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bdp s300 resume off Actual total number: PANTONE 2925C Sony BDP-S300(GB) 3-214-800-11 (2) #xA9;2007 Sony Corporation. B l u - r a y D i s c P l a y e r. Printed in Malaysia. O p e r a t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s. To #xFB01;nd out useful hints, tips and information about Sony products and services. please visit: www.sony-europe.com/myproduct. Printed on 70% or more recycled paper. using VOC (Volatile Organic Compound)- free vegetable oil based ink. Five Quotes. Sony's BDP-S300 Blu-ray Disc (BD) Player delivers admirable picture and sound quality, and, as with many BD players, it can upconvert regular DVD movies to carandiru movie, 1080p format.

It can also play back multimedia files recorded onto relatively spacious (and inexpensive) DVD media. As a budget BD player, though, it lacks support for the latest Blu-ray features, such as picture-in-picture and online services, and it's sluggish when loading some of the newest BD titles. But ease of use and a strong selection of configuration options make it a compelling choice for anyone in house five search of neo malthusian basic Blu-ray enjoyment. Slaughter Five. Attractively styled, the matte-black chassis measures 3.1 by Essay Protocol 16.9 by 14.8 inches (HWD) and weighs 10 pounds. Indicator lights and a multifunction display lie behind a strip of blue-tinted clear acrylic across the slaughter five quotes lower half of the faceplate. Power and disc-eject buttons, embedded at each end of a dark, metallic strip along the break top front edge of the house player, are easy to access. Five small buttons near the top right of the device supply basic playback functions. The narrow, baton-style shape of the remote control is comfortable to grab, with ridges and a notched finger-hold on the back. Theory. My thumb landed naturally on the four-way directional pad, which has disc playback buttons positioned within easy reach immediately below.

You can program basic TV controls using codes provided in slaughter the manual. Dedicated buttons let you dim the player's front-panel display and select the format for carandiru movie video output. The player's HDMI output supports up to 1080p60, and for slaughter BD movies only carandiru movie (not for upconverted DVD video), 1080p24 video. The component video HD output supports up to 1080i with BD titles and up to 480p with most DVD videos. A video output-format option called source direct matches the player output to the native format of the source material#x2014;useful for HDTV setups that incorporate an external video processor. The S300 also provides a selection of slaughter optimized video output presets similar to vivid, theater, and Essay on Kyoto others that most HDTVs offer. The setup menu also has custom picture-quality controls. House Five. Audio port selection includes coaxial and optical digital output as well as stereo and 5.1-channel analog. Slowing The Wound Stress Essay. The S300 doesn't support HDMI bitstream output of Dolby TrueHD or DTS HD tracks, but the slaughter five quotes player can decode these and other popular audio formats to Linear PCM (LPCM) at up to 7.1 channels for a practically identical listening experience.

Prior to testing the player, I visited the machiavelli summary Sony Web site and downloaded the latest firmware update (version 3.80). The player's lack of an Ethernet connector, USB port, or memory card reader requires you to burn firmware updates to a recordable disc; to slaughter house quotes, apply the updates, you insert the disc into the player. A check of the player's video output levels confirmed that it delivers a full-range response#x2014;unlike the mid term , which crushed dark detail and slaughter house five quotes clipped bright detail during HDMI output. Slowing Essay. My DVD video test clips from popular 24-fps film-sourced material were detected properly and five promptly, ensuring a detailed picture with no distracting artifacts. But when I performed film-detail tests using the HQV Benchmark DVD and Microsoft Windows DVD Test Annex 3.0, I discovered that the Sony BDP-S300 couldn't properly detect and process film-sourced material that had nonstandard metadata. Essay On Protocol. With most DVD movies that the player upscales, viewers are unlikely to see any obvious errors, but the odd title may occasionally exhibit flicker or jagged-edge artifacts.

Advanced video processors in BD players such as the and the handle such material with ease. The BDP-S300's performance with 1080i video was similar to that of the Sharp BD-HP20U#x2014;poor, in that it failed all my deinterlacing tests, indicating a loss of up to half the potential detail in the video picture. But since the slaughter encoding format for most BD movies is machiavelli, 1080p (progressive), the lack of five quotes effective HD deinterlacing abilities won't be a deal breaker for most people. Unfortunately, the two players share another characteristic: sluggish disc load times, particularly with BD movies. Essay On How Life Has Changed In Britain. For six BD titles, the BDP-S300 averaged 64 seconds per disc, and the Sharp BD-HP20U was slightly slower at 67 seconds per disc. By contrast, on the same titles, the averaged 33 seconds#x2014;about twice as fast. The time from power-up to tray-open for slaughter five quotes the BDP-S300 is the slowest I've seen, at 47 seconds.

The player is neo malthusian theory, sluggish even when generating thumbnails of slaughter five images recorded on summary DVD media. And BD titles that take advantage of Java-based interactive features, including advanced menu systems, were especially tough: The player operated at a stuttering crawl. House. This isn't good news, since new BD releases seem to be adding an ever-increasing number of Java-based features. On the bright side, like most stand-alone disc players I've tested recently, this one is machiavelli, very energy efficient: Monthly power cost, based on five 8 hours of daily operation at machiavelli summary, .13 per kWh (the local average), is a minuscule .81. The Sony BDP-S300 Blu-ray Disc player provides a quality viewing experience and house five useful multimedia features, and on How Family Life Has Changed it will be Sony's least expensive stand-alone BD player for some time. Slaughter House Quotes. But while the Essay Protocol savings may please your pocket, they might also test your patience. Benchmark Test Results. Passes below black video (HDMI): yes. Passes above peak white video (HDMI): yes. Five Quotes. HQV DVD Benchmark score: 20 (out of 130) HD HQV Benchmark score: 10 (out of 100) More Hi-Def Player Reviews: The Sony BDP-S300 full-function or Universal remote control to operate varios devices and you can program the remote control to operate most of the popular brands of audio/video equipment like a TV, a DVD player (or VCR), or a Network satellite receiver. See Programming for Other Equipment on machiavelli the prince This remote control may have features not used by your receiver.

This guide makes it easy to set up and use your remote control this guide contains in-depth information to help you get the slaughter quotes most from your remote control, including controlling other equipment like TVs, VCRs, and DVD players. If you press power button pointing to the device if it powers off then its already programmed and do not need further programming. Essay In Britain. If the device is not responding check the batteries in the remote it may be that batteries are exhausted. Use the slaughter quotes remote control's mode buttons to Essay on How in Britain, set the remote to the correct mode for the equipment. Be sure to program the remote control to slaughter five quotes, operate the other equipment as described on manual. To change the mode, press the button for the equipment you want to neo malthusian theory, control. The mode button lights for three seconds to show you've set the remote to that mode. Depending on how the remote is slaughter house five quotes, set up, the remote control may use UHF radio signals, IR signals, or both to control the receiver. Theory. However, only IR signals are used to control other equipment. IR signals travel short distances generally 20 feet or 7 meters they can go up to 40 feet, and cannot go through walls or other solid objects.

Point the remote control directly at the equipment you want to control, with no objects to block the house five quotes signal path. This manual shows you how to carandiru movie, program the remote control to house five, operate a TV. The following section uses a different method to Family Has Changed in Britain, program the slaughter house five quotes remote control to operate a TV or other equipment (such as a DVD player or VCR, tuner, amplifier, audio receiver or a second TV). Essay Protocol. You can program the remote control by either following the slaughter house five quotes instructions in Programming Using Equipment Remote Code Tables, or the Scanning for Equipment Codes procedure. When programming the remote control to operate combination equipment, such as a TV/DVD or a TV/VCR, program the remote control in one mode, and break then repeat the procedure in the other mode. For example, to program the remote control to operate a TV/DVD player using code 765, follow the instructions to program the remote to operate the TV using codes, and then repeat the instructions for the DVD using the same code. Put the remote in TV mode to use TV functions, or DVD mode to use the house five quotes DVD player (or VCR) functions. A good friend of the prince summary mine was kind enough to drop by and allow me to house five, check out his new Sony (9) Blu-ray player. You know me, check out turned into Healing By Psychological Essay a five and a half hour review. Five. Sony#x2019;s BDP-S300 at 9 has sparked a fair amount of interest among those who have, thus far, remained on on How Family Life Has Changed in Britain the sidelines of the house five quotes hi-def disc battle.

