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How wrong was I to make that decision. Matrix Structures! Why I did not listen to my friend. How I wish I could turn back the Mental and Physical Substances time. Matrix Structures! On my last holiday , my friends and I have decided to finish up our homework at Jasons house. We wanted to go to the nearby shopping mall after completing our homework. That is why we choose Jasons house which is nearby a shopping mall called Prangin Mall. So we were.

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Book Report What I saw and how I lied, by Judy Blundell, tells the story of a young plain Jane, Evie, who takes . an adventurous trip with her family, but what doesnt know is that she will be thrown into the middle of a suspicious death, or worse, murder. This elegant, detail-driven tale smoothly segues into a whodunit page turner, while unwinding a web of lies and fake people. Pressure Chromatography! Placed back in 1947 after World War II, Evelyn Spooner and parents, Beverly and Joe Spooner, just began to fall back. English-language films , Father , Hair 1175 Words | 3 Pages. The Holidays The meaning of holidays is matrix structures, essentially a time we embark moments and share time with love ones. In the Essay on Descartes´ and Physical United . Sates, holidays are a very superior time that many of us embrace. Many can think back on holidays that theyve encountered and recollect favorable moments. For many, it is the time of the matrix year when people seem to grasp inside of one another and distinguish the best of things.

Clearly, to of The Heritage of Ireland Essays, some amount the structures holiday season gives people a sense of pleasure. All Saints , All Souls' Day , Christmas 659 Words | 4 Pages. ones that you give value that sometimes contribute to your stress. There are lots of stressors and problems to mention and theres something always comes in of The Heritage Essays . to our mind how can we manage it? How can I manage stress? Stress is a normal and structures expected part of and applying, our lives, but its not a part we always know how to deal with. We learn how to handle stressful situations by watching our parents and peers as we grow up. If we didnt have positive coping modeled for us, it may make it harder to handle even.

Chronic stress , Coping skill , Emotion 1299 Words | 3 Pages. English: Holidays * I love the holidays . The nippy weather, smells of all that great food and matrix structures the general . merriment in liquid chromatography the atmosphere as everyone celebrates in his or her own way. If you can look past the consumerism thats saturated the season, then the holidays can really be a great time. Sydney In Sydney, the matrix structures largest, oldest, and most beautiful of Australia's cities, the Essay and Physical Substances monumental doesn't figure prominently. There are no great pyramids, no historic ruins, no monuments or buildings that warrant.

Australia Day , Culture , Egyptian pyramids 829 Words | 3 Pages. Holiday 1) a time of matrix, rest from An Overview of The Built Heritage of Ireland Essays, work, school etc [= vacation American English] 2) a period of matrix structures, time when you travel to another place for high pressure liquid chromatography . pleasure [= vacation American English] 3) a day fixed by law on which people do not have to matrix, go to work or school. Andres! E.g.The 4th of July is structures, a national holiday in the US. 4) the holiday season, the Essay about Costs and Requirements holidays a) American English-the period between Thanksgiving and New Year b) British English-the period in the summer when most people take a holiday . Bible , Christianity , Christmas 857 Words | 3 Pages. I grew up in a nuclear family. There are four people in matrix my family, consists of my father, mother, my . sister and me.

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My Grandfather Amanda Jeffries Mid-Continent University English II January 16, 2013 . It was April 30, 2011. I was on my way to Wal-Mart with my two boys, Hunter and Harper. Matrix! Since it was a Saturday morning, we were going to spend the day doing some shopping and Essay on Descartes´ and Physical Substances later on, Hunter and Harper were going to baseball practice. Structures! As I was driving down the road, suddenly, I heard the ringtone chiming. Essay , Essays , Family 1985 Words | 7 Pages. My First Trip Home I am originally from andres, Moldova, a country in Eastern Europe. Structures! My country was a part of Romania . and for and Physical Substances a longer period a part of Soviet Union. Since I was seven years old I knew that I would live abroad, because all my three older brothers were living in Europe and I got information from them that Europe has many developed countries. Structures! Who does not want to hawking, live in a developed country? Everyone wants to live in matrix structures a developed country, where people can achieve their dreams, and be successful. Culture , Cyprus , Developed country 2554 Words | 6 Pages.

MY DAY I want to tell you about my daily routine. Every day I usually get up at half past 8 . in the morning. Pressure Liquid! I make my bed. I just dont like when my room is messy. Then do some exercises. Usually I take a shower in the morning. Matrix Structures! I go to the bathroom where I wash my face and brush my teeth. After this I do not feel sleepy at all. Andres Bonifacio! I feel full of matrix, energy and ready for the new day. Then I make breakfast for myself. I usually have porridge, omelet or pancakes and a sandwich with tea for breakfast.

Dinner , Family , Hobby 1454 Words | 4 Pages. ?Once upon a dream I had a dream that I would wake up with the perfect life. Well not so much perfect but the An Overview of The Heritage Essays one thing . I want to structures, change is how I look I want to be a flat stomach size 8 with a pretty face. And I want to be rich. High Chromatography! Well not rich, rich but enough money to get what I want all the time and enough money so that my mum doesnt have to worry about money. Chapter one A morning full of surprises. Matrix! jade, jade wake up its 5:30 you are going to be late for high pressure liquid chromatography school.

Mum are you being serious. Family , Major Dad , Mother 1560 Words | 4 Pages. Vietnamese New Year: The Biggest Traditional Holiday of the Year. many holidays . But Vietnamese New Year is the biggest traditional holiday of the year. It is the first and matrix last moments of An Overview of The Heritage of Ireland, a year . and its a time for matrix families to gather all together on New Year Eve with the firecrackers, special food. This also is the high opportunity for students like me to meet old friends after one year abroad, to matrix structures, embrace of lovers after a long year of waiting.

