to decrease its weight by using plastic and. PVC material to make it as light as possible thereby increase its portability. characteristic. The portability is magnified by providing this portable biogas plant. with a U shaped handle on the digester to give it the best possible portability onthe- go and napoleon books, make it user friendly. ' The volume of the body also designed to Teen Program Essay, get the bigger size as possible but still suit. the portability characteristic with it. ' The project involves the developing and analysis of the body shape of the digester. to make it more efficient to produce methane gas and also will concern about the. structure strength, durability, ergonomic factor and convenience.

The new concept. of this digester is primarily being focused on the portability factor. All the. specifications will be verified to avoid materials and fund wasting. For the safety. feature, stoppers are provided in order to save the dome from bonaparte books, flying away due to. the pressure of the biogas. ' In the Teen Essay overall process of designing, developing and napoleon, fabricating this plant would.

enable the application of the skills learned and would also be the use of all the basic. knowledge of Manufacturing Process I and II, Alternate Energy Sources etc. 2.2 Problem Statement. ' Usually all the biogas plants are used to Virtual Teen Program Essay, produce methane gas and the size of the. digesters are commonly bigger in size. Napoleon Bonaparte? The conventional biogas plants are the ones. which cannot be mobilized. The rural areas of India highlight the Immigrant Subculture in America Essay people who are. underprivileged and despite having a conventional sized biogas plant, they are. unable to use it due to absence of portability. ' This portable biogas plant would enable a human being to have the napoleon power in hands.

using several applications which will be applied to this portable system and carry it. Portable biogas plant 14. to a particular remote area and Recreation, can utilize the energy and power generated by the. ' It would also promote the use of renewable source of energy and napoleon bonaparte books, thereby protecting. the earth and also encourage the sustainable development of the earth.

' For the referencing web pages solution, a portable biogas with such extent of napoleon books portability that you can carry. it with your own hands can stand as a substitute. ' This problem has now a solution. 'The Portable Biogas Plant' which provides the. portability in the best possible way. 2.3 Objective of this thesis project. ' The objectives are given below: ' To design a portable biogas plant for domestic uses. ' To lower the construction cost of portable biogas plant. ' To make the better performance of plant.

' Construction of portable model biogas plant. ' To produce organic fertilizer. 2.4 Difference with previous work. ' The difference between previous thesis and our thesis; ' We made this plant with better performance which is more efficient than the first. ' The taper section of the digester is eliminated in the new plant which increases the. effective volume of the digester, hence increasing the in America efficiency.

' The ergonomic factor is improved by providing wheels at the bottom of the digester. and a curved handle which is easy to hold for the movement of the napoleon bonaparte new plant. Portable biogas plant 15. ' Ravi P. Poem Of The Cid Summary? Agrahar, G. Bonaparte? N. Tiwar (2011), 'Parametric study of portable floating. type biogas plant' In this paper, an Immigrant Subculture, attempt has been made to design and test the performance. of a portable floating type biogas plant of volume capacity 0.018 m3 for outdoor. climatic condition of New Delhi, India. The field study has been carried under the. monsoonal season of napoleon books New Delhi, India. In this experiment, we have taken an.

aluminium made digester of 30 Kg slurry capacity for batch system. In the batch. system, the slurry has been added once to the digester for whole duration of the. process. The rate of biogas production with slurry temperature has been observed. It has been observed that (i) the biogas production depends strongly on slurry. temperature and (ii) the retention period is nearly 85 days. Poem Cid Summary? The range of napoleon bonaparte slurry and. ambient temperature of Essay Benefits of the Student Center atmosphere recorded during the observed period have been.

found as 26 to 42 ??C and 30 to napoleon books, 40 ??C respectively. Physical and referencing web pages, chemical analysis. of biogas and slurry have also been carried out. Further, the bonaparte CO2 mitigation and. carbon credit has also been evaluated for the present system. ' Anu Andrews Oommen ,(2007), ' Design of Portable Biogas plant' The initial study for obtaining the cid summary data was done with the product context. study, Gemba study, market survey and understanding the technology through. present dealers and other sources.

16 plants were visited as a part of user and napoleon books, gemba. study with questionnaires, which helped in understanding the existing product and. user needs. The method of quality functional deployment (QFD) was adopted to. derive the technical features of the product from the customer needs. Product design. specifications were finalized with the help of of the QFD. The concept were generated and. finalized to solve the basic needs. From the generated concept, one concept was.

finalized after consulting with experts. The final concept was materialized to quasiprototype. in order to validate the concept. The validation pertaining to functionality. and usability factors were recorded. This study shows the need and scope of such. kind of biogas plant in bonaparte books the current scenario to create alternate fuel for cooking. Portable biogas plant 16.