The player outputs at resolutions up to 1080p/24 and handles all of the commonly used lossless audio formats, HDMI 1.3 1.1 and supports x.v.color. Of course as with any other new piece of gear, we#x2019;re just as, if not more, interested in how the unit operates as much as its specifications. So let#x2019;s get at it. The BDP-S300 is a bit slimmer than its predecessor (the BDP-S1) and the overall design is pleasing enough, with one notable exception. Machiavelli. Chalk it up to five quotes, personal preference, an unwillingness to accept change or just downright stodginess, I don#x2019;t like function buttons on the top of equipment. The S300#x2019;s eject and power buttons are placed to the left and right top-edge of the on How Family unit#x2019;s front facade.

I feel this was a mistake but the top edge does slope down a bit so while annoying (at least to me) it shouldn#x2019;t offer any real-world hurdles in day to day operation. Slaughter House Five Quotes. The back panel of the player has the usual assortment of component, HDMI, composite and s-video connections but one interface in particular is notably absent. Entry level (most to be exact) Blu-ray players typically lack Ethernet connectivity so nothing new here in that regard but I have to scratch my head every time I spin a BD player around and see a feature that#x2019;s mandatory, even on the cheapest of the Wound Healing Stress HD DVD players, missing from its Blu-ray counterpart. Here#x2019;s the thing that I#x2019;ve come to realize about interactivity and slaughter five quotes networking features on hi-def disc players, it isn#x2019;t about what you can/can#x2019;t do with them today, it#x2019;s about what you can/can#x2019;t do with them tomorrow. Even Blu-ray#x2019;s new minimum 1.1 profile slated to become mandatory after October 31st, only mandates 256mb of memory and a secondary video decoder, something that HD DVD players have had since day one, but I digress. It appears as if fully functional Ethernet connectivity will only be mandated with players conforming to profile 2.0 aka BD-Live, at the risk of beating a dead horse, no 2.0 compliant BD playback devices are currently available. It#x2019;s assumed that the PS3 could achieve profile 2.0 compliance by carandiru movie means of a firmware update but this remains to be seen. Either way the BDP-S300 will no doubt receive firmware updates as well, we#x2019;ll just have to burn them to house quotes, a CDR and neo malthusian or wait for official firmware updates by mail, directly from Sony.

Setup and quotes General Observations: One of the first things I encountered with this player was actually one of the best features/implementations I#x2019;ve seen on any HD disc player to date and all I had to do was turn the player on. The player defaults to language and resolution settings on machiavelli the prince summary first boot, which of course would be quite advantageous to slaughter house five quotes, those with odd/unusual display settings. Mid Term Break. Nice touch, simple but nice. The player also did a good job at recognizing our display#x2019;s (JVC DLA-HD1) native resolution and adjusting its output accordingly. Slaughter Five Quotes. Load times were on par with other current generation BD/HD disc players, about 18 seconds from open tray to video on-screen, not bad at Kyoto Protocol, all. The remote however leaves a bit to be desired. It#x2019;s not bad per house quotes say but the smallish buttons combined with the fact it#x2019;s not back-lit doesn#x2019;t exactly make for an intuitive user experience in a darkened room, of course learning the codes into a back-lit universal remote will remedy this. HQV Benchmark Results: The BDP-S300 scored quite nicely with the standard definition HQV benchmark disc, not only did in pass most of the tests with flying colors it was able to mid term break, lock onto the 3:2 film cadence test faster than many of the DVD and BD/HD players I#x2019;ve tested recently. #x2022;Color Bar/Vertical Detail: Pass #x2013; Score 10 of 10. #x2022;Jaggies Pattern 1: Pass #x2013; Score 5 of 5. #x2022;Jaggies Pattern 2: Pass #x2013; Score 3 of slaughter house quotes 5. #x2022;Flag: Pass #x2013; Score 10 of 10. #x2022;Picture Detail: Pass #x2013; Score 10 of 10. #x2022;Noise Reduction: Pass #x2013; Score 10 of 10. #x2022;Motion Adaptive Noise Reduction: Pass #x2013; Score 10 of 10. #x2022;3:2 Detection: Pass #x2013; Score 10 of Slowing By Psychological 10. Slaughter House Five Quotes. #x2022;Film Cadence: Pass #x2013; Score (Combined) 40 of on How Family Life 40. #x2022;Mixed 3:2 Film, Horizontal Text Crawl: Pass #x2013; Score 10 of 10. Quotes. #x2022;Mixed 3:2 Film, Vertical Text Crawl: Pass #x2013; Score 10 of 10. #x2022;Total Score: 128 out of a possible 130. Image Quality: The display device for this review was a ISF calibrated JVC DLA-HD1 #x2013; 1080p projector with the machiavelli audio being handled by a Denon AVR-4806 paired with PSB G-Design towers, center and rears and slaughter a PSB SubSeries 9 subwoofer. Right off the mid term break bat everyone in the room noticed the image quality from the S300, it#x2019;s always comforting when the results right out of the slaughter house quotes box are at least on par with expectations, surpassing them is neo malthusian, of course a nice bonus.

The only SD DVD I had on hand was #x2018;Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the house five quotes Black Pearl#x2019; (pulled specifically to neo malthusian, compare to the BD version). House Five. As an SD DVD player the neo malthusian BDP-S300 appeared to perform quite capably, surprisingly well as a matter of fact. I#x2019;ve always found this disc to be mediocre at slaughter five quotes, best and just plain bad at worst, in theory all honesty much of what we viewed looked quite nice. Perhaps the disc wasn#x2019;t quite as bad as I#x2019;d first thought. Moving on to some BD playback, it didn#x2019;t take long to start noticing something that I#x2019;ve long suspected about the PS3. (In my opinion, at least for the foreseeable future, all BD playback comparisons should at least include some cursory comparison of the PS3 as it#x2019;s undeniably the most used BD playback device in service.) While the PS3 is indeed a #x201C;good#x201D; Blu-ray player, it isn#x2019;t necessarily the end all in house quotes BD playback. I quickly noticed scenes in several discs that I had previously written off as mediocre or worse, suddenly having a tad more detail and sharpness.

After setting the unit up and taking a few minutes to get an overall feel for its performance we broke for neo malthusian theory lunch and slaughter five grabbed a few BD#x2019;s on the way back. (My BD collection needed freshening up.) I picked up #x2018;Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl#x2019; while the BDP-S300#x2019;s owner opted for #x2018;Hellboy#x2019;. Back from lunch we watched a bit of Hellboy, which looked excellent sans a bit of macro-blocking in several of the scenes with explosions, overall however the image was quite nice. It actually made me want to neo malthusian, finish the film which is more than I can say for previous viewings. Moving on to #x2018;Pirates of the slaughter house five quotes Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl#x2019; however wasn#x2019;t without incident. The player struggled loading the disc for what seemed to be an eternity, followed by yet another loading screen (presumably for Slowing the Wound By Psychological the discs advanced Java menus and animations). Needless to say actually navigating the disc was also a chore, no doubt a firmware update could and likely will remedy the player#x2019;s sluggishness. I just hope that fix is already in the works, if not playing discs like POTC and slaughter quotes other advanced Java titles will prove to be a less than ideal experience for new users. Note: Afterwards I took my POTC disc home and tried it with my PS3, it was a night and day difference, the disc loaded immediately and the second layer of interactive feature (after the trailers) loaded up within seconds. Break Poem. Also once loaded, the house menu commands responded crisply without any of the Essay Kyoto lag present earlier with the BDP-S300.

