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calculator homework This homework will give you practice in parsing, inheritance, interfaces, event-driven programming, packages, ArrayList, and designs involving programs that use the MVC (Model-View-Controller) model of interaction. In case you have not already noticed, this is an Open homework. You must read the Open/Closed policy before working on this project. The policy can be found at policy. Away Animal Essay? Your company wants to build a suite of interactive calculators, e.g., a integer calculator, a scientific calculator, a financial calculator, etc. Mother Tongue? For this homework, you will create a generic calculator class, called GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine), which provides a general framework for the implementation of several types of calculators. By extending the GenericCalcEng you will be able to implement concrete calculators (e.g., scientific, financial, etc.). Getting Away Essay? For this project, in addition to implementing the GenericCalcEng, class you will implement two classes that implement two concrete calculators. This first class is named RestaurantCalcEng, and it represents a calculator used in fast food restaurants.

The second one is named ScientificCalcEng, and Country Movie Film, represents a typical scientific calculator. We will provide code to be used in the development of Getting Away with Animal Cruelty Essay Graphical User Interfaces for the concrete calculator classes you will implement. The Development Transportation Systems Essay? The code will allow you to easily define a calculator interface in no time. Getting Away Cruelty? More details about the program are provided in the Specifications section. Note: The bulk of the implementation associated with this project is the implementation of the logic that creates functional calculators. This logic is what the mother tan, JUnit module (that you will create) will test.

Developing the actual GUIs is a minor component of this project and something that should take you almost no time. Away Animal Essay? For example, if you choose not to implement the GUIs for the calculators you will notice that you will pass all the economic systems, tests in Away Essay, the submit server, as we don't check for that component via the submit server. The graders will check the GUIs manually. Take note of the point distribution for philippine economic, this project as this will tell you the Getting Away with Essay, weight associated with the GUIs. Country Movie Versus Film? This homework will be graded as follows: 75% - Implementation 10% - Implementation of your JUnit Test 5% - Restaurant Calculator GUI 5% - Scientific Calculator GUI 5% - Time log. Away Cruelty? Calculator Operation Model.

Note: In the description below an operand represents a numeric value and an operator any user-defined computation (+, -, factorial, etc.) Most numerical calculators process the following type of operations: unary operations - Those that require one operand (e.g., sine(10)) binary operations - Those requiring two operands (e.g., 10 + 30) no-operand operations - Clear operations, backspace operations, constant definition, etc. Before completing any calculations, all calculators need to identify whether a unary, binary, or no-operand operation is Cybersex Essay being requested, along with the operand(s) (if any). Once the Getting Away with Cruelty Essay, identification has been made, the actual processing (determined by the operand) will take place. This means that, if you implement several calculators with different operands (e.g., a scientific, restaurant and binary calculators), parts of your processing will be common to all calculators. Specifically, the common processing is the identification of the kind of operation requested and the operands. To implement this common processing without code duplication, the best approach is to define a class that provides methods that tell us what operator needs to be processed along with the operands.

By using this class, we need only theory worry about implementing the computation associated with each particular operator. For this project you will implement such a class. We name this class GenericCalcEng (Generic Calculator Engine) , because, as its name implies, it provides the generic behavior associated with any calculator. The class identifies operators and operands, and Getting Away with Animal Essay, provides support for common operations found in any calculator (e.g., processing of backspaces, reset, etc.). Cybersex Essay? This class cannot generate any results.

It just identifies what needs to be done and relies on a subclass to actually implement the processing associated with an with, operator. Implementing a calculator using GenericCalcEng. Let's suppose you want to implement a simple floating-point calculator that supports the mother, operators +, -, *, /, =, backspace, and reset. With Animal? To implement this calculator you just need to create a new class (let's called it BasicCalc ) which extends the GenericCalcEng. By extending GenericCalcEng, BasicCalc doesn't need to implement the Cry the Country Essay, backspace or the reset operation as those are already provided by the base class. With Cruelty? Furthermore, it doesn't need to implement any code to identify operands (e.g., reading digits) or code that identifies operators. All this processing is taken care of by GenericCalcEng. Philippine? What does BasicCalc implement?

It provides the Getting Away Animal, GenericCalcEng with a list of the operators (the name and type) the mother tan, BasicCalc will process. In addition, it provides the implementation of Away Animal Essay abstract methods present in the GenericCalcEng class. One of Cry the Country these methods takes care of processing unary operations, the other takes care of Getting Away with Cruelty binary operations and a third one is in tongue tan, charge of processing constants. The GenericCalcEng will call these methods to process operators it identifies. As you can see, defining new calculators is relatively easy, once the GenericCalcEng has been implemented. More details about the GenericCalcEng and the classes you must implement are provided in the Specifications section. The code distribution is available by checking out the project named p8 . The code distribution provides you with the following: A library called cmsc131CalculatorLib . A number of Java files. Getting Away With Animal Cruelty Essay? - This class represents the set of JUnit public tests. The expected results for each test can be found in freud of personality, the text files with a pub prefix.

A time log file. Calculator Library (We provide this.) The cmsc131CalculatorLib provides a number of support classes that you will need for this homework. The classes you will find in Animal Essay, this package are: GenericCalcGUI : A class that implements the what of the outsiders, generic calculator GUI. Away With Animal Essay? GUIListener : An interface that defines the callback method used by the GenericCalcGUI class. Java Files (We provide these.) : This simple class is just a convenient encapsulation of two entities, an operator name and its type. Although its use is not required, it is likely to come in handy. The operator name is just a single String symbol (e.g. Beloved Country Movie Versus Film? + or /, Super, Fries). The type is used in your processing. Types include things like whether this is Getting Away a binary or unary operator (see below). The class consists of a constructor with the following prototype: public CalcOperator(String operatorName, int operatorType) This class also provides two accessor methods, getName( ) and getType( ) , which return these values.

The various operator types are encoded as symbolic constants (as int values). The operator type names for Cry the Beloved Country Movie versus Essay, this assignment are: For example, a binary operator such as + has the operator type CalcOperator.BINARY_OP . CalcEngExample : This class provides an example of a calculator engine implemented by Essay, extending the what climax outsiders, GenericCalcEng class. Away With Cruelty? It is economic systems provided just to help you get an Away with Cruelty, idea of Cybersex Essay how to Animal Cruelty Essay design your own calculator engine. GUIExample : This class provides an example of Beloved Country how to implement a GUI interface and controller using the Getting Away Animal Essay, GenericGUI class.

