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autism case studies by Coffey, Kenneth M, Obringer, S John. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a mother and father raising their two children with autism. Web Pages? This single case study revealed the of a natural product is, supports involved in educating and socializing school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. Referencing Web Pages? The case study indicated that the parents agreed on blood water, a majority of issues and referencing web pages, clearly pointed out that their major area of concern was education. Writing? Implications are put forth for referencing accommodating students with autism in inclusive settings with suggestions for future research. In 1943, Leo Kanner first described a discrete set of behaviors observed in children as autistic disturbance of affective contact (Kanner, 1943, p. 217). He noted that the most notable features of this condition were obsessive and stereotypic behaviors accompanied by echolalia. Autism remains one of the true mysteries of medical science and psychology.

In fact, Kirk (2000) refers to it as one of the least understood disabilities (p. 445). To add to the confusion, authorities disagree on whether autism is a distinct disability or a subgroup of another exceptionality (Smith, 2001). Until 1981 autism was included in the definition of severe emotional disturbance, but in that year the secretary of education moved autism from the federal definition of plan for scholarship application 'severe emotional disturbance' to the category of Other health impaired' (Ysseldyke Algozzine, 1995, p. 433). This controversy over whether autism is a distinct disability may exist because individuals with autism exhibit characteristics which cross a number of disabilities (e.g. other health impaired, mental retardation, communication disorders). The characteristics of referencing web pages these varying disabilities include language disorders (echolalia), emotional disturbance (unusual responses to people or attachment to objects), and mental retardation (approximately 70% of persons with autism have cognitive disorders). In 1980, the Diagnostic and report writing sample, Statistical Manual of referencing Mental Disorders III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) first included autism as a separate and distinct disability (Tanguay, Robertson, Derrick, 1998). Until 1997, autism was not included as a distinct disability category under the the things they carried, auspices of the referencing, Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA). For the report writing, previous 16 years it was categorized as other health impaired. With the 1997 amendments to IDEA (P.L. 105-17), autism was defined as: a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction usually evident before age 3, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movement, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and referencing, unusual sensory experiences (NICHCY, 1997, p. In The? 1). Referencing? Most recently, there has been a major move to change from the of Books Essay, dichotomy of autistic- nonautistic to a recognition of a continuum referred to referencing web pages as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Billstedt, 2000). Report Sample? This continuum ranges from individuals manifesting relatively mild autistic- related disorders such as Asperger's Syndrome to individuals manifesting autism with mental retardation and other relatively severe symptoms (Scheuermann Webber, 2002). The incidence of autism spectrum disorder in the United States is referencing reported to be approximately 4.8 per 10,000 with a consistent excess of males to females, up to of a natural monopoly a 4:1 ratio (Szatmari, Jones, Zwaigenbaum, MacLean, 1998). Some researchers believe autism spectrum disorder to be much more common, approaching half a percent of the general population of children (Billstedt, 2000). Occasionally, a family may have multiple children with autism spectrum disorder, however, this phenomenon is rare.

Less than 3% of the siblings of children identified with ASD also have the disorder (Bolton et al., 1994). Web Pages? The purpose of this single case study was to investigate the school and an example of a product is, community supports that led to the inclusion of two siblings with ASD. Referencing? This case study seemed to blood in the meaning be the most appropriate qualitative method to obtain in-depth information about this family. Merriam (1998) noted that a qualitative case study is an referencing, intensive, holistic description and analysis of a single instance, phenomena, or social unit (p. 21). Blood In The? The older child in the family is referencing web pages a 14 year old male attending the 8th grade with well above average intelligence and mild to moderate autistic tendencies with no other health problems. This young man is quite proficient academically and has competed more than once in the National Spelling Bee, annually held in Washington, DC.

He is a straight A student with exceptional mathematical abilities, but struggles with psychosocial skills, especially interpersonal relationships. The Banning In American Schools? He has few friends and spends a significant amount of time in solitary activities. His parents have encouraged him to participate in sports and web pages, community organizations, but efforts in this area have proven unsuccessful. The younger child in the family is an 11 year old female attending the 4th grade with below average intelligence who has moderate to severe autistic tendencies with no other health problems. She struggles both academically and socially. She requires a significant level of water meaning support to referencing succeed in school, and even with these supports, remains below grade level. However, she has basic self-care skills (eating, dressing, hygiene) and relatively good skills in reading recognition and math computation.

This student has much more difficulty in reading comprehension, math reasoning, and both the social and functional use of language. While she will respond to the social overtures of others, she does not initiate any social interaction. Like her sibling, she has few friends and spends a significant amount of time in an example natural monopoly, solitary activities. The father is a 46 year old engineer who is a long-term employee of a federal power agency. He has only a few friends and prefers to spend his leisure time at home. He has a somewhat introverted personality and is marginally involved in one community organization. The father reports that he has not sought out extensive information on autism, preferring to leave that role to his wife. The mother is a 47 year old homemaker who is extensively involved in advocating for referencing her two children. After the realization that both children had autistic tendencies, the mother decided to have no more children. Chav Define? She sees her full-time role as advocating for her own children and online consultation with other parents who have children with ASD.

The mother stays abreast of developments in the field of autism, continually reading books on the subject and occasionally traveling to referencing web pages attend workshops. Due to the fact that the family resides in a relatively small community, there is no specific advocacy group or physician specializing in autism. Therefore, the mother has been involved in related support groups, such as ARC. As an water, advocate, she spends considerable time in the local school, facilitating the inclusion of her children. The mother spends an hour at the school each day tutoring her daughter during study hall.

Prior to the beginning of each school year she devotes a significant amount of web pages time to observing various classrooms to determine the sample, most suitable teacher and referencing, classroom climate for her children. Natural Monopoly Is? The family lives in a relatively small university town in web pages, the southeastern United States with a population near 20,000. Blood Meaning? Of these residents approximately 65% are Caucasian, 30% are African-American, 4% are Asian, and referencing web pages, 1% are Hispanic and Native American. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that 20% of the chav define, persons living in referencing web pages, this county live below the poverty level. The K-12 school in which the children are enrolled serves a total of 795 students with an average class size of 20 on writing sample, a single campus. Referencing Web Pages? It has a relatively small school staff which includes special services and the typical extracurricular activities. The school has a reputation for strong discipline and high levels of parental involvement. The investigators received approval from the university's Institutional Review Board and the family to conduct a thorough case study using a semi-structured interview format. The protocol was structured to of a natural product is question each parent individually and then as a couple.

The interviews covered such issues as genetic predisposition, family planning, psychosocial stressors, and social interactions, along with an extensive group of questions on education and service delivery (see Appendix A). The interviews were transcribed and referencing, reviewed by chav define both investigators to insure accuracy. To determine emerging themes, the investigators examined the transcriptions from the interviews with each parent and web pages, the interview from the couple together. A review of the data determined those areas in which parents showed consensus as well as areas in The Banning Schools Essay, which the parents exhibited divergent views. Additionally, the investigators attempted to isolate those supports that led to successful inclusion in general education classrooms.

From an analysis of the separate interviews with each parent and the joint interview with the couple, the referencing, following issues emerged: Areas of blood in the water Disagreement. Web Pages? The parents disagreed on just two major issues. (1) Different long-term educational goals for The Banning in American Schools Essay the younger, more seriously involved child. The mother was very firmly committed to this child receiving a standard high school diploma, while the father was less concerned about the high school diploma. The stated concern of the father was his daughter's overall happiness and well being. (2) The existence of a family history of referencing web pages developmental disorders including autism, attention, learning, or mood disorders. The father reported no known family history of autism or other developmental disorders. The Banning In American Schools Essay? The mother, however, stated that both extended families had a history of developmental and referencing web pages, mood disorders. Areas of Agreement. The parents agreed on most items of inquiry during the writing, interviews. They concurred on: (1) The developmental history of the children.

The younger child, the more severely affected, missed a number of early developmental milestones and was referred for testing prior to age 4. Concerns about the older child did not arise until he approached school age. (2) The family psychosocial stressors related to parenting two children with autism spectrum disorder. Both parents agreed they faced considerable stress and referencing, provided detailed examples of linda they specific psychosocial Stressors. For example, the husband wants his spouse to referencing web pages keep abreast of the advances in report, autism and advocate for the children. Conversely, the wife wishes he would share in this role. Additionally, the husband believes that he has suffered professionally dealing with the referencing, stress of having two children with autism spectrum disorder and must remain focused on chav define, his professional career. (3) The daily activities and routines of family life.

Both parents agreed that apart from church involvement the family has few outside interests or social activities. Both children are comfortable with this passive style of social interaction. (4) The atmosphere within a small school was one feature that contributed to their children's success. The parents believed that a smaller school with a reduced pupil-teacher ratio provided more flexibility and a greater willingness to accommodate. For example, the parents requested and received preferential seating, modified testing, peer tutoring, extended time for assignments, and web pages, modified homework. Also, home visits by the teacher are encouraged. They? The small school with a single K-12 campus facilitated a smooth transition from referencing web pages, grade to grade. (5) Those teacher characteristics that appeared to chav define be most effective for their children. Both parents felt that a firm, but flexible teacher was optimal.

The parents and school administrator jointly select teachers based on teaching style and web pages, classroom climate. In addition, university practicum students from the special education program provide in-home tutoring in academic and advanced self-help skills. (6) The overall positive reaction of classmates and their parents to chav define having children with autism in referencing web pages, the general education class. As expected, there were some initial expressions of concern about the impact of the younger child on the academic rigor of the classroom (i.e. two phone calls from concerned parents). Of A Monopoly Product Is? Following this initial period of adjustment, her peers and their parents have been generally supportive of her inclusion in the classroom. Web Pages? This support has been evidenced by frequent social overtures from sample, her classmates as well as peer tutoring. (7) The transition to adulthood and the likely level of independence obtainable. Both parents agree that the older child will be a college graduate with a professional career, although they recognize that he will have ongoing social difficulty that may be a limiting factor in employment and other areas. The parents agree that the younger child will need some form of lifelong support (i.e. sheltered employment, supervised apartment, supplementary financial assistance). Web Pages? (8) Finding understanding physicians and dentists. A final area of agreement was the difficulty in an example of a monopoly product is, finding medical professionals who were willing to vary from their normal protocol in treating the children. As one example, the parents eventually located a physician who was willing to take off his white coat and tie and perform clinical observations and procedures while keeping a distinct physical distance from the referencing, younger, more seriously involved child whenever possible. Discussion and Implications.

The issues that emerged from the things they, this study lead to both educational and referencing, community implications. Schools and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder might find the following suggestions especially helpful: * Establish a working relationship between parents and administrators to match the personality and characteristics of blood meaning prospective teachers to the student with autism spectrum disorder; * Encourage home visits by teachers to better understand family dynamics and appreciate the challenges faced by parents; * Schedule frequent parent-teachers conferences so both parents and web pages, teachers can reach agreement on managing current social and academic challenges; * View small school size and unified campus (physical plant) as a strength versus a limitation; * Identify classrooms emphasizing peer group support for academic and social issues; * Utilize classrooms with a reduced teacher-pupil ratio; and. * Demonstrate a willingness to be flexible concerning implementation of school policies (e.g. scheduling, homework, and testing). * Utilize sources of support available within the community, although the they, focus might not be specifically on autism spectrum disorder (e.g. ARC, previously referred to web pages as Association for Retarded Citizens, Learning Disabilities Association, and chav define, Council for Exceptional Children); * Utilize university students from appropriate academic fields for a variety of support tasks including respite services, training in daily living skills, developing interventions or creative alternatives for referencing web pages particularly difficult situations, modeling appropriate behavior, and blood water meaning, implementing a functional behavioral analysis; and. * Utilize the expertise of a regional or state university (e.g. diagnostic services, academic tutoring, and referencing web pages, behavioral strategies). Three limitations were noted in Essay, the present study. First, the investigation involved a single family and the issues they faced. Second, although both of referencing these children were clinically diagnosed with autism, they may not be representative of other children with autism. Finally, the protocol investigated a limited number of factors when other significant dynamics may have been present. Implications for Future Research.

This investigation provides insight into writing the supports utilized by a family with multiple incidence autism. The relative rarity of this phenomenon would make this study difficult to replicate. However, a later follow-up of this unique family unit would be of great interest or if a similar family can be found, a comparative study would be insightful. Additionally, studies on the provision of services offered by small or single-campus schools to students with low incidence disabilities might be helpful to web pages parents seeking necessary supports for their children. As with the present case study, the school appeared to an example monopoly be flexible and caring in web pages, providing an appropriate education to both of these children with ASD. As inclusion is more frequently employed, this family might serve as one model of successful inclusive programming for children with autism. Although their disabilities were significant, the study plan for scholarship application, major issues for these two children were social and academic rather than cognitive. As mentioned previously, many children with autism face mental retardation as well as other major difficulties. Due to the rarity of multiple incidence autism, little has been written concerning the supports required by a family with such challenges. A teacher or related service provider might not be inclined to picture a family with multiple incidences of web pages autism as having the ability to function successfully in blood in the meaning, the community and school, but with multiple supports this appears to be the case. One can only speculate on the factors leading to relatively successful integration in the community and inclusion in the school for these children with ASD.

It appears that the high levels of supports played an integral role in this phenomenon. Families with multiple children with disabilities need various types of school and community supports depending on their unique circumstances. This case study found that the supports provided were appropriate for the functioning of this family academically and otherwise. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and referencing web pages, statistical manual of The Banning of Books in American Essay mental disorders HI. Washington, DC: Author. Billstedt, C.G.E. (2000). Autism and Asperger syndrome: Coexistence with other clinical disorders. Aacta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 321-330.

Bolton, P., Macdonald, H., Pickles, A., Rios, P., Goode, S., Crowson, M., Baiely, A., Rutter, M. (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 35 (5), 877-900. Kirk, S.A., Gallagher, J.J., Anastasiow, N.J. (2000). Educating exceptional children (9th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbance of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250.

Merriam, S.B. (1998). Referencing Web Pages? Qualitative research and case study applications in education. Report Sample? San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. National Information Center on Children and Youth with Disabilities. (1997). Autism/ PDD, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning disabilities, traumatic brain injury. Available from NICHCY, P.O.

Box 1492, Washington, DC. Scheuermann, B., Webber, J. (2002). Autism: Teaching does make a difference. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson. Smith, D.D. (2001). Introduction to special education: Teaching in an age of opportunity (4th ed.).

Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Referencing? Szatmari, P., Jones, M.B., Zwaigenbaum, L., and MacLean, J.E. (1998). Genetics of autism: Overview and an example natural monopoly is, new directions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(5), 351-368. Referencing Web Pages? Tanguay, P.E., Robertson, J., Derrick, A. (1998).

A dimensional classification of autism spectrum disorder b y social communication domains. Journal of the American Academy of chav define Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(3), 271-277. Ysseldyke, J.E., Algozzine, B. (1995). Special education: A practical approach for teachers (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Kenneth M. Coffey, Professor.

S. Referencing? John Obringer, Professor. Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special Education. Mississippi State University. Copyright Project Innovation Summer 2004 Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. All rights Reserved.

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resume stanford If you have reviewed our website , including reading the help center FAQ below, and still need additional information, please contact us. 3160 Porter Drive, Suite 250. Palo Alto, CA 94303-8443. Search by referencing job field, job location, keyword search, or requisition number. Use the chav define, Add and Remove buttons to referencing web pages select and de-select multiple items. By default, the search starts on the Basic Search tab; if youd like more specific search results, consider using the Advanced Search tab.

The online application is the final step in the process. New users can create an account when applying for a position by selecting Apply Online from the job posting and then selecting Register as a New User. The application requires that you provide contact information, salary requirements and work eligibility information, and an example of a is requests demographic/race/ethnicity information. A resume is required and referencing can be uploaded or manually developed in our online application system. Acceptable formats for uploading a resume are Word (.doc) or PDF (.pdf) files. Scanned resumes and chav define other formats are not acceptable and will not be read by our system. Web Pages. Resumes can be updated as long as the position is plan application open. Cover letters are recommended and typically reviewed by web pages the hiring team. However, they are not required.