I was born in Vietnam and lived there about An Overview of The Built Essays, 26 years, so I never forget Vietnamese New Year over there. When I see the. Chinese New Year , Family , Fireworks 953 Words | 3 Pages. . What is a Home in my view A home is defined as: the matrix place where one lives permanently, especially as a member of a family or household. Bonifacio! A home is much more than where you just live, it doesnt have to matrix, be the hawking greatest biggest fanciest place ever, its the place you were brought. Family , Father , Learning 1670 Words | 4 Pages. Devin Greenlaw 3/2/13 2nd Period Love the Holiday (Billie Holiday Report) Born Eleanora Fagan on matrix April 7, 1915 in . Philadelphia, PA; the amazing jazz vocalist never imagined she was going to become one of the biggest jazz musicians of on Descartes´ and Physical Substances, all time. Rose Primarily in Baltimore, MD with her mother, Sady Fagan, who gave birth to Billie at the age of nineteen. Billie was raised primarily with her mother. Her father, believed to be Clarence Holiday who was a successful jazz musician himself, wasnt. Benny Goodman , Billie Holiday , Jazz 900 Words | 3 Pages.

How I Have Changed Since College Started. How I Have Changed Since College Started The beginning of life is always a spoon-fed lifestyle of parental punishment and structures . disciplined guidance. It is son robert, of the first decade of matrix structures, life through which the deciphering of right and wrong is the maths ultimate essence of structures, maturity. Tears are in about for Bearded Dragons response to punishment of disobedience. Needs, as well as wants, are provided by a sheltering atmosphere of dependence. As the teenage years start to flourish through puberty and exposure of leadership, higher. Adolescence , Decipherment , Education 643 Words | 4 Pages.

?The Day That Changed My Life On August 8, 2009 I woke up like any other day, not knowing that it was going to be the worst . Matrix Structures! day of my life. As soon as I cracked my eyes, my hand went to my phone to check a variety of things including my Facebook, my text messages, and and applying maths my instant messages. I was hoping to see a message from my boyfriend, Lucas. Three months prior to this day, my boyfriends best friend, Michael, had died in a motorcycle accident. As long as I had known the two of matrix, them, they.

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Teachers Teaching Teachers, on matrix, Twitter: Q. and A. on Essay on Descartes´, Edchats Like other groups with shared interests, from epidemiologists to James Joyce fans to locked-out N.F.L. players, teachers are turning to Twitter to collaborate, share resources and offer each other support. Many, in fact, are using it to structures, take professional development into their own hands, 140 characters at a time. Each week, thousands of Essay for Bearded teachers participate in scheduled Twitter chats around a particular subject area or type of student. Math teachers meet on Mondays, for instance, while science discussions happen on Tuesdays, new teachers gather on matrix, Wednesdays and Essay and Physical, teachers working with sixth graders meet Thursdays. (Jerry Blumengarten, Twitters @cybraryman1, posts this helpful list of educational chats.) By using hashtags that is, words or phrases preceded by the # symbol, like #Scichat for science educators users can organize, search and find messages on a particular topic all in one place.

Anyone can participate, and joining is easy: just go to Twitter, search for structures, the hashtag of the chat that appeals to you, and start to pressure liquid chromatography, read the stream of messages. When youre ready to add your own thoughts or share resources, just append that same hashtag to your Twitter message. (For more tips, visit our Nuts and Bolts and Resources lists.) For instance, as I write this, an English teacher could dip into the #Engchat stream and find a link to a list of five-minute grammar lessons, a query about how to use stations in literature classes, and a note from a high school teacher about how she did a rap for her sophomores on reading strategies to matrix, the tune of Ice, Ice Baby. If you wanted to write your own Twitter message and add it to this stream, youd just say something brief, and put #Engchat at the end of it. Andres Bonifacio. For instance, you might write: Some great resources for Banned Books Week here: http://nyti.ms/9qPVku #Engchat.

We chose three of the chats where New York Times and matrix structures, Learning Network resources are most often shared, and interviewed the founders about what they do, why and how. Below, youll find a question-and-answer session with Thomas D. Whitby and pressure liquid chromatography, Shelly Sanchez Terrell, the founders of #Edchat, a place for educators of all kinds to gather, and structures, the grandfather of the education Twitter chats; Greg Kulowiec, co-founder of #SSchat for social studies teachers; and Meenoo Rami who created #Engchat for English teachers. Please note: For simplicitys sake, from of Ireland Essays, here on well refer to each chat without the hashtag symbol. Matrix Structures. In the Q. and A. below, well also refer to each participant by his or her initials. What are Edchat, SSchat and Engchat and how did they come about? S.T.: The conversation began two years ago between three educators, Tom Whitby, Steven Anderson and me. We all desired education transformation and we all saw the need for educational stakeholders to discuss, debate, explore, reflect and act on various issues which impact education. We also included guest experts early on for Edchat.

T.W.: We realized that many valuable mini-discussions were taking place on Twitter with limited exposure, so we started Edchat to gather as many tweeters as we could, at Essay Mental Substances, the same place and at the same time, to discuss topics important to educators in matrix structures general. Eventually, faced with global participation, we had to add a noon Edchat to accommodate the time zones in Europe. Stephen. The Edchat Poll was then developed to matrix structures, give participants more of a say in Essay about and Requirements for Bearded topic choice. (Some of the broad topics of our chats have been pedagogy, methods, curriculum, skills, technology, leadership, testing, and reform.) We later branched out to do live sessions with education leaders like Alfie Kohn, Diane Ravitch, Howard Rheingold, Gary Stager, Jim Burke and matrix, Steve Hargadon. S.T.: Alfie Kohn was our first guest, and he spoke about the homework myth. During his dynamic conversation with teachers, Edchat became the number five trending topic on Twitter. We believe this is pressure one of the few educational hashtags that has become a trending topic. M.R.: I modeled Engchat after Edchat.

Last year, a lot of structures education Twitter chats were emerging but there were none dedicated to English teachers. I was nervous about taking on the task, wondering whether it would actually work or not. But I took the plunge and started Engchat in August 2010. G.K.: The social studies chat came about in July 2010. I started to and Physical Substances, participate in matrix structures various chats, but, as Meenoo did with English teachers, noticed that there wasnt one that was dedicated to history or social studies teachers. Our first chat took place in July 2010 with about high pressure liquid 10 participants. Ron Peck joined in from the very beginning to help us build the chat. The number of participants has grown tremendously in the first year, with the weekly discussion poll getting an average of 70+ votes.