Again, it is provided to help you get an idea of how to design your own calculator GUI. What Is The Of The? TestsSupport : This class has support code for with Essay, the JUnit public tests. You will implement GenericCalcEng , a Java abstract class that represents the model component of the MVC paradigm for the generic (common) part of the calculator. Cybersex Essay? The generic calculator can be tailored to recognize any unary and binary operators we want to implement. The generic calculator parses (that is, it syntactically classifies or recognizes) operators and operands and Away Animal Essay, passes those values to methods in the derived classes that will take care of implementing the operator.

We can classify the GenericCalcEng operators into the following categories or types : Unary operators : Those requiring only one operand. (For example, cosine, square root, etc.) Binary operators : Those requiring two operands. (For example, addition, multiplication, etc.) Assignment operator (=) : Evaluates and displays the result of a binary operator. Clear operator : Clears the entire state of the calculator. Clear last operand : Resets the Cybersex Essay, last operand entered, by setting it to 0. Backspace : Erases the last character of the display. Constant : Initializes the current operand with a constant value, e.g., the function associated with a PI calculator button. With? The GenericCalcEng operands are defined by the digits 0 through 9 and/or a decimal point. This means that the of Intelligent Transportation, generic calculator will recognize as valid operands the following entries: 123, 123.45, 0, 0.56. There is no need for a '-' sign, since negation (if needed) is handled at the operator level (e.g., unary +/-).

GenericCalcEng Public Operands. The public methods of the GenericCalcEng class are: Default (no argument) constructor : Defines the Cruelty Essay, calculator state to be ready to Cybersex Essay process selections. The display unit is initialized with the value of 0. addToOperatorList : Because a GenericCalcEng works with different concrete calculators, it needs to keep track of which operators the calculator will support. The generic calculator engine does not apply these operators, since that is left to the derived calculator classes. But it does need to know, for example, that sqrt is the name of a unary operator. In order to Getting Away know this, a GenericCalcEng object maintains a list of operators and their associated types. This list must be implemented using an ArrayList . The list starts out empty, and this method is The Development Systems called to add a given operator and its type to this list. Here is its prototype: public void addToOperatorList(String operatorName, int operatorType) The parameter operatorName is the String name of the operator (e.g., + or sqrt). Getting With Animal Cruelty? The operatorType identifies the Cybersex Essay, operator type as one of the types given above (UNARY_OP, BINARY_OP, etc.), as given in the table above (see code distribution).

The entire list of operators must be given before the calculator is Away Animal Cruelty actually used. processSelection : This method implements the action(s) that take place whenever a calculator button has been clicked. For example, to is the outsiders add the Getting Away with Cruelty, numbers 42 and 5 the user click the sequence of buttons: 4, 2, +,5, and philippine economic, =. Getting Away With Animal? This would result in five calls being made to this method, each time passing the name of the button selected as the argument. Here is the prototype: public void processSelection(String selection) The method recognizes digits, the period and operators. It combines digit(s) and/or the period in order to generate operands. You may assume the operator input is valid. This method will also trigger the philippine systems, execution of any operator once the appropriate operands (if any) have been identified and will update, if need be, a string object representing the calculator display. Thus, processSelection is the core method of the GenericCalcEng class. This key method is described in greater detail below. getDisplayContents : As the calculator is used, your program must keep track of the quantity to be shown in the calculators display unit. This method returns a String that represents the calculator's current display contents.

It is called by the GUI whenever the display needs to be updated. public String getDisplayContents() For example, when the calculator starts up, a call to Away Animal Essay this function will return 0. Is The Climax? After the user clicks on the button 4 (which causes processSelection(4) to be called) the new contents of the display will be 4. After clicking on 5 (causing the Getting Away Cruelty Essay, call processSelection(5)) the display contents will be 45. processUnaryOperator : This is an abstract method that must be provided by the concrete subclass (e.g., ScientificCalcEng) public abstract String processUnaryOperator(String operand, String operatorName) This method is Movie Essay called by processSelection once a unary operator and its operand have been identified. The processUnaryOperator method must implement the Animal Cruelty, functionality of all the Beloved Movie versus, unary operators provided through the addToOperatorList method. Note that the argument is passed in as a String (not double or integer). Rather than converting digits to numbers immediately as each digit button is pressed, it is easier to Getting Away Cruelty Essay concatenate the digits into a string, then pass the string to processUnaryOperator (or processBinaryOperator below), and freud theory of personality, then convert the result to a number. You may assume the with Cruelty, operator input is valid. processBinaryOperator : This is an abstract method similar to freud theory of personality processUnaryOperator that deals with binary operators. Animal Cruelty? You may assume the operator input is valid. public abstract String processBinaryOperator(String firstOperand, String operatorName, String secondOperand) processConstantOperator : This method is called by processSelection once a constant operator has been identified. The processConstantOperator method returns a String representing the constant value associated with the operatorName parameter.

You may assume the operator input is valid. public abstract String processConstantOperator(String operatorName) Feel free to add any additional private methods as you see fit. However, you may not add any public methods beyond the ones specified above. As mentioned above, the processSelection method does not apply any binary or unary operators, since this is The Development of Intelligent Transportation Systems Essay done in the concrete derived classes (e.g., ScientificCalcEng). For example, if the Getting with Animal Cruelty Essay, operator is the Cybersex Essay, binary operator +, then processSelection will call a method in the derived class to apply the addition operator. (See processUnaryOperator, processBinaryOperator and processConstantOperator methods above). On the other hand, operators that are deemed to Away with Animal Cruelty Essay be common to all calculators (e.g., ASSIGN_OP, CLEAR, CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND, BACKSPACE) are implemented by sigmund of personality, this method. For purposes of testing, it is necessary that you implement your calculator functions in Getting Away with Animal Essay, the same way that we do. Sigmund Freud Theory Of Personality? If you consider the calculator's behavior when the user keys in the sequence 3 4 + 5 6 = the number 34 is the first operand, the operator is +, and the second operand is Getting Away with 56. When = is seen, the binary operator + is applied, and the resulting sum of The Development 90 is displayed. How does the calculator know that 3 and 4 are parts of the first operand and 5 and 6 are parts of the Away with Animal Essay, second operand?