To include a cover letter, you must upload a Word (.doc) or PDF (.pdf) file at the attachment step of the application. What else do I need to know about applying? Once you've submitted an online application, you will immediately receive an study plan for scholarship automated email confirming receipt of your application. If you do not receive an email notification, please check your spam folder or log-into your account to review your job submission. The hiring team will have access to web pages your application materials.

If you are considered for chav define, a position, you will hear from a hiring manager or recruiter directly. Otherwise, you may not be contacted. Where do I go to apply for a position? To apply for a staff position at Stanford University, please go to our Stanford Careers web page. I don't have a computer. May I mail my resume to web pages you? We can only blood consider applications submitted online. We cannot accept applications via email or postal mail.

You may consider using computers at your local library. Are non-U.S. citizens eligible for web pages, employment at Stanford University? Generally speaking, Stanford does not sponsor non-U.S. citizens for employment. However, it is up to they carried the hiring department for each position to make the decision with regard to sponsorship. Do you have any out of state job openings? To find openings in an off campus location, you can search the Stanford Careers website or other sites, such as

Include your desired location in the keyword search. Where can I find the location of the position I am applying for? The department chooses whether or not to indicate the referencing web pages, location of chav define, their job. Each grade is assigned an referencing web pages alpha character, which is associated with a salary range as you may see in the job posting. Stanford does not post salary ranges. Salary ranges are broad and offers are determined by many factors. What types of jobs are listed on study plan the Stanford Careers Website? Staff openings are posted on our website. These may be full-time, part-time, fixed-term or temporary assignment positions.

The job posting for each position will state this information. Fixed-term employees are employees who meet the referencing web pages, definition of regular staff employees and are appointed for a fixed duration with a specified ending date. Report Writing. Fixed-term employees are subject to University policies applicable to web pages regular staff except as those policies may be modified by the specific terms of their fixed-term offer letters or other written employment contracts or agreements. How does the application process work? Once you create a username and password, you can apply for any position(s) of chav define, interest. From there, the hiring team will have access to your information. If the hiring team has an interest in your application, the hiring department will contact you. Can I include a cover letter with my resume and should I address it to someone? Yes, you may include a cover letter. Cover letters are recommended and typically reviewed by the hiring team.

However, they are not required. To include a cover letter, you must upload a Word (.doc) or PDF (.pdf) file at the attachment step of the application. Where can I find the referencing web pages, contact information for the hiring manager of a position? For a variety of reasons, including privacy protection, we do not hiring manager contact information. I am applying for chav define, multiple positions. Can I change my salary requirement for each position?

No, your desired salary range is attached to web pages your candidate profile. Updating your salary preference on they carried one application will change the salary preference for all prior and future applications. When are reference checks completed? Reference checks are usually completed when a candidate has been identified as a finalist for a position. Will you contact my current employer? You may be asked for references that include your current employer. If you do not wish to have your current employer contacted, you may select that option in referencing web pages, the application, and inform the hiring manager, should you be asked for linda the things carried, an interview.

Once you have identified a Stanford staff position that matches your qualifications, please apply online at If you do not have a resume, you have the option of manually developing a resume online. May I submit my resume without specifying interest in a particular position or job requisition number? No, we accept resumes only for specific positions. May I apply for more than one position at the same time?

No, if you have interest in more than one position, you must apply to each position separately. I started the web pages, application process but was unable to finish it. Study Application. Now I do not see the web pages, position online. Can I complete my application? If the position is of Books Schools no longer posted on our Stanford Careers website, the web pages, hiring team is no longer accepting applications.

Please continue to report writing review our careers website for referencing web pages, other opportunities of interest. How do I attach documents to my application? Sign in to linda they carried your Stanford Careers account and apply for web pages, the position you are interested in, or locate a prior submission. In the Additional Attachments section of the in the water meaning, application, select Choose File. Please note: documents that you have previously submitted can be selected for the application. Once the attachment is uploaded, you can add a comment to the file, then click Attach. We recommend titling the document accurately so the hiring team knows exactly what it is. How do I manage documents when applying for multiple positions? When applying for multiple positions, make sure to mark all the documents you would like the hiring team to see as Relevant to this Job. Hiring managers can only see the documents marked as such. Leave all other documents unchecked.

If I upload a document with the same name as an existing document, will it overwrite the referencing web pages, original attachment? Yes, when you upload a document with the sample, same file name, it will overwrite the preexisting document with the updated version. Why isn't information from the resume that I uploaded going into the correct application fields, such as work experience, qualifications, and referencing education? A resume must be in a text format (i.e. Microsoft Word or PDF files) rather than an object format (i.e. scanned document) for proper parsing of the information. What is the an example of a natural product is, best format to web pages label my attachments?

We do not have a formal naming convention requirement. However, we recommending labeling a document clearly so the hiring team knows what it is. Of A Natural Monopoly. If you are applying for multiple positions, you may consider including the job number and the title. Consideration for referencing, Other Similar Positions. May I change my answer to the question on the application that asks if I want to be in consideration for similar positions? Yes, you may change your answer when you complete your next application or edit an existing application (if the position is chav define still open). How will I know if my application has been shared?

You will not see this information in your applicant account. Referencing Web Pages. Instead, you may hear from a hiring team inquiring about linda, your interest in a position for referencing, which you have not yet applied. This communication may come via phone or email message. I answered yes, does that guarantee I will be contacted about of Books Schools, other roles? Should you answer yes, the referencing, hiring team may consider you for other similar positions, but there are not guarantees. If I select Yes who will have access to this information? If you select Yes to this question on the Stanford Questionnaire segment of the application, individuals involved in the recruitment process will have access to chav define view this information. If you only want hiring teams for specific openings to see your application information, selecting No is referencing recommended. How long does the for scholarship application, hiring process take? The hiring process at referencing, Stanford can take up to 6 months but varies by department.

How will I know if I am being considered for a role? The hiring team will contact you should they need further information from sample you. Due to referencing web pages the volume of resumes received, we are unable to contact each applicant regarding the status of the things, each position. Referencing. However, once the for scholarship, position is filled most departments will notify each applicant via email. How do I know if a position is still accepting applications? If a job is listed on our website, it is referencing considered open. Requisitions must be posted for a minimum of ten days, then after that point, the department may close the linda the things they, job opening at their discretion. You can update your application as long as the position is still posted. To update an referencing application: Log into in American Schools Essay StanfordCareers and click My Jobpage.

Locate the position you applied for and select View/Edit Submission located under the job title. Referencing Web Pages. Edit the information you would like to change, then hit submit. Please note, in order for hiring managers to chav define view any additional uploaded attachments, you must mark the documents as Relevant to referencing web pages This Job. Can I delete old applications previously submitted? Taleo is our system of record, and for report writing, compliance purposes, it is not possible to delete old applications. Can I delete old documents previously submitted?

For compliance purposes, it is referencing web pages not possible to delete files. Which document can the Hiring Manager see in my application? The hiring manager and team will only see documents you have marked as Relevant to this Job. How do I know you received my online application? Once you've submitted an online application, you will immediately receive an automated email confirming receipt of your application. If you do not receive an email notification, please check your spam folder or log-into your account to review your job submission. What happens to my resume once I submit it through the Stanford Careers Website?

The hiring team will have access to an example natural product your application materials. Web Pages. If you are considered for a position, you will hear from a hiring manager or recruiter directly. Otherwise, you may not be contacted. When applying to positions, who sees my application? If you select Yes to the 6th question on linda they the Stanford Questionnaire segment of the application, individuals involved in the recruitment process will have access to view this information.

If you only want hiring teams for specific openings to see your application information, selecting No is recommended. When will I hear from someone at referencing web pages, Stanford University? When you apply online, you will receive a web notification and the things carried an email confirming your application has been received. Please understand the web pages, recruitment process takes time. You will be contacted if your experience closely meets the required qualifications of the blood in the, position. Is there someone I can call to follow up in regards to my application? Once you apply through the referencing web pages, Stanford Careers Website, your resume is forwarded to The Banning in American Schools Essay the hiring department for review. If there is a match between your skill set and web pages their current needs, the chav define, hiring department or recruiter will contact you. I am interested in a role with Stanford Health, where do I apply?

Stanford Health Care is a separate legal entity from the web pages, University. Open positions for of Books in American Essay, Stanford Health Care can be found on their career page: Where do I go if I am interested in a faculty or teaching position? To view open faculty positions please visit the web pages, departments website. For Scholarship Application. Some of our faculty positions at can be found at:

Where can I find Postdoctoral positions? Where can I locate information on referencing student employment? You can find student employment opportunities on our Career Development Center website at: Where can I post or find unpaid volunteering information? The Stanford University Human Resources team does not centralize volunteer opportunities. Water. We recommend searching via the school unit or program you are interested in.

For example, here are a couple of groups across campus who regularly seek volunteers: Current employees may also be interested in: Individual business units or schools may have internship opportunities. In some cases, these units or schools may post on local San Francisco bay area schools career sites. You can also try reviewing the referencing web pages, Stanford Career Education Office's BEAM (Bridging Education, Ambition, and Meaningful Work) website at The Banning Schools, You may apply for any position you feel qualified for. If there is a match between your skill set and the hiring departments current needs, they will contact you. Request Temporary Placement Services.

Where do I request a temporary staff placement? You can create a Temporary Staff Placement request at: Referencing Web Pages. Someone will respond to your temporary staff placement request within one business day to set up a time to chav define review the process and referencing web pages potential applicant availability for your needs. The form answers will help us determine if we have ready pool talent or will need to conduct a search. I would like to refer someone, how does our referral policy work? We do not have a universal Stanford referral policy, but referrals are welcomed and appreciated. Referrals can be listed in the referred by section of a candidates application, and are helpful to hiring teams when looking through applications. How do internal candidates indicate they work for Stanford? Current employees are encouraged to use their Stanford email to indicate they are a current employee.

Additionally, on the first page of the application, the of Books Schools, last question is Please indicate how you heard about referencing, this Job. Sample. Please select Current or Previous Stanford Relationship. Another dropdown menu will appear. Web Pages. Please choose I am a current Stanford/SLAC Employee. I have a and blood in the meaning a account and would like to merge the referencing web pages, two accounts. How do I merge both accounts in to one?

If you would like to merge two accounts, please send a HelpSU ticket to: The ticket should include: Request Category: Administrative Applications Request Type: Taleo Recruitment Manager. Please provide the the things they, email address that you would like to make as the primary account. Please note, we recommend internal employees make their Stanford email address their primary account. How do I update my email so the information does not go to my Stanford email address? To change the email address associated with your Stanford account: Log in to your account and select My Account Options. Please note, you can also update your name, phone number, and other personal information here, as well.

What is the referencing, Job Description Library? The Job Description Library contains job descriptions for non-academic, non-bargaining unit and librarian jobs at The Banning of Books in American Essay, Stanford. Through the web pages, library, you can view job descriptions of interest to you, and get a sense of the they carried, depth and breadth of careers available at Stanford. Please note that the only current Stanford employees are able to referencing access the Job Description Library (JDL) through the Axess portal. I found a job code I am interested in. How do I search by job code to find the position I am interested in? To search by job code: Click Search Jobs in the top right hand corner of the StanfordCareers page. I know the job grade I am interested in. How do I search by job grade? To search by job grade:

Click Search Jobs in the top right hand corner of the StanfordCareers page. Where do I find the an example product, Bargaining Unit Employee Information? To find Bargaining Unit Employee information please visit: I am a prior/current Stanford applicant in Layoff Status. How does my application reflect I am a Stanford layoff? On the first page of the referencing, application, the last question is Please indicate how you heard about the things, this job. Please select Current or Previous Stanford Relationship. Another dropdown menu will appear. Please select I am a former Stanford/SLAC employee with Layoff status (laid off within past 12 months). What do I do if I forgot my password/username?

From the referencing web pages, Stanford Careers Job Search page, select My Account Settings or click the Apply button. You will be directed to the login page. Writing. From there, select Forgot your user name and/or Forgot your password and follow the directions provided. What if I would like to change my password/username? To change your password/username: Sign in to referencing web pages your account and select My Account Options.

Scroll down and chav define locate the referencing, Login Information section and click Edit. Update your login information. What if I would like to change my email address? To change your email address: Sign in to your account and blood water meaning select My Account Options. I attempted to submit my application through the Stanford Careers Website, but the webpage indicated that there was an error. Web Pages. What should I do now? Use the latest version of a supported browser: PC: Firefox or Internet Explorer Mac: Firefox or Safari. Note: Chrome is blood water meaning not a supported browser. While it may work on occasion, we suggest using one of the listed supported browsers to complete your online application.

I am trying to referencing submit my application, but am experiencing technical difficulties with the Voluntary Self-Identification page. What do I do? The current recommendation is of Books in American Schools to: If the recommendations above do not resolve the issue, please use another computer that has been updated to the conditions listed to complete your online application. Clear your browser cache and web pages cookies and then restart your browser. Complete your application in a supported browser (Mac - Safari or Firefox; PC - Internet Explorer or Firefox) For IE users, turn off browser compatibility mode Confirm you have the an example of a natural monopoly product is, most recent versions of the following applications: Adobe Reader Adobe Flash Java. If the web pages, recommendations above do not resolve the issue, please use another computer that has been updated to study plan for scholarship application the conditions listed to complete your online application. Im using Chrome.

Is this a supported browser? Chrome is not a supported browser. While it may work on occasion, we suggest using one of the web pages, listed supported browsers to complete your online application. Still have questions? If you have additional questions, please contact us at

Join a community where excellence is at the core of our culture. Access an array of benefits to support every stage of your career. Our dynamic and complex organization seeks individuals who will bring innovation and excellence. Stanford complies with the chav define, Jeanne Clery Act and publishes crime statistics for the most recent three-year period. View the full report.

Stanford is an equal employment opportunity and affirmative action employer and is committed to recruiting and web pages hiring without regard to study plan race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by law. Stanford University , Stanford , California 94305 . Copyright Complaints.

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photoshop homework During the course, students explore the tools and techniques necessary for editing and processing images. Students modify the multiple file formats supported by PhotoShop by implementing digital image enhancing, photo retouching, and image compositing. This course addresses color management, multiple layering, palette and painting tools, and various filter operations. Students are required to submit all completed projects into the dropbox located on the school's network. Each completed assignments should be identifed using your first and last name and the name of the project number (such as John Smith 4, Alice Jones 8, etc.) Find out referencing web pages what we're currently working on in American Essay by visiting

Quarter 1(3) Projects. Go online and download several pieces of fruit and vegetables to use as pieces to construct a face. You will need a large round or oval shape for the face and then will resize other facial parts as needed (nose, ears, mouth, eyes, hair). The finished project should be 5 x 7 (portrait mode) 75 dpi. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Colorize the tulips using realistic colors (use the following colors for the tulips -- two should be red , two should be pink , two should be lavender , two should be yellow , and the remaining ones, colors of web pages your choice. Color the background and writing the chocolates surrounding the tulips and it's square vase.

An optional colorizing tutorial may be found here. The finished project should be 7 x 7, 75 dpi, and saved in jpg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. 3 Digital Photography Scavenger Hunt. Go to Digital Cameras for Teachers to obtain answers for the digital photography scavenger hunt.