Later we popped in #x2018;Casino Royale#x2019; and found it to look quite nice through the house five BDP-S300. The colors were bold and faithfully rendered while the overall image was sharp and detailed. One scene in neo malthusian particular, the fight pit scene between the mongoose and snake really stood out. I#x2019;d never noticed just how much detail is present in the scene, overall resolution certainly doesn#x2019;t seem to be one of the BDP-S300#x2019;s shortcomings. Slaughter Quotes. Audio Performance: We used PCM audio whenever available and found the bass extension and the prince summary upper frequencies all sounded great, as mentioned earlier the player supports all the commonly used lossless audio codec#x2019;s/formats sans DTS HD Master Audio. Either way we were impressed with the S300#x2019;s audio performance and feel you will be as well. Summary: I#x2019;m in a bit of a pickle here as to a recommendation based on the Java sluggishness alone but I#x2019;m going to slaughter house, go out on a limb for machiavelli the prince Sony. (Yes mark your calendars) Having seen first-hand how other hi-def disc players have been firmware updated to overcome quirky menus and other minor incompatibility issues, I#x2019;m relatively confident that once those inevitable updates reach the BDP-S300 it will warrant a full recommendation. Given the fact that dealer discounting and further price drops will eventually soften the 9 (MSRP) blow even further, perhaps my real recommendation would go something like: the BDP-S300 is slaughter house quotes, a good player now but with further incentives combined with a firmware update or two it would be even better. Essay On Protocol. If you#x2019;re sure this is the player for you, the real question is when to jump in, enjoy it now quirks and house five quotes all or wait a bit longer for extra incentives and firmware updates. #x2013;Update#x2013; It looks as if the BDP-S300 isn#x2019;t HDMI 1.3 equipped after all. from A/V Magazine (Italian) clearly shows a Silicon Image chipset which is machiavelli the prince, HDMI 1.1 only. #x2013;Update#x2013; Folks when I#x2019;m wrong I#x2019;m wrong what can I say, the whole TrueHD thing has been eating at me since the review was posted and I just couldn#x2019;t take it anymore. Slaughter House Five Quotes. Yesterday afternoon we went out and purchased #x2018;Ghost Rider#x2019; on BD (One of the few BD#x2019;s with a TrueHD track) and you guessed it, the BDP-S300 in Healing By Psychological Stress its current state doesn#x2019;t decode the track. I#x2019;ll admit the TrueHD notations in the owners manual even had your#x2019;s truly fooled.

It appears as if TrueHD decoding simply hasn#x2019;t been implemented into slaughter house five quotes the player as yet, without knowing the specifically hardware inside the on Protocol player it would be hard to say with any certainly if its even a possibility at quotes, a later date by means of a firmware update. Given the lack of TrueHD compatibility (in its current state) and the previous unearthing of the break poem HDMI 1.1 transmitter chip, I#x2019;ll have to temper my recommendation even further. At this point if you#x2019;re looking for a stand-alone Blu-ray player I can#x2019;t wholeheartedly recommend the BDP-S300 quite as easily as before these issues came to light. It#x2019;s still a good player, but certainly not quite as good as our first impressions indicated. For what it#x2019;s worth; I feel I#x2019;ve paid my penance for slaughter house my original oversights, #x2018;Ghost Rider#x2019; was truly abysmal. The Wound Stress. Posted by Bryan Greenway | | Filed Under , Download Blu-ray Player User's Manual of Sony BDP-S300 for free from ManualAgent. Actual total number: PANTONE 2925C Sony BDP-S300/301(US) 3-214-290-11 (1) #xA9;2007 Sony Corporation. B l u - r a y D i s c P l a y e r. Slaughter Five Quotes. Printed in theory Malaysia. House. O p e r a t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s. Printed on Essay on 70% or more recycled paper. using VOC (Volatile Organic Compound)- free vegetable oil based ink. Features Blu-ray Disc Overview: Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a new high-definition disc format designed to take advantage of slaughter today's high quality HDTVs.

The resolution is up to 1920 x 1080 (1080p) and the data transfer rate is up to 54 mbps. Blu-ray Disc discs and players offer several advantages over the standard DVD format: Better picture quality: Blu-ray Disc is Healing Essay, a true high-definition format offering video at 720p, 1080i, or 1080p resolution. While standard DVDs look very good on an HDTV, they don't provide a high-definition signal (not even when you use an slaughter house five quotes up-converting DVD player). Blu-ray Disc delivers an extraordinarily sharp, clean, detailed picture, with deeper, richer colors. Better sound quality: In addition to the same multi-channel sound formats you're accustomed to carandiru movie, with DVD (Dolby Digital and DTS), Blu-ray Disc offers Dolby Digital Plus and uncompressed 7.1 channel PCM. Much greater storage capacity: What makes Blu-ray Disc's superior picture and sound possible is the much higher storage capacity of Blu-ray Disc discs. A single-layer Blu-ray Disc can hold 25 gigabytes of data, over five times the amount a standard DVD can hold.

Dual-layer Blu-ray Discs hold 50 gigabytes, which equates to nine hours of High Definition or 23 hours of Standard Definition video, plus high-resolution multi-channel audio and the added features and material that require multiple discs with standard DVD. Compatibility with your current disc collections: To ensure backward-compatibility with your existing library of discs, Blu-ray Disc players use a dual-laser mechanism: a blue laser for playing high-definition Blu-ray Discs, and a conventional red laser for house five quotes playing DVDs and on Protocol audio CDs. Dolby Digital Plus: Dolby Digital Plus was developed as an extension to slaughter house quotes, Dolby Digital. The audio coding technology supports 7.1 channel surround sound. Dolby Digital Plus also includes the standard Dolby Digital bit stream and is compatible with all current Dolby Digital processors using the optical or coaxial digital output. 24p True Cinema: Movies are typically recorded on film with a frame rate of 24 frames per second.

When a movie is transferred to Blu-ray Disc at 24 frames per second the BDP-S300 will output that signal to the TV (if the TV will accept the 1080p/24 format) with no need for carandiru movie conversion. x.v.Color: The BDP-S300 supports x.v.Color, meaning it's ready for slaughter quotes x.v.Color discs when they become available in neo malthusian the future. Disc Compatibility: The BDP-S300 is compatible with many disc types: BD-ROM: pre-recorded Blu-ray Discs DVD-Video: pre-recorded DVD DVD-R: record once DVD DVD-RW: rewritable DVD DVD+R: record once DVD (including DL) DVD+RW: rewritable DVD CD: pre-recorded CD CD-R: record once CD-DA (music CD format only) CD-RW: rewritable CD CD-DA (music CD format only) AVCHD: AVCHD (MPEG-4 AVC/H.264) is slaughter, a high definition digital video camera format used to poem, record in slaughter house five high definition or standard definition on DVD, using an efficient data compression coding technology. The#xA0; format is designed to compress video and audio (Dolby Digital or Linear PCM) data, enabling a high definition video signal shot on carandiru movie a digital video camera recorder to be recorded on DVD discs, in slaughter house five the same way as it would be for a standard definition signal. Blu-ray Disc Java (BD-J): The BD-ROM format supports Java for the prince interactive functions. BD-J offers content providers almost unlimited functionality when creating interactive BD-ROM titles. Slaughter Five. Future Compatibility: As Blu-Ray technology continues to evolve, new disc types with enhanced functionality will become available. In order for you to enjoy this new functionality, you will likely be required to update the firmware in your player. Neo Malthusian. These firmware updates will become available for slaughter five downloading from the Internet. 1080p Output: Through the HDMI output, BDP-S300 has a 1080p (1920 x 1080 pixel) output option, at either the 60 Hz video or 24 Hz film frame rates.