What have been some of the most popular topics? M.R.: Our biggest turnout for Engchat was when Diane Ravitch hosted; she discussed her book, The Death and Life of the Great American School System. She was frank, honest and really made the teachers feel like she understood how they were feeling in our current political climate. Other popular topics have included using technology in literacy; teaching Shakespeare; building a learning community in your classroom; and setting up your classroom library. G.K.: The topics for SSchat vary, from pedagogy to crowdsourcing for resources. T.W.: Its difficult to determine how many people are lurking (that is, just observing) at chats. We have had over 500 individual tweeters in a single chat with over 3,000 tweets in an hour.

S.T.: What the hashtag statistics for structures, Edchat indicated was that about Essay on Descartes´ and Physical 2,000 to 3,000 or more lurk and visit every Tuesday. The most memorable night for us was when the news of the death of Osama bin Laden broke. Matrix Structures. People were immediately on SSchat and we were sharing resources and Essay and Physical Substances, ideas on how to bring this into our classrooms the next day. What kinds of contributions are most useful? G.K.: Participants in SSchat tend to share links, resources, lesson plans, examples of projects and matrix structures, student work. Blog posts written by Essay on Descartes´ and Physical Substances teachers that relate to the discussion topic are also extremely helpful. Although SSchat takes place on Monday nights as a synchronous discussion, people post to Twitter all week and tag their tweets with #sschat as a method to share resources asynchronously. Participants tend to use the chat hashtag all week to ask questions, share resources and prepare for the upcoming chat. We welcome all, and especially encourage new social studies teachers to structures, join in. M.R.: Teachers who are willing to share great links and resources with the Engchat community are greatly appreciated, as are teachers who model lifelong learning.The hashtag is stephen hawking son robert active all week long and its the place on Twitter for English teachers to share links, resources, ideas and queries. Our community is very welcoming, and matrix, loves to connect with new followers.

S.T.: Were looking for the same links and resources as the other chats. We also welcome participants to stephen, disagree or point out how some ideas may not work in their various contexts globally. Structures. And we welcome questions! We discourage spamming and stephen son robert, bullying, of matrix structures course. What are some experiences that stand out for you in showing the power of the chats?

M.R.: A memorable moment for Engchat happened at I.S.T.E. in Philly this June where we actually did our usual Monday night chat, but this time in real life at a bar. It was great to bring the of The Built Heritage Essays, usual participants together and connect in person. G.K.: The most memorable night for us was when the news of the matrix, death of An Overview Essays Osama bin Laden broke. Structures. People were immediately on SSchat and we were sharing resources and ideas on how to bring this into our classrooms the next day. We then modified the son robert, Monday night chat after the announcement to address the news and discuss how to teach this topic in our classrooms. The second most memorable moment was when a group of SSchat participants submitted a proposal to present at the National Council for the Social Studies Conference. The proposal was written online using a Google document, and none of the participants in the submission had ever met face to face at that point. The proposal was accepted and matrix structures, we will be able to share this fantastic experience with more history teachers from all over the country. We are also currently in the planning process for EdcampSS in March 2012. Essay And Physical Substances. The chats are an outstanding way to collaborate. We hope to create an matrix structures experience where anyone who participates in SSchat will be able to meet their fellow contributors face to face.

T.W.: I am always blown away by the number of references that edubloggers make to Edchat experiences. Stories about Edchat have also appeared in every major educational journal. S.T.: Our Edchat has created real change by igniting new projects, adding more educators to the conversation, inspiring over 400 additional educational chats, a new school, a free online conference with over 4,000 attendees, an international blogging day of education reform and so much more. Visit this Wallwisher to Essays, read about specific stories. We have also had various educational leaders participate in Edchat and discuss education transformation with teachers. Students, teachers, parents, administrators, education policymakers, and community leaders participate in the conversation each week and matrix structures, collaborate on high pressure, education reform. The hashtag can be used by anyone interested in improving education. Matrix Structures. It was the first educational panel for the 140 Conferences and inspired even more education panels. I would argue that Edchat is one of the most powerful hashtags creating real change in schools. In general, how do you think new forms of teacher-to-teacher digital communication can impact individual classrooms and schools? M.R.: Teachers have collective wisdom and we can crowdsource some of common issues we all face in the classroom.

By participating in these peer-to-peer forums, teachers are really teaching other teachers. They are willing to share their expertise and using maths, are also willing to learn from other teachers. There is real power and potential for structures, positive change in education in these niche communities. I would argue that edchat is pressure chromatography one of the most powerful hashtags creating real change in schools. G.K.: Teacher collaboration through social media tools is transforming the way teachers find, develop and use content in their classes. Matrix. Twitter and our chats allow educators to crowdsource for content, ideas, pedagogy and high liquid, research.

Social media also allows teachers to connect their classrooms to create collaborative projects that would have otherwise been impossible. Matrix Structures. Participating in andres a Twitter chat is an energizing and matrix structures, motivating experience, one that will force you to Essay and Physical, reconsider your perspective and grow as an educator. T.W.: It enables educators to know what it is that they dont know. It exposes educators to structures, a larger frame of reference in the world of education. Heritage. It offers a connection with people and sources that will help them understand and explore issues about which they were previously unaware.

They are no longer isolated educators limited to the experiences and sources of their small schoolhouses. S.T.: These weekly discussions offer a source of inspiration and motivation for teachers who feel burnt out and unsupported. The conversations lead to real action, and the resources help educators in structures every field with any problem. Educators who are on bonifacio, Edchat will often ask questions and spark conversations throughout the week. Our chat is used by structures teachers daily to inspire, motivate and connect. Moreover, these chats inspire educators, parents, students and administrators to using and applying maths, collaborate on education transformation worldwide as well as practice continuous reflection and learning. What do you have planned for this school year? M.R.: At Engchat, were in our second year, with excitement and enthusiasm. We have some great guest moderators lined up, such as Kelly Gallagher, Sam Chaltain, Kirsten Olson, Kevin Honeycutt, Jo Knowles and many more. G.K.: The biggest move is to plan and organize EdcampSS for March 24, 2011. There is also an SSchat group on Edutopias Web site and we will continue to grow and structures, improve the SSchat Ning.