The information you find on this site and others will be very helpful to referencing you when you complete your upcoming PowerPoint presentation. The worksheet to complete for linda they this assignment is web pages found here: U:CURRICULUMCareerPrepMrs. InmanPhotoshopHandOutsdigital photo scavenger hunt.doc or click HERE. Find a current online computer article that deals with digital photography or a topic that relates to your future PowerPoint presentation. Read the linda, article and then type 2-3 paragraphs summarizing the article and then 1-2 paragraphs telling what you learned and how you may use the information. Be sure to provide a link letting your instructor know which website you obtained the referencing, article from. You will use the information from this article review and from the digital photography scavenger hunt to use on your PowerPoint presentation. Suggested sites to find articles include:

5 Vacationland Typography. Using large block letters (such as 72 pt. Arial Black) to natural product spell MAINE and then fill the letters with pictures that represent tourism here in Maine (HINT: use layer flatten between each letter and the paste into feature). Superimpose your text layer on top of a map of the State of Maine. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon referencing completion of this project.

Do two type projects. You may select from the Photoshop 7 Type Effects textbook or one of the writing sample, following web-based instruction sets below. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of each of project. Referencing Web Pages? . Web-based project option 1 - do the steps at photoshopcafe. (Replace step 1 with your first name rather than Web-based project option 2 - do steps for study application beveled steel . Use your first, middle, and last name for the project. Web-based project option 3 - do steps for referencing Weathered. Use your name for the text in the project. Study Plan For Scholarship Application? Web-based project option 4 - do the steps for web pages Curved Type Reflections. Use your first name for the text in the project. Use your up close photograph and repair one side of your face (removing blemishes, spots, whiten your teeth, widen your eyes, apply makeup, etc.).

Also add a blurred background in. Follow the steps that we have done in report writing sample class also another tutorail is found here. The finished project should be 5 x 7, 180 dpi, and saved in jpg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of referencing web pages this project. Download two animal images from the Internet and create your own new animal by using various features from each animal. Add text above the image giving a new name to the animal you have created. Your finished project should be 5 x 7, 75 dpi, and saved in jpg format. Meaning? Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of referencing this project. Use the The Banning in American Schools, Liquify feature to create a manja character.

You may use the image here or use your own portrait. The finished project should be 5 x 7, 75 dpi, and referencing saved in jpg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of blood this project. Using the You Look Marvelous picture divide it into six segments as demonstrated during class. Referencing? Each segment needs to have a different filter applied. The finished project should be 5 x 7, 75 dpi, and saved in study jpg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. You have been hired to landscape a homeowners yard. The home currently has some grass growing but that's about it. Referencing Web Pages? Fill in any bare spots with new lawn, add flowers and shrubs. The Banning Of Books? Remove the portion of house/porch showing of web pages a neighbor's home on the right.

When finished, make a before and after page with both images side by an example, side. Referencing Web Pages? Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon Essay completion of this project. Create a group picture of our Photoshop class using each persons individual body shot photo. Find a background that is suitable for a group photo. You should have 4-6 people per row.

The finished project should be 7 x 5, 75 dpi, and saved in jpg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Create a magazine cover putting yourself on referencing web pages the cover of a magazine of your choice. Use one of the sample here as your guide. Of A Natural? Add text to identify you on the cover and be sure to add the magazine title just like the referencing, one shown here from the study application, Time Magazine website. Web Pages? Your finished project must look like a realistic cover. Your finished product must be 7 wide x 10 tall and saved at 150 dpi, jpg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon study plan completion of this project. 15 PowerPoint Presentation (COMMON ASSESSMENT) on one of the following topics: Tips on taking better digital pictures How to choose a digital camera Computer graphics used in advertising How to create a photoshop project from start to finish Other (as approved by instructor) Your slide show must be a minimum of referencing 10 slides including a title slide and an ending slide containing a minimum of three references.

Be sure to make the background surrounding any images you use transparent. You may use the information from the Digital Camera Scavenger Hunt and the article review as two of the sources for your presentation. Presentations will be made during the first week of second quarter. Go online and download fonts that best match the following words/phrases, and in a photoshop document write the words/phrases in the font downloaded. * Your Choice - Select a word/phrase of your own! Using patterns and study plan for scholarship application gradient fills color one of the several coloring book images from the U: drive or online from the internet. Make sure to use variety and have fun! Think funky or realistic.

Try to select a picture that has clean lines that connect. Referencing Web Pages? You must use at least four different patterns, and at water, least two patterns you create. 18 Television Show or Movie Poster. Select from a G or PG television show or movie ( have the web pages, show or movie approved by your instructor). No weapons, alcohol, or illegal drugs will be allowed to be in your poster.. The Banning Essay? You will place yourself and two or more of your classmates into the poster. Apply a title for your movie (at least 36 pt. Referencing? bold or larger), include a list of characters. Chav Define? Save image at 180 dpi (5 x 7) and then go through the web pages, steps of converting it to a poster in MS Publisher (Mr. The Things Carried? Hunter will demonstrate). Final product will be printed on web pages the color laser. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon study plan for scholarship completion of this project.

Use one of referencing web pages our digital cameras (or your own) and take a photograph of The Banning a Flower, Stone Wall, Tree, Part of the building outside, Tree leaf/bud/flower and One of your choice. Web Pages? Then apply a filter to create one a watercolor, one a charcoal, and writing sample one a sketch. Use other artistic filters on the remaining images to demonstrate artistic style. The finished projects should be 5 x 7, 180 dpi, and referencing saved in The Banning of Books in American Schools jpg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. 20 Fixing A Scanned Image.

You will be given a scanned image that has been torn into pieces. You must put the image back together and referencing web pages repair any flaws to the picture. The Banning Of Books Schools? Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. 21 Sliced Orange Juice Bottle. Go to the Photoshop folder on the U drive and open the bottle and orange slice files. Referencing? Split the bottle vertically along the neck of the chav define, container and insert the orange slice so that it appears to web pages be an orange inside the blood water meaning, bottle. Web Pages? (see sample) The finished project should be 5 x 5 75 dpi. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Using one of these images (statue 1, statue 2), transform the statue into a life-like character by colorizing it. Use steps found in this online tutorial. Follow the blood in the, steps at. You may be required to gather the separate graphics required (dark sky background, witch, tree, etc.) on your own.

Have a classmate take a series of 6-8 pictures of referencing you. Select your favorite image and clean it up as necessary (remove blemishes, adjust levels, contrast, etc.) Use the picture package feature (located under the File menu) to create a set of blood water meaning 8 wallet-sized (2.5 x 3.5) pictures of web pages yourself. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Go online and find a photograph of a statue (Statue of Liberty or of a political figure). Add a layer of a flag and reduce its opacity as seen in the illustration to the left. Bring in a non-perishable food product (can, bottle, box). Create a spoof of the product and replace it's front label (for example, Raisin Brain Cereal instead of Raisin Bran Cereal).

After the project has been printed in color, attach it to your food product and give it to Mr. Study Plan Application? Hunter for referencing web pages grading rather than putting the image into the dropbox). Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Photoshop a picture of plan for scholarship application yourself into a picture from somewhere else. I.e. Referencing? a picture of you in front of the Eiffel tower, a picture of you next to a pyramid in Egypt, etc. Make it look as if you belong in the picture- be aware of proportions! When you have it done, combine it with an image of a post card and add a witty line like Mexico- Wish you were here!

Etc. Extra points will be given to postage stamps, wear and tear marks, etc. The finished project should be 75 DPI and saved in an example of a natural jpeg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Infomercial (change your body . add or remove weight . or results from plastic surgery, or results from using ProActive acme medication). show before and after pictures. Referencing? Both images should appear on a 11 x 8 1/2 sheet with a heading for your infomercial product at the top of the sheet. At the bottom of the report, sheet list a toll free number for referencing web pages people to call along with a website where they may order your product. YCreate a menu with a restaurant name, appetizers, drinks, and food items in The Banning of Books in American Schools two categories (i.e. chicken, beef, salads, entres, etc) Make it look as realistic as possible- referencing example menus online as needed.

Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of referencing web pages this project.t. work with Mrs. Morelli (reading promotion) to photograph a staff member or student who is holding their favorite book or magazine. Add a background which fits the theme of the book or magazine. Save at 150 dpi resolution and then place the image into MS Publisher to create a sign (size it as a poster).

Your instructor will have it printed in color (2 copies) and then you will tape the image together. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Chav Define? or. Each student will be assigned to photograph one or more staff members here at the high school holding a blank sheet of posterboard. Referencing Web Pages? (be sure to use the plan for scholarship application, tripod). You will be told the referencing, specific wording to place on the individual staff member's poster. Chav Define? The image should be formatted in Portrait orientation.

Knock out the existing background from the image and replace it with either red, blue, green, orange, or purple. The staff member should appear as a grayscale graphic on top of the colored background. The text on referencing the poster must be legible and be printed the same color as the chav define, background used on the poster. Place your full name on the bottom right corner of the poster in Arial, 18 point (created by your name) 31 PhotoShop Portfolio - (COMMON ASSESSMENT) . Watch this video (wear headsets) to learn how to create a Photoshop Web Gallery (see sample below). The gallery will contain two frames. The left frame will have your full name, the date, and referencing web pages Photoshop - block 7 in the upper left corner. beneath this information, you will have a miniature image of each project completed during the quarter; in the larger right frame, each individual will load to display a larger version of each project. The portfolio is Schools due January 24. Referencing? Projects 4, 14, and 27 will not appear in the web portfolio . Final Exam - the exam consists of two parts.

The first , is a self-scoring theory exam ; the second is production based. You have worked hard this semester in meaning our Photoshop course. As a reward, you are treating yourself to web pages a vacation to the destination of your choice. Photoshop a picture of yourself into a picture from somewhere else. I.e. a picture of you in natural monopoly front of the Eiffel tower, a picture of referencing you next to a pyramid in Egypt, etc. Make it look as if you belong in the picture- be aware of proportions! When you have it done, combine it with an image of a post card and add a witty line like Mexico- Wish you were here! Etc. Extra points will be given to postage stamps, wear and tear marks, etc. The finished project should be 75 DPI and saved in an example of a natural product jpeg format.

The official theory exam will be posted here on the date scheduled for the final.

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Alert: New Cryptowall Email Resume Spam. The help desk software for IT. Web Pages! Free. Track users' IT needs, easily, and with only the features you need. We're blocking a possible cryptowall downloader for our customers and chav define wanted to alert the community. The subject and body of the email refer to a resume.

The messages are very small (200B) because the malicious attachment is a zip file with a small javascript (.js) Trojan downloader. It executes ActiveX to download the malware. UPDATE: Actually it downloads two malicious files - an executable purported to be Cryptowall and an executable jpg. These are difficult for antivirus and web pages traditional antispam to detect. The checksum of the attachment is random because the file name changes. Currently it follows the pattern: Resume Joe This is another example of why Cloud antispam is now the most effective protection against email threats. Traditional and they even appliance-based antivirus only scans the downloaded malware, which changes faster than they can keep up. Cloud antispam can examine the entire delivery mechanism (header, subject, body, links, etc). and web pages can analyze global email traffic to detect spam. Edited Mar 24, 2015 at 12:26 UTC. Travis5295 Mar 25, 2015 at of a natural is 2:26 UTC.

Steve (Greenview Data) wrote: This is another example of referencing web pages, why Cloud antispam is chav define, now the most effective protection against referencing web pages email threats. Traditional and even appliance-based antivirus only scans the downloaded malware, which changes faster than they can keep up. Cloud antispam can examine the entire delivery mechanism (header, subject, body, links, etc). and can analyze global email traffic to detect spam. Thanks for the heads up. Steve (Greenview Data) Mar 30, 2015 at 2:05 UTC. Steve (Greenview Data) wrote: This is chav define, another example of why Cloud antispam is now the most effective protection against email threats.

Traditional and even appliance-based antivirus only scans the downloaded malware, which changes faster than they can keep up. Cloud antispam can examine the entire delivery mechanism (header, subject, body, links, etc). and can analyze global email traffic to detect spam. I do try very hard to avoid empty marketing lingo. Yes, my company is here to promote our products and web pages services, but mainly by The Banning, providing useful, substantive information to the community. Referencing Web Pages! Sometimes it is difficult to for scholarship application avoid sounding like a marketing or sales person, but I do try. I know how annoying that can be (Marketing Directors are people, too).

As an antispam provider, we are especially sensitive to the subject and go out of referencing web pages, our way to avoid spammy communications.Take a look at the privacy page on our websites and you'll see what I mean. Chav Define! Also, I hope I'm not one of those marketers who tries to make the referencing web pages, Cloud sound like a magic end-all solution to every problem facing humanity. However, Cloud based email providers like us do have the ability to gather and analyze data (like traffic patterns) from blood in the, a global perspective that, for example, an IT admin running their own in-house spam filter can't (even if they had the time). ?As for this particular thread, email-borne malware protection has become a hot topic and web pages Cloud antispam (notice I didn't limit it to The Banning of Books Essay our company's product) does have an ability to protect email recipients from zero-day threats that traditional antivirus providers don't have, despite their efforts to keep up. It's not their fault, just an inherent difference in how the two products work. Referencing! (On the other hand, they can protect regardless of the delivery mechanism, we are limited to email-based threats - such as links and attachments). I don't want to go into linda the things they carried the details here, but you are welcome to referencing read my blog post on the topic. Anyway, I do appreciate the comment. I am not here to spam or otherwise annoy anyone in this community. I agree that does not go over well, nor should it.

Travis5295 Mar 30, 2015 at 2:18 UTC. Thanks for an honest, straightforward reply. Could you maybe explain how an chav define online provider has better/more coverage than the local admin can get using RBL lists from companies like Barracuda? Steve (Greenview Data) Mar 30, 2015 at 3:08 UTC. You're welcome. Good questions.

I don't like to referencing call out other companies by name (another guideline I try to adhere to). All of study plan, us antispam providers are basically trying to protect customers from threats and work hard to do so. We just approach it differently, but think we provide better overall protection. Web Pages! Our goal is to block spam without blocking legitimate email, to the extent that you don't need to constantly worry about either. Whether you and your coworkers are seeing spam in your inboxes or (worse) by The Banning of Books Schools Essay, sifting through your quarantine, you are still looking at spam, which puts everyone and your company at risk. We think we achieve that goal. Web Pages! In a typical month, fewer than 1% of our customers even bother *checking* their quarantines, and fewer find a legitimate email there. To your question about RBLs and protection. Blood! We go against the mainstream on this one. Referencing! Due to automation and other factors, we feel that RBLs produce too many false positives for business antispam. You may have seen the numerous posts from Spiceheads whose companies' outbound emails are being blocked by of a monopoly product is, one RBL or another and have trouble getting de-listed.

Those are all false positives - legitimate emails that might never reach their destination - or cause recipients to look at more spam in their quarantines. Simply put, we do not rely on RBLs for referencing, blacklisting. Study Application! We make a few available to our customers, but discourage their use and web pages turn them off by default (the RBLs, not the customers). Blood Meaning! Instead, we do conservative blacklisting and only block servers that we determine are *owned* by referencing, spammers, not those being temporarily abused. Keep in mind that we do not rely on Bayesian Heuristics. SpamStopsHere was developed by us, including the way we determine which servers to blacklist. During 2014, our IP blacklist blocked about 42% of the spam. Our other filters (URL, then Phrase, then Pattern) each knock out a chunk of spam while producing almost no false positives. The end result is 99.5% spam blocking with fewer than 0.001% false positives (without graylisting, either). That does require 24/7/365 live spam reviewers (aka threat analysts) to block the threats that automation can't because spam is largely a you know it when you see it thing, and report writing software still can't see too well. We also update our spam filters every TWO minutes 24/7/365.

I've heard of update rates on the order of referencing web pages, 45 minutes for blood in the, one appliance-based vendor and see others brag about blocking a campaign within 30 minutes. That's an eternity these days as far as spam goes. I hope that provides you with some more insight. Referencing Web Pages! Edited Mar 30, 2015 at 4:55 UTC. Travis5295 Mar 30, 2015 at 4:29 UTC. Thank you!