MP3 Playback: This unit will play MP3 audio files recorded onto DVD-R/W or DVD+R/RW discs. You can program up to 25 songs in any order you like as a Quicklist. The on screen keyboard allows you to search for a track, genre, artist, or album directly. Artist and title information is displayed on screen and you can list all songs (sorted alphabetically, by date, by artist, or by song title) or sort all artists, albums, genres, Quicklists, or folders. JPEG Playback: This unit will play JPEG still picture files recorded onto DVD-R/RW or DVD+R/RW discs (not CD-R or CD-RW). Mid Term. Like with MP3 playback, you can program a Quicklist of up to 25 files to run as a slideshow. You can also run a slideshow of all files on the disc. Slaughter Quotes. You can search for a file directly using the on screen keyboard.

You can list all files at once, or browse by on Protocol folder, date, or quicklist. Movie Files: The BDP-S300 can play MPEG2 PS movie files recorded on five DVD-R or DVD-RW discs (not CD-R or CD-RW). Movie title information is displayed on screen. You can search for a title directly using the on screen keyboard or sort titles alphabetically or by date. In Britain. Resume Play: Resume play allows you to slaughter house five, resume playback of a disc from the point where you last stopped.

The stopping point is cleared when the Life in Britain Stop button is pressed more than once, the disc tray is opened, the player is slaughter, turned off, or any of the settings on the player are changed. Surround Sound Decoders: The BDP-S300 has built-in Dolby Digital and DTS surround processors. The analog 5.1 channel signals are output through the RCA jacks. Mid Term Break Poem. Picture Settings: There are three picture presets and three memory positions so you can adjust the picture to your liking: Brighter Room: use when the room is slaughter house five, brighter than normal Theater Room: use when the room is dark Standard: use in a typical room Memory (1-3): manually adjust the brightness of white, the neo malthusian theory richness of dark colors, the balance between green and red, and the level of color saturation. HDMI Control ('Bravia' Theatre Sync): Sony components compatible with the HDMI Control function can be controlled via the HDMI connection. This includes convenient features like One-Touch Play and System Power-Off. Auto Power Off: With the house auto power off feature turned on the player turns off automatically is Essay Life in Britain, left in quotes stop or pause mode for 30 minutes. Region Code: Like DVD, BD uses region codes. The region code on Essay Life Has Changed your disc must match the region code on your player, otherwise the disc will not play.

The BDP-S300 is slaughter, Blu-ray region A and DVD region 1. Copy Protection: Blu-ray Disc uses the Healing Essay Advanced Access Content System (AACS) to prevent unauthorized recording of copyrighted material. Fan Cooled: A fan on five quotes the back of the BDP-S300 keeps the unit cool. Multi-brand Remote: The supplied remote is pre-programmed to operate this unit and break poem a number of slaughter house quotes functions on Essay on How Life Has Changed multiple brand TVs. Once programmed, the remote controls the TV's power on/off, input select, volume up/down, channel up/down, and mute. Input and Output Notes. HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface): The BDP-S300's HDMI output simplifies A/V connections by carrying video and slaughter quotes digital audio in one cable. Kyoto Protocol. This unit features HDCP copyright protection technology, and must be connected to an HDCP-compliant device.

If your TV has a DVI input instead of an five HDMI input, you can connect this unit to on Protocol, your TV using an HDMI-to-DVI adapter. You will also need to slaughter five quotes, connect audio cables to the player because DVI is Slowing the Wound Healing By Psychological Stress, a video only cable. The HDMI resolution can be fixed at 480i, 480p, 720p, 1080i, or 1080p, or set to Auto, which selects the highest resolution accepted by your television. The video format can be set to component or RGB. Component Video: The component video resolution can be set to 480i, 480p, 720p, or 1080i. Slaughter Quotes. If the HDMI output is set to 1080p, the component video output is fixed at 480i. When a DVD is played, the maximum component video output resolution is 480p. Essay On How Family Has Changed. Composite Video and slaughter house five S-Video: The composite and S-video outputs are always live and carandiru movie fixed at five, 480i. They can output video when playing a Blu-ray Disc.

Digital Audio Output: The Audio menu allows you to select the Protocol digital audio format that is passed through the optical and coaxial outputs. Settings allow you to transfer Dolby Digital or DTS sound tracks, or down-mix surround bitstreams to 2-channel PCM audio. Slaughter House Quotes. Analog Audio: There is a pair of stereo RCA outputs plus 5.1 channel outputs for Essay on Kyoto utilizing the built-in surround decoders. Whether you are watching movies, listening to music, playing games, recording and storing content or all of the above, Blu-ray Disc#x2122; makes your High Definition world come to life. Slaughter House Quotes. Sony products with Blu-ray Disc#x2122; technology take High Definition further than ever. Only Sony delivers such a wide range of Blu-ray Disc#x2122; products from consumer electronics, computers. and machiavelli the prince summary recordable media to movies, music and games. computer brands, the slaughter house five quotes world#x2019;s two largest music companies, PLAYSTATION#xAE;3 and the leading gaming. companies all support Blu-ray.

Are you ready to discover Sony Blu-ray? Blu-ray is the next generation optical disc format which uses blue violet laser to neo malthusian, deliver unsurpassed storage and five quotes interactivity and unlocks the potential of HD TV and HD gaming. 1080p - The Ultimate Picture Quality. Essay Kyoto Protocol. Remember the first time you saw how DVD pictures looked fantastic compared with ordinary television transmissions? That#x2019;s because DVD uses a higher bit-rate than conventional TV broadcasts, and more digital information means better picture and house quotes sound quality. Blu-ray Discs#x2122; (BD) are exactly the same diameter (12 cm) as Compact Discs and Essay on How Family Life in Britain DVDs. The big difference with BD, however, is loads more storage capacity to hold High Definition content such as videos, pictures, sound and more. The High Definition Audio Visual Experience. People sometimes think that High Definition is all about great-looking pictures.

They#x2019;re right, but it#x2019;s important not to underestimate just how important audio is too. Aside from breathtaking picture quality and digital multi-channel surround sound, the other thing that has really excited the studio business is Bluray#x2019;s interactive possibilities. The good news is that right now, six out of eight major Hollywood studios have committed to support Blu-ray Disc#x2122;. Quotes. The other studio name, of course, is neo malthusian theory, Sony Pictures. The best names in the movie industry and slaughter house indeed, entertainment have offered their backing for Essay on How Life Has Changed in Britain Blu-ray Disc#x2122;. Blu-ray brings all of the excitement of live music right into your living room. Not only do you feel that you are right there with amazing picture quality but sound quality is like nothing you have experienced before. seamlessly integrated bonus content.

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masterpeice resume SUPREME COURT OF CANADA. Citation: Masterpiece Inc. v. Alavida Lifestyles Inc., 2011 SCC 27 , [2011] 2 S.C.R. 387. Alavida Lifestyles Inc. International Trademark Association.

Coram: McLachlin C.J. and Binnie, LeBel, Fish, Charron, Rothstein and Cromwell JJ. Reasons for house Judgment: Rothstein J. (McLachlin C.J. and Binnie, LeBel, Fish, Charron and Slowing Healing By Psychological, Cromwell JJ. concurring) Masterpiece Inc. v. Alavida Lifestyles Inc. , 2011 SCC 27, [2011] 2 S.C.R. Five Quotes! 387. Masterpiece Inc. Appellant. Alavida Lifestyles Inc.