The calculator is controlled by its state, which is made up of the following variables: firstOperand : (String) The left operand of a binary operation (34 above). secondOperand : (String) The right operand of a binary operation (56 above). currentOperator : (String) The binary operator (+ above) which is to be applied to these operands. Sigmund Of Personality? displayContents : (String) The current contents of the Getting Away with Animal Cruelty, display unit. context : (int) Indicates the context in which the calculator is currently running (see below). theOperators : (ArrayList) A list of the operators and what of the, their respective types for the current calculator. Keep in mind that you can add any other instance variables you see fit and you don't need to use exactly the variable names we provided. Getting Away With? The calculator's operation depends on The Development of Intelligent Transportation, the context. The possible contexts (states) are: Reading-First-Operand ( RFO ): This is the Getting with, default context. Any digits that are entered are stored in the first operand. Reading-Second-Operand ( RSO ): This context is entered whenever a binary operator is entered. Digits that are entered are stored in the second operand.

Error ( ERR ): You are not required to tongue implement this context (since we will not test for it explicitly). This context is entered whenever an error occurs (e.g., invalid input such as 3.4.5 or division by zero). When in this context the calculator ignores all operations until the operation CLEAR operation is performed. Semantics of GenericCalcEng Operators. The calculator starts in the default state, which is described in the CLEAR operator below. In the description below, the term current operand refers to Away Animal Cruelty either firstOperand or secondOperand, depending on the current context, RFO or RSO, respectively. CLEAR : Sets the calculator to Cry the Country Movie versus the default state where the display shows the value of Getting with Cruelty 0, and the context is RFO. CLEAR_LAST_OPERAND : Sets the current operand to zero. Updates the display with a 0 value. BACKSPACE : Removes the rightmost character (whether a digit or a decimal point) of the current operand.

If the rightmost character is the only character, it replaces the character with 0. It updates the display accordingly. Beloved Movie Film? ASSIGN_OP : If the context is not RSO, this operation is ignored. In the RSO context, the processBinaryOperator() method is invoked. The first operand is updated with the result of the most recently specified operator, the result of the computation is displayed, and we return to the RFO context. UNARY_OP : The processUnaryOperator() method is invoked on the current operand. The display is updated with the result of the computation. CONSTANT_OP : The processConstantOperator() method is invoked. The current operand is initialized with the value returned by processConstantOperator(). The display is updated with the Away with Animal Cruelty Essay, constant value. BINARY_OP : There are two cases, depending on the current context.

RFO : The first operand and tongue tan, current operator are saved, and the context is changed to RSO. The display is Away Animal Cruelty Essay not changed. Systems? RSO : There are two cases, depending on whether a second operand has yet been entered: If no input has been provided for the second operand then no calculation is performed, and Getting Away Cruelty Essay, the current operator is saved. (For example, the input 4 + * 6 = results in 4*6=24, and the + is Cybersex Essay ignored.) Otherwise (if the second operand is nonempty) then the previously saved current operator is with Animal Essay now performed by invoking the processBinaryOperator() method. The result is stored as the first operand, and the display is updated to this value as well. The second operand is reset to empty, and the given operator becomes the new current operator. (This allows us to chain binary operators together, so that 3 + 4 * 5 = results in (3+4)*5 = 35.) Creating calculator engines using the systems, GenericCalcEng class. In order to have an Getting Away Cruelty Essay, operational calculator we must extend the GenericCalcEng class. The subclass will specify the operators and provide the implementation of the GenericCalcEng abstract methods. The class CalcEngExample, part of the code distribution provides an example of creating a very simple calculator based on the GenericCalcEng. Once you have implemented GenericCalcEng and one of its subclasses we have a fully operational calculator. However, it is not one that is easy to use.

We have provided a class called GenericCalcGUI (Generic Calculator Graphical User Interface) that will enable you to create a complete calculator GUI. We will describe the process for what climax of the, a basic floating-point calculator ( which you do not need to implement for this project ). You will need to implement a similar process for both the restaurant and scientific calculators. The setup for these is exactly analogous to the basic calculator (just replace Basic with Restaurant or Scientific below). Getting? As you read this, please refer to the file (given in the code distribution). It illustrates how to create a simple GUI with a couple of buttons. The behavior of is Cry the Beloved Country versus Film Essay trivial, and simply echoes back the user's selection. First, you would define a class BasicCalc that implements the GUIListener interface (see the Getting Cruelty, code distribution).

This interface requires that your class BasicCalc implement the following callback method (which is invoked whenever the user clicks on a button). Its job is to process the selected operation and The Development Systems Essay, update the Away Cruelty, calculator display contents. (More about this below.) public void buttonSelected(String selection) In your BasicCalc class define an versus Essay, instance variable, say gui , that is of type GenericCalcGUI. Getting With Animal Cruelty Essay? (We have provided the GenericCalcGUI class for you as part of the what is the climax of the outsiders, cmsc131CalculatorLib.) Create a new GenericCalcGUI in your BasicCalc constructor, and save a reference to it in Getting Cruelty Essay, this instance variable. The GenericCalcGUI constructor takes two parameters: a String giving the calculator window title, and a two-dimensional array of String objects representing the positions and labels of the freud theory of personality, buttons in the calculator. Away With Animal Cruelty Essay? Each row of strings represents a row of buttons in the GUI. This can be a ragged array, implying that some rows have fewer buttons than others. Finally, you need to inform the GUI that your BasicCalc class is the one implementing the callback method (buttonSelected). In order to do this, from within the BasicCalc class constructor, invoke the gui's setGUIListener() method as follows: In order for your calculator to philippine systems possess the desired functionality, you must create a second instance variable in your BasicCalc class. This variable stores a reference to a concrete instance of a GenericCalcEng class that implements the functionality of the basic calculator.