That's the kind of information I (hopefully we) really like to see, and we just won't get elsewhere. Steve (Greenview Data) Mar 30, 2015 at plan for scholarship application 4:57 UTC. Web Pages! Thank you! That's the kind of information I (hopefully we) really like to see, and we just won't get elsewhere. You're welcome. A lot of our marketing is like that.

Check out our blog and of a natural monopoly product is the rest of our website some time. We try to be substantive and web pages helpful. This discussion has been inactive for over a year. You may get a better answer to your question by starting a new discussion.

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essay greedy Book contains two essays, Greed and Greed II. Click on cover. Is exploitation wrong? by Julian Edney.

This is not the first time the referencing, nation has produced dramatic economic inequalities. What are very wealthy people like? The everyday world of work vs. Of A Monopoly Product Is! values of democracy. How assumption of web pages self-interest leads to fear in the workplace. Freedom, the illusion of freedom, coercion. Exploitation.

Credit cards. Meritocracy. Sociopaths. Corporations and the economic justification for the damage they do. Historically we are emerging from an era with no clear ideology, but an era in which materialism and business has expanded powerfully and internationally, and out of the monopoly is, vacuum two old, discredited ideologies, laissez-faire and referencing web pages Social Darwinism appear to be rising again in modern guise.

These ideologies are still flawed; the first (contained in modern Libertarianism) vigorously promotes freedom but ignores justice and is indifferent toward democracy. The second is supported by science, is disinterested in humane values and accommodates exploitation as part of the nature of things. The search for a modern economic theory closer to reality. Is this a society of linda individuals rationally maximizing happiness? Andrewss view: at least among the web pages, disadvantaged, it is a political economy of hope and fear. Of A Natural Is! (1) Looking for referencing web pages morning news, I click on my computer. My internet service flashes with color, the biggest houses, the biggest jewelry, the most expensive toys. The internets financial press waxes muscular.

Television is the same. The media are a river of adulation for all this glitter and the people who own it. School textbooks carry a similar message. Despite setbacks, the economy is ever expanding, its power is plan for scholarship application unparalleled, we are now spreading free market capitalism around the globe, bringing unimagined wealth and improvement to mud-level nations and countries sucked out by referencing web pages socialism, raising everybody, because thats what capitalism does. Has everybody been raised here? Actually, with talk of report sample equality written into this nations founding papers, the scenery never looks right.

The contrast between rich and poor grows, and this year has been no exception. As an web pages acquaintance on the street puts it: every year there are more homeless people and every year the limousines get longer. If the chav define, stated goal of the referencing, system was to gradually create inequality, it might also claim success. We barely notice because we are adjusted. But if you are a foreign visitor, how does this nation show? A svelte Scottsdale, of of a natural product course. Disneyland, of course. The flamboyant homes of the referencing, film stars. Lavish Marin County neighborhoods (some of the least affordable rents) (2). But if you are a visitor, your tourist bus will also whisk you past sights never found in the guide books nor in our kids social studies texts. Neighborhoods awash in shootings (1,200 gun injuries in South Los Angels alone last year (3) ); square miles of city filled with houses with barred windows, chaotic schools, downtown blocks of sweatshops; whole neighborhoods sunk in of a natural monopoly product semi-literacy, drugs, gangs, fear; and our nightmarish jails (4).

Not everybody looks like they have been raised. The numbers show a radically skewed society. Rather than pages of numbing statistics, Ill sketch a couple of referencing web pages facts, the first from sociologist Steven Rose. Natural Monopoly Is! If you drew a line on a building three stories high to referencing web pages represent the distance between the lowest and the highest family income, the average (median) income sits at only 10.5 inches off the carried, ground and half the nation is web pages clumped below that (5). Second, despite the prodigious numbers of Schools poor, housing for them is so scarce that of the 3,141 counties in referencing the United States, in only 4 can a person making minimum wage afford a one-bedroom apartment (6). I believe this imbalance mauls the report writing, national psyche because the media repeatedly show us images of people and web pages places from the plan for scholarship, beautiful upper stretches of that vertical line.

In the comparison, thrown at us daily, most of us lose. This nation equates decency with wealth and indecency with poverty. Web Pages! These media images also create floods of study for scholarship application anxiety. Being less than, being poor, carries a stigma. Another sociologist thinks we are so materialistic, poverty now actually carries the shame that cowardice carried in earlier, warrior times (7). And actually if the economy is on web pages, fire, we have some funny facts. The dollar has dropped to a fraction of what it was worth thirty years ago. No amount of policy tinkering has been able to stop manufacturings chronic decline.

The national trade deficit is at an all time high (meaning roughly, if its foreign made we want to own it). Personal debt has reached swaggering amounts. And bankruptcies have ballooned, now running 1.46 million a year (8) - outstripping the divorce rate, also outstripping annual college graduations (9) . Defenders say, but compared with dusty nation X or backward country Y - its so much worse elsewhere. Meaning! We are the envy of the world. When we compare nations, we should keep in mind who we are comparing.

Every third world nation has a middle class, no matter how small, with houses, and those folks are still better off than our hordes of homeless. And our wealth inequalities are so stark, poor people here are worse off than many of their foreign counterparts (10). And if you start comparing nations, what about the quality of life? Are our 30 million citizens on antidepressants also the envy of the world? And our suicide rate, with suicide now the third leading cause of referencing death among the young (11) ? Here lurks the question of how much life is worth living. I wish I could get away from monopoly, these inequalities, but I cannot. Fly away from it all? Board a plane, and we take off. Having settled in at cruising altitude on referencing, a flight, surrounded by other passengers, I look out the sun-filled window and we float among the iridescent clouds and for report sample a moment it seems we are transcending the world's concerns. Then the stewardess carefully draws the cabin curtain across the aisle between us and the passengers in first class section.

This act is noiseless and delicate. All passengers eyes are riveted on web pages, it. Nowadays, nobody seriously criticizes the rich. Criticizing the linda, rich doesnt make much sense if you think youre going to referencing be one. But it wasnt always that way. This isnt the first time this nation has produced a huge separation between rich and poor. In the 1870s-1890s America actually had a brush with serious economic revolt (12). The trouble was started by common farmers in of a monopoly product the hinterland - stake holders in the new frontier - dismayed that all their hard work didnt deliver. The Civil Wars aftermath was a time of immense capital growth for some and hopeless drudgery for others. Chicago and New York contained both wealth-aristocrats in frivolously decorated mansions that mocked European aristocratic manors, and on referencing web pages, the other side, smoke-stained factories with legions of The Banning ragged workers.

In the rural South rich plantation owners lived in white-columned country homes while paying barefoot field workers scrip they could only spend at the owners store contract labor working in endless debt. This was the era of flamboyant corporation owners in top hats chomping on web pages, outsize cigars, also the era of steep child mortality rates, pestilences that swept the report writing sample, streets, misery and short life expectancies for the poor. It was an era of unrestrained markets, the era of monopolists who collaborated with each other in setting prices; little was illegal. Following the Civil War, there were a couple of different currencies in referencing circulation, one sinking in value and less reliable. City banks peddled mortgages widely on new farmland they had never seen. A new farmer could sign on in either currency. Linda The Things! Then a national money contraction occurred, consolidating the two issues. Farmers took the fall.

They were left owing the banks up to twice what they had signed for. Believing in the national promise that hard work brings wealth, they found they only worked and lost money on their slow-producing farms, then worked harder and lost more. Meanwhile, the banks flourished. They grew spectacularly. They argued they were only being patriotic. Bewildered, farmers actually started trying to understand what was wrong by reading books on economics.

The result was a bitter understanding of the money power, of lenders rights, of monopolistic control, and of American credit corporations as fortresses of wealth. In desperation, farmers cooperatives started up. They aimed for debtors independence. They were made up of plain people seeking self expression. First in the South, this movement swept across Texas, then the Western plains states, attracting farmers by the thousand. Referencing Web Pages! Then they joined up with railroad workers who were desperate over low wages and ruinous equipment and who were striking. Eventually the National Farmers Alliance and in the water Industrial Union spread far west and north, and at its peak had over a million members. The Populist Party was started. This new party was virulently anti-monopoly, and its hero was the opposite, the web pages, poor-but-good worker. It successfully ran candidates for local government, and then William Jennings Bryan, a Populist, actually won the Democratic nomination for report sample President.

Bryan had risen from stump-speeches in referencing open fields to the political crest with firebrand oratory telling farmers and workers they were crucified on chav define, a cross of gold, nailed to the impossible demands of credit merchants, and the victims of a monied tyranny (13). The poor have always been demonized. But for the first time, in the 1890s, the referencing, rich were being demonized. Bryan lost the election to McKinley in writing 1896. The railroad strikes were crushed by referencing robber baron Jay Gould who somehow got local sheriffs to deputize all his strikebreakers. Strikers were called mutinous, and local magistrates declared union leadership a crime. Without Bryan rising, the Populist movement suddenly faded.

There was capitulation and The Banning disgust. Referencing! People muttered you cant fight the nations banks. Some farmers even left the writing sample, country and moved to Canada. Corporate power rose everywhere again. Referencing Web Pages! Sentiment changed. Of A Monopoly Product Is! In memory, words like the peoples, and referencing web pages progressive, became tainted with the shadow of socialism. That era is remembered in blood in the water history books. But it has been so diluted that Populism is described as an agrarian movement, a protest. Omitted are the rage, the web pages, oratory, the chav define, fires, the marches, the riots, the militia shooting strikers. I believe some of the early conditions of that movement are reappearing.

But today we are mute. We are back to the dogma that whatever the wealthy do is good for the poor. Only a few modern writers like Christopher Lasch see that the detachment of our modern elites is actually betraying our democracy (14). Fewer writers, like Charles Derber, are saying the moral decay in web pages this country starts at linda the things they carried, the top (15). We live in a peculiar era. There is said to be no ideology. What is ideology? It is a visionary assertion of values, goals and aims. Referencing Web Pages! It ties a people together, explaining what is bigger and in American Schools Essay more important than each of us. It is part theory, part speculation. Web Pages! It urges loyalty.

Ideologies can be national, grand and study visionary, or subdued and web pages local. They may be delivered from the podium, or they may be unspoken but lurking everywhere as if a colorless gas that saturates a cultures thinking (16). An ideology can move a community to the things prepare for war, or it can move a nation to peace; but it gives motivation and meaning, it states the common good, and explains why the people must work together. Web Pages! Without ideology, people can live active lives but they are atomized - there is a hollowness and insecurity beneath. Daniel Bell wrote a book The End of Ideology which says that in the United States, ideology has dissolved (17).

Bell: Through the last century - at least through the belligerent period of the two World Wars and plan the 1950s Cold War - the referencing, United States had plenty to say about the things carried, what it stood for, also what it hated. Ideology was sharp and it was national. But with the advent of peace, and especially with the decline of communism, there was suddenly less reason to deliver thunderous speeches about why we are here, what we are ready to die for referencing - the speeches that bring urgency and purpose and meaning to people. We have drifted since the Vietnam era without an ideological rudder. We exist in a kind of void, in which individualism flourishes, and narcissism, ego, materialism, the pursuit of self, wealth, status and greed - but nothing that moves the masses together. Predicting the in the meaning, future may best be left to crystal-gazers, but we can always take hints from newly published books because they contain ideas that may be influential for referencing years. Some new publications are unsettling. Into this void, Ill argue, are creeping two quasi-ideologies. Actually they are not new. They are two old ideologies, mutated, which are rising again.

First a popular book which appeared in an example 2002. It describes a part of this society. The way the author works is referencing web pages a new fashion and it is revealing. Beyond that Curtain. Very rich people are hidden from us because they want it that way.

Naturalist Richard Conniff uses sociobiology to describe the upper class. He has patiently followed the superrich around (and these folks are above 'junior wealth' which is about $5-10 million) and has interviewed them in their natural environment. This is the new fashion, to explain what humans do because of their genes and their evolution. The exotic customs of the moneyed class fill his book The Natural History of the Rich (18). Blood Water! Because he is a naturalist, he unflinchingly compares the people at the top with the alphas (top members) of other animal species.

Conniff says the superrich are an intensely narcissistic and competitive small group. They arrange their lives so that wherever they go (Aspen, Monaco, Paris) they see the same few hundred people. They are self-encapsulated. Web Pages! They regard the rest of us as irrelevant, uninformed, even subhuman, and they don't like to talk to us. (One fabulously wealthy lady used her cell phone to call her chief-of-staff who was in another country to call her maid to tell the maid what to do next. The maid had a cell phone and was on linda carried, the opposite side of the room from the lady). Conniff reports that just like other top animals, the superrich are driven by the quest for status, mating opportunities and dominance - except that the human version constantly denies it. Top-rungers also flout the referencing web pages, basic rules of economics.

While average folks purchase more stuff when it becomes less expensive (supply and demand), the leisure class prefers to buy stuff that is more expensive, even when comparable stuff is available for in the less. The object is to dazzle. Sociologist Thorstein Veblen identified that odd habit back in 1899 and termed it conspicuous consumption. Its waste in order to impress (19, 20). Conniff points out animals do this too. The cascading tail feathers of alpha male peacocks have no useful function. They are there to referencing web pages impress other peacocks - in fact they are so conspicuous they practically prevent the bird from flying. More biology: the way the superrich have isolated themselves for chav define centuries now qualifies them as a pseudospecies. Web Pages! By hanging out and mating only with their own kind, over many generations, they have effectively removed themselves from the gene pool.

Sociobiology is a fairly new division of biology. In The! Its been around since the 1970s. It holds that human behavior is web pages genetically shaped, like animals which run largely on instinct. An Example Of A Monopoly Product Is! It says our behavior is evolved. Referencing! Sociobiology has a younger sister, evolutionary psychology, which talks more about humans than animals, but in the same way. Evolutionary psychology holds that our daily routines and report our choices are not nearly as spontaneous as we think because our behavior and our emotions are determined by web pages the long tracks of natural selection. Both these disciplines are in their infancy. Blood Meaning! Both are busily looking for parallels between animal behavior and our behavior to show we are more instinct than we think. So what Conniff does is to referencing web pages illustrate the dominant posturing of top rats versus the belly-crawling of their subordinates, and the bluster of top baboons versus the rump-presenting submissiveness of subordinates - and chav define compares it to the obsequious behavior of human underlings who attend to web pages our superrich. Dominance patterns in this species fit dominance patterns in that.

So for instance in both human and water meaning walrus communities, the top elite have more. They copulate more, they get more of what they want, and they guard more resources than they need. Conniff states: Humans seem to be 'ethologically despotic,' like chimpanzees; that is, we have a natural predisposition to hammering other people into submission. Except that in human males this is expressed as a single-minded determination to impose their vision on referencing web pages, the world (21). Why do the rest of us go along with this? We cant help it.

A stare from high authority throws us into rabbit-panic. An Example Monopoly Product Is! Lower ranking humans throw themselves into submission, even sacrificing themselves for their high superiors. Its all biologically evolved behavior. Inequality is everywhere in the animal kingdom - even animals that cant do much else, such as chickens, are expert at knowing the ranks of all other chickens. And a low ranking wolf will fight to the death for referencing its pack even while its daily life is made miserable by for scholarship application cruel tormenting from the animals above it because belonging to a hierarchy is everything. According to referencing web pages sociobiologists, hierarchy chains us humans too. It makes no sense, but animals and humans alike sometimes cling to those who batter them. Linda They Carried! It's in the genes. Along the way, it would be heartening to learn from referencing web pages, sociobiologists that our top people are good people. In American! That part is missing. The ultra rich are likely to have serious mayhem in the family history.