Respondent. International Trademark Association Intervener. Indexed as: Masterpiece Inc. v. Alavida Lifestyles Inc. 2010: December 8; 2011: May 26. Present: McLachlin C.J. and Binnie, LeBel, Fish, Charron, Rothstein and Cromwell JJ. on appeal from the federal court of appeal. Intellectual property Trade?marks Confusion Alberta company using unregistered trade?marks prior to Ontario companys registration of similar trade?mark Alberta company applying to expunge Ontario companys trade?mark registration from register of trade?marks Whether location where mark used is relevant to confusion analysis What considerations are applicable in machiavelli the prince summary assessment of resemblance between proposed use trade?mark and existing unregistered trade?mark How nature and cost of wares or services affects confusion analysis Use of expert evidence in confusion analysis Trade?marks Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. T?13, ss. 6 , 16(3) , 17 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 30 , 35 , 40(2) , 57(1) . Masterpiece Inc. and Alavida Lifestyles Inc. (Alavida) are both involved in slaughter house five the retirement residence industry. Since 2001, Masterpiece Inc., operating in Alberta, has used several unregistered trade?marks, including Masterpiece the Art of Living. Alavida, operating in neo malthusian theory Ontario, entered the market in 2005 and slaughter five, applied to register the trade?mark Masterpiece Living on December 1, 2005 on the basis of a proposed use.

Alavida began using this trade?mark in January 2006. Shortly after Alavidas application, Masterpiece Inc. also began using Masterpiece Living and applied to machiavelli summary register it and the word Masterpiece as its trade?marks in 2006. Because of Alavidas prior application, which was eventually granted, Masterpiece Inc.s applications were denied. Masterpiece Inc.s subsequent application to expunge Alavidas registration was dismissed by the trial judge who concluded that there was no likelihood of confusion between Alavidas and Masterpiece Inc.s marks. Five! That decision was upheld on the prince summary appeal. Held : The appeal should be allowed and five quotes, Alavidas registration should be expunged. This case concerns the basic approach and criteria applicable to the confusion analysis and in particular, whether there was a likelihood of confusion between Alavidas trade?mark and Masterpiece Inc.s trade?name and trade?marks pursuant to s. 6 of the Trade?marks Act . The test is carandiru movie, whether, as a matter of first impression, the casual consumer somewhat in house quotes a hurry who encounters the Alavida trade?mark, with no more than an imperfect recollection of any one of the Masterpiece Inc. trade?marks or trade?name, would be likely to on think that Alavida was the slaughter quotes, same source of retirement residence services as Masterpiece Inc. Poem! Section 6(5) sets out the required approach to a confusion analysis. Slaughter House Five Quotes! All surrounding circumstances must be considered, including: (a) the inherent distinctiveness of the trade?marks or trade?names and extent to which they have become known; (b) the length of Essay on time the trade?marks or trade?names have been in use; (c) the five quotes, nature of the wares, services or business; (d) the carandiru movie, nature of the trade; and (e) the degree of resemblance between the trade?marks or trade?names in appearance or sound or in the ideas suggested by them.

The first issue to be determined is whether the location where a mark is used is relevant when considering the likelihood of confusion between a registered trade?mark and a prior unregistered one. Generally, pursuant to s. 19 , the slaughter house quotes, owner of a registered trade?mark is Essay, entitled to the exclusive use of that mark throughout Canada. The test for confusion is slaughter five quotes, based upon the hypothetical assumption that the trade?names and trade?marks are used in the same area, irrespective of whether this is actually the case. In order for the owner of a registered trade?mark to have exclusive use of the trade?mark throughout Canada, there cannot be a likelihood of confusion with another trade?mark anywhere in the country. For this reason, the location where the marks were actually used is not relevant.

The second question involves the considerations applicable in machiavelli the assessment of the resemblance between a proposed use trade?mark and an existing unregistered trade?mark. It is the use of slaughter house a trade?mark and not registration itself that confers priority of machiavelli title and the exclusive right to the trade?mark. Rights are granted to slaughter quotes the first user of a trade?mark in two ways under the Act. First, under s. 16, a party normally gains a priority right to register a trade?mark when it first uses that trade?mark. Second, a user is also able to oppose applications, or apply to expunge registrations based on its earlier use of a confusing trade?mark. Section 16(3) of the Act recognizes the right of a prior user against any application for registration based upon subsequent use.

Masterpiece Inc. could apply to expunge Alavidas trade?mark pursuant to s. Machiavelli! 16(3) of the Act on the grounds of likelihood of confusion between Alavidas trade?mark and any of its trade?marks that had been in use before December 1, 2005. Further, Masterpiece Inc. was entitled to have each of its marks separately compared to Alavidas Masterpiece Living. The trial judge erred in undertaking a single composite analysis, considering resemblance between Masterpiece Living and all of Masterpiece Inc.s trade?marks and slaughter five quotes, trade?name generally. Most confusion analyses should commence with an assessment of the resemblance between the marks in issue. The Wound Healing By Psychological Stress! The trial judge erred in considering Alavidas actual use of its mark rather than addressing the entire scope of exclusive rights and potential uses that were granted to Alavida under its registration. His approach did not recognize that Alavida was entitled to use the protected words in any form including a format that closely resembled Masterpiece Inc.s marks. House Quotes! Here, because Alavidas proposed trade?mark is Essay on How Family in Britain, only the words Masterpiece Living, the difference or similarity with each of quotes Masterpience Inc.s trade?marks and trade?name must be assessed on the basis of these words alone. Poem! The striking or unique aspect of each trade?mark is the slaughter house quotes, word Masterpiece. The idea evoked by each is also the same: high quality retirement lifestyle. Clearly, there is a strong resemblance between Masterpiece the Art of Living and Masterpiece Living. A third issue is what effect the nature of the business and cost of the wares or services has in the confusion analysis.

Here, the trial judge erred in considering that consumers of mid term expensive goods and services would generally take considerable time to inform themselves about the source of those goods and services to suggest a reduced likelihood of slaughter five quotes confusion. Confusion must instead be assessed from the perspective of the first impression of the consumer approaching a costly purchase when he or she encounters the neo malthusian, trade?mark. The possibility that careful research could later remedy confusion does not mean that no confusion ever existed or that it would not continue to exist in the minds of consumers who did not carry out that research. The trial judges consideration should have been limited to how a consumer, upon slaughter five quotes, encountering the Alavida mark in the marketplace, with an imperfect recollection of the Masterpiece Inc. marks, would have reacted. In circumstances where a strong resemblance suggests a likelihood of confusion, and the other s. 6(5) factors do not point strongly against a likelihood of confusion, cost is unlikely to lead to a different conclusion.

A final issue is the role of expert evidence in the trade?mark confusion analysis. Generally, an expert should only be permitted to testify if the testimony is Kyoto Protocol, likely to be outside the experience and knowledge of the judge. Where the casual consumer is slaughter quotes, not particularly knowledgeable and there is on How in Britain, a resemblance between the marks, expert evidence that simply assesses that resemblance will not usually be necessary. Judges should consider the marks at issue, each as a whole, but having regard to the dominant or most striking or unique feature of the trade?mark, using their own common sense, to determine whether the casual consumer would be likely to be confused when first encountering the trade?mark. In this case, Alavidas expert engaged in a discussion of house five quotes morphology and semantics instead of considering the on Kyoto, marks as a whole. He also based his analysis on Alavidas actual post?registration use, rather than the full scope of rights granted to Alavida under its registration. Masterpiece Inc.s survey was similarly unhelpful because it attempted to simulate consumers with an imperfect recollection when none was available. For this reason, the survey was not a valid assessment of the relevant question. Judges should be careful to question the necessity and relevance of such evidence, perhaps as part of a case management process, particularly in light of the substantial cost of slaughter house evidence that may be of neo malthusian little utility.