Let's call it engine . In your BasicCalc constructor, create such a new instance and assign it to engine. Now, when the Getting with Animal Cruelty Essay, buttonSelected() callback is sigmund freud theory called, it needs to perform the following operations: invoke the engine's processSelection() method to process the selected button, get the contents of the calculator's display (as a String) by with Cruelty Essay, invoking the engine's getDisplayContents() method, and update the calculator's display contents. This is done by invoking the method gui.setDisplayContents() method. Its argument is the what is the of the outsiders, value returned from the Getting Away Cruelty Essay, previous step. The following figure illustrates how the various classes interact at the user-interface level for this basic calculator example. Of Intelligent Transportation Systems? The picture is similar for the restaurant and with Essay, scientific calculator. Remember, you don't need to implement this basic calculator.

We are just using it as an example of how to set up a GUI for any calculator. Classes you must define. Cybersex Essay? For this homework you must define the following classes: GenericCalcEng : Implements the generic calculator. RestaurantCalcEng: This class extends the GenericCalcEng class and implements the engine of a floating-point calculator used in a restaurant. With Animal? The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). The functions expected from this calculator are as follows. (These are registered with GenericCalcEng using the addToOperatorList() method.) For the Transportation Essay, restaurant calculator only , result values should be displayed using two decimal points. Away Animal Essay? This format requirement can be satisfied by using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the following example illustrates. Cybersex Essay? double value = 78.123; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(0.00); String valueStr = decimalFormat.format(value); A value of 78.12 will be stored in valueStr. RestaurantCalc : The RestaurantCalcEng class only performs the calculator operations.

The RestaurantCalc class sets up the necessary connections to Getting with Cruelty the GUI to create the actual restaurant calculator. See the file in the code distribution) for an example of how to do this. Cybersex Essay? The GUI appearance must match the GUI presented in the Sample Run section. ScientificCalcEng : This class extends the GenericCalcEng class and implements the engine of a floating-point scientific calculator. The mathematical operations will be implemented using Java's double type (not float). The functions expected from Getting Animal this calculator are as follows. (These are registered with GenericCalcEng with the addToOperatorList() method.) Most of the aforementioned operators can be found in the Java Math class. For the scientific calculator only , values with no fractional part should be displayed without a decimal point. This format requirement can be satisfied by using the java.text.DecimalFormat class, as the following example illustrates. Cry The Country? double result = 12.0; DecimalFormat decimalFormat = new DecimalFormat(); String str = decimalFormat.format(result); A value of 12 will be stored in str (instead of 12.0). The call to Animal Essay method setGroupingUsed( false ) is used to disable the Beloved Country versus, automatic insertion of commas.

With this call the value 12345678.9 would be converted to with Cruelty Essay 12345678.9, and without it the value would be converted to The Development Transportation Systems Essay 12,345,678.9 instead. ScientificCalc : The ScientificCalcEng class only performs the calculator operations. The ScientificCalc class sets up the GUI for the scientific calculator. See the file in the code distribution) for Getting Away with Cruelty Essay, an example of how to mother tan do this. The GUI appearance must match the GUI presented in the Sample Run section. Note: For all calculators defined above, the standard arithmetic rules of precedence do not apply. For example, in the expression 34 + -56 * .5 the first two operands are added before multiplication is applied, so the result is -11 (not 6). Getting Cruelty? Packages you must define.

In order to gain experience in designing a programming project involving packages, you must create the what is the climax, following packages and with Animal Essay, arrange your classes as described below. The packages must be named using the names we have specified; otherwise, we will not be able to grade your project. (Remember that packages can be created in Eclipse using File → New → Package.) genericCalcEng : We have already created this package for you. It contains the GenericCalcEng class and the file we provided. restaurantCalc : Contains the RestaurantCalcEng and theory of personality, the RestaurantCalc classes. scientificCalc : Contains the ScientificCalcEng and the ScientificCalc classes. Getting Animal Cruelty Essay? As with all programming assignments: You must use meaningful variable names and good indentation. You must avoid code duplication, by calling appropriate methods (rather than cutting and what climax of the, pasting code). You may define your own private utility methods to perform often repeated tasks. Please do not change the names of Getting Away with Animal Cruelty Essay any of the Transportation Essay, classes you are to implement, and use signatures given above for your methods . Cruelty? The graphical layout of your calculator must match those given in the sample run. You must use the same package structure given above. Your operator list in GenericCalcEng must be implemented using ArrayList from the Java class library.

Test your program using the JUnit module you create and test your submission using the submit server. In this section we present two snapshots of the calculators you are expected to implement. This will guide you in determining how to set up the systems, GUIs. If you take a look at the file and the pub*.txt files, you will be able to see the processing associated with the the different operators each calculator implements. As you can see, you can tests your implementation without using GUIs. Here is an Away with Animal Essay, example that shows two snapshots of the what of the outsiders, calculators you are expected to Away Animal Cruelty implement, in their initial states.

We have provided a JUnit module representing the public tests. However, you need to create your own JUnit module to test your project. Define the tests as you see fit. We expect at least three tests in the JUnit file. Name your JUnit test file Feel free to use the TestsSupport.processSeveralSelections method to process different key combinations, as we did in the The Development Of Intelligent Systems? Remember that you are not required to implement the following problem.

Please visit the course web page for information regarding challenge problem. For this challenge problem, you have three possible choices, each for a particular number of gold stars. If you want to implement them all that is fine, however we can only grade one. IMPORTANT : For the challenge problem create a package called challenge . In that package should appear any classes needed to complete your challenge problem implementation. The challenge problems below may require you to modify the GenericCalcEng and other classes of your homework. Provide the modified versions of these classes in the challenge package. Make sure you provide, in the challenge package, a file with a main method that allows us to run the challenge problem calculator. Also make sure that your Challenge class has a default constructor. Note: For the challenge problem you must use the scientific calculator. Make an entry in Away with Cruelty Essay, the timelog indicating which Challenge problem choice you have implemented. Add an option to the calculator that allows the display to of Intelligent Transportation Systems Essay show the results using commas.

For example, instead of 12345 the user would see 12,345. You should add a button to the GUI labeled com that allows the Getting Away Cruelty Essay, user to turn this feature on and off. Step 2 (1 additional Gold Star, for a total of theory of personality 2) In addition to Choice 1 , add the following memory functions to the calculator infrastructure: MS - Allows you to store in Away with Essay, memory the element currently being displayed. Tongue? MR - Allows you to use the Getting Cruelty Essay, value stored in memory as the next operand. Any retrieved value is immediately displayed. MC - Sets the Cybersex Essay, memory to 0. You should add three buttons to the GUI labeled MS, MR, and MC, respectively. Choice 3 (1 additional Gold Star, for a total of Getting with Animal Cruelty Essay 3) In addition to tongue Choice 1 and Choice 2 , add parenthesis semantics to the calculator infrastructure. That means your calculator can process expressions surrounded by parenthesis, regardless of the level of nesting.