Conniff traces this old saying to Balzac: Behind every fortune theres an referencing web pages undiscovered crime. Generations ago, many alpha families originally ascended by force and illegal conquest - and, in his interviews, often show themselves proud of it. And what of our popular belief the wealthy are that way because they work very hard? Do they? Well, maybe. Conniff interviewed one extremely wealthy woman who told him, I'm the most normal, normal person, I'm not like most rich people. I work really hard. Most rich people I know don't do anything but eat, drink, sleep, pardon the term, fuck, and for scholarship application have a good time (22). Genius and Alcoholism.

If our behaviors are genetic, it means we dont have much control over referencing, them. Simple actions, breathing, sleeping, coughing are all behaviors we cant change. But evolutionary psychology says many of water our more complicated behaviors are partly genetic. We have a genetic predisposition towards overeating or dominance or addiction or depression, musical genius, alcoholism, and possibly some criminal behaviors too - because these things have been found to run in families. Todays cutting edge research is looking for behaviors that are controlled by genes, and how much. Referencing Web Pages! There is a scale called a heritability index that runs from for scholarship application, 0.0 to 1.0, the referencing web pages, idea being that behaviors high on the scale are genetic and cant be controlled voluntarily. The implications ripple across our legal system. If it is established that somebody has a genetic disposition towards criminal behavior, then he doesnt have control over it. Think of the possibilities: imagine a criminal lawyer putting on the following defense, Your Honor my client is not to blame - he couldnt control his thieving - he was just fulfilling his genetic destiny In fact, these legal defenses may become more common as evolutionary psychologist are now arguing that using pornography (23), not paying child support (24) and rape (25 ) are in the genes. Evolutionary psychology is deliberately pushing into chav define, public policy.

The appearance of a new book Evolutionary Psychology, Public Policy and web pages Personal Decisions shows its intended scope (26). But two topics - we might not have guessed which - are keeping biologists agitated. Blood Water! Are we run by selfishness? And how important is the individual, as opposed to the group? This is the referencing web pages, way its coming down: 1. Selfishness. Chav Define! Darwins starting point was that life is everywhere a struggle for survival.

If you want to survive, you cant waste time helping others. Web Pages! In fact most sociobiologists say, dont bother looking for the tender, caring or even cooperative behavior in humans; it isnt there (27). But the central issue being kicked around: is selfishness by itself sufficient to keep a group surviving? Or does a species of animal also need another type of behavior, like cooperation or altruism, in which members help each other? One camp, the hard-nosed Darwinists, says yes to selfishness that also means genes-powered greed, genes-powered waste-to-impress (28) and chav define no to altruism. 2. Selection between whole groups. Darwin said natural selection happens between individuals.

But what about selection between communities (and herds and flocks)? This issue is so hot, arguments between sober academics almost read like kids having tantrums. Referencing Web Pages! The point is this: if there is chav define competition between groups (communities) for survival, the winning group will be stronger because of teamwork, which takes something like cooperation or altruism between members. A group of only selfish individuals is weakened from within. And these two issues go hand-in-hand. Orthodox Darwinists say, you dont need to think about altruism because there is web pages no group-level selection. Daniel Batson writes on this debate.

At this point, sociobiology is new and unsure. It keeps issuing statements then correcting itself. Does natural selection exclude group selection? Yes; correct that, no. Does natural selection produce only selfishness? Yes; correct that, no (29). Actually this is chav define not just a scuffle under the stairs among academics. Referencing! Because of Darwins assumptions, all this threatens the very planks on study application, which the theory of evolution rests. So a lot of people are watching this fight (30). When these infant disciplines finally get their sea legs, they will bring home the referencing web pages, bogeyman of all questions, because selfishness and altruism are not just behaviors, they are moral values. Whats really lurking behind all this work: is our morality controlled by our genes? (31)

Adam Smith cares. Recall that Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations tell us all people act in chav define their own interest (selfishly) - and that is fine, according to referencing web pages him since the whole community eventually benefits. Who does this sound like? It sounds similar to Darwin claiming that animals are naturally selfish - its a matter of survival. Both Smith, in Wealth of product is Nations, and Darwin dont truck with altruism. It would change the basic assumptions of web pages both of their whole theories. And we get the hint that Charles Darwin and Adam Smith were singing off the same sheet of music. So the appearance of Conniffs book waves a flag. Any alliance between biology and big money should keep us nervous. This alliance has a scurrilous history. A contemporary of Darwins was English philosopher Herbert Spencer.

Spencer was not only thinking on the same tracks, it was Spencer who invented the term survival of the fittest. Darwin was cautious how much evolution actually applies to us humans, but Spencer was not cautious. Chav Define! Spencer applied the fittest to the wealthy (32). Spencer became very popular with the monied classes towards the end of the nineteen century. On the lecture circuit in America he said humans, like the animals described by web pages Darwin, are all in a competition for of a monopoly product survival. Referencing! This was normal. For wealthy industrialists to exploit and discard hordes of the poor in their factories was also understandable. The poor were the blood water meaning, unfit. Nature was red in tooth and referencing claw. The industrialist was just hastening natures way of of a monopoly weeding out the weak members.

Spencer also said welfare - even charity - was a bad idea. It encouraged the poor, who would multiply and spread their unfitness. Overall, did the rich prosper at the expense of the poor? Of course - and in the long run, Spencer said, this was good for a nation. After WWI, Social Darwinism was discredited as a vulgarized version of Darwinism. At the time, communist ideology was flourishing in Europe, and the argument that the workers were going to control everything was turning Russia inside out like a glove.

Socialism was on web pages, the rise in Europe, and America decided to keep one eye on linda they carried, its poor. Pro-worker feeling grew and between the web pages, World Wars, President Roosevelt built a more poor-friendly, worker-friendly atmosphere, and started Social Security. But it is now sixty years since WWII, and times have changed again. During this last century, of course, many things changed. In American! Science itself made vast progress, reaching peaks, so that at 2000 it could point back at a moon walk, the atom opened, the defeat of plagues as points on its startling ascent. Today science has tectonic credibility. It is referencing web pages unimpeachable. If a layman attacks science, nobody listens. But this topic, Darwinism, will not sit down.

Among the few with credibility to question science are philosophers. Philosophers are carefully trained in logic. Philosopher Richard Perry, in the staid journal Ethics , quietly walks up and in American Schools kicks the referencing, struts out from under sociobiology. Is it really science? Or is it a con? Perry shows the logic under all sociobiology to be not the they carried, grid of deductive logic you would expect in science, but only a patchwork of referencing web pages analogies. Now there is a certain use for analogies, but analogies do not prove anything, they only an example of a product, show likenesses. Referencing! The best use of analogies is in the persuasive arts, oratory and poetry. Analogy is the warp-and-woof of sociobiology. Thats what they do, says Perry. If you want to say humans are aggressive, describe the aggressiveness in rats show the similarities.

If you want to prove humans territorial, talk about the an example of a monopoly, territoriality of mockingbirds - invite the similarities. And so on. Perry says, but wait. Why these analogies in the first place? - Theres something odd about circling around one species to make pronouncements about referencing, another. Study Plan For Scholarship Application! Why are we studying animals to understand humans? Would you investigate houseflies by referencing web pages studying blue herons? Wouldnt that distort what we already know about flies? His article Sociobiology: Science in the service of ideology warns us the logic is so bad, sociobiology should be embarrassed. It is in American more like weaving a net with the study of referencing web pages animals and throwing it over the things, humans. And it should tip us off to referencing ulterior purposes. We should look for chav define what else it does.

Perry urges us to decline trust in web pages sociobiology. It is engaging reading. But it does what Herbert Spencer did. It tells us we dont have to feel guilty if we are brutal with each other - animals do it. It gives comfort to perpetrators of social injustice (33 ). The next point in this essay is that Social Darwinism, or some modernized variation, is rising again. Supported as a science, our neo-Darwinism is fed by hours of an example of a monopoly exquisite photography on Discovery Channel where we repeatedly watch hungry leopards stalk innocent deer, fell them and gorge on their entrails hour after hour. (What car salesman hasnt watched, and said to referencing web pages himself, that animal lives in me, I can use any method to drag down fleeing customers?) Darwinism has a dangerous ally. Another twist in logic, which always gate-crashes the party and plan for scholarship application says, if it happens in nature, it must be right. But the web pages, problem is, you cannot logically convert a fact into a right . (Example: its a fact some kids beat up other kids on blood in the water meaning, the playground, therefore they have a right to do it).

Morality should step in. It took a long time to get that right in western civilization. Because its a fact Charles Darwin reported on a species of slave-making ants, humans do not have a right to make slaves. Then as now, using analogy as a justification for ignoring human pain and fear, or creating it, is a perversion. Social Darwinism will be much harder to get rid of this time. If we are not vigilant, sociobiology and evolutionary psychology will set new standards of indifference. The implications are stirring. What if our politicians and policy makers, administrative agencies and bureaucracies, our military, our justice system, our legislators, watching, all believe that rich and referencing web pages poor, good and bad, winning and linda they carried losing are in referencing the genes? Place your bets, because depending on the way a couple of these controversies turn out (especially selfishness) we may have biologists telling us what is right and wrong, that democracy is unnatural, and that inequality and injustice are in the nature of things.

Laissez-faire was the table-thumping cry of monopolistic big business in the 1860s through the 1920s overlapping the Populist era, but on chav define, the capitalist side. From the businessmans point of view, this was the Gilded Age. Will power was a virtue, expansion always seemed the way to go, and everything was believed to be better if it was bigger. (The Crystal Palace, the Eiffel tower, and the Titanic were industrial symbols). The concept traces back to referencing web pages 1825, and it means government abstention from interference with individual action, especially commercial action. But it was found that if business was not restrained at all, the economy rose and fell in a cycle of blood in the water peaks and destructive crashes. Second, it produced monsters that worked people to disease or death.

During the laissez-faire era, people died or got maimed on web pages, the job in perilous mines, foundries and rail yards, getting no compensation (because, it was argued, they worked there by choice). This is what the Populists battled. In The! The battle was rough and long, with repeated strike actions, and poverty and despair for workers. Laissez-faire , the philosophy of robber barons, was eventually collared and referencing web pages muzzled, notably in the things carried Supreme Court decisions headed by Justice Brandeis who saw unfettered business practices as an eventual threat to web pages democracy. It took many years to in the water produce a real turn. The Seattle General Strike of 1919 was another attempt to break through. Eventually both Social Darwinism and referencing web pages laissez-faire were abandoned. Laissez-faire is rising again. The Libertarian Party, formed in 1972, looks New Age-ish.

Libertarians promises a bright new beginning, the kind of thing that always attracts young people with spirited talk about freedom from authority. In fact libertarians almost never stop talking about freedom. Libertarians believe this: Individualism is what a society is The Banning of Books all about. The promotion of self, and self-interest, life, liberty and property rights are important. Businesses and markets should also be free from restraint. Libertarianism hates constraint. Web Pages! It condemns anything too powerful government or police power and anything social welfare, rent control. Here are its founding assumptions.

At heart, libertarians believe that all human relationships should be voluntary. Chav Define! They think there is a natural harmony of interests among people, and any society works by a sort of web pages spontaneous order. In politics, libertarianism claims to be against both the left wing and the right. It states opposition to Essay fundamentalist religion as much as against any state agency - both threaten individual freedom. How do we know the referencing, old ideology of laissez-faire is in chav define here? Because a 1997 book which explains the basics, by David Boaz (executive vice president of the Cato Institute) called Libertarianism: A Primer , says so. It states that laissez-faire capitalism is the answer to everything because it brings incredible wealth to all. And it proudly champions Adam Smiths ideas as its heritage (34).

Justice in Two Pages. Those founding assumptions are nonsense. First its obvious not all people are interested in harmony. Some are excessively greedy. Some people prefer power, which tends to corrupt. Referencing Web Pages! Second, world history books have shown few human societies working smoothly by spontaneous order. In general, we should evaluate a theory by report sample what it says, also by referencing web pages what it doesnt say.

What does libertarianism say about exploitation? Nothing. The word isnt even in the index. Next, its treatment of justice is negligible. And what does it say about equality? - Almost nothing.

It is hard to convey libertarianisms disinterest in plan for scholarship equality. Or perhaps this: Boazs book has 314 pages. Just over one page is web pages given to equality. Chav Define! Equity? - nothing. Justice? - under two pages. Consider a modern concern. What about big-business abuse of the environment? Among other points in the book - to give environmentalists nightmares - is that libertarians see no contradiction between industry expansion and the environment. Quote: Economic growth helps to produce environmental quality. (35) Reading Libertarianism reveals something much more troubling. The book explains that freedom is so prime, it is more important than democracy.

Libertarianism is referencing disinterested in democracy. Rather, libertarians believe in Natural Law, laws seated in The Banning Essay ancient, even tribal, crude customs, which are hardly enlightened ways. There is actually a fringe element among libertarians, gaining momentum, which seriously wants to dismantle democracy in referencing web pages America (36) which it interprets as mob rule. While this style of business in the 1890s, for profits, freely harnessed uneducated millions of the poor into sweatshops and The Banning of Books Schools mills, at wages that always seemed to keep them frightened and hungry, all those problems are now forgotten by libertarians - as if the century had no shadow. And without a twitch of embarrassment, a Chicago Tribune review on the dustcover of Boazs book Libertarianism explains that these are ideas that are coming to dominate the thinking of government all over the world. But laissez-faire is critical for todays aggressive corporations because they cannot operate at their gargantuan level without almost total freedom. Corporate businessmen cite as their biggest enemy, government.

They see greed as a solution rather than a problem. They despise the push for referencing web pages equality as a death-knell. They refer to justice as something the envious dreamed up (37). For them, democracy is no more than a bright tinsel wrapping to be torn off the moment it poses any real constraint to their freedom. Despite these concerns, our market economy is not weakening in any way. The reverse. At this point in chav define history, capitalism is just getting started on a second Big Bang. We are recently launched into another expand-or-die wave that dates back approximately to the fall of the Berlin Wall and referencing web pages is already showing geometric power. Its being promoted by our massive gifts and loans to foreign countries and by our placing key capitalists in international banking.

And, less benevolently, by the starting of foreign wars, which require repairs, for which we provide contractors, whose profits return to us. This new wave is not powered by any single ideology. Chav Define! But this odd combination of Social Darwinism and laissez-faire is a soil mixture that produced the explosive capitalism and web pages empire-building at the turn of the last century, and it will work again. I say odd combination because these two theories are actually contradictory. Libertarians should look over their shoulders. Biology promotes the opposite point, that we humans dont have much freedom because our behavior is report writing sample controlled by our genes. Sociobiologists say even the web pages, functioning of carried our societies is constrained by our genes, so the idea of referencing web pages us choosing to expand our liberties is hilarious to them. These two theories were also contradictory a hundred years ago. That didnt stop monopolists then and the things they carried it will not stop the high-octane business leaders of today - none of whom are exactly intellectuals. Turn on the television and web pages watch our national leaders talk policy. They explain we are bringing our way of doing business to foreign lands because capitalism brings democracy.

We are the bringers of fortune, uplift, goodness, opportunity and water freedom for all - the referencing web pages, best destiny humanity has to offer. Just because this argument is delivered from a podium bathed in rotating lights does not make it true. It is also broken logic. One of the main events in capitalism is the an example monopoly, creation of inequality. We recall that the two basic values of democracy are freedom and equality.

They are the two wings on which that exalted bird flies. And we notice these official speeches on foreign policy promise freedom, but they never promise equality. We cannot export equality. You cannot give away what you havent got. Second, a point always omitted from referencing, these speeches is they carried that capitalism comes in different species. One type is authoritarian capitalism and it is decidedly undemocratic. A governing power, sometimes a military dictator, promises businessmen they will make astonishing profits if they just follow his orders. This - the melding of business and referencing state - happens to linda they carried be one of the referencing web pages, elements of fascism. The Banning In American Essay! Another defining element of fascism is that inequality is a virtue. But free market economics are being built everywhere.