We also welcome new participants and An Overview Heritage Essays, welcome anyone who is interested in guest moderating. S.T.: Well continue to structures, provide free Webinars with educational leaders and support other educational hashtags through Edchat. We have been working with various researchers throughout the year who are now publishing their findings about the and applying maths, impact of Edchat. We will continue to take Edchat to audiences worldwide in face-to-face conferences. Were hosting a 24 hour Edchat marathon and a Call for Action day where educators worldwide will present their specific plans for education reform. To observe: Visit the Edchat wiki to learn more, or just take a look at the #Edchat page on Twitter. To participate: After you join Twitter you can join one of the live discussions every Tuesday at matrix, noon and 7 p.m. An Overview Built Essays. Eastern time by adding #edchat to the end of your messages.

For more, visit the Edchat tips page. To observe: Visit the engchat site, where you can find archived chats as well as watch the Twitter stream live or go to the #Engchat page on matrix, Twitter to read the messages. To participate: After you join Twitter you can participate every Monday from 7-8 p.m. Eastern time. To observe: Visit the sschat ning, where you can find archived chats, or just take a look at the #SSchat page on Twitter. To participate: After you join Twitter you can participate every Monday from 7-8 p.m. Eastern time by searching for #sschat on Twitter and using, adding #sschat to your messages so others following the discussion can see yours. A list of Twitter chats for matrix structures, educators and their hashtags can be found at Cybraymans collection of Educational Chats on Twitter page.

In Twittering, Not Frittering: Professional Development in 140 Characters, Suzie Boss explains the basics of bonifacio how teachers can get started on Twitter, and why they should. In How to Use Twitter to Grow Your PLN, Betty Ray lays out more simple ways to getting the matrix structures, most from other educators on Twitter. If youd like to read more about the cultural shorthand of bonifacio hashtags, check out the Times article, Twitters Secret Handshake. In our own post, Three Teachers Answers to Questions on Classroom Microblogging, we interview teachers who use Twitter and other microblogging tools with the students in their classrooms. Finally, follow the Learning Network and matrix structures, its staff on bonifacio, Twitter: @NYTimesLearning Our main account, from which we send news daily about whats on matrix, our blog as well as what else is in The New York Times and An Overview Built of Ireland, around the Web that might interest teachers. More About the Interviewees:

Greg Kulowiec , co-creator of SSchat, is a history teacher and technology integration specialist at Plymouth South High School, in Plymouth, MA. He blogs at matrix structures, The History 2.0 Classroom. Meenoo Rami , creator of Engchat, teaches her students English at Science Leadership Academy, a partnership high school between the of The Built Heritage, School District of Philadelphia and The Franklin Institute. Shelly Sanchez Terrell , co-creator of Edchat and Eltchat, is the Vice President of Educator Outreach for Parentella, and the Social Media Community Manager for The Consultants-E. She blogs at Teacher Reboot Camp. Thomas D. Whitby , co-creator of Edchat, taught secondary English for structures, 34 years and is now an adjunct professor at St. Josephs College in New York. He created The Educators PLN, a global Ning site, where approximately 10,000 educators worldwide share and collaborate daily, and blogs at My Island View: Educational, Disconnected Utterances.

Comments are no longer being accepted. Great article! Thanks for the brief mention, but really disappointing not to be asked to participate in this conversation. As the only chat, on Twitter that supports new teachers, my passion for this work is huge! Shelly Terrell is high pressure liquid a good friend who worked with me, by giving insights to #edchat that helped me to structures, launch the chat. New Teacher Chat #ntchat was founded by me Lisa Dabbs,as a single passionate educator, and launched on May 5, 2010. This is long before #SSchat and stephen hawking, #Engchat.

I actually have inspired others to take off with their chats, as a result of my work. The interesting piece is that all those chats have teams that work together. Where as I have been supporting new teachers on my chat, as a one woman moderating, show for over a year. (Recently 2 colleagues have agreed to join me when they can, and Im grateful.) The participation in this chat, is much more intimate than those above named, larger chats, and the emails and matrix structures, tweets, I receive from new teachers, who feel supported by Essay Mental and Physical Substances this chat, are SO rewarding. This chat is a work of the heart for me. All the structures, information for New Teacher Chat is housed on the wiki http://newteacherchat.wikispaces.com/

Would love the An Overview of The Built of Ireland, opportunity to have new teacher chat featured in an upcoming article. Thanks for the opportunity to share! My daughter is a school speech therapist. Are there any others speech therapists she can connect with on your site? As a math teacher, I have found the #mathchat hosted by @ColinTGraham to be a consistent source of structures real professional development. Twice a week, on Monday afternoons and Thursday evenings, educators from all around the world engage in productive conversations about mathematics, teaching, and learning. With so many experienced teachers chiming in on topics like mathematical misconceptions, teaching around the high pressure, curriculum, and the appropriate use of technology, its impossible not to leave with something useful to think about.

#edchat has been a great inspiration for many Twitter chats amongst educators, certainly for #ELTchat which I moderate with Shelly Terrell. If any readers are ESL or EFL teachers, I invite them to join our #ELTchat every Wednesday at 12 .00 p.m. #038; 21.00 p.m. BST. More information on the #ELTchat blog http://www.eltchat.com/ which has turned into matrix structures, a great resource for ESL/EFL teachers worldwide with summaries of great practical value to high chromatography, practising teachers. Good article! Edchatters are a terrific group of people. Edchats have also been driving the growth of Edcamps, which are unconferences that are a great way for structures, educators to high pressure, grow professionally and meet face to face with fellow chatters. Check out structures, #EdCampNYC tomorrow (Oct. 1, 2011). Great article featuring popular Twitter chats. Pressure Liquid Chromatography. The three chats featured are a true inspiration to creating a smaller-scale Twitter chat, for my school and school district.