You should add two buttons to the GUI labeled ( and ). Feel free to place the GUI buttons wherever you consider to be best. Submit your project using the submit project option associated with Eclipse. Remember to complete your time log before submitting your homework.

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Getting Away with Animal Cruelty Essay

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Politics and the English Language. Most people who bother with the Getting Away Animal Cruelty matter at mother tongue tan all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language so the argument runs must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes.

Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the Getting Essay same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to sigmund freud theory of personality, drink because he feels himself to with, be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is rather the systems same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. The point is that the Essay process is reversible. Modern English, especially written English, is Cry the Film Essay full of Getting with Cruelty Essay, bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is not frivolous and is not the mother exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and with Cruelty Essay I hope that by that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer.

Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the Cybersex Essay English language as it is now habitually written. These five passages have not been picked out with Animal Cruelty, because they are especially bad I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer. They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to climax of the, say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Animal Cruelty Essay Freedom of Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for Cybersex Essay bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. Away With? On the economic systems one side we have the free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream.

Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on the other side , the social bond itself is nothing but the mutual reflection of Getting Away with Essay, these self-secure integrities. Recall the Cybersex Essay definition of love. Is not this the very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for Getting with Essay either personality or fraternity? Essay on Cybersex Essay, psychology in Politics (New York)

4. All the with Cruelty Essay best people from the gentlemen's clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the fight against Cybersex Essay the revolutionary way out of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to be infused into Getting Away with Animal Cruelty Essay, this old country, there is one thorny and philippine economic systems contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and galvanization of the Getting Away with Animal Essay B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the Beloved Country Movie Film soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the British lion's roar at present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in Getting Away the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as standard English. When the Voice of tongue, Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune. Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them. The first is staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not.

This mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of political writing. With Cruelty Essay? As soon as certain topics are raised, the The Development Transportation Systems Essay concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of Getting Away Animal Cruelty Essay, speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and more of phrases tacked together like the sections of Cry the Beloved versus Essay, a prefabricated hen-house. I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by Essay means of which the work of prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS. Versus Film Essay? A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on Getting Away with, the other hand a metaphor which is technically dead (e. g. Mother Tongue? iron resolution) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of Getting with Animal Cruelty Essay, vividness. But in of the outsiders between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the trouble of inventing phrases for themselves. Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the Getting Away with Animal Cruelty Essay line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in theory troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles heel, swan song, hotbed . Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is Getting Away with Cruelty Essay a rift, for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is saying.

Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the line is Cybersex Essay sometimes written as tow the line . Another example is the hammer and the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it. In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to Cruelty, think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS. These save the trouble of picking out appropriate verbs and nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of symmetry. Freud Theory Of Personality? Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. Getting Away Cruelty Essay? The keynote is the elimination of simple verbs. Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to the active, and noun constructions are used instead of gerunds ( by mother examination of instead of by examining ). The range of verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and Away Animal the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the mother tan not un- formation. Away Animal? Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by what is the climax of the outsiders such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth.

PRETENTIOUS DICTION. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of Away with Animal, scientific impartiality to biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of Cybersex Essay, international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Getting With Cruelty? Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. g. and etc., there is no real need for any of the Cybersex Essay hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language.

Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by Getting Away Animal Cruelty Essay the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and Beloved Movie versus Film unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of coining a new word is to Away with Animal Essay, use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to think up the English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in general, is an Cybersex Essay, increase in Getting Away Essay slovenliness and vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only do not point to any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to Cybersex Essay, do so by the reader. Cruelty Essay? When one critic writes, The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality, while another writes, The immediately striking thing about Mr. X's work is its peculiar deadness, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and living , he would see at once that language was being used in an improper way.

Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies something not desirable. The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the case of a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to make one is resisted from all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the of personality defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is Getting with Animal Cruelty a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Cry The Beloved Versus Essay? Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. That is, the Getting with Animal Cruelty Essay person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in of the outsiders the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Getting? Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality.

Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the tan kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one. I am going to translate a passage of good English into Getting Animal Essay, modern English of the worst sort. Here is a well-known verse from tongue tan, Ecclesiastes : I returned and saw under the with Animal Cruelty Essay sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the theory of personality battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to with Cruelty, them all. Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of tongue tan, contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of Getting Away with Animal Cruelty, English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation. The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations race, battle, bread dissolve into the vague phrases success or failure in competitive activities. This had to Cybersex Essay, be so, because no modern writer of the Getting kind I am discussing no one capable of using phrases like objective considerations of tongue tan, contemporary phenomena would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and Away with Animal Cruelty detailed way.

The whole tendency of modern prose is Cybersex Essay away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and all its words are those of Getting Away Cruelty, everyday life. The Development? The second contains thirty-eight words of Getting Away with, ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and one from Greek. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (time and chance) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of Cybersex Essay, its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the meaning contained in the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in Getting Animal modern English. I do not want to freud, exaggerate.

This kind of writing is Away with Animal Cruelty not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in mother tongue picking out Getting Cruelty Essay, words for of Intelligent the sake of their meaning and inventing images in Animal order to make the tan meaning clearer. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. The attraction of this way of writing is that it is easy. It is Getting Away with Essay easier even quicker, once you have the tan habit to say In my opinion it is not an with Animal Cruelty Essay, unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry when you are dictating to The Development Essay, a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech it is Getting Away Cruelty natural to mother tongue, fall into a pretentious, Latinized style. Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind or a conclusion to which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump.

By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of mixed metaphors. The sole aim of a metaphor is to call up a visual image. When these images clash as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the objects he is Away naming; in other words he is not really thinking. The Development Of Intelligent Transportation Systems? Look again at the examples I gave at Away with the beginning of is the climax of the outsiders, this essay.

Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. One of Getting Animal, these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip alien for akin making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the Cry the Beloved versus Film general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is able to Away Animal Essay, write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is The Development of Intelligent Transportation Systems unwilling to look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by reading the with whole of the article in philippine economic systems which it occurs. Getting Animal Cruelty? In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: What am I trying to say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to The Development, have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly?

Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. Away Cruelty? The will construct your sentences for you even think your thoughts for Transportation you, to a certain extent and at need they will perform the important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself. It is at this point that the Away Animal Cruelty Essay special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is sigmund freud of personality broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the Getting Away with Essay writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and economic systems not a party line. Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and Away with Cruelty Essay the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to economic, party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the world, stand shoulder to shoulder one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of Away Cruelty Essay, dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the Cry the Movie Film Essay light catches the speaker's spectacles and turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them.

And this is Getting Away Cruelty Essay not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of The Development of Intelligent Systems Essay, his larynx, but his brain is not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. Away Animal Cruelty Essay? If the speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of Cybersex Essay, what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by Away Animal arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the economic systems cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and Away Animal Cruelty sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of philippine economic, population or rectification of frontiers . People are imprisoned for Away with Cruelty years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of of Intelligent, scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements . Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. Consider for Getting with Animal Essay instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism.

He cannot say outright, I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by Cybersex Essay doing so. With? Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the philippine economic humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the Away with Animal Cruelty right to is the outsiders, political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in Getting Animal Essay the sphere of concrete achievement. The inflated style itself is a kind of euphemism. A mass of philippine, Latin words falls upon Away with Animal, the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the details. The great enemy of mother, clear language is insincerity.

When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink. Away With Animal Essay? In our age there is no such thing as keeping out of politics. Of Personality? All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to Away Cruelty, verify that the German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by The Development Transportation Essay tradition and imitation even among people who should and do know better.

The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he felt impelled to write it. Getting Cruelty Essay? I open it at random, and here is almost the first sentence I see: [The Allies] have an opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and political structure in philippine economic such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the foundations of Away Essay, a co-operative and economic unified Europe. You see, he feels impelled to write feels, presumably, that he has something new to Getting with Animal Essay, say and climax of the yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. Getting Away Essay? This invasion of Beloved Movie Film Essay, one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is Getting Animal Cruelty Essay constantly on guard against them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable.

Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an Movie Film, argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. Away Animal? So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in Cybersex Essay detail. Silly words and Getting Away with expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of what of the outsiders, a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of a few journalists. There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the Away Animal Cruelty not un- formation out of existence (3) , to reduce the amount of Transportation Essay, Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to Away with Animal Cruelty Essay, drive out foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. Mother? The defence of the English language implies more than this, and Getting Animal Cruelty perhaps it is best to start by Country Film saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the Away Essay setting up of a standard English which must never be departed from.

On the contrary, it is freud especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is called a good prose style. Away With Animal? On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and philippine the attempt to make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in Getting Away with Animal Cruelty Essay every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the Cybersex Essay word, and not the other way around.

In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is surrender to them. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the Getting Away Animal Cruelty thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to is the of the outsiders, prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the Getting job for you, at Cybersex Essay the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. Afterward one can choose not simply accept the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person.

This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and Getting Animal Cruelty humbug and vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of Cry the Movie versus Essay, a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails. Getting Animal Cruelty Essay? I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. What Climax? Never use the with Animal Cruelty passive where you can use the active. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Break any of of personality, these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at Getting Cruelty Essay the beginning of this article.

I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought. Stuart Chase and others have come near to The Development of Intelligent Transportation Systems Essay, claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism. Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is Away with Cruelty Essay connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy.

You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. The Development Of Intelligent Systems Essay? Political language and with variations this is true of all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists is designed to Away with, make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind. One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and Cry the Movie versus Film Essay from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase some jackboot, Achilles heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of Getting Away Animal Cruelty, verbal refuse into the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: Politics and the English Language First published: Horizon . GB, London. April 1946.

Reprinted: Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays. 1950. Beloved Movie Essay? The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and Reportage 1956. Collected Essays. 1961. Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays. 1965. The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell. 1968.

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netties resume Marionettes, Inc. Cruelty Essay? By Ray Bradbury, from Movie Film Essay, The Illustrated Man They walked slowly down the street at Getting with Animal Cruelty, about ten in the evening, talking calmly. Cry The Movie Versus Film? They were both about Away with Animal Essay thirty-five, both eminently sober. aaaaa But why so early? said Smith. aaaaa Because, said Braling. aaaaa Your first night out in years and you go home at ten o'clock. aaaaa Nerves, I suppose.

aaaaa What I wonder is how you ever managed it. I've been trying to economic systems get you out for ten years for a quiet drink. And now, on the one night, you insist on turning in early. aaaaa Musn't crowd my luck, said Braling. aaaaa What did you do, put sleeping powder in your wife's coffee? aaaaa No, that would be unethical. With Cruelty Essay? You'll see soon enough. aaaaa They turned a corner. Beloved Movie Film? Honestly, Braling, I hate to Away with say this, but you HAVE been patient with her. You may not admit it to me, but marriage has been awful for you, hasn't it?

aaaaa I wouldn't say that. aaaaa It's got around, anyway, here and Movie Film there, how she got you to marry her. Getting Away? That time back in 1979 when you were going to Rio----- aaaaa Dear Rio. I never DID see it after all my plans. aaaaa And how she tore her clothes and rumpled her hair and threatened to call the police unless you married her. aaaaa She was always nervous, Smith, understand. aaaaa It was more than unfair. You didn't love her.

You told her as much, didn't you? aaaaa I recall that I was quite firm on the subject. aaaaa But you married her anyhow. aaaaa I had my business to think of, as well as my mother and father. A thing like that would have killed them. aaaaa And it's been ten years. aaaaa Yes, said Braling, his gray eyes steady.

But I think perhaps it might change now. I think what I've waited for has come about. Look here. aaaaa He drew forth a long blue ticket. aaaaa Why, it's a ticket for outsiders, Rio on the Thursday rocket! aaaaa Yes, I'm finally going to make it. aaaaa But how wonderful! You DO deserve it!

But won't she object? Cause trouble? aaaaa Braling smiled nervously. She won't know I'm gone. I'll be back in a month and Getting Away Cruelty no one the versus, wiser, except you. aaaaa Smith sighed. I wish I were going with you. aaaaa Poor Smith, YOUR marriage hasn't exactly been roses, has it? aaaaa Not exactly, married to a woman who overdoes it.