This is so powerful, it has the face of referencing web pages a titan. So we cannot do it any harm, analyzing it. In The Water! We have plenty of time to pull up our chairs, and at our leisure examine its beating heart. The major musculature of our modern free markets is corporations. They deserve attention. Corporations are collections of people doing business.

Other types of business entities exist, sole proprietorships and partnerships, but corporations are surely the largest. (Some corporations are more wealthy than some countries). They inspire joy in some people, fear in referencing web pages others. Corporations have been harshly attacked in several books by investigative reporters. For example, Mokhiber and Weissmans Corporate Predators and Courts Corporateering warn of the way corporations influence politics (by shifting massive capital around) as well as the way they take away our personal privacy and security. As a rule, they lack transparency. And they seem invulnerable surrounded as they are by walls of lawyers (38,39). Many corporations hire their own economists so they are also difficult to comprehend.

These books are a good and healthy part of the report, publics reading. But these attacks have made no difference. One book, however, written by referencing a lawyer, may make a difference. It translates the stygian legalese and economics into common language. The book is no less frightening. The author reveals the corporate Achilles heel. Bodies in Two Parts.

Law professor Joel Bakans The Corporation explains that corporations date back to the 1690s in Britain. From the start corporations were peculiarities, being bodies that are split into two parts. Directors and managers run the firms, but stockholders own them. And the stockholders are an linda carried ever shifting bunch, being owners today, sellers tomorrow. Most stockholders have no interest in how the referencing web pages, firm does business. They only look at The Banning of Books in American, the daily value of the stock. Since the only business of a corporation is to make profit, this is a recipe for corruption, because the stock's value can fluctuate on rumor and web pages reputation, and a firm might grow wealthy on lies, or by overcharging, or by selling a dangerous product, or by not doing anything except issuing promises, and the stockholders are just as delighted. Stockholders dont ask questions. Second, the corporation has a legal mandate to pursue, relentlessly and without exception its own self interest and this regardless of the harmful consequences it might cause others. If along the way they have to pay some fines for damage they have done, this is study plan calculated into referencing, business expenses. In The Meaning! Its all numbers.

And since some corporations make massive profits, they dont flinch at referencing web pages, paying out very large sums to the things carried people and web pages environments they have damaged very badly. And then return to do it again. Anything that is an unfortunate byproduct of making profit, such as stress, lives lost, disease, broken laws, pollution, immorality, collateral damage, grief, disruption, riots, is called an externality - because it is outside the crisp equation for calculation profit and loss. Report Sample! Most of what we know as morality and humanity are externalities. This breakage can have enormous effects on the world. Corporations are externalizing machines, says Bakan. Referencing! Bulldozing through to linda more profits, they routinely break stuff wherever they go and this single-mindedness has produced what we have today, colossuses of referencing indifference of such power as to in American Schools Essay weaken governments ability to control them, so that corporations now govern society perhaps more than governments do. Yes, there are some corporation CEOs who exercise morality and web pages judgment. But they are not supported by Nobel Prize winning economist Milton Friedman, who believes the they carried, only moral duty of the web pages, corporation is to put profit over an example of a monopoly product, social and environmental goals (and business guru Peter Drucker thinks likewise).

Bakan goes further. He likens corporations to psychopaths (sociopaths). For his book he interviewed Dr. Robert Hare, a psychologist and expert on psychopathy, to get a list of personality traits that psychopaths exhibit (no empathy, asocial behaviors, manipulativeness, no conscience, no remorse) and then tries those out on corporations. They fit.

For instance corporations return repeatedly to make profits from web pages, things they know are lethal and plan that strew grief - cigarettes, cars that catch fire in crashes, drugs with devastating side effects - because the money is there. Enough money gives them a psychopathic contempt for legal constraint. Or any constraint. Removing democracy may seem like a good business plan, if it hinders a firms mission. In corporate culture there is an emerging social order that is wide and dangerous, as dangerous as any fundamentalism, Bakan states. For in a world where anything or anyone can be owned, manipulated, and exploited for profit, everything and everyone will eventually be. Bakan says every corporations Achilles heel is concealed in its original incorporation papers. I will return to this point in the later section on referencing web pages, remedies (40). If corporations are really like that, we might wonder about the people who work in them. Tens of millions of regular folks work in study plan application corporations, of course, which gives them the surface look of well fed averageness.

But because of web pages their aggressive business agenda, they also attract some odd personalities. The sociopath (also called psychopath) in the publics mind is a loathsome and fascinating figure, imagined as a berserk serial killer. Actually, most sociopaths couldnt be more different. Suave and charming, manicured starters of conversations, many look like they come from the chav define, pages of GQ . Referencing! (There are plenty of lissome women sociopaths too.) Consummate actors, you melt when they talk to you. They are smooth as glass. They exhibit a tapered arrogance. They are also persistent, repetitive, remorseless violators of the rights of others, and the rules of society (41).

In todays high stakes, empire-building business climate, sociopaths are some of the fastest rising stars. In corporate maneuvering they have no loyalty, virtually no emotion, and blood in the water meaning no conscience. Promiscuous in friendships as in sex, they start instantly and leave an alliance instantly it creates advantage. Their specialty is referencing web pages stirring and application steering feelings in others without being touched themselves. Usually the referencing, epitome of blood in the self control, they are capable if cornered of sudden viciousness. Few will challenge them, sensing that underneath is their calculated enjoyment of the referencing, destruction and humiliation of The Banning in American Schools Essay others.

This is not a new type of personality. But in modern culture, where success has become separated from honor, they thrive. Referencing Web Pages! The sole passion they have is to win. The particular combination of sociopathy and the things they carried high intelligence is a prototype for referencing business success. Harvards psychopathy expert Martha Stout estimates about 1 in 25 people are these indifferent, charismatic liars and the proportion is growing. You may have one at your picnic; there was one in they your classroom at school; at one time you probably tried to referencing web pages date one. Stout sketches a prototype sociopath growing up.

He came from plan for scholarship application, a privileged city family and web pages stole from his parents. He enjoyed stuffing live firecrackers down frogs throats. The Things! He was so intelligent he cruised through college almost without studying and, graduating with an MBA, he was quickly hired by a large corporation, where he proved he could sell anything. Lying comes as easily as breathing, and despite subordinates complaining that he is insulting and vicious he starts on a meteoric ascent, marries a sweet, quiet woman, and before middle age is given a division presidency. He makes many millions of dollars for referencing the company and enjoys his female subordinates as sexual plunder. Stout explains that the brains of sociopaths work differently. Watched through brain scans, normal people, given words to think about, quickly process emotional words like love and happy, but sociopaths are a bit slower because they process emotions in the temporal lobe where most people solve algebra problems. High Mating Effort.

Stout also says there is a genetic base. Application! Sociopathy runs in families and referencing is partly hereditary she estimates about The Banning in American Schools Essay, 50 percent of it is inborn (42). There is debate among evolutionary psychologists over whether psychopaths are mentally disordered (i.e. have something wrong with them) or whether they are just a separate genetic strain of deceitful, manipulative people, in which case they are normal. If it is a disorder, psychopaths are notoriously difficult to treat (they dont voluntarily come in for psychotherapy, and if required to, they dont change). Either way, because of their short-term, high mating effort strategies (43) they produce more offspring, and their genes will spread through the web pages, pool. From an evolutionary point of view, this type is becoming more common. Our culture is unwilling to monopoly is stop them. We furiously promote these smooth surfaced, antisocial people when they turn their talents to making money for the company. Then as CEOs and CFOs we give them extraordinary business power.

In that position, the web pages, law supports them, because (as above) current law says the corporation has the legal mandate to pursue, relentlessly and study plan for scholarship application without exception, self interest, regardless of the often harmful consequences (44). Wrap this all around in the ruthless ideology of Social Darwinism, and nobody is safe. Referencing! Democracy itself is not safe. Democracy is something a sociopath loathes, because it represents public constraint by little people on his autocratic power. And he doesnt practice democracy inside corporate walls. Linda The Things They Carried! What he often practices in referencing web pages the corridors and boardrooms is coercion and intimidation. Returning to Conniffs observations: Great fortune builders are also often great screamers [who use] the diatribe as a favorite toolHe calls meetingsat which he rages, growls and curses at his weary employees (45). Why is this type so successful? One possibility: because these malignant personalities are at home in the system. And the reason for that is that the system is malignant. History contains several examples of sociopaths who have flattened democracies.

Here are some other odd personalities who appear in corporations, as described by Jean Hollands, a business consultant who can calculate the dollar loss due to a valuable employees bad behavior. Large corporations sometimes hire high-ranking specialists and managers who come with personal problems which wear everyone down. These people are not just occasional curiosities; they can be found in every large organization. Company owners are aware of these scabrous personalities under the chav define, roof, but are startled to referencing find out just how much they are draining the company since their styles affect many other people. Hollands shows the chav define, owners the referencing, company they could be making hundreds of thousands of dollars more profit if they got rid of these misfits, but they dont, partly because of the expense of firing and rehiring. In her book Red Ink Behaviors she gives illustrations. The Intimidator (loud, domineering, abusive, throws tantrums, but somehow thinks he is funny), the Stressor (severe workaholic, spills her chronic frustration over study, coworkers in sarcasm and unending interruptions), the Micromanager (requires written reports at every turn which he examines line by referencing web pages line, is chronically overwhelmed by all this work), the The Banning of Books in American Schools Essay, Withholder (has data necessary for operations which she will not share, chronically late to meetings or absent), the web pages, Inconsistent (thin skinned, high drama, unpredictable hysteric, lapses into stream-of-consciousness communications) and the Techno-specialist (brilliant but wont talk to anyone whos not a technician).

These personalities are not easy to confront. They are extremely judgmental, to the point of mild paranoia, and if confronted they turn rabid or wall themselves up in natural product their offices which is devastating to company morale, creating ripples of anxiety across the cubicles. And because coworkers usually back away from them, the offenders interpret this as a win, and they do it again. Hollands points out that this event, winning, is highly valued in high-stakes businesses (sales, legal, brokerage) where competitive individualism is prized, so nobody is sure what to web pages do. So the toxic atmosphere spread by these bullies is borne, and everybody dreads going to work (46). Adam Smith never talked about these odd personalities. Adams Smiths main point is chav define that humans are naturally self-centered, and if you allow all people to work in their self-interest, the nation will benefit. But individual self-interest will not explain everything. You cannot build a successful economy with something like self-interest any more than you can toss a bunch of boards in the air and expect them to come down in the shape of a house. Much is missing.

Which means a search. Requiring a long journey through rarified concepts? No, I believe the search will take us places we already know. And I am swayed by referencing Nietzsche and his habit of scorning academics who want to make things complicated. The great problems of this world, he said, are not in misty metaphysics. They are in linda the street. Particularly they are in places we don't expect. We don't care to look down.

Is it because that direction is filled with nothing interesting? The media seems to referencing affirm that. Apparently, time spent on the lives of workers would be gilding a vacuum. If we follow the media, we will always look up. That is why we are missing answers. A trees height and its depth are connected. Everybody accepts that because the tree is an organic whole. A building is another kind of report organic whole, and if the building is built taller, its foundation must go down.

But libertarian economists refuse the heights and depths of referencing our own society to be connected yes, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer, but that is plan for scholarship somehow a coincidence because everybody is free. In the life of a tree, what happens below determines what happens above. And I believe if we want to understand how an economy creates such high levels of wealth, we will need to look at its soil, and below, even if it is not pretty where the roots are coiling and clenching the referencing, rubble. What do we hear when we hold our ear to the soil? We can start with the broad question. Why do we work? It is a fair question. We want to jump in: To earn a living, To support the chav define, family, To get ahead. - All partly true, or true for some people. Actually the web pages, broader question stumps professional analysts. The cover story of meaning a 2003 issue of US News and World Report titled Why we work wanders around for several pages and referencing is simply evasive, but says: Some do it for love.

Others do it for money. But most of us do it because we have no other choice. (47) That doesnt sound like the chav define, freedom shouted up by libertarians. The goal of web pages businesses is product and sample profit. If American all produced something new in their work, we would be a prodigious and much happier society. In fact, worksites are often not what we would expect. Huge amounts of work effort are spent overcoming inefficiencies. What inefficiencies? Workers often spend hours trying to find, cleaning up, checking, losing, leaving messages, not connecting with, misunderstanding, delivering to the wrong place, catching up, waiting, repairing, clarifying miscommunications, correcting mistakes - myriad forms of web pages blather and delay and all exhausted at the end of the of Books in American Schools, day. So answers to referencing the question why do we work? like, to make, or to produce, are part of the myth of work, but to get a little more reality we need to look at blood meaning, things the textbooks dont talk about. A part of the answer is referencing web pages supplied by what happens at work.

One thing that never fails to happen on the job is hierarchy. Hierarchy is ever present in manufacturing, service, private, government, military, civilian, inside-work, outside-work, unsuccessful, successful, full time, part time, day, night, sea, land, intense and indifferent jobs. It is much more predictable than - much more reliable across worksites of different kinds than - money, motivation, service, satisfaction, effort, efficiency, profit or product, which vary. What hierarchy ensures is control. (The US News article does point out that although more workers are using their homes, it is no escape from hierarchy - and the phone and emails dont stop after 5:00 p.m.) So if I go to report writing sample work for someone, I will enter some sort of hierarchy. Web Pages! And if I go to work for the things they carried someone, somewhere, I am also selling my personal freedom for referencing web pages a wage. So most work sites create the opposite chav define of the two basic values of democracy, which are freedom and equality. This is a dark pond into referencing web pages, which nobody ever tosses a stone. Should we say, the more people working, the more satisfied the nation? That would be nice.

But realistically, the chav define, more people work, the web pages, more people are enmeshed in a system of control which is nondemocratic. Water Meaning! Thats not such a cheery thing to referencing web pages say, but we are tired of having the world made cheery by the method of painting our windows blue. If we want to report sample see better, we will have to scrape it off. And these topics do not make easy conversation with our co-workers. At this point in our search well meet with a lot of silences. We verge on web pages, taboo. Michael Novak believes people resist analyzing work because that would be tampering with a necessary myth.

We might find contradictions. Any contradiction would threaten societys foundations. The value of hard, competitive work is in the water meaning our society, Novak says. It is painstakingly reinforced from birth and without that myth our society is inconceivable. (48) The origins? Generation after generation of young persons are taught that work is the referencing, route to personal dignity and worth. For each child this is repeated in one form or another through school and a light is of Books in American turned on. Success and failure is everything; no ambition is referencing too high. These myths take a deep hold; they have the spiritual power of hope, and by the time a school graduate enters the an example natural product, workforce he is referencing ready for something momentous to The Banning of Books in American happen. So each worker starts out on a personal quest. If he talks to other workers about his dreams of growth and web pages expansion, they smile, and plan application later he notices old workers at his job doing much the same work and referencing he starts to think, and to study plan keep his inner visions quiet.

Gradually he sinks into routines. He dodges the inanities and web pages politics of the workplace. After many years, that inner light, once supple and strong, is changed. Work doesnt change much. If the child originally dreamed of plan for scholarship application being in the NBA or being an explorer, working in an office will feel like a cul-de-sac. But he does the work. Web Pages! He becomes a watcher-of-others. Later perhaps he still has hope, but it is in a different form: now he is chav define darkly working on a distant hope of vindication. Even later he changes again. Where he once listened inside, he has become other-oriented, he changes again, becomes harried or distracted.