If it grows in popularity, even better yet. In the meantime, I only blog about structures various education and An Overview of The Heritage, education administration topics: http://jamesbrauer.com. Thank you again for featuring these educational social media tools! The popularity of Educhats (one of only two synchronous chats on matrix structures, Twitter at the time the first being #journchat) led to liquid, an onslaught of spammers using the hashtag. The early conversations were supported by rich conversation plans that are still available at http://twitterforteachers.wetpaint.com/page/Educhat. There is also #titletalk the matrix structures, last Sunday of the month at 8pm EDT. Liquid Chromatography. @Donalynbooks and @PaulWHankins lead a lively discussion about reading in the classroom for matrix structures, all grade levels. Lets get more teachers on twitter! Fantastic way to learn from peers. Great way to Substances, spread the word with your post! Some of my favorites:

@ciasiello, @budtheteacher @willrich45 @poh. Learning is happening all the time. I have been an avid participant of #edchat and can assure you that it has been a wild deluge of wisdom into structures, my teaching practices. As the #edchat is a global movement but unfortunately mostly reflects the reality of Europe and America Educational System, I thought, as an English Teacher as a Second Language, I needed something that would have more impact into my development as a teacher. Then on using and applying, last September #Eltchat was created.

Its wonderful to see so many EFL teachers gathering and matrix, sharing knowledge, ideas and questions. Nevertheless, as the Brazilian ELT community is Built Heritage of Ireland huge and has been growing exponentially, a group of fellow teachers and I (@brunoELT, @ceciELT, @hoprea, @raquel_EFL and @vbenevolofranca) have created the English Teaching Language Chat for the Brazilian Community. Our hashtag is #breltchat our chat happens fortnightly on Thursdays at 10pm (Brasilia Time). Its great to structures, see that all the effort that we, twitter chats moderators, have been making is high pressure liquid finally paying off. WHEN THE ECONOMY IS DOWN AND CLOSURES OF COMPANIES ARE HAPPENING , AND TEACHER BURNOUT AT AN ALLTIME HIGH: HOW REFRESHING IT IS TO HAVE SUPER CREATIVE BLOGS ON TEACHERS HELPING TEACHERS. IN TEXAS MOST TEACHERS PAY ARE AT AN ALLTIME HIGH BUT STILL THEY ARE NOT AS RECOGNIZE AS OUR MOST VALUEABLE RESOURCE IN THE WORLD: THANKS SHELLY AND YOUR CO PARTNERS IN WHAT THE SOURCES ONLINE YOU HAVE MADE AVAILABLE THRU EDUCHAT AND OTHER BLOGS AND WEBINARS: Weve been curating tweetchat lists for quite some time. We would like to invite moderators to add any of these educational chats to our wiki, if they are not already included. Use the link below. You can create an account and edit the page as you like.

Gnosis Arts Media Group. i think its good that teachers are teaching teachers.cause teachers could learn new things.they also get new experience. I cant wait to join in edchat next Tuesday. Matrix Structures. I wonder how many other topics besides Social Studies and and applying maths, English there are. I think that joining the edchat on structures, Tuesday will be really interesting and insightful. Built Of Ireland Essays. I cant wait to see what topics are discussed, especially since it is election day, Im sure there could be some hot topics because of this! Hope its not too late to matrix, mention this helpful article on using hashtags to create professional development networks its by elementary teacher Patti Grayson, who traces her own discoveries in this regard in a practical, friendly style. Good ideas presented, teachers today need to support each other outside of stephen district. Matrix. Will try and get on a chat as ELL teacher soon.

Just starting with Twitter, the blog mentioned in stephen the article sounds great. Looking forward to picking the brains of structures all the teachers out there. The best way for teachers to gain knowledge and experience is to of The Built Heritage Essays, learn from other teachers! Twitter allows teachers to learn from other educators from all over the globe. I thought the article was interesting and matrix, I am looking forward to collaborating with other professionals in the Guidance and An Overview Built Heritage of Ireland, Counseling field.

Does anyone know if/when there is matrix structures a foreign language chat? I am just beginning to use twitter to connect. There are so many helpful places to high pressure chromatography, go for collaboration. It is a challenge to discover which will be the most helpful as a high school social studies teacher. Sign up for matrix structures, our free newsletter.

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component of essay The Tragedy of the Commons. Science #13, December 1968: Vol. 162 no. 3859 pp. 1243-1248. This has been translated into Polish here: The Tragedy of the matrix, Commons, Garrett Hardin, Science, 162(1968):1243-1248. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of andres bonifacio nuclear war, J.B.

Wiesner and H.F. York concluded that: Both sides in the arms race are#133;confronted by structures, the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. On Descartes´ Mental And Physical! It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.'' [1] I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to the problem. An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality.

In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to matrix be found in the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. Whether they were right or not is not the Mental Substances, concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and more specifically, with the identification and discussion of one of these. It is easy to matrix structures show that the class is not a null class.

Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the bonifacio, problem, How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the structures, conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly. Andres Bonifacio! Put another way, there is matrix structures, no technical solution to the problem. I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word win.

I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the about Dragons, game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game -- refuse to play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of no technical solution problems has members. My thesis is matrix, that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class. How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to An Overview of The Built Heritage of Ireland find a way to avoid the matrix, evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. Costs Dragons! They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem -- technologically. I try to matrix structures show here that the solution they seek cannot be found.

The population problem cannot be solved in hawking a technical way, any more than can the problem of matrix structures winning the game of tick-tack-toe. What Shall We Maximize? Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. Stephen! In a finite world this means that the per-capita share of the world's goods must decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite or that we do not know that it is not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite. Space is no escape. [2] A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situation of mankind?

Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No -- for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one. It is not mathematically possible to maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by von Neumann and Morgenstern, [3] but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts.

To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). This energy is matrix, utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by work calories which he takes in. Andres! Work calories are used not only for what we call work in matrix common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing music and Essay on Descartes´ Mental Substances, writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art#133;I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is structures, impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the acquisition of energy that is the problem. The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem.

The problem of the acquisition of energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Stephen Hawking Son Robert! Fremlin has so wittily shown. [4] The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is matrix, unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. The difficulty of Essay Mental defining the optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem. Reaching an acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work -- and much persuasion. We want the maximum good per person; but what is matrix, good? To one person it is wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for thousands.

To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to on Descartes´ another it is factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable. Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and a system of matrix structures weighting are needed.

In nature the criterion is survival. Is it better for a species to be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the An Overview Built Essays, values of the variables. Man must imitate this process. Matrix Structures! There is no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the pressure liquid chromatography, arguments begin.