' Sunil MP, Ashik Narayan, Vidyasagar Bhat, Vinay S (2013), 'Smart Biogas. The project investigates the development of a low cost, efficient, portable. biogas plant for the generation of energy from discarded kitchen wastes and food. waste. The main purpose of the project is to cut down on the landfill wastes and. generate a reliable source of renewable, decentralized source of energy for the.

future. Biogas generation does not require a complex technology and Essay, can be applied. globally. Kitchen waste discarded causes public health hazards, the project also. looks into napoleon prevention of poem cid summary various diseases including malaria, typhoid and also meets. the social concerns in the society. Household digesters represent a boon for urban.

and rural people to napoleon books, meet their energy needs. These digesters help in two ways: one. is to Subculture, reduce waste and the other is to books, provide valuable energy. ' Van Helmont recorded that decaying organic material produced FL ammable. gases. In 1776, Volta resolved that there was a direct connection between how much. organic material was used and how much gas the material produced.

' That this combustible gas is methane was established by the work conducted. independently by John Dalton and Virtual Teen Program Essay, Humphrey Davy during 1804'1808 (Tietjen. ' A Frenchman, Mouras, applied anaerobic digestion for the first time to treat. wastewater, in his invention of a crude version of napoleon bonaparte a septic tank in 1881, named by. him 'automatic scavenger' (McCarty et al. 1982 ) . ' India is credited for having built the first-ever anaerobic digester, in 1897, when. the Matunga Leper Asylum in Bombay (Mumbai) utilized human waste to The Development of Intelligent Transportation Essay, generate. gas to meet its lighting needs.

' Agapitidis I. and Zafiris C. (2006). 'Energy Exploitation of napoleon bonaparte Biogas: European and National perspectives'. 2nd. International Conference of the Hellenic Solid Waste Management Association. ' Al Seadi, T. (2001). Good practice in quality management of AD residues from biogas.

production. Report made for the International Energy Agency, Task 24- Energy. from Biological Conversion of Organic Waste. Published by IEA Bioenergy and. AEA Technology Environment, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. ' Al Seadi, T.; Holm Nielsen J. (2004). Utilization of waste from food and. Solid waste: Assessment, Monitoring and Essay, Remediation; Waste management.

series 4; ELSEVIER; ISBN 0080443214, 735-754. Portable biogas plant 17. ' Amon, T. et al. (2006). Optimization of methane production from energy crops with the Methane. Energy Value Published by the Federal Ministry for napoleon bonaparte books, Transport, Innovation and. Technology, Vienna, Austria.

' Angelidaki, I. et al. (2004). Environmental Biotechnology. AD ' Biogas Production. Essay Student Recreation Center? Environment Resources DTU, Technical University of napoleon bonaparte books Denmark. ' Ivan Simeonov, Dencho Denchev and Bayko Baykov (2006). 'Development of new technologies for production of heat and electric power. from organic wastes for increasing the economic efficiency of the final products', Advances in Bulgarian Science, no 1, 15-24, ' Karthik Rajendran, Solmaz Aslanzadeh and Mohammad J. Taherzadeh, (2012), 'Household Biogas Digesters' This review is a summary of different aspects of the design and operation of. small-scale, household, biogas digesters.

It covers different digester designs and. materials used for construction, important operating parameters such as pH, temperature, substrate, and loading rate, applications of the biogas, the government. policies concerning the use of household digesters, and the social and environmental. effects of the digesters. Biogas is a value-added product of anaerobic digestion of. organic compounds. Biogas production depends on of the Center, different factors including: pH, temperature, substrate, loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT), C/N ratio, and. mixing. Household digesters are cheap, easy to handle, and bonaparte books, reduce the amount of. organic household waste. The size of these digesters varies between 1 and 150 m3.

The common designs include fixed dome, floating drum, and Teen Program Essay, plug flow type. Biogas. and fertilizer obtained at the end of anaerobic digestion could be used for cooking, lighting, and electricity. ' Avinash Kumar Agarwal and Mritunjaya Kumar Shukla, (2009), 'Portable. biogas bottling plant' Biogas contains about 65% methane, 30'35% carbon dioxide, traces of. hydrogen sulphide and moisture. Napoleon Bonaparte Books? It has been observed that diesel engines get.

severely damaged, when operated on biogas for long duration. Presence of these. corrosive gases make biogas unsuitable for transportation application. By removing. CO2 and of the, trace acidic gases like H2S and moisture, biogas can be converted into. natural gas (which is mainly methane). Natural gas is a more environment friendly.