He works because of referencing web pages obligations, or for security, or for the company. If the light goes out, this is the way he will finish his days, in routines, swimming with all the of Books Schools, others, in these vast pools of irrelevant direction. (49) He was from the start harnessed to somebody elses dream. Nonetheless, as this person grows up he will stir the same myth in web pages his own children. This wreckage of myths is where we do not want to look. Studs Terkel in 1972 put together a thick book of self-reports entitled Working . He interviewed workers of for scholarship application all kinds, from proofreaders to nurses, to stockbrokers, to referencing web pages hookers, to jockeys, to welders, to executives, to stone cutters, to accountants, to of a is dentists . At publication, it brought down the wrath of one church, wanting the book banned. Its 589-page collection of short narratives is an expose of our everyday work world, in the original language of the workers. This is the introductory paragraph: This book, being about work, is, by its very nature, about violence - to referencing the spirit as well as to the body. It is about ulcers as well as accidents, about shouting matches as well as fistfights, about nervous breakdowns as well as kicking the dog around.

It is, above all (or beneath all), about daily humiliations. To survive the day is triumph enough for chav define the walking wounded among the great many of us. (50) This doesnt match Adam Smiths snappy view of the workaday world as busy pin factory workers and energetic vendors hauling goods to market, like bees in a hive. So is it lies? If Terkel was the referencing web pages, only writer, we might come away thinking he's a hothead. Chav Define! But hes not the only one. More recently a woman from the academic elite used a different method.

In 1999 Barbara Ehrenreich, who holds a Ph.D. in web pages Biology, tried an experiment. She changed her clothes and climbed down the social ladder to be a person living on of Books in American Schools Essay, minimum wage. This level of society is called the working poor. Being trained as a scientist, she took careful notes. She detailed her experiences in the book Nickel and referencing Dimed . One after another she took six jobs, for a minimum of a month each, including waitress, hotel maid, house cleaner, nursing home aide, and WalMart salesperson. She drove a car, but made herself live each month only on is, what she could earn mostly at web pages, $6 and $7 an hour. This meant living in the cheapest lodgings (trailer parks, motels, downtown hotels) and of Books Essay eating on a narrow, bland diet. The jobs were available. Once on the job she was an exemplary worker. But her first finding was that it is almost impossible to web pages work for those wages and survive.

For instance, monthly earnings as a waitress in study plan for scholarship application Florida were $1,039. The cheapest rental she could find was a $500 efficiency, and food, gas, laundry, utilities and phone and toiletries came to another $517, leaving her $22 for everything else. Referencing Web Pages! She moved to linda carried Maine, hired out as a house cleaner, scrubbing young yuppies houses, making $6.65, and paying $480 rent for a room, and so on. Her second finding was that the jobs often involved exhausting effort, and referencing web pages overtime, and in study some jobs she literally worked by the sweat of her brow so that all she wanted to do at night was watch TV over her dinner and then fall asleep. She became socially invisible - interacting with nobody except her immediate supervisors and coworkers; she felt disappeared from society. It was not a question of the rich and poor coexisting in quiet harmony; the poor are treated as if they are not there. She endured humiliation, abuse, and routine violation of referencing web pages privacy, and sometimes had to surrender basic civil rights. As a waitress she was told that her purse could be searched at any time by management. There were rules against talking on the job.

Constant surveillance, being written up by of Books in American Schools Essay the shift supervisor, and being reamed out by managers were all customary parts of the job, also being subjected to referencing drug tests (which in some cases included stripping to underwear and urinating in presence of a specimen collector.) After a while, she felt she was not just selling her labor but her life. Ehrenreich muses that since the people she was around were all hard workers, there seemed no purpose to the authoritarianism of managers except to create a culture of The Banning Essay extreme inequality. Demeaning employees sometimes seemed attractive for employers. The repressive management style also produced the referencing, feeling of failure and shame, which, she suspects, keeps down wages because eventually workers think so little of their own worth that they accept the low pay. Ehrenreich is writing one writer who has paused by this thought. We have a massive cultural contradiction. We can hardly pride ourselves on being the worlds preeminent democracy, after all, if large numbers of web pages citizens spend half their waking hours in what amounts, in The Banning in American Schools Essay plain terms, to a dictatorship. (51) To our Western minds, some kinds of inequality are less tolerable than others, less fair. Actually there is no human society with perfect equality. All cultures contain some inequality and the big question is the criterion, because some reasons for inequality are seen as unjust.

For instance America thinks monarchy and referencing web pages inherited aristocracy are wrong, but in neighboring Canada they are accepted. In some communities, rank is based on an example of a natural is, brute strength, in others, pureness-of-heart. Nobody likes to be low in any hierarchy. Societies with inherited rank also find its inefficient. The British, for instance, used to give all their top government jobs and high offices to relatives of nobles. The problem was a lot of the nobility and referencing web pages their relatives are not very bright.

As a society grows more technological it needs more pure intelligence to run it. The Banning Of Books In American Schools! So a century ago, the British started awarding important positions by qualifying exams and educational achievement, open to referencing anybody. But theres a benefit to being in a hierarchy by birth: being low is not your fault, and its not a moral problem. In America the idea that anybody should be able to rise is chav define old, and a persons position has always depended more on web pages, ability and accomplishments. This is of Books Essay meritocracy. Meritocracy seems more democratic. It is appealing because it seems to be all about self-steered destiny. But by the same token, meritocracy introduces blame for low rank. If you havent accumulated accomplishments during your life, your low rank is a moral problem because you were free and you had the referencing web pages, chance. In America, therefore, the rich are better, the poor should be ashamed. All this creates a special set of fears called status anxiety by de Botton (52) and fear of the things they carried sinking by Kilmer (53), an referencing obsessive concern with social status.

After all that work at minimum wage, Ehrenreich experienced how it was easy to linda the things they spend your working life sinking deeper into referencing, debt. Economic indebtedness takes away some of writing your freedom, but many people who are affluent dont understand money traps, so here Ill spend a few words on a topic that is technically on the consumer side. Perhaps this will all fall into focus leaf by leaf. After decades of aggressively distributing credit cards to virtually anyone who can sign, lenders have worked themselves into a paramount position of web pages power. Now the average person is obligated at about $8,500 in debt. Lenders can charge interest up to 30%.

These higher rates are charged on late payments and delinquencies, and at that level, monthly payments become largely interest. Lenders are secure, because at those rates, by the time a debtor finally declares bankruptcy, the lender has often collected multiples of the original debt. The lenders are making most of their money from report writing sample, poor people - people who dont have the referencing web pages, money to make prompt payments. Nevertheless, new bankruptcy laws will allow creditors to claim on a bankrupt debtors future earnings, which essentially removes the protection a person gets from chav define, declaring bankruptcy. Lower-income credit card holders get on a financial treadmill that requires them to make ever larger monthly payments to keep themselves solvent. People who are ill, poor, old, and on fixed income have all been urged to take credit cards. Then they are largely sealed onto a wheel which never pauses. Debt payments are the scourge of the poor but this is referencing web pages a spreading problem and it now includes the middle class. Many countries have usury laws that control predatory interest rates.

In Europe these laws date back centuries. In the United States the laws vary from state to state. Until 1999, charging interest higher than 5% above the Federal Reserve discount rate was criminal under the constitution of Arkansas. For Scholarship Application! But some states have no usury laws, which is why powerhouse Citibank relocated its credit card division from New York (interest cap 12%) to South Dakota, and from there works an interstate credit card business charging as high as the market will bear. Todays trend is for states to loosen their usury laws to web pages attract more banks. Public opinion is gathering against these lenders. And a local newspaper article tells of a municipal judge handing down a routine judgment against a card company for unreasonable, unconscionable and unjust business practices. (54) Is collecting high interest rates on of a monopoly product is, loans a hard-work method of making a lot of money? Hardly. One financial analyst: With these rates and fees, the card industry is a gravy train (55). What about the people who declare bankruptcy?

Arent they gamblers, system tweakers, profligate spenders? Rarely. People usually go bankrupt because of severe misfortune. Commentator Paul Krugmans belief is that more than half are due to referencing web pages medical emergencies (56). Of Books! Actually a Harvard-based study by Warren and referencing Tyagi, the ongoing Consumer Bankruptcy Project, shows only 13% of bankruptcies stem from study for scholarship application, credit card overspending or from web pages, covering bad investments, or the like. Nearly nine out of ten bankruptcies (87%) follow one of the Big Three events in a persons life: job loss, medical problems, divorce or separation (57). But with the new bankruptcy law, many debtors will never get off the wheel. Krugman fears America is gradually returning to a debt peonage society, after a practice in the post-Civil War South, in which debtors were forced to work for creditors. For the blood meaning, past few years our national leaders have encouraged us to believe our national destruction is imminent at the hands of an referencing web pages evil foreign enemy. Possibly before that, legal loan sharks will eat us out from within.

Predatory lending practices are one more burden on the poor, keeping them poor. They Carried! It is very hard for the exploited to referencing web pages escape shame and inescapable debt is one reason for study plan for scholarship application the melancholy that haunts the lowest regions of this society. Credit companies look resplendent in media commercials, situated high in wind-brushed, glass buildings with whispering elevators, manicured executives, and elegant beauties for receptionists. This industry is banditry. Is Exploitation Wrong?

If you can make wealth through hard work, you can also make it by getting others to do the work for you even children get this insight. Getting other people to work for referencing you is using them. Whether using people is sample immoral is a debatable question. If somebody is willing to change a flat tire for me, I am using that person. Nobody sees anything wrong. But isnt that exploitation? Actually, says ethicist R. J. Referencing Web Pages! Arneson, there are everyday examples of real exploitation in which people see nothing wrong. Children exploit their parents for trips to the mall and money to spend.

Parents exploit their children getting them to do household chores. In The Meaning! So it seems exploitation is not always bad. Arneson says the word exploitation has two meanings (1) simply to use somebody no problem, but (2) if you use them and mistreat them in referencing the process, there may be a moral problem (58). Further, for wrongful exploitation to exist, there should be two conditions. Writing! First, the mistreatment (an injustice); second, the person cannot leave.

We should look carefully at this because exploiters often use it as a loophole. But together, mistreatment plus no freedom to leave amounts to referencing oppression. Again, history is replete. Carried! No culture has been free of it, and referencing web pages the revolts, revolutions, mutinies and reformations found in the pages of history books are all accounts of oppression and its overthrow. But whether exploitation is wrong continues to be argued. Blood In The Water Meaning! Sometimes exploited humans do nothing but adjust. What if the oppression is referencing accepted? And religions sometimes abet this, such as Christianitys advice to slaves just to report sample be good slaves. Karl Marx was the first to open exploitation for economic debate (59).

After a brief summary of Marxs points, Ill touch on some modern theories. Marx detailed the appalling work conditions of his day and he was not the first. Ferguson (60) Ruskin (61) and Dickens in his classics also portrayed workers at mind-destroying work in thundering foundries, weather-torn fields, slippery meat houses, 14 hours a day, six days a week, and referencing forced overtime; all for trickle-thin wages, and all accompanied by routine abuse from foul overseers, capricious fines, and often, at these wages, only floor space to sleep and bread and soup to report writing sample eat and ragged clothes in all a bestial lifestyle; but in all the same, across cities and farms, workers were paid just enough to web pages survive. (Adam Smith himself estimated wages were kept just above survival level, Marx said they were just below). And since the blood in the meaning, employers also owned the rentals and the stores, the money workers made frequently went back into the same pockets it came from and the laborers found themselves in a trap from which they could never rise. Heres the way it goes, Marx said. Laborers produce things. Being poor they can only rent out their labor. Web Pages! They have to use their employers tools or land or raw materials. The product of their toil is taken from them by the employer who then sells it for as much as he can, and turns round and pays the employee as little as he can in wages, because the difference is profit and the mission of capitalists is to maximize profits.

Marx said, paying the worker less than what the worker could get selling his own work was exploitation - the worker labors under the employers commands, but suffers miserable poverty. This, Marx goes on, is not an aberration. It is an example of a natural is a routine part of capitalist operations (62). Marx could discuss everything capitalists talk about; profit margins, the utilitarian greatest good, risk, stockholders, overhead, economies of scale and the expansion of industry. But he picked up the whole situation by a different handle. He said, exploitation is immoral. Capitalists protested, work is referencing web pages a free exchange. The workers are in our factories by choice - so wheres the sample, oppression? Marx said in practice the workers are not so free to leave because the web pages, wealthy owners of factories and farms across the land roughly match each others wages and rents.

So in chav define practice the worker can do no better by moving. In all, labor is sealed into a large closed system. The system is oppressive. Referencing! It is also to report the benefit of the employer class, who do very well. If you are forced to work, that is web pages called coercion. Capitalists argue: we are not talking about slavery here, nor prison labor. Signing on natural is, to work with us is a consensual act. Marxists throw back: but these workers are constantly in referencing web pages debt due to study plan application your starvation wages, and this amounts to web pages economic coercion because each person is obliged to linda the things carried try to clear his debts. The type of debt you can never clear amounts to never-ending work in your factories.

Wheres the freedom? And another thing, Marx went on. Notice how property ownership is web pages connected. The exploiters have the factories and the tools, the exploited dont. Since property ownership is one mark of blood in the social class, we have the haves exploiting the have-nots. Marx asserted this: property itself is a moral problem. And since the property-ownership system is wholly supported by the law its not going to be easy to change.

Marx builds his points up: Property is not a guarantee of personal freedoms, as the philosopher Locke maintained, and as the framers of the American Constitution believed. Property is web pages a legal instrument of writing oppression. And there is class warfare. Capitalists rebutted: but the poor are free to buy their own property any time. Marxists reply, that also is prevented by these starvation wages - a practice which is no accident. It is deliberately in the capitalists interest to keep a large supply of people poor, desperate and willing to work dirt cheap. So, in setting wage levels, business owners create and maintain poverty as they go. Poverty is referencing also powerlessness. Labor was always negotiating without power, which explained its misery.

Marx was an energetic writer and he used words like theft and embezzlement to describe employers taking what their employees made. He exaggerates when he described the unpaid laborers when he means underpaid. But Marx also said: all this has got to change. The workers (proletariat) have to realize that the system also rides on them. Without the of Books in American Schools Essay, workers it collapses. So the workers should seize power. Which led to revolutions. Last century, entire national social structures were overturned. Referencing Web Pages! Because Marxs points were clear. They show that the less the workers are paid, the greater the success of business owners. They show that a moral wrong, exploitation, can be routinely inserted in economics formulas, and the formulas still work. Marx got the topic started, but other political scientists have added on to it (63).

John Brewer thinks exploitation should cover more than Marxs idea of command in the workplace. If a person is unfairly taken advantage of in any market transaction, it is exploitation. Study Plan! So according to Brewer, an unfair exploitation can be brief and does not have to mean rich vs. poor. Exploitation involves a person receiving lack of just deserts (64). R. J. van der Veen adds that exploitation is not just a feature of capitalism. It is just as possible for exploitation to referencing occur under socialism and communism if the state commands the individual which work to chav define do, pays him what the state thinks he needs, and if he winds up mistreated and not free to exit (65).

Robert Goodin states that behind the whole notion of referencing exploitation is the plan for scholarship application, expectation in a civilized society that we practice fair play. Its alright to go for web pages advantage against others who are roughly equal. But it is wrong to play for advantage when your advantage derives from others misfortunes. Second, he says, in water meaning a civilized society, there is a basic duty to web pages protect the vulnerable. Plan For Scholarship! Exploitation is violating this duty (66). The last point allows us to catch up with a particularly dark personality, greed incarnate. This employer thinks he is his money. Web Pages! He believes the more people he has dependent on him, the more righteous a person he is. Plan For Scholarship Application! So he employs a lot of people and wants to hear all their gratitude. Web Pages! He pays wages, but whatever else he does, he is also going to keep them needy and dependent, and report the pay is shadow-thin.

This ancient personality may be young, may look excessively healthy, may play with modern gadgetry and make modern jokes at high tech parties, and he moves through our modern society like a quiet abyss. Varieties of Fear. Most people think there is no fear in the contemporary workplace. Our offices and factories are bright, modern, high-tech, everybody is well dressed and the receptionist always has a ready smile. How could two business consultants Kathleen Ryan and Daniel Oestreich write a book Driving Fear out of the Workplace ? (67).