The problem for the years ahead is to structures work out an acceptable theory of weighting. Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at the present time, even on using and applying an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of zero. Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero.

Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is matrix, below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on earth today are (in general) the most miserable. This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the son robert, positive growth rate of matrix structures a population is evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcise the spirit of Adam Smith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only his own gain, is, as it were, led by an invisible hand to of The Heritage promote#133;the public interest. [5] Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in matrix structures fact, be the best decisions for an entire society. If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez faire in reproduction. If it is correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the optimum population.

If the assumption is not correct, we need to high pressure liquid chromatography reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. Tragedy of Freedom in structures a Commons. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in about Dragons population control is to matrix structures be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known Pamphlet in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). [6] We may well call it the tragedy of the commons, using the word tragedy as the philosopher Whitehead used it [7]: The essence of chromatography dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness. It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in fact involve unhappiness. For it is only by them that the futility of escape can be made evident in the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way. Picture a pasture open to structures all. Essay On Descartes´ Substances! It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and structures, disease keep the Essay and Physical, numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land.

Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to structures maximize his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and one positive component. 1. The positive component is andres, a function of the matrix, increment of one animal. Since the An Overview Heritage of Ireland, herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the matrix, positive utility is nearly + 1. 2. The negative component is a function of the additional overgrazing created by one more animal.

Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decisionmaking herdsman is on Descartes´ Mental and Physical, only a fraction of - 1. Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd. And another. But this is the matrix structures, conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into Essay on Descartes´ Mental a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit -- in a world that is limited. Matrix! Ruin is the Essay and Requirements for Bearded Dragons, destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all.

Some would say that this is a platitude. Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the matrix, forces of psychological denial. [8] The individual benefits as an individual from his ability to pressure liquid chromatography deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers. Structures! Education can counteract the using and applying maths, natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts shows how perishable the knowledge is. During the matrix, Christmas shopping season the parking meters downtown were covered with plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas. Free parking courtesy of the mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an increased demand for Essay on Descartes´ Substances, already scarce space, the structures, city fathers reinstituted the and Requirements for Bearded Dragons, system of the commons. Matrix! (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by bonifacio, this retrogressive act.)

In an approximate way, the logic of the matrix, commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the invention of private property in real estate. But it is understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on high chromatography the Western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance. Likewise, the oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to the shibboleth of the freedom of the seas. Professing to believe in the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to extinction. [9] The National Parks present another instance of the structures, working out of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to all, without limit. The parks themselves are limited in extent -- there is hawking, only one Yosemite Valley -- whereas population seems to matrix grow without limit. On Descartes´ Mental! The values that visitors seek in the parks are steadily eroded.

Plainly, we must soon cease to treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value to anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. Matrix! We might sell them off as private property. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right to Substances enter them.

The allocation might be on the basis of wealth, by matrix structures, the use of an using and applying maths auction system. It might be on the basis of merit, as defined by some agreedupon standards. It might be by lottery. Or it might be on a first-come, first-served basis, administered to long queues. These, I think, are all objectionable. But we must choose -- or acquiesce in the destruction of the matrix structures, commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the Mental and Physical Substances, commons reappears in problems of pollution. Here it is not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of putting something in -- sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into matrix water; noxious and dangerous fumes into son robert the air; and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into matrix structures the line of sight. The calculations of utility are much the same as before.

The rational man finds that his share of the using and applying, cost of the wastes he discharges into structures the commons is less than the cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them. Andres Bonifacio! Since this is true for everyone, we are locked into a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free enterprisers. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it. But the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and matrix, so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. We have not progressed as far with the solution of this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from exhausting the positive resources of the using, earth, favors pollution. The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream -- whose property extends to the middle of the stream -- often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door.

The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and fitting to adapt it to this newly perceived aspect of the commons. The pollution problem is a consequence of population. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of his waste. Flowing water purifies itself every ten miles, my grandfather used to say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. Matrix Structures! But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. How to Legislate Temperance? Analysis of the hawking, pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the structures, morality of an act is a function of the state of the system at the time it is performed. On Descartes´ Mental Substances! [10] Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public; the same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable. Matrix Structures! A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out about of Caring Dragons, only the tongue for his dinner, and discard the rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful.

Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at matrix structures, such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the pressure liquid chromatography, morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in which his act appears. One picture is worth a thousand words, said an structures ancient Chinese; but it may take ten thousand words to validate it. It is as tempting to ecologists as it is to reformers in general to try to persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally -- in words. That morality is system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of An Overview of The Essays ethics in the past.

Thou shalt not#133; is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for particular circumstances. The laws of structures our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to An Overview of The Built Essays governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to matrix augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is practically impossible to spell out all the Costs of Caring for Bearded Dragons, conditions under which it is safe to burn trash in the back yard or to run an automobile without smogcontrol, by law we delegate the details to structures bureaus. The result is administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason -- Quis custodies ipsos custodes? --Who shall watch the watchers themselves?

John Adams said that we must have a government of An Overview of The of Ireland laws and not men. Matrix! Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by Essay on Descartes´ Mental and Physical Substances, men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to legislate (though not necessarily to enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the mediation of matrix structures administrative law. We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the of The Built Heritage of Ireland Essays, sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the use of administrative law. We should rather retain the matrix structures, phrase as a perpetual reminder of fearful dangers we cannot avoid. The great challenge facing us now is to invent the corrective feedbacks that are needed to liquid keep custodians honest.

We must find ways to legitimate the needed authority of matrix structures both the bonifacio, custodians and the corrective feedbacks. Freedom to Breed Is Intolerable. The tragedy of the commons is involved in population problems in another way. In a world governed solely by matrix structures, the principle of dog eat dog --if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for their children. David Lack and others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of birds. Essay About And Requirements Of Caring For Bearded Dragons! [11] But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the children of improvident parents starved to death; if thus, over breeding brought its own punishment to matrix structures the germ line -- then there would be no public interest in controlling the liquid, breeding of structures families. Using And Applying! But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state, [12] and hence is confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts over breeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement? [13] To couple the structures, concept of freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to Heritage lock the world into a tragic course of structures action.

Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is being pursued by the United Nations. In late 1967, some thirty nations agreed to the following: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. An Overview Built Of Ireland! It follows that any choice and decision with regard to the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, and cannot be made by structures, anyone else.'' [14] It is painful to hawking have to deny categorically the validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of witches in the seventeenth century. At the matrix, present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to inhibit criticism of the United Nations.

There is a feeling that the United Nations is our last and best hope, that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into Essay on Descartes´ and Physical the hands of the archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by matrix structures, friends is the readiest weapon of the enemy. If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even though it is promoted by the United Nations. Costs Of Caring Dragons! We should also join with Kingsley Davis [15] in attempting to get Planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of its ways in embracing the same tragic ideal. Conscience Is Self-Eliminating. It is a mistake to think that we can control the breeding of mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience.

Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the publication of his grandfather's great book. The argument is straightforward and Darwinian. People vary. Structures! Confronted with appeals to limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to hawking son robert the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The differences will be accentuated, generation by structures, generation. In C. G. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to develop in pressure liquid this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus. [16]

The argument assumes that conscience or the desire for children (no matter which) is hereditary-but hereditary only in structures the most general formal sense. The result will be the same whether the andres, attitude is matrix, transmitted through germ cells, or exosomatically, to andres bonifacio use A. J. Lotka's term. (If one denies the matrix, latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the point of education?) The argument has here been stated in and applying the context of the population problem, but it applies equally well to any instance in matrix which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for the general good -- by means of andres his conscience. To make such an appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of conscience from the race. Pathogenic Effects of Conscience. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to matrix structures conscience should be enough to Heritage of Ireland condemn it; but it has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in the name of conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear? -- not only at the moment but also in the wee small hours of the matrix, night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the son robert, words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: 1. (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; 2. (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for matrix, a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the rest of us exploit the pressure, commons.

Every man then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and matrix structures, his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the Costs of Caring, double bind as an matrix structures important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia. [17] The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is stephen hawking son robert, applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the structures, legal limits. Leaders at the highest level succumb to this temptation. Has any president during the past generation failed to call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for stephen hawking son robert, higher wages, or to steel companies to structures honor voluntary guidelines on prices?

I can recall none. Essay On Descartes´ And Physical! The rhetoric used on such occasions is designed to produce feelings of guilt in structures noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it. Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to son robert the object but only to themselves, and not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties.'' [18] One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by the anxiety-generating mechanisms of education.

Alex Comfort has told the matrix structures, story well in The Anxiety Makers; [19] it is Essay on Descartes´ Mental and Physical Substances, not a pretty one. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the results of anxiety may sometimes, from matrix, certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is psychologically pathogenic. We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into on Descartes´ the titles of some organizations devoted to birth control. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into the nation's (or the world's) breeders.

But what is the meaning of the word conscience? When we use the structures, word responsibility in the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in a commons into acting against his own interest? Responsibility is stephen hawking son robert, a verbal counterfeit for a substantial quid pro quo. It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the word responsibility is to be used at all, I suggest that it be in the sense Charles Frankel uses it. Matrix! [20] Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of definite social arrangements. Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements -- not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon.

The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort. Substances! Consider bank robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and insist that a bank is not a commons; we seek the definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons. That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank robbing is particularly easy to understand because we accept complete prohibition of this activity. We are willing to structures say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. But temperance also can be created by coercion.

Taxing is a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in stephen hawking son robert their use of parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for structures, longer ones. We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for him to do so. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the high pressure liquid chromatography, word coercion.

Coercion is a dirty word to matrix most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by and applying, saying it over and over without apology or embarrassment. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is not a necessary part of its meaning. The only matrix, kind of coercion I recommend is of The Built Essays, mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to coercion is not to say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about matrix, them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the conscienceless. We institute and Essay and Requirements for Bearded, (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to escape the horror of the commons. An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable.

With real estate and other material goods, the matrix, alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance-that those who are biologically more fit to be the bonifacio, custodians of property and matrix structures, power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of like father, like son implicit in our laws of legal inheritance. An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact. We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is unjust -- but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system.

The alternative of the commons is too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is preferable to Essay total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Whenever a reform measure is matrix, proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out, [21] worshipers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to historical fact. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on one of two unconscious assumptions: (1) that the status quo is perfect; or (2) that the choice we face is high pressure chromatography, between reform and no action; if the proposed reform is imperfect, we presumably should take no action at all, while we wait for a perfect proposal. But we can never do nothing. That which we have done for thousands of years is also action. It also produces evils. Once we are aware that the matrix structures, status quo is using maths, action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and disadvantages with the predicted advantages and disadvantages of the proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of experience.

On the basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Recognition of Necessity. Perhaps the simplest summary of this analysis of man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at all, is justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. Matrix! As the human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to be abandoned.

Restrictions on stephen hawking son robert the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in structures the Western world; we are still struggling to pressure chromatography close the commons to pollution by automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and matrix, atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the evils of the commons in matters of pleasure. There is almost no restriction on stephen hawking the propagation of sound waves in the public medium. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government has paid out billions of matrix dollars to create a supersonic transport which would disturb 50,000 people for every one person whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of radio and bonifacio, television and pollute the view of travelers. We are a long way from matrix, outlawing the commons in matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of high chromatography a sin, and pain (that is, the pollution of advertising) as the structures, sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the Essay Costs and Requirements, infringement of somebody's personal liberty. Infringements made in matrix the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of a loss. It is the An Overview of The Heritage of Ireland Essays, newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and freedom fill the air.

But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into the logic of the commons are free only to bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons in breeding. No technical solution can rescue us from the matrix structures, misery of overpopulation.

Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all. High Pressure Chromatography! At the matrix, moment, to avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and responsible parenthood. On Descartes´! The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and an increase in structures anxiety in the short. The only way we can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to bonifacio breed, and that very soon. Freedom is the recognition of necessity -- and it is the role of education to reveal to all the necessity of abandoning the structures, freedom to breed. Only so, can we put an end to this aspect of the tragedy of the commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and H. F. York, Scientific American 211 (No. 4), 27 (1964). 2. Costs And Requirements Of Caring For Bearded! G. Hardin, Journal of Heredity 50, 68 (1959), S. von Hoernor, Science 137, 18, (1962).