Considering all the circumstances of the quotes, case, and particularly the strong similarity between Alavidas Masterpiece Living and Masterpiece Inc.s Masterpiece the Art of Living, Masterpiece Inc. has proven that the use of Alavidas trade?mark in the same area as those of Masterpiece Inc.s would be likely to lead to the inference that the services associated with Masterpiece Inc.s trade?marks were being performed by Family Life Has Changed Alavida. Because Masterpiece Inc.s use preceded Alavidas proposed use, Alavida was not entitled under s. 16(3) to registration of its trade?mark and it should be expunged from the register. Applied: Mattel, Inc. v. 3894207 Canada Inc. , 2006 SCC 22, [2006] 1 S.C.R. House Five Quotes! 772; Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin v. Machiavelli! Boutiques Cliquot Ltee , 2006 SCC 23, [2006] 1 S.C.R. 824; Housen v. Nikolaisen , 2002 SCC 33, [2002] 2 S.C.R. House! 235; Hollis v. Dow Corning Corp. , [1995] 4 S.C.R. Neo Malthusian Theory! 634; considered: R. v. Slaughter House Quotes! Mohan , [1994] 2 S.C.R.

9; Ultravite Laboratories Ltd. v. Whitehall Laboratories Ltd. , [1965] S.C.R. 734; esure Insurance Ltd. v. Direct Line Insurance plc , 2008 EWCA Civ 842, [2008] R.P.C. 34; General Electric Co. v. The General Electric Co. Ltd. , [1972] All E.R. 507; referred to: Partlo v. Todd (1888), 17 S.C.R.

196; Benson Hedges (Canada) Ltd. v. St. Regis Tobacco Corp. , [1969] S.C.R. 192; Leaf Confections Ltd. v. Maple Leaf Gardens Ltd . (1986), 12 C.P.R. (3d) 511, affd (1988), 19 C.P.R. (3d) 331; Mr. Submarine Ltd. v. Amandista Investments Ltd. , [1988] 3 F.C. Break! 91; Conde Nast Publications Inc. v. Union des editions modernes (1979), 46 C.P.R. House! (2d) 183; General Motors Corp. v. Bellows , [1949] S.C.R. 678. Statutes and Regulations Cited.

Trade-marks Regulations , SOR/96?195 . Gill, Kelly, and R. Scott Jolliffe. Fox on Canadian Law of Trade?marks and Unfair Competition , 4th ed. Toronto: Carswell, 2002 (loose-leaf updated 2006, release 2). Hughes, Roger T., and mid term poem, Toni Polson Ashton. Hughes on Trade Marks , 2nd ed.

Markham, Ont.: LexisNexis, 2005 (loose?leaf updated 2010, release 22). Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles , 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, resemblance. Vaver, David. Intellectual Property Law: Copyright, Patents, Trade?marks , 2nd ed. Toronto, Ont.: Irwin Law, 2011. APPEAL from five quotes, a judgment of the Federal Court of Appeal ( Sexton, Layden?Stevenson and Trudel, JJ.A.), 2009 FCA 290, [2010] 4 F.C.R.

243, 397 N.R. The Prince! 180, 78 C.P.R. (4th) 243, 312 D.L.R. (4th) 532, [2009] F.C.J. No. 1263 (QL), 2009 CarswellNat 3122, affirming a decision of OReilly J., 2008 FC 1412, 338 F.T.R. Slaughter House Five! 168, 72 C.P.R. (4th) 160, [2008] F.C.J. No. 1826 (QL), 2008 CarswellNat 4970. Appeal allowed. W. Essay In Britain! Clarke Hunter , Q.C. Five Quotes! , Kelly Gill and Brandon Potter , for the appellant. Scott Miller , Sharon Griffin and Heather Gallant , for the respondent. Daniel R. Bereskin , Q.C. , and Mark L. Robbins , for the intervener.

The judgment of the Court was delivered by. [1] Trade-marks in the Wound By Psychological Canada are an important tool to assist consumers and five quotes, businesses. In the marketplace, a business marks its wares or services as an indication of provenance. The Prince Summary! This allows consumers to five quotes know, when they are considering a purchase, who stands behind those goods or services. In this way, trade-marks provide a shortcut to get consumers to where they want to go, per Binnie J. in Mattel, Inc. v. 3894207 Canada Inc. Family Life Has Changed! , 2006 SCC 22, [2006] 1 S.C.R.

772, at slaughter five quotes, para. 21. Where the trade-marks of different businesses are similar, a consumer may be unable to discern which company stands behind the Essay in Britain, wares or services. Confusion between trade-marks impairs the objective of providing consumers with a reliable indication of the expected source of wares or services. This case provides this Court with the opportunity of reviewing the basic approach and criteria applicable to a confusion analysis between competing trade-marks under the quotes, Trade-marks Act , R.S.C. 1985, c. T-13 (Act ). [2] The question in this case is whether the trade-mark Masterpiece Living, proposed and subsequently registered by Alavida Lifestyles Inc. (Alavida), a company entering the retirement residence industry in Ontario, was then confusing with the unregistered trade-marks or trade-name previously used by another company, Masterpiece Inc., in on How Life Has Changed the retirement residence industry in Alberta.

[3] Masterpiece Inc. contends that Alavidas trade-mark, on the date its application for registration was filed with the slaughter house five quotes, Canadian Intellectual Property Office, December 1, 2005, was confusing with Masterpiece Inc.s trade-name and trade-marks. Poem! It argues that Alavida was not entitled to five quotes apply for registration of its mark because of its confusing similarity to Masterpiece Inc.s trade-name and trade-marks, which were used prior to Alavidas application. Thus, it argues, the registration is invalid and should be expunged. [4] Masterpiece Inc. was unsuccessful in the Federal Court (2008 FC 1412, 72 C.P.R. (4th) 160) and Federal Court of Appeal (2009 FCA 290, [2010] 4 F.C.R. 423) and now appeals to this Court. [5] I am of the respectful opinion that the learned trial judge and the Federal Court of Appeal in this case did not interpret and apply the criteria for determining confusion correctly. Upon a correct interpretation and Family Has Changed in Britain, application, I conclude that Alavidas proposed trade-mark Masterpiece Living was confusing with at least one of slaughter house quotes Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks when the registration application was filed on December 1, 2005. Therefore, Alavida was not entitled to registration of its proposed mark. Because I have found confusion between one of Essay on Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks and Alavidas mark, it is not necessary to perform a confusion analysis between the other of Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks and its trade-name with Alavidas mark.

I would allow the appeal and order the Registrar of Trade-marks to expunge Alavidas registration from the register of trade-marks. [6] I should make clear that this decision deals only with the question of expungement of Alavidas trade-mark registration for Masterpiece Living. Whether Masterpiece Inc. may register a trade-mark that comprises or includes the house, word Masterpiece will now be a matter for Masterpiece Inc. and the Registrar. [7] Both Masterpiece Inc. and Alavida operate in the retirement residence industry. Prior to mid term December 2005, Masterpiece Inc. used several trade-marks which included the five, word Masterpiece, as well as its trade-name Masterpiece Inc..

Alavida entered the market near the end of neo malthusian 2005 and applied to register the trade-mark Masterpiece Living to market its services. [8] Masterpiece Inc. was incorporated in 2001. In the years between 2001 and 2005, it undertook two retirement residence construction and operation projects in Alberta and began a third. During this time, it used its corporate name, Masterpiece Inc., as a trade-name on house materials including prospectuses, contracts and on, advertisements. [9] Concurrently, Masterpiece Inc. used several unregistered trade-marks which involved the word Masterpiece including Masterpiece the Art of Living, Masterpiece the Art of Retirement Living, and a stylized word Masterpiece alongside a butterfly logo. It also used other marks, including the trade-mark Club Sierra, in its advertisements. [10] Alavida, a subsidiary of Ashcroft Homes Inc., was incorporated on August 4, 2005. It applied to register the slaughter house five quotes, trade-mark Masterpiece Living on December 1, 2005, on the basis of a proposed use. The mark was registered unopposed on March 23, 2007. Since January 2006, Alavida has used Masterpiece Living as its trade-mark.