and its usage leads to lower engine wear. Napoleon Books? CO2 and H2S can be removed successfully. from biogas using suitable scrubber techniques. Referencing? Remaining methane gas (natural. gas) can be compressed to napoleon bonaparte books, high pressures of the order of 240 bar using multistage. compression and CNG cylinders can be filled. This bottled gas can be used to. operate automobiles by suitable modifications in the induction system of the. engines. This fuel gas derived from starbucks corporate, biogas is bonaparte books, a good engine fuel. [Received:

February 21, 2009; Accepted: June 11, 2009] Portable biogas plant 18. 4.1 principle of of the cid summary fermentation. BIOGAS production is a microbial process. Books? A microbes involved in. BIOGAS production grow in the absence of air (Oxygen). The most important.

organisms are tiny bacteria. Essay? Different groups of bacteria act upon complex organic. materials in the absence of air to produce biogas rise in the methane. Books? The process. involved combined action of four groups of bacteria, in Subculture in America four stages in the BIOGAS. plant. Bonaparte? The first stage is the degradation of high molecular weight substances like. cellulose, starch, protein, fats, etc. present in organic materials into small molecular. weight compounds like fatty acids amino acid, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, this is. brought about by a hydrolytic group of bacteria, in the second stage the end products. of the first stage are converted into Virtual Teen Essay acetate and hydrogen by acetogens, in order to.

produce more acetate a third stage is involved in which organism s known as. homoacetogens convert hydrogen and simple compounds produce in the first stage. and second stages into acetate. The fourth stage is the conversion of acetate and. some other simple compounds like format, carbon dioxide and hydrogen into. methane. Napoleon Bonaparte Books? This is brought about by a unique group of organisms known as. methanogens; methane being lighter than air raises out of the system and can be. collected and used for various purposes. 4.2 Mechanism of biogas fermentation. Biogas fermentation is an anaerobic process by which organic materials are.

degraded to web pages, produce methane as in end product in the absence of molecular oxygen. .the microbes involved in napoleon bonaparte biogas fermentation are called microbes include nonmethane. producing bacterial and Immigrant Essay, methane producing bacteria .The non-methane. producing bacteria can be divided into two groups. a) Fermentative bacteria. b) Hydrogen producing bacteria.

People knew very few little about the intrinsic law of napoleon biogas fermentation until. Hungate carried out an extensive study on the anaerobic cultivating technique of. methane producing bacteria and methane producing bacteria in 1950. He also. worked on the variety of cid summary biogas microbes the stability of fermentation process and. Portable biogas plant 19. mutual relationship between the different stages in the whole process of napoleon books biogas.

fermentation in 1979. Brayant divided the The Development of Intelligent Essay process into three phases. They are 1: Hydrolysis and Fermentation 2: Production of napoleon bonaparte books Hydrogen Acetic Acid 3: Methangoenesis these phases are describing below with chemical reaction and.

4.2.1 STAGE 1: Hydrolysis and fermentation: Fermentative bacteria, a very complicated and mixed group of are involved. in the first stage of biogas fermentation .They hydrolyse various complex organic. substances .They use the oxygen in air trapped inside the digester and oxygen from. water for poem cid summary, breaking down foodstuffs the hydrolyse carbohydrates simple sugars and.

alcohol proteins into napoleon books amino acids and of the cid summary, fats into soluble organic mater and napoleon books, long chain. fatty acid s(fulford-1988). C6H12O6 + H2O C6H12O6 + H2O 2CH3COOH + 2CO2 + 4H2. C6H12O6 C3H7COOH + 2CO2 + 2H2. C6H12O6 + 2H2 2C3H7COOH + H2O. 4.2.2 STAGE2: Production of Hydrogen Acetic Acid. Hydrogen producing acetogenic bacteria take part in the second stage of.

Biogas fermentation. The substances produced in the first stage are further. decomposed into volatile fatty acids carbon dioxides and hydrogen, acetic acid is. a major constituent at this stage. C2H5COOH + 2H2 O CH3COOH + CO2+ 3H2. C3H7COOH + 2H2 O CH3COOH + 3H2. The variety and quantity of fermentative and hydrogen producing acetogenic. bacteria vary with fermentation material .Judging from their reaction to oxygen. they are mostly anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. If some of air. present at this stages the digestion process stops.

Portable biogas plant 20. 4.2.3 STAGE 3: Methaogeneis: Methane producing bacteria takes part in this stage to The Development of Intelligent Transportation Systems, convert the acetic. acid, hydrogen carbon dioxide and formic acid produced in the previous stages to. produce methane through metabolism by acetoclastic methane bacteria and. hydrogen utilizing methane bacteria according to reactions- CH3COOH CH4 + CO2. CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + 2H2O. Fig. 7 the napoleon bonaparte books Anaerobic Process.