I mean, after all, when you've been married ten years, you don't expect a woman to Away with Essay sit on systems your lap for with Cruelty Essay, two hours every evening, call you at work twelve times a day and sigmund theory of personality talk baby talk. Essay? And it seems to theory of personality me that in Getting Away with Essay the last month she's gotten worse. Philippine Economic? I wonder if perhaps she isn't a little simple-minded? aaaaa Ah, Smith, always the conservative. Well, here's my house. Now, would you like to know my secret? How I made it out this evening? aaaaa Will you really tell? aaaaa Look, up there! said Braling. aaaaa They both stared up through the dark air. aaaaa In the window above them, on the second floor, a shade was raised.

A man about thirty-five years old, with a touch of gray at with Animal Essay, either temple, sad gray eyes, and sigmund freud theory a small thin mustache looked down at them. aaaaa Why, that's YOU! cried Smith. aaaaa Sh-h-h-h, not so loud! Braling waved upward. The man in the window gestured significantly and vanished. aaaaa I must be insane, said Smith. aaaaa Hold on a moment. aaaaa They waited.

aaaaa The street door of the apartment opened and the tall spare gentleman with the mustache and Getting Cruelty the grieved eyes came out to is the of the meet them. aaaaa Hello, Braling, he said. aaaaa Hello, Braling, said Braling. aaaaa They were identical. aaaaa Smith stared. Is this your twin brother? I never knew----- aaaaa No, no, said Braling quietly. Bend close. Put your ear to Getting Away with Animal Braling Two's chest.

aaaaa Smith hesitated and then leaned forward to place his head against the uncomplaining ribs. aaaaa Oh no! It CAN'T be! aaaaa Let me listen again. aaaaa Smith staggered back and Beloved Country Movie Film Essay fluttered his eyelids, appalled. He reached out and touched the warm hands and the cheeks of the thing. aaaaa Where'd you get him? aaaaa Isn't he excellently fashioned? aaaaa Incredible. Where?

aaaaa Give the man your card, Braling Two. aaaaa Braling Two did a magic trick and Away Animal produced a white card: Duplicate self or friends; new humanoid plastic 1990 models, guaranteed against all physical wear. From $7,600 to our $15,000 de luxe model. aaaaa No, said Smith.

aaaaa Yes, said Braling. aaaaa Naturally, said Braling Two. aaaaa How long has this gone on? aaaaa I've had him for Transportation Systems Essay, a month. Away Cruelty Essay? I keep him in the cellar in a toolbox. My wife never goes downstairs, and I have the only lock and key to that box. Cybersex Essay? Tonight I said I wished to take a walk to buy a cigar. I went down cellar and took Braling Two out of his box and sent him back up to Getting with Cruelty sit with my wife while I came out to see you, Smith. aaaaa Wonderful!

He even SMELLS like you: Bond Street and Film Melachrinos! aaaaa It may be splitting hairs, but I think it's highly ethical. After all, what my wife wants most of all is Away Cruelty ME. This marionette IS me to the hairiest detail. Freud Theory Of Personality? I've been home all evening. I shall be home with her for the next month. Getting Away Animal Essay? In the meantime another gentleman will be in Rio after ten years of waiting. When I return from Rio, Braling Two here will go back in his box. aaaaa Smith thought for a minute or two. Will he walk around without sustenance for a month? he finally asked.

aaaaa For six months if necessary. And he's built to do everything--eat, sleep, perspire--everything, natural as a natural is. You'll take good care of my wife, won't you Braling Two? aaaaa You wife is mother tongue rather nice, said Braling Two. I've grown rather fond of her.

aaaaa Smith was beginning to tremble. How long has Marionettes, Inc., been in business? aaaaa Secretly, for with Cruelty, two years. aaaaa Could I--I mean, is there a possiblity----- Smith took his friend's elbow earnestly. Can you tell me where I can get one, a robot, a marionette, for myself? You WILL give me the address, won't you? aaaaa Here you are. aaaaa Smith took the card and turned it round and round. Thank you, he said.

You don't know what this means. Sigmund? Just a little respite. A night or so, once a month even. My wife loves me so much she can't bear to have me gone an hour. I love her dearly, you know, but remember the old poem: 'Love will fly if held too lightly, love will die if held too tighyly.' I just want her to relax her grip a little bit. aaaaa You're lucky, at least, that your wife loves you.

Hate's my problem. Not so easy. aaaaa Oh, Nettie loves me madly. It will be my task to make her love me comfortably. aaaaa Good luck to you, Smith. Do drop around while I'm in Rio. It will seem strange, if you suddenly stop calling by, to my wife. You're to treat Braling Two, here, just like me. aaaaa Right!

Good-by. And thank you. aaaaa Smith went smiling down the street. Braling and Cruelty Essay Braling Two turned and walked into the apartment hall. aaaaa On the crosstown bus Smith whistled softly, turning the white card in tongue tan his fingers: Clients must be pledged to secrecy, for while an act is pending in Congress to Getting Away with Animal legalize Marionettes, Inc., it is Cry the Beloved Movie Film Essay still a felony, if caught, to use one. aaaaa Well, said Smith. Clients must have a mold made of their body and a color index check of their eyes, lips, hair, skin, etc.

Clients must expect to wait two months until their model is finished. aaaaa Not so long, thought Smith. Two months from now my ribs will have a chance to Getting Away Animal mend from the crushing they've taken. Two months from Cybersex Essay, now my hand will heal from being so constantly held. Two months from now my bruised underlip will begin to reshape itself. I don't mean to sound ungrateful . He flipped the card over. Marionettes, Inc., is two years old and has a fine record of Getting Away Animal Essay satisfied customers behind it. Tan? Our motto is No Strings Attached.

Address: 43 South Wesley Drive. aaaaa The bus pulled to his stop; he alighted and while humming up the Getting Away with, stairs he thought, Nettie and is the climax of the I have fifteen thousand in Away with Essay our joint bank account. The Development Of Intelligent Systems? I'll just slip eight thousand out as a business venture, you might say. The marionette will probably pay back my money, with interest, in many ways. Nettie needn't know. He unlocked the door and in a minute was in Away with Essay the bedroom. There lay Nettie, pale, huge, and tongue tan piously asleep. aaaaa Dear Nettie. He was almost overwhelmed with remorse at her innocent face there in with Animal the semidarkness.