[11] Shortly after Alavidas application, Masterpiece Inc. changed its branding slightly, and began using the very same trade-mark Masterpiece Living. The Prince Summary! The result of these almost simultaneous decisions was that, beginning in slaughter house five quotes 2006, there were two Canadian companies, one operating in Alberta, another in Ontario, using the machiavelli the prince summary, trade-mark Masterpiece Living in the retirement residence industry. [12] In January 2006, Masterpiece Inc. applied to register Masterpiece as a trade-mark, and in house June 2006, it applied to register the machiavelli the prince, trade-mark Masterpiece Living. Slaughter Five! As a result of on How Life Has Changed Alavidas prior application, which was eventually granted, Masterpiece Inc.s applications for both the trade-mark Masterpiece Living and quotes, the trade-mark Masterpiece were denied, as the Registrar concluded that they were confusing with Alavidas trade-mark Masterpiece Living. [13] On March 16, 2007, Masterpiece Inc. Carandiru Movie! commenced this application to expunge Alavidas registration. It appears that Masterpiece Inc. did not oppose Alavidas application. Slaughter House! However, it was not argued that its failure to Essay Family Life Has Changed in Britain do so had any impact on quotes the expungement proceedings.

III. Federal Court. [14] OReilly J. Mid Term Poem! dismissed Masterpiece Inc.s application to expunge the Alavida trade-mark. [15] He found that if Alavidas trade-mark was confusingly similar to any trade-marks or trade-names that had previously been used, Alavida would not be entitled to the registration. He held that when considering whether a confusing mark was used prior to an application, the relevant date is the date of quotes filing of the application (para. 9). [16] The trial judge found that Masterpiece Inc. had shown some use of the carandiru movie, trade-name Masterpiece and related marks including the word Masterpiece prior to slaughter Alavidas application (at para.

19 (emphasis in original)), although he found the use was rather sporadic. He then considered whether there was a likelihood of confusion, under s. 6(5) of the Act , between Alavidas trade-mark and these prior marks on the date of filing of Alavidas application for registration. [17] In conducting the confusion analysis under s. 6(5) of the neo malthusian, Act , he found that the word Masterpiece in association with retirement residences or services was somewhat inherently distinctive (para. 41), but that there had been no acquired distinctiveness through use in any of Masterpiece Inc.s marks on the relevant date (para. 42). On the issue of the resemblance between the marks, the trial judge accepted observations made by one of slaughter house quotes Alavidas experts that Alavidas post-registration use of its marks differed from Masterpiece Inc.s use of mid term break its marks, both in design and in the focus of the advertisements. Slaughter House Five! He found that although there was obviously a degree of resemblance as between the two companies marks, these differences in use served to reduce the likelihood of Life confusion (para. Slaughter Five! 46). He also observed that the choice of retirement residence was an important and expensive decision.

As a result, consumers could be expected to on How in Britain research their decisions carefully, which would also reduce the likelihood of slaughter house confusion. [18] On the basis of these considerations, he concluded that Masterpiece Inc. had not established that there was a likelihood of confusion between its trade-name and trade-marks and Essay Kyoto Protocol, Alavidas registered trade-mark. IV. Federal Court of Appeal. [19] At the house quotes, Federal Court of Slowing By Psychological Stress Appeal, Sexton and Trudel JJ.A., writing for the court, dismissed Masterpiece Inc.s appeal. [20] The Court of Appeal upheld the findings of the trial judge that the relevant date for the confusion analysis was the date of filing of Alavidas trade-mark application, December 1, 2005. This finding was then applied to reject evidence presented by Masterpiece Inc. that by December 1, 2005, it had unexecuted plans to expand into the central Canadian market. The court found that the possibility of future confusion was not relevant to the assessment of confusion under the Act , and therefore Masterpiece Inc.s intention to slaughter house five expand its operations into new markets was irrelevant. Neo Malthusian! It stated, at para. 22:

At the date of filing of the respondents trade-mark, the appellant did not sell its product in the same market as the respondent. This Court need not consider the appellants plans for expansion after that date. [21] The balance of the Court of Appeal reasons also generally agreed with the trial judges approach to slaughter house quotes the confusion analysis, and Slowing Healing By Psychological Stress Essay, found no palpable and overriding errors in his consideration of the evidence. Thus, it held that Alavidas registration should be maintained and dismissed Masterpiece Inc.s appeal. V. Issues on house Appeal. [22] There are four issues for consideration by this Court: 1. Is the location where a mark is used relevant when considering the likelihood of confusion between an applied for or registered trade-mark and Kyoto Protocol, a prior unregistered trade-mark or trade-name?

2. What considerations are applicable in the assessment of the house five quotes, resemblance between a proposed use trade-mark and an existing unregistered trade-mark? 3. When considering the nature of the trade under s. 6(5) of the Act , what effect does the nature and cost of the wares or services have on Slowing Healing Stress the confusion analysis? 4. When should courts take into account expert evidence in slaughter house five quotes trade-mark or trade-name confusion cases? [23] Sections of the Act relevant to this appeal are reproduced in the Appendix at the conclusion of Essay on Protocol these reasons. A. Is the Location Where a Mark Is Used Relevant When Considering the Likelihood of Confusion Between an Applied for or Registered Trade-Mark and a Prior Unregistered Trade-Mark or Trade-Name? [24] In the Federal Court of Appeal, a major focus in the reasons was whether Masterpiece Inc.s plan to expand into eastern Canada, which could lead it into direct competition with Alavida, was relevant to the determination of slaughter five confusion. While those plans have now been executed, and Masterpiece Inc. is operating in the retirement residence industry in Quebec, on December 1, 2005, they were merely plans. [25] The Federal Court of Appeal concluded that these plans were not relevant.

However, in doing so, it distinguished several authorities which Masterpiece Inc. submitted to support the relevance of its plans. Some of on How Has Changed in Britain these authorities suggested that the geographical location where two trade-marks are used or proposed to be used does not affect the likelihood of slaughter house five quotes confusion. [26] Distinguishing these authorities could be seen as an acceptance that the geographical locale in carandiru movie which marks are used or proposed to be used is relevant for determining whether there is a likelihood of confusion. Indeed, in this Court, there was an slaughter intervention by the International Trademark Association which sought to poem address only this point. Five! If it were true that geography was relevant, then Alavida could claim that there was no confusion between its marks and Masterpiece Inc.s marks because on December 1, 2005, Masterpiece Inc. was only operating in Alberta, while it was operating in Ontario. [27] While it is not entirely clear that the Federal Court of Appeals reasons should be read as suggesting that geography is relevant, I would take this opportunity to dispel any doubt on this point. [28] The Canadian trade-marks regime is national in summary scope. The owner of a registered trade-mark, subject to a finding of invalidity, is entitled to the exclusive use of five that mark in association with the wares or services to the Wound Essay which it is house five, connected throughout Canada. Section 19 of the Trade-marks Act provides: 19.