Source: Intermediate Tech. publications, Portable biogas plant 21. In fact these stages are not separate from corporate, one another each stage provides. substrates, energy and suitable media for succeeding stage. The last stage regulates. and stimulates biogas fermentation and enables the whole system dynamic.

equilibrium (yongfy, 1989) 4.3 Factors affecting fermentation process: ' PH fermentative fluid: Biogas fermentation requires an environment with neutral PH i.e. Napoleon Books? usually. 7.0 to 8.0.When a biogas plant is newly started, the acid former become active first, reducing the PH value to 7.0 by increasing acid content. The mthanogens then start. using this acid increasing the PH back to neutral. A working plant is therefore. buffered that are the acid level is controlled by the process itself.

The gas production efficiency increases with temp. The length of retention. time of material is also determined by the fermentative temperature. The higher the. temperature the faster the slurry is needed.

If the fermenting temperature is between. 32.20 and 370 the referencing retention time for the fermentation of the cattle dung or plant. waste matter will be between 28and 30 days. Where AS 23.90 it takes between 50. to 70 days to bonaparte, digest the material completely. The Chenghu Research Institute also. ascertained that a higher temperature between 45 to 6000c the retention time then. even reduces to 10 says. However a stable of on The Recreation fermenting temperature is required to maintain the normal state. of biogas fermentation. Biogas microbes especially method producing bacteria are.

sensitive to sudden change of temp. The ideal temp. Is about 3500 C. if the books slurry. temp. Is lower than optimum, gas production will be stopped. The generation of.

biogas will be slowed down noticeably if there is an Virtual Program, abrupt change of temp. Of 1000. The main anaerobes among the biogas microbes i.e. the methane producing. bacteria are very sensitive to oxygen. They die if they are exposed to napoleon, air. Referencing Web Pages? So it is. an obvious criterion to create an anaerobic condition for the mehanogenic bacteria.

At the beginning of fermentation, a small amount of bonaparte books oxygen and aerobes get into. the digester along with the feed stuck. These aerobes consume the oxygen and. create suitable anaerobic condition for struck anaerobes. To ensure an anaerobic. environment the digester must be fully seal so that there is no leakage of gas or. Portable biogas plant 22. ' Effective of toxins on biogas fermentation: Industrial effluent can contain toxic materials which may kill methane. producing bacteria.

Antibiotics, pesticides, detergent, chlorinated hydrocarbon such. as chloroform and other organic solvent also kill bacteria and there by stop the. functioning of digester. Therefore, care must be taken so that the fermentation. materials and web pages, water used are not polluted by such materials. Suitable water content is required for the metabolic activities in biogas. fermentation.

The water content should be around 90% of the weight of napoleon books total. content. Too much or too much little water both is poem of the cid summary, harmful. 4.4 Effect of metals on biogas production: Presence of some metals also influences the biogas production. The addition.

of calcium (5mm) cobalt (50 ??g g' 1 TS), iron (50 mm), magnesium (7.5 mm), molybdenum (10'20 mm), nickel (10 ??g g' 1 TS) individually as well as in. combination enhanced the biogas production and attributed this to napoleon bonaparte, the increased. methanogenic population in the digesters. The addition of nickel at 2.5 ppm. increased the biogas production from Essay, digesters fed with water hyacinth and cattlewaste.

blend and attributed this to higher activity of nickel-dependent metaloenzymes. involved in biogas production. The iron or manganese at 1100 ??g g' 1 of. dry matter did not influence the yield of biogas. Books? However, the addition of iron as. ferrous sulphate at 50 mm level showed faster bioconversion of of the cid summary both the napoleon books cow dung.

and poultry waste. In the case of cobalt, (0.2 mg l' 1) improved the gas yield and. methane content of gram clover silage-fed digester. The addition of cobalt, nickel, and iron increased the biogas production from mango peel-fed digester which was. several folds higher than the control. The addition of borax and The Development Transportation Systems, di-borane at 0.2 g/l. increased the gas production from digesters fed with water hyacinth as the substrate.

4.5 Fermentation materials and gas production. Any substance can be digested in the biogas plant, but the rate and. efficiency of digestion of the fermentation depends on the physical and chemical. form. The cattle dung is the easiest feed stock for the digest as it already contains. the right bacteria and is broken down chemically by acids and enzymes in napoleon books the.

animals gut. Of The Cid Summary? Raw materials containing cellulose lignin are difficult to digest. Gas. production from different fermentation materials depends on temp. Retention time, correct operation of the plant etc. bacteria are most active a temp. Of 350c and stops. Portable biogas plant 23. 4.6 Analysis of the products of napoleon bonaparte books biogas (theoretically): The products of the biogas are CO2, CH4, H2S etc. and it has unknown the. percent weight of these gasses.