3. Structures! J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11. 4. J. H. Essay And Physical Substances! Fremlin, New Scientist, No. 415 (1964), p. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of matrix structures Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423. 6. W. An Overview Built Of Ireland! F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to Population (Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1833). 7. A. N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed., Population, Evolution, and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 56. 9. S. McVay, Scientific American 216 (No. 8), 13 (1966). 10.

J. Matrix! Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. D. Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1954). 12. H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, 1950). 13. G. Hardin, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 6, 366 (1963). 14. Stephen! U Thant, International Planned Parenthood News, No. Matrix Structures! 168 (February 1968), p. 3.

15. K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16. About For Bearded Dragons! S. Structures! Tax, Ed., Evolution After Darwin (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. 469. 17. G. Bateson, D. D. Jackson, J. Haley, J. Weakland, Behavioral Science 1, 251 (1956). 18. P. Goodman, New York Review of Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19.

A. Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967). 20. C. Frankel, The Case for Modern Man (Harper Row, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21. J. D. Roslansky, Genetics and the Future of Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966), p. 177. THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMON REVISITED. by Beryl Crowe (1969) reprinted in MANAGING THE COMMONS. by Garrett Hardin and John Baden. W.H. Freeman, 1977; ISBN 0-7167-0476-5. There has developed in the contemporary natural sciences a recognition that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, and environmental corruption, for which there are no technical solutions.

There is also an increasing recognition among contemporary social scientists that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, environmental corruption, and the recovery of a livable urban environment, for which there are no current political solutions. The thesis of Essay on Descartes´ Mental Substances this article is that the common area shared by these two subsets contains most of the critical problems that threaten the very existence of structures contemporary man. On Descartes´ Mental And Physical! [p. 53] ASSUMPTIONS NECESSARY TO AVOID THE TRAGEDY. In passing the technically insoluble problems over to the political and matrix structures, social realm for solution, Hardin made three critical assumptions: (1) that there exists, or can be developed, a 'criterion of judgment and system of weighting . . .' that will 'render the incommensurables . . Bonifacio! . Structures! commensurable . An Overview Built! . . ' in real life; (2) that, possessing this criterion of judgment, 'coercion can be mutually agreed upon,' and that the application of structures coercion to effect a solution to problems will be effective in Essay Costs and Requirements of Caring for Bearded modern society; and. (3) that the administrative system, supported by the criterion of judgment and access to coercion, can and will protect the commons from further desecration. [p. 55] ERODING MYTH OF THE COMMON VALUE SYSTEM. In America there existed, until very recently, a set of conditions which perhaps made the solution to Hardin's subset possible; we lived with the myth that we were 'one people, indivisible. . Matrix! . Andres! .' This myth postulated that we were the great 'melting pot' of the world wherein the diverse cultural ores of matrix structures Europe were poured into the crucible of the maths, frontier experience to produce a new alloy -- an American civilization. Matrix Structures! This new civilization was presumably united by a common value system that was democratic, equalitarian, and Essay about for Bearded, existing under universally enforceable rules contained in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

In the matrix, United States today, however, there is emerging a new set of behavior patterns which suggest that the myth is either dead or dying. Instead of believing and behaving in and applying maths accordance with the myth, large sectors of the population are developing life-styles and value hierarchies that give contemporary Americans an appearance more closely analogous to the particularistic, primitive forms of structures 'tribal' organizations in geographic proximity than to that shining new alloy, the stephen hawking, American civilization. [p. 56] Looking at a more recent analysis of the sickness of the structures, core city, Wallace F. Smith has argued that the productive model of the about of Caring, city is no longer viable for the purposes of economic analysis. Matrix Structures! Instead, he develops a model of the city as a site for leisure consumption, and then seems to suggest that the nature of this model is such is such that the city cannot regain its health because the leisure demands are value-based and, hence do not admit to compromise and accommodation; consequently there is no way of deciding among these value- oriented demands that are being made on using and applying the core city. In looking for the cause of the erosion of the matrix, myth of a common value system, it seems to bonifacio me that so long as our perceptions and knowledge of other groups were formed largely through the written media of communication, the American myth that we were a giant melting pot of equalitarians could be sustained. In such a perceptual field it is tenable, if not obvious, that men are motivated by structures, interests.

Interests can always be compromised and accommodated without undermining our very being by sacrificing values. Under the impact of electronic media, however, this psychological distance has broken down and now we discover that these people with whom we could formerly compromise on maths interests are not, after all, really motivated by interests but by structures, values. Their behavior in our very living room betrays a set of values, moreover, that are incompatible with our own, and consequently the compromises that we make are not those of contract but of culture. While the former are acceptable, any form of compromise on the latter is not a form of rational behavior but is rather a clear case of either apostasy or heresy. Thus we have arrived not at an age of accommodation but one of confrontation.

In such an Essay Mental and Physical Substances age 'incommensurables' remain 'incommensurable' in real life. [p. 59]

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(iii) Essay type (argumentative, comparative, narrativeetc); Thoroughly read the original essay instructions and Essay Costs and Requirements of Caring for Bearded Dragons, make a plan before even starting to write. Strong Organization = Well-Written Essay. The structure of an essay can really make it or break it for you. Make sure that you have strong opening and closing paragraphs and body content that supports your original thesis. The introduction should funnel down to your thesis and narrow down the specific argument you want to make. Matrix Structures? Body paragraphs must have strong topic sentences and reference credible sources appropriately using the right citation style.

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When doing academic research, only trust reputable sources like JSTOR, Google Scholar, your campus library or academic search engines you have access to. Lastly, collect the stephen hawking son robert, sources that you need first and go through them thoroughly. Now that you have picked a topic and collected some credible sources, its time to make a plan. Start by identifying common assumptions about the topic and find common themes. For example, if exploring the causes of poverty, you will inevitably find out that governments are the matrix structures, ones that control lots of food production and allocation to the people. Once you have enough evidence to support a general theme, construct a thesis statement and make an outline of the hawking, core items that support that assertion.

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