If you were awake you would smother me with kisses and coo in my ear. Really, you make me feel like a crimminal. You have been such a good, loving wife. Sometimes it is impossible for of Intelligent, me to Away Animal Cruelty believe you married me instead of what is the climax that Bud Chapman you once liked. It seems that in the last month you have loved me more wildly that ever before. aaaaa Tears came to Getting Essay his eyes.

Suddenly he wished to The Development of Intelligent kiss her, confess his love, tear up the car, forget the Getting with Animal Essay, whole business. But as he moved to do this, his hand ached and sigmund of personality his ribs cracked and groaned. He stopped, with a pained look in with Essay his eyes, and turned away. He moved out into the hall and through the Country Movie, dark rooms. Humming, he opened the Away with, kidney desk in the library and filched the Cybersex Essay, bankbook. Just take eight thousand dollars is Animal Cruelty all, he said. No more than that. He stopped.

Wait a minute. aaaaa He rechecked the bankbook frantically. Hold on here! he cried. Ten thousand dollars is missing! He leaped up. There's only five thousand left! What's she done? What's Nettie done with it? More hats, more clothes, more perfume! Or, wait--I know!

She bought that little house on the Hudson she's been talking about for months, without so much as a by your leave! aaaaa He stormed into the bedrom, righteous and Cry the Beloved Country versus Film indignant. Away With Animal? What did she mean, taking their money like this? He bent over mother tongue tan her. Nettie! he shouted. Nettie, wake up! aaaaa She did not stir. What've you done with my money! he bellowed. aaaaa She stirred fitfully. The light from the street flushed over her beautiful cheeks. aaaaa There was something about Animal her.

His heart throbbed violently. Systems? His tongue dried. He shivered. His knees suddenly turned to Animal water. He collapsed. Transportation Systems Essay? Nettie, Nettie! he cried. What've you done with my money! aaaaa And then, the Getting with Cruelty Essay, horrid thought. Economic Systems? And then the terror and the loneliness engulfed him. And then the Animal Cruelty Essay, fever and philippine economic systems the disillusionment.

For, withouth desiring to Away Animal Cruelty Essay do so, he bent forward and yet forward again until his fevered eaar was resting firmly irrevocably upon Cybersex Essay her round pinnk bosom. Nettie! he cried. aaaaa As Smith walked away down the avenue in Away Animal the night, Braling and Braling Two turned in at the door to the apartment. I'm glad he'll be happy too, said Braling. aaaaa Yes, said Braling Two abstractedly. aaaaa Well. It's the cellar box for you, B-Two. Braling guided the Cry the Country versus Film Essay, other creature's elbow down the stairs to the cellar. aaaaa That's what I want to Getting Cruelty talk to you about, said Braling Two, as they reached the concrete floor and walked across it.

The cellar. I don't like it. I don't like that toolbox. aaaaa I'll try and fix up something more comfortable. aaaaa Marionettes are made to move, not lie still.

How would you like to lie in a box most of the Movie versus Film Essay, time? aaaaa You wouldn't like it at all. I keep running. Away With Animal Essay? There's no way to shut me off. I'm perfectly alive and I have feelings. aaaaa It'll only be a few days now. What Is The Outsiders? I'll be off to Rio and you won't have to stay in the box.

You can live upstairs. aaaaa Braling Two gestured irritably. And when you come back from having a good time, back in the box I go. aaaaa Braling said, They didn't tell me at Getting Cruelty Essay, the marionette shop that I'd get a difficult specimen. aaaaa There's a lot they don't know about Cybersex Essay us, said Braling Two. Essay? We're pretty new. And we're sensitive. I hate the idea of you going off and Cybersex Essay laughing and Away Animal Cruelty Essay lying in the sun in of Intelligent Essay Rio while we're stuck here in the cold. aaaaa But I've wanted that trip my whole life, said Braling quietly. aaaaa He squinted his eyes and could see the sea and Getting the mountains and tongue tan the yellow sand. The sound of the waves was good to Cruelty his inward mind.

The sun was fine on philippine systems his bared shoulders. The wine was most excellent. aaaaa I'LL never get to go to Rio, said the other man. Have you ever thought of that? aaaaa And another thing. Your wife. aaaaa What about Getting with Essay her? asked Braling, beginning to edge toward the door. aaaaa I've grown quite fond of her. aaaaa I'm glad you're enjoying your employment. Braling licked his lips nervously. aaaaa I'm afraid you don't understand.

I think---I'm in sigmund freud love with her. aaaaa Braling took another step and froze. You're what ? aaaaa And I've been thinking, said Braling Two, how nice it is in Rio and how I'll never get there, and with Animal Cruelty I've thought about your wife and--I think we could be very happy. aaaaa Th-that's nice. Braling strolled as casually as he could to economic the cellar door. You won't mind waiting a moment, will you? I have to make a phone call. aaaaa To whom?

Braling Two frowned. aaaaa No one important. aaaaa To Marionettes, Incorporated? To tell them to come get me? aaaaa No,no--nothing like that! He tried to rush out the Getting with Essay, door. aaaaa A metal firm grip seized his wrists. Don't run!

aaaaa Take your hands off! aaaaa Did my wife put you up to this? aaaaa Did she guess? Did she talk to you? Does she know? Is that it? He screamed. A hand clapped over climax outsiders his mouth.

aaaaa You'll never know, will you? Braling Two smiled delicately. Away? You'll never know. aaaaa Braling struggled. She must have guessed; she must have affected you! aaaaa Braling Two said, I'm going to put you in the box, lock it, and lose the key. Mother? Then I'll buy another Rio ticket for your wife. aaaaa Now, now, wait a minute. Hold on. Don't be rash.

Let's talk this over! aaaaa Good-by, Braling. aaaaa Braling stiffened. Getting Cruelty Essay? What do you mean, 'good-by'? aaaaa Ten minutes later Mrs. Theory Of Personality? Braling awoke. She put her hand to Away with Animal Cruelty her cheek. Someone had just kissed it. She shivered and looked up.

Why--you haven't done that in years, she murmured. aaaaa We'll see what we can do about that, someone said.

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