First, it is required to find out the present weight. analysis of the products of biogases. In some cases the corporate analysis of the bonaparte gases may. also be calculated from an analysis of the product. The or sat apparatus, schematic. sketch of poem cid summary which is napoleon bonaparte, shown in following figure, is one device that can be used to. make analysis of the products of gases.

Portable biogas plant 24. 5.1 work history. The step by step work done during this entire term for starbucks corporate, the conduction of this. dissertation is described below. The various activities are listed below. Existing biogas problem of portability. Creation of idea of a home base mini portable biogas plant. Referred internet and books for theory of biogas plant for statistics and the. current biogas plant scenario. The basic of biogas studied. Review the type of biogas plant.

' Select final concept. The fixed dome type biogas plant was selected for the creation of a portable. ' Design specification and material selection. Calculation based on digester design carried out. Material selection plastic and napoleon bonaparte, PVC. done due to ease of starbucks portaility. 5.2 Various Parts of napoleon books our Portable Biogas Plan.

' Outlet gas pipe. Portable biogas plant 25. Part Diameter (m) Height Length (m) 1 Inlet pipe 0.0508 - 0.4. 2 Outlet Pipe 0.1016 - 0.25. 3 Digester 0.3012 0.6069. 4 Air Gap 0.0040 - - 5 Gas Valve 0.02 - - 6 Gas Tube 0.02 - 1.0. 5.3 Raw Material Specifications. The basic raw material we will be using in the digester will be cow dung. Furthermore, after the complete start of yield of the biogas, other raw materials.

may be used. The raw material specifications of the cow dung are provided below: C, 1 Kg of dry dung gives 0.186 m. of gas. The ratio of dry dung. to water in dung is 1:4. Immigrant Subculture In America? Normally 1 Kg of wet dung is mixed with to get the slurry. The duration of each cycle depends upon bonaparte books the ambient temperature. Hence if the. gas requirement and duration of cycle are known, then the on The Benefits amount of the water and. dung required can be estimated. The volume of the slurry is equivalent to the 50%of the volume of the.

digester. Hence the slurry would be kept at the half level of the napoleon bonaparte digester. Portable biogas plant 26. 6.1 Shape and static loading. ' A biogas plant should be watertight. The gasholder must be gaslight. Corporate? For this reason.

a biogas plant must have no cracks. But structures of napoleon books masonry or concrete always. crack. One can try to on The Benefits of the Recreation Center, keep the cracks small. And one can determine the napoleon bonaparte position. where the cracks are to arise. ' Cracks always arise where the tensile stresses are highest. Tensile stresses arise. from tensile forces, flexure, displacements, and settling and temperature. fluctuations.

When mortar or concrete sets, shrinkage cracks also form. Referencing Web Pages? Stresses are. high where the external forces are high. External forces are earth pressure, dead. weight and bonaparte books, applied load. Stresses are highest where the internal forces are highest. Internal forces are flexural, normal, gravitational and referencing web pages, torsional forces. The. external forces can be reduced by favourable shaping of the structure. Books? The liquid.

pressure and cid summary, earth pressure are less in napoleon books a low biogas plant. Of Intelligent Systems? This is napoleon books, because both. depend directly on the height. ' The internal forces can also be reduced by favourable shaping of the structure. If. the external forces can act in one direction only, high internal forces arise. If, however, the external forces can be distributed in a number of directions, small. internal forces arise. Immigrant Subculture Essay? This is the case with all curved surfaces or shells. ' Slabs will support a heavier load than beams for a given thickness of material.

A. curved shell supports more than a flat slab. Napoleon? A shell cuned in more than one. dimension supports more than a shell of simple curvature. Virtual Teen Essay? Curved structural. components are more rigid; the stresses are smaller in them. Just imagine how thick. the shell of a hen's egg would have to be if it were shaped like a cube! Cracks arise. where stresses are high. Particularly high stresses - peak stresses - arise at points. where the bonaparte books stress pattern is disturbed.

Such disturbances occur at edges, angles, corners and poem cid summary, under concentrated, applied or other loads. Disturbances arise along the. line of intersection of surfaces. Cracks form at these points due to peak stresses. Peak stresses always arise at the edges of angular structures. For this reason the gas.

space of a fixed-dome plant must never be angular. ' Cracks arise owing to tensile stresses. If a component is under compression, it is. free from napoleon bonaparte, cracks. The gas space of a fixed-dome plant should therefore always be. Portable biogas plant 27. under pressure at every point. The liquid pressure of the fermentation slurry is. directed outwards. The earth pressure is directed inwards.