Because the authors have interviews and survey data from their work in 22 modern business organizations showing fear is common. True, American employees are not afraid of being slugged, ambushed in the restroom or assaulted in the parking lot unless they work as teachers in inner city schools. Web Pages! But in blood the nations factories and office buildings there is fear of web pages other varieties. The Things! And most workers are not afraid of the referencing web pages, customers or clients. Linda The Things They Carried! The source of their fear is web pages supervisors and managers. Seventy percent of their interviewees reported that they will not speak up on report writing, the job. They will conceal work hazards, quota failures, quality lapses - anything - because they are afraid of repercussions. Referencing! What kind of repercussions? Depending on the firm and the manager, anything from refusal to carried answer and glaring eye-contact (the look), to public criticisms, to yelling, insults, threats, tantrums, demotion, being written up as a whiner or troublemaker, to loss of the job. The result is that when managers call workers in to meetings to ask for feedback, or reports, or policy sessions, the workers sit around the table in frigid silence - pure anxiety. Ryan and Oestreichs analysis shows the more fear there is in web pages a company, the in the water meaning, less it is talked about.

In Chris Argyriss words, fear seems to be self-sealing. An extreme example would be the military, where hierarchy is referencing absolute, and any lower-rank soldier knows harsh repercussions will fall on him for speaking out - but fear itself is never admitted. Writing Sample! Fear is often quenched by anger, so unpredictable outbursts, rantings, shouting, are symptoms of web pages fear-oriented companies. Third, they say, the more fear-based an organization, the more it will make claims to study for scholarship be efficient, systematic and referencing rational - it defines any emotion as irrelevant, so fear is linda the things carried denied or ignored. Still other companies treat fear as an externality. (Some corporations actually asked these consultants what is an acceptable level of fear.) Actually a fear-based organization may be doing well financially, if it has good markets. But other things being equal, these authors say, fear loses you profits. Fear produces unmotivated employees who sabotage productivity in passive or active ways, who refuse effort, who make mistakes, who hide or falsify mistakes, who will not communicate with their supervisors.

Other symptoms are slow to web pages appear. Chav Define! Some effects of fear are gradually accumulating. Threats and insults may make employees work harder in the short run but in the long run will produce absenteeism, loss of creativity, depression, sleeplessness, crying, tension, ulcers and illness. These are very difficult to reverse. Referencing Web Pages! The damage to both workers and to the firm is deep and can take years to heal. Nevertheless, many company officers and managers believe fear is a good motivator. Some maintain autocratic control, using harsh management, threats, pressure and control, to make employees perform. How does this all start?

Ryan and Oestreichs theory says in the beginning management assumes that workers operate from a philosophy of self-interest. They Carried! The next step is distrust, because management starts thinking the web pages, employees will try to The Banning in American Schools Essay achieve their self-interest at companys expense. Web Pages! This leads to an example of a natural self-protection, sometimes with managers justified harsh measures. Web Pages! Workers interpret this as aggression, they react with fear, and they retaliate. A cycle is started. It will escalate. The basic formula is that assumptions of an example of a self-interest eventually lead to fear.

Naturally in referencing fear-based groups, there is no trust. The Things They! Instead, owners and referencing managers aggressively demand loyalty. The therapeutic goal is to reestablish trust in the organization. This is of a natural product not easy. Thick walls of antagonism and resentment prevent cooperation growing again.

Ryan and Oestreichs points are clear enough. But they are nave when they saying that management starts out by adopting this assumption of self-interest. Referencing! Actually, management has little choice. Report Writing Sample! Anyone who has survived a course in college Economics 101 or Business 101 is web pages indoctrinated with this assumption of self-interest, because it is at the core of our founding economic theory which has hardly been touched since 1776 and which saturates business theory. Any manager who has been to school considers it straight thinking. Which puts a new contour on things. If the assumption of writing self-interest leads to fear, then Adam Smiths theory, which rests on self-interest, is referencing responsible for spreading vast amounts of fear, for eons, for miles, and into the depths of the spirit of the workaday world. And the many-footed formulas of economists do not change that. Anyone who employs other people and uses these assumptions to plan maximize profits is a promoter of these vile externalities. Telling employees that it is referencing web pages all for their own good will not reverse that. The employer protesting that he is uplifting the community by bringing in The Banning Essay business, manufacturing and referencing sales does not reverse it.

If we believed those protests, we would have to believe that fear is uplifting for business and uplifting for The Banning of Books Essay everybodys life, and so, ultimately is patriotic. In these worksite descriptions democracy looks remote. These contradictions are everywhere and deeply infect our national psyche. If you want to remove all the web pages, fear, youll first have to change the overarching Adam Smith theory. I have readers here who do not believe there is fear in the workplace. A hundred years ago, you say, perhaps, workers in factories fretted and natural is feared under loathsome overseers. The following description is from last years newspaper. It describes work conditions in a mortgage loan office in referencing web pages suburban Minneapolis.

Sales employees work the an example of a natural product is, phones hour after hour. They sit in rows of cubicles. Web Pages! They are cold-calling, trying to blood in the find house-buyers to sign up for mortgages. The company owner is a billionaire. The companys stated mission includes helping its customers enhance their quality of life. And what is it like working inside the walls of the referencing web pages, companys offices? By the testimony of one ex-employee, it is endless goading by bosses; Sales agents would work the phones hour after hourtrying to linda turn phone calls into mortgages. The demands were relentless: one manager prowled the aisles between decks like a little Hitler, hounding agents to make more calls and push more loans, bragging that he hired and fired people so fast that one worker would be cleaning out his desk as his replacement came through the door. Another employee from the same office: [Its managers] really are all about making the dollar and dealing with the consequences later. The same article includes that this particular company has also been touted as an referencing industry model (68). These managers arent waiting for the theories of application Darwin to explain that injustice is in the nature of things. They are taking things into web pages, their own hands. Of course, the workers are always free to leave.

But what if we dont have the money to pay our debts? We are legally obliged to pay our debts. So that freedom fades. The poorer you are in this democracy, the more this freedom sounds like a technicality. Or perhaps we self-delude.

Our desire for study plan freedom sometimes leads us to web pages see things the way we want, somewhat along these lines by poet Fernando Pessoa: Inside the coop where hell stay until hes killed, the chav define, rooster sings anthems to liberty because he was given two roosts. (69) If Adam Smith was right, then all the people in referencing web pages this nation who dont like their work are maximizing their happiness by report choosing between the dread of no income or the dread of referencing web pages endlessly going in to work they despise. This is a slender improvement in happiness. Both choices inhabit the region of fear. It is a strange political economy we have that stands on this slender ledge and yells, freedom! Millions of the undereducated, poor, or vulnerable do unending menial jobs, and are told they can follow their life dreams, and told they can rise, when they never have the power.

Millions of Americans struggle and suffer trying to make ends meet and find themselves diverted for life, paying debts. And will abused workers leave? This psychological research is haunting. Sixty years ago, a psychologist named Prescott Lecky got some research results so contrary to common knowledge they were shuffled aside as impossible. Chav Define! The common knowledge principle was (still is) that humans will always choose pleasure over referencing web pages, pain. Lecky found people suffering with low self-concepts are the exception; they seek confirmation of their low belief in themselves - which is to say, given a choice, they will rather be in the company of a person who puts them down. In 1945 this little bit of heresy expired quickly and psychology pushed ahead believing people with low self-concepts should all the more hungrily seek reward and pleasure.

Leckys findings were junked. But fifteen years ago William Swann and his colleagues decided to give the idea another shot. After several new, independent experiments were run it turned out Lecky was right. A typical experiment goes like this (they vary in detail). First a large pool of people is given a paper-and pencil test of self-concept (a common test in psychology). These are scored, and people with high and people with low self-concepts are identified. Later on, these individuals are contacted and asked to come in and participate in an apparently unrelated study. When each one comes in, he is asked to sit down and write a personal essay about himself, about a page. Next, a person hes never seen before comes in the things carried the room. He comes over, picks up the essay.

He reads it, and either exclaims (depending on the flip of a coin just before he came in the door), Well I can see from your essay youve got a great personality, honest, intelligent, popular or Well I can see from your essay youre not so great, not very bright, unpopular, also a phony. Referencing Web Pages! In other words, half the people get rewarding feedback, the other half get nasty criticism. Now comes the The Banning in American Schools Essay, main point in the experiment. All of the essay writers are asked how much more time they would like to referencing spend with the person who read their essay. Results? People with high self-concepts say they want to spend more time with him if he was positive. But the people with low self-concepts want to spend more time with the reader who was criticizing.

It appears they choose more pain over pleasure. Apparently, more important than pleasure is to product be with somebody who verifies the way you see yourself. Yeah, thats pretty close to the way I am, and He sums up pretty close to the way I feel, were typical explanation for referencing the choices of people who felt low about themselves. This effect is especially marked in depressed people (70,71,72 ). Which explains why managers and employers can routinely abuse employees and claim that it is study for scholarship application not oppression. If workplace supervisors abuse their employees, creating low self concept, then take advantage of this quirk in human nature when the employees return, to claim there is no wrong, then no matter how profitable, it is a perversion. Ive avoided the topic of race. Race has been, and still is, a chronic source of debilitating problems. But we are conditioned to think about social problems in referencing terms of race, so for study application instance, when we read underclass we reflexively think, inner city blacks. Actually the poorest people are Appalachian whites and inner city blacks. They are the lowest class, but Americans have been discouraged from using class to understand anything (Noam Chomsky says if you talk about referencing web pages, social class they label you a conspiracy theorist (73) ).

So to take up Wellesley Colleges Marcelus Andrews new argument, which focuses on race and capitalism, seems inconsistent in this essay, and I find Andrewss Political Economy of Hope and Fear difficult in parts. But he runs through Americas economic house yanking doors open and it is hard not to pay attention. Andrews: For hundreds of years we have assumed race and poverty go together (poor equates with other races) so we may be surprised to natural product learn that today, the largest group of very poor people in America are whites; and their numbers are increasing. The numbers of poor whites are growing so rapidly it is web pages a mystery they are politically ignored. Poor people of all races now have little chance of ever making it up to the middle class - for a complex of The Banning in American Schools reasons including economic: the loss of jobs as capitalism goes global; technological: the sudden demands of computer skills at work; and attitude: Americans are really unsure if they want to provide equality of opportunity, because they believe a market economy thrives better on inequality. Andrews says modern conservatives always have been deeply suspicious of social justice. They are openly opposed to welfare programs. Referencing! They are going to let poverty be a goad.

Next, he says race makes a different pattern now on the landscape than it did in the 1960s. Blacks have more than proved themselves capable, as many, released from the blood in the water, old Jim Crow laws, have climbed and 75% of black families are not poor any more, but the referencing web pages, lagging 25% are in a predicament shared by very poor whites. They live in dirty and report sample dangerous neighborhoods which are sites of continuing failure and dysfunction, and crime, and violence. Middle-class Americans, who believe in meritocracy, and who cling to myths of self-reliance and freedom, find it difficult to accept the idea of these poverty traps. Middle class people are always pointing to an ancestor of theirs a century ago who worked his way up from the slums to success - but those were times when education was not a requisite. With todays technology, a poor education really is a suffocating disability. And that is what the referencing, poor get in these neighborhoods. But that is interpreted as the free market. With selling drugs and selling sex always an alternative, the poor inhabit the underside of the Essay, same free market where there is misery and web pages death. The rest of America, believing its system of meritocracy should be universally applied, accepts that fate as the penalty for lack of ability, education and willingness to work. Andrews continues.

In general, conservative America believes if the poor can only be made to drop their envy and stop their whining, if they would take on more appropriate habits and attitudes, they would begin to succeed. They believe the poor are behaving badly. Hearing that feelings of despair and of a product inferiority are unequally distributed does not move conservatives. Under meritocracy, it is just deserts. And to add more encouragement, they apply penalties (with that certain righteousness) and the poor are rejected, cursed for their laziness, despised, and arrested for homelessness. That creates fear, because in fact they cannot leave - first because the poor are discriminated against, just as blacks are - and second, they are not all free to leave their failure behind because of the nature of meritocracy. Meritocracy is a system in which some must fail.

Resentment and hostility boil in the underclass, which the rest of society dreads and sends in police with nightsticks (punishment is by its very nature the web pages, deliberate use of public power to inflict pain on offenders) and the feelings and an example natural the alienation only grow worse. Andrews projects that out of our present society of vast economic inequalities, our future society may contain two camps: a chronically poor, undereducated, fearful, murderous proletariat and an economically comfortable majority (74). I could use the milder word and say anxiety is a persistent part of the web pages, lower reaches of the economy. It is better to be honest and call it by its real name: fear. I am not arguing the poor are colonized by wealthy employers and lenders in the market system of work-and-debt, but if I wanted to make that argument, there is plenty of The Banning of Books ammunition. Our economy runs on a good deal of fear, including fear-of-consequences, which is referencing web pages missing from they, current economic theory. And, with the credit card industry as model, the more greed at the top, the referencing web pages, more fear at the bottom. Some people turn their eyes.

Others actually prefer it that way. It is in for scholarship the interest of our economy, at least of the top rungs of business, to maintain this anxiety. Next, with most people working and with most work places being undemocratic, we may wonder about our aggregate claim to democracy. A herd cannot move one way while the individual cows are pointing other ways, and web pages democracy cannot be advancing if its parts are autocratic. We dont have equality. Preserving what freedom and chav define what justice we have will take eternal vigilance.

Fear does to referencing a nation what it does to a business. It may be a short term motivator. But in an example natural the long run, fear is debilitating. Referencing! It is an enzyme of report writing decomposition and dissolution. Even when Darwinists say fear and hierarchy are unavoidable parts of a dog-eat-dog world, we can press for referencing justice. We always have.

We have been fighting injustice, and winning sometimes, as long as weve existed and we should not let the authority of science shut us up. We want our morality back. 1. GREED copyright Julian Edney 2002 and The Banning of Books Schools first published on referencing web pages, the internet 2003 at. GREED II copyright Julian Edney 2005 and report first published on. 2. Least affordable rents in nation found in State. Los Angeles Times , 21 December 2004. p. Referencing Web Pages! C2. 3. Leovy J. A week of painful losses tests police chiefs mettle. Los Angeles. Times 12 Feb 2005 p. Monopoly Product Is! A 1.

4. Leonard J, and R Winton, L.A. Jail called deadly, outdated. Los Angeles Times. 3 Feb 2005. p. A1. 5. Rose, S.J. Social stratification in the United States . New York: The New Press, 6. Those four counties are Wayne, Crawford and Lawrence Counties in Illinois, and. Washington County, Florida. In Piutcoff, W., Pelletiere, C., Trekson, M, Dolbeare, C., Crowley, S. Out of Reach 2004 . Referencing Web Pages! Washington DC: National Low Income Housing. 7. de Botton, A. Status anxiety . New York: Pantheon Books, 2004.

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British evolutionist Geoffrey Miller takes this new step in his article Waste is. good. Miller says we have evolved ways of chav define signaling to each other who is more. genetically fit its who can afford to waste in spectacular ways. A person who uses. a pair of 9,652 Sennheiser earphones to listen to music gets almost no better audio. quality than someone who uses 25 Vivanco SR250s. The point is, the buyer sees the. price as a benefit, not a cost because it publicly shows him different from average. people.

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Swann, W. B. The trouble with change. An Example Of A Natural Is! Psychological Science. 1997, 8, 177-183. 72. Swann, W. B., Wenzlaff, R. M., Krull, D.S. and Pelham, B. W. Allure of negative. feedback: Self-verification strivings among depressed persons. Web Pages! Journal of. Abnormal Psychology. 1992, 101 , 293-306. 73.

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