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And because it uses less material. A round shape is often easier to build than an. angular one. The rounder the better! 6.2 design specification. ' The volume of the digester Vd in m3 is given by: Where Vf = volume of the Slurry Fluid in m. Tr = Retention Time in days. ' The volume of the Slurry Fluid Vf in 'm. ' added per day is given by:

Where mo = Dry Mass of Slurry in kg. rm = Density of dry mass ( ' The Dry mass weight mo' of biomass added per day in 'kg is given by: ' The volume of biogas generated in m3 is given by: Where C = Biogas/Dry mass. Portable biogas plant 28. TO find the volume of the Virtual Program digester Vd in 'm' Average Diameter D in m = = (0.1524+0.45)/2. Volume of Tank Vd = Pi/4 D. H; Where H=Height of Digester Tank. The Retention Time Tris estimated using the bonaparte ambient temperature of the referencing process of. fermentation which is 14-15 Days at bonaparte 30-35. To find the referencing volume of the Slurry Fluid Vf (m3.

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Portable biogas plant 30. Advantages of napoleon books our portable biogas plant. over other plants. 1 Portability Easily. Polyethylene Bricks and. 3 Space required 1 m2 /- 6.25 m2 10 to 100 m2. Very less Moderate Large. 5 Gas pressure Constant Constant Vary. 6 Maintenance None None High.

Very less Less Large. 8 Investment Negligible Less High. 9 Payback period 1 month 2 years 3-4 years. 10 Installation Easiest Moderate Cumbersome. Portable biogas plant 31. 7.2 Required Area Comparison. The area occupied by our portable biogas plant compared with conventional biogas plant. as well as other portable ones is shown below, Portable biogas plant 32. There are several results obtained by Teen Program this dissertation: ' The volume of the biogas that will be generated per day for napoleon books, biogas plant is calculated. and found out to be 0.05 m3/day.

' The volume of the slurry fluid for biogas plant is calculated and found out to in America Essay, be. ' The dry mass of the books biomass to be added per day for biogas plant is calculated and. is found out to be 0.24 kg/day. ' The retention time of the whole process is estimated as 15 days at about 30-3500 C. Portable biogas plant 33. ' We conclude from starbucks corporate, this dissertation that the biogas plant developed is highly. portable in nature and can be remotely taken to any place and the energy. generated from the plant can be utilized portably. ' Several applications of this biogas plant can be made which would further.

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Guide to undergraduate dissertations in the social sciences. The dissertation or final year project requires organisational and time management skills in order to complete to a high standard. Due to competing demands on time, many students do not always devise and follow a work schedule, which can have implications for the quality of work that is produced and stress levels! Before getting started €“ consider how you will manage your time. This video clip contains comments from the following academics: Psychology Shawna McCoy. Criminology Christopher Crowther-Dowey. How to start preparing a dissertation. The first stage is to decide on bonaparte, the topic that you wish to write about. You have an opportunity to explore and research in depth, using any previous study, a subject that is of personal interest to of Intelligent Systems, you and also helps you develop your interest even further.

The topic can be related to a career aspiration. Although the bonaparte books, dissertation is hard work, it should be rewarding, because it represents individual academic achievement of a kind that may makes a difference to your field of Immigrant in America Essay, enquiry. Let your ideas and imagination flow! Some of the first stages are not unlike deciding where to go on holiday. There are many factors that may influence your choice; will you choose a trekking holiday in the Andes or a beach holiday in the Med?

Selecting a topic for your dissertation is not always easy. Some people are fortunate €“ an napoleon idea for a dissertation may pop into their mind immediately. Poem Of The Cid Summary! For many, however, this is not the case, and napoleon bonaparte, you may need to be more systematic in your search for referencing, the dissertation question or topic that you wish to explore further. You may find that you have too few ideas, or too many. You may have to do a great deal of thinking and background reading before you reach a decision about the topic in which you want to napoleon, invest a lot of Teen Program, time and effort. Talk to a member of academic staff at an early stage about your ideas. Let them know you just want to have a general discussion. (In many institutions, students are actively discouraged from approaching individual members of staff to ask them to bonaparte books, act as a dissertation supervisor, so check the procedures in your institution before you do anything like this.) Talk to other students directly or in a discussion forum. Draw upon the unresolved questions and issues you had from other units/modules that you have studied or intend to study. Use the reading and knowledge from these units to Essay Center, develop a dissertation question. Books! Use newspapers and other media to identify topical issues related to areas of social policy, politics, sociology, criminology, etc.

Become familiar with the search sources and support available, particularly within your own institution and via the Web, to find relevant critical and scholarly material. Draw upon your own experience (as an of the Student Center employee, a parent, part of a campaigning group, a student, a patient and napoleon bonaparte, so on). Scan the academic journals. Think about a book you have found interesting. Finding a topic for Transportation Systems, the dissertation. Inspiration can come from many places when looking for a dissertation topic. The topic you select needs to be one that can be addressed in an appropriately academic manner within the time constraints of the dissertation.

Will the topic sustain your interest over the months to bonaparte, come? Is the topic one which you can approach with analytic distance? Is there an existing literature within which you can locate your work? Is the topic one that you can research with the time and resources available? Avoid too broad a topic or one that is overly ambitious: it is better to find a thoroughly researched and argued answer to a small question than to Immigrant Subculture in America Essay, fail to find the answer to one which is too big or diffuse. Your main interest in the topic may be: An area of books, social life. A type of method that you would like to use. A body of theory that you are interested in of Intelligent Transportation Systems Essay, exploring. Bringing all three of these together is bonaparte a way of narrowing the focus of the dissertation into of the Student, a manageable project. Start writing at the beginning of the project.

Many people find it useful to keep a research notebook in which you can record: Your initial ideas. Points from the literature or other sources that you are consulting. Your observations and impressions. New ideas as they develop.

Problems that you come across. Keep records of your reading at napoleon books the preliminary stage. Keep an accurate record of the bibliographical details of all the material that you read - doing this as you progress will save an enormous amount of time at the end of the project. Check that you know the referencing system specified by your course and get into the habit of using it. Always write the full bibliographic details on the top of any photocopies or print-outs. Keep a running bibliography in alphabetical order as a computer file or card index. Note in starbucks, your research diary when you read a particular source. Use software that is available to you to manage your references, e.g.

Ref Works. Note: When you refer directly to the work of an author in your dissertation, it is especially important to record the details precisely, to ensure that it is accurately referenced and to avoid the bonaparte, risk of plagiarism (for more information see the cid summary, section on plagiarism ). A final year project, like many other forms of napoleon books, assessments, needs to on The Benefits Recreation Center, be located within the existing literature in napoleon bonaparte books, that area. The Development Of Intelligent Systems! In order to do this you need to do lots of reading! Typically you will read: Classic studies in your chosen area. Recent studies published as books or journal articles. Research methods and methodology texts.

Social theory relevant to bonaparte books, your approach. Starbucks Corporate! Primary literature sources. The typical length of a bibliography for napoleon books, a dissertation would include anything between 25-50 references. For example, there are, to varying degrees, references to: Theoretical/conceptual material. Virtual Teen Program Essay! Methods/methodologies. Napoleon Bonaparte! Policy/practitioner literature. The process of thinking about the dissertation topic and methods is an evolving one. It may help to get some form of personal recording of the ideas, links and resources that you come across in the initial thinking and information-gathering stages. Do not simply rely on your memory to store all the Essay of the Student Recreation, strands of information you come across. A key part of books, success in corporate, dissertation-writing is being organised and systematic in your approach and the earlier you can adopt this, the napoleon, better.

This type of note-taking may link into the writing of Program, other learning logs or personal development planning you are doing already within your degree. You might want to keep a record of: Questions or ideas that interest you. Possible ways of researching these. Bonaparte! References to follow up at a later stage. Referencing Web Pages! Sources of information that you have found useful. Notes on napoleon, articles and papers you have read or programmes you have seen or heard. You can use library resources and the Internet to discover primary and secondary material and to find out what critical and scholarly material is available to Transportation Systems, inform your study. Usually dissertations are undertaken in napoleon bonaparte books, the final year of a three-year degree.

If this is the case for you then you should begin the process during your second year. If you have module options in Year 3 you may decide your dissertation topic before confirming these modules. The first task is to establish your overall area of interest. It will be important that the topic you choose can interest you enough to sustain your commitment during the coming months. Write down the reasons for your interest. These may provide pointers to the sort of questions you want to ask within the poem cid summary, study. As you go on, you may find that your interest begins to take shape, or changes a little, as you focus more closely on it. What is the overall area of napoleon books, your interest?

Write a paragraph that would give someone else a clear picture of the issues. How has your interest developed over time? Can you identify incidents or experiences that have generated your interest? These may be personal or professional, or to starbucks corporate, do with current work priorities. Napoleon Bonaparte! Are there any key writers who have shaped your interest or whose views conflict with yours? Where would you like the work to lead in the longer term? Is this research connected with work you currently do or would like to do at some stage? Does anyone else have an interest in The Development of Intelligent Transportation Systems, the topic you choose for your study?

This may not be a problem but it is important to recognise if there are others with interests in the work. What are the questions to which you want to napoleon bonaparte, find answers in your research? You might have a hypothesis €“ i.e. Starbucks Corporate! a belief about napoleon bonaparte books something (founded upon evidence) which has never been fully tested, proved or disproved. You may, on the other hand, want to corporate, couch your interest in terms of an exploration of issues, attitudes or experiences, or as a question. Write a list of all the questions you want to answer and group them into bonaparte, priorities or hierarchies and show the connections between them. At this stage you may want to Virtual Program, do some weeding out of overlapping or less relevant questions.

It is helpful to list your questions and then to answer why you want to know the answer and how it will help you to pursue your overall enquiry. Where is any work currently being done in this area? Can you identify any specialist collections of literature? Are there particular people associated with them? What do you know about what is currently known, written about or researched in napoleon bonaparte books, the area? How are you going to track down the starbucks, research and theory to support your study? Talk to tutors on the course to see if anyone can help. Time management and work planning. Dissertations usually have a long lead in books, time so it is essential that you think about the various stages of work that need to be undertaken and get into good habits early on in the process, for example with keeping records of cid summary, searches undertaken, ideas that crop up and material to be sought after and incorporated.

You might want to devise a schedule of work from start to finish, perhaps in discussion with your supervisor or tutor, or monthly plans. Nearer the deadline you may wish to use weekly schedules to keep you on track. If you are undertaking empirical work your planning will need to be even more detailed so that you are aware of slippage that may affect completion of the research. Your will need to allow time for bonaparte, the following: Refining the starbucks, research question/hypothesis; Checking if your project needs Ethics Committee/School Research Governance approval; Designing the framework for the literature review; Undertaking the literature search and bonaparte, using the framework to develop the review; Developing the methodology for fieldwork and identifying appropriate methods; If required, gaining access and corporate, agreeing arrangements for data collection; Collecting the data; Coding/transcribing data; Analysing data; Developing the discussion; Writing up the study and conclusions.

If you're doing empirical fieldwork, you've got to give yourself time to bonaparte, do it; you've got to appreciate that it takes time, doing things like designing a questionnaire or an interview schedule. (Todd, Bannister and Clegg, 2006, p168) Project management software is worth using. Devising your own tables for Transportation, reference can be helpful. You will probably also be involved in Personal Development Planning (PDP) linked to Progress Files and you may want to link your dissertation work to books, your PDP as you will be using a diverse range of skills to complete the dissertation and you may be able to corporate, identify how you have progressed or acquired new skills or learning. Napoleon Books! For example you may use skills related to: negotiation (e.g. when obtaining access to cid summary, research participants; with your supervisor) communication presentation time management project management. Time management and work planning.

This video clip contains comments from the following academic: Ideas for topics can come from a variety of sources - staff, other students, past modules and essays, the media or the bonaparte, Internet. Choose a topic that will sustain your interest over the coming year. Choose a topic with some background and existing literature to it. Consider methods you would like to use, and theories you would like to explore. Write things down as they happen, from your initial ideas to problems and your own feelings about the of the, project. Keep a bibliography of napoleon bonaparte books, your reading, with summaries and notes for Transportation Systems, your own reference. Think about the different tasks you may need to do and in napoleon books, what order. Consider project management organisational tools that may help you. Use checklists of tasks to be completed, and adapt to suit your own needs. What specific topic are you really interested in? (Hint: this may not be the same thing as what you think you ought to be interested in!) Do you understand everything you read the first time you read it?

Will you need to Essay on The of the Student Recreation Center, re-read some texts and passages? (This will take time.) Are you keeping notes of napoleon books, what you read and your ideas? Is your note taking time efficient and are the notes useful to The Development of Intelligent Essay, you? Have you kept a clear record of texts you will need to napoleon books, refer to or read again? Have you mapped out the Transportation, work that you need to do from start to finish for your dissertation? Have you linked the stages of napoleon, work to timelines? Do you think your planning is realistic? Have you looked at software and proformas that may be able to help you? MOORE, N.(2000). How to do research.

The complete guide tp designing and managing research projects . 3rd ed., London, Facet Publishing, chapters 12 - objectives and poem of the, planning. ROWNTREE, D.(1998). Learn how to study . 4th ed., London, Warner place, chapter 9 - writing notes. SEALE, C.(2006). Napoleon! Researching society and culture . London, Sage, chapter 7 - palnning.

Here are some web resources that you might find useful: Identifying a research topic: © 1. Julia Waldman and Dr Malcolm Todd (Leeds Metropolitan University), Ian Baker (Sheffield Hallam University), Dr Anne Hollows (Sheffield Hallam University) © This resource has been developed in partnership by the Higher Education Academy and Sheffield Hallam University.