Subject to sections 21 , 32 and 67 , the registration of a trade-mark in respect of any wares or services, unless shown to be invalid, gives to the owner of the trade-mark the exclusive right to the use throughout Canada of the trade-mark in respect of those wares or services. [29] With respect to confusion, ss. The Prince! 6(1) and (2) of the Trade-marks Act provide: 6. (1) For the purposes of this Act , a trade-mark or trade-name is confusing with another trade-mark or trade-name if the use of the first mentioned trade-mark or trade-name would cause confusion with the last mentioned trade-mark or trade-name in the manner and circumstances described in this section. (2) The use of a trade-mark causes confusion with another trade-mark if the use of slaughter house five quotes both trade-marks in the same area would be likely to By Psychological Stress lead to the inference that the wares or services associated with those trade-marks are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the wares or services are of the five, same general class. Section 6(3) deals with trade-mark confusion with a trade-name and 6(4) with trade-name confusion with a trade-mark. In subsections (2), (3) and (4), the the Wound Healing By Psychological Essay, same formula is used if the use of both . . . in house the same area would be likely to lead to the inference. [30] It is summary, immediately apparent from these words, if the use of both . Slaughter Five Quotes! . . in the same area, that the machiavelli, test for confusion is based upon the hypothetical assumption that both trade-names and trade-marks are used in the same area, irrespective of whether this is five, actually the Essay on How Family in Britain, case.

As a result, geographical separation in slaughter five quotes the use of otherwise confusingly similar trade-names and trade-marks does not play a role in neo malthusian this hypothetical test. This must be the case, because, pursuant to s. 19 , subject to exceptions not relevant here, registration gives the owner the slaughter house five, exclusive right to the use of the trade-mark throughout Canada. [31] In order for the owner of a registered trade-mark to have exclusive use of the trade-mark throughout Canada, there cannot be a likelihood of confusion with another trade-mark anywhere in the country. [32] Section 16(3) confirms this conclusion, stating that an applicant for a proposed mark will be entitled to carandiru movie registration unless at five quotes, the date of filing the trade-mark it is confusing with a trade-mark or trade-name that had been previously used in Canada. Carandiru Movie! Section 16(3) provides: (3) Any applicant who has filed an application in slaughter five accordance with section 30 for registration of a proposed trade-mark that is on, registrable is entitled , subject to house five sections 38 and 40 , to secure its registration in respect of the wares or services specified in the application, unless at the date of filing of the application it was confusing with.

( a ) a trade-mark that had been previously used in Canada or made known in Canada by any other person; ( b ) a trade-mark in respect of which an application for registration had been previously filed in Canada by any other person; or. ( c ) a trade-name that had been previously used in Canada by any other person. [33] Whether in Essay on Kyoto assessing trade-mark infringement under s. Slaughter Five Quotes! 19 or entitlement under s. Essay On Protocol! 16, the test for likelihood of confusion is the same. The application of the hypothetical test reflects the legislative intent to provide a national scope of protection for slaughter five quotes registered trade-marks in Canada (see D. Vaver, Intellectual Property Law: Copyright, Patents, Trade-marks (2nd ed. 2011), at p. 536). B. What Considerations Are Applicable in the Assessment of the Resemblance Between a Proposed Use Trade-Mark and an Existing Unregistered Trade-Mark? [34] To clarify the proper approach to assessing the Slowing Healing Essay, resemblance between a proposed use trade-mark and existing unregistered marks, it will be useful to address a number of issues: (1) the relationship between use and registration; (2) the five quotes, test for confusion; (3) the necessity to consider each mark separately; (4) the approach to testing for resemblance; (5) the necessity to consider the Protocol, proposed use trade-mark according to five its terms, rather than by its actual use; (6) the requirement to theory assess the unregistered marks according to their actual use; and. (7) the resemblance between the trade-marks in issue. While these issues are relevant in this case, they are not intended to slaughter house five quotes be an exhaustive list of all considerations that are relevant in assessing resemblance. (1) The Relationship Between Use and Registration.

[35] At the outset, it is important to recall the relationship between use and registration of Slowing By Psychological Stress a trade-mark. Registration itself does not confer priority of title to a trade-mark. At common law, it was use of a trade-mark that conferred the slaughter quotes, exclusive right to the trade-mark. While the Trade-marks Act provides additional rights to a registered trade-mark holder than were available at common law, registration is only available once the right to the trade-mark has been established by Essay Family Has Changed in Britain use. As explained by Ritchie C.J. in Partlo v. Todd (1888), 17 S.C.R. Slaughter Five! 196, at p. 200:

It is not the registration that makes the party proprietor of a trade-mark; he must be proprietor before he can register . . . Family Has Changed! . [36] That principle established under Canadas early trade-mark legislation continues under the present Act . Rights arising from use have been incorporated into the Act by granting rights to the first user of quotes a trade-mark in two ways. First, under s. 16 , a party normally gains a priority right to Stress Essay register a trade-mark when it first uses that trade-mark. Second, a user is also able to oppose applications or apply to expunge registrations based on its earlier use of a confusing trade-mark. This explains why an unregistered trade-mark of Masterpiece Inc. Five Quotes! can be the on How Life, basis of a challenge to Alavidas subsequent registration application. Section 16(3) of the Act recognizes the right of a prior user against any application for registration based upon subsequent use. Section 17(1) preserves that right, subject to certain limitations that are of no relevance here, where the trade-mark has been registered. [37] It should also be explained why Alavidas application for a proposed trade-mark on December 1, 2005, would preclude Masterpiece Inc.s subsequent trade-mark applications based on actual use. As noted above, at common law, trade-mark protection only arose from actual use. However, under the slaughter house, current Trade-marks Act , the opportunity was created for an applicant to claim priority as of the date the applicant files for a proposed but yet unused trade-mark.

Registration will, however, not occur unless the applicant subsequently provides a declaration demonstrating that the proposed trade-mark was actually used within the time specified in s. 40(2) of the Act . [38] In this case, Alavida did provide such a declaration, with the result that its priority claim as of December 1, 2005, the date it filed its registration application, precluded Masterpiece Inc. from obtaining registration of Masterpiece Living, the exact same trade-mark as Alavida, by Essay on Protocol a subsequent application based on slaughter house use after December 1, 2005. Instead, it would have had to oppose Alavidas application or would have to apply to expunge Alavidas trade-mark registration on carandiru movie the grounds of likelihood of confusion between Alavidas trade-mark and its trade-marks or trade-name that had been in use before December 1, 2005. Because Masterpiece Inc. did not oppose Alavidas application, which was granted, the only remedy open to house five quotes Masterpiece Inc. was to apply to have Alavidas mark expunged. Neo Malthusian Theory! If successful, this remedy would allow Masterpiece Inc.s application for registration of its own trade-marks to be considered on its merits by the Registrar of Trade-marks. (2) The Test for quotes Confusion. [39] The question at the centre of this case is whether there was confusion between Alavidas and Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks or trade-name in Essay Kyoto terms of s. 6 of the Act . In my respectful opinion, the learned trial judge erred in slaughter five law when conducting the confusion analysis, and thereby erred in his conclusion that Masterpiece Inc. had not established confusion between its trade-name and mid term break poem, trade-marks and Alavidas now registered trade-mark. [40] At the slaughter house, outset of this confusion analysis, it is useful to bear in Essay Life Has Changed mind the test for confusion under the Trade-marks Act . In Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin v. Boutiques Cliquot Ltee , 2006 SCC 23, [2006] 1 S.C.R. Five Quotes! 824, Binnie J. restated the traditional approach, at para. 20, in the following words:

The test to By Psychological be applied is house, a matter of first impression in the mind of a casual consumer somewhat in a hurry who sees the [mark], at a time when he or she has no more than an carandiru movie imperfect recollection of the [prior] trade-marks, and does not pause to give the matter any detailed consideration or scrutiny, nor to examine closely the similarities and differences between the marks. Binnie J. referred with approval to the words of Pigeon J. in Benson Hedges (Canada) Ltd. v. St. Regis Tobacco Corp. , [1969] S.C.R. Slaughter House Quotes! 192, at p. Carandiru Movie! 202, to contrast with what is not to be done a careful examination of competing marks or a side by slaughter side comparison. [41] In this case, the Essay Life Has Changed, question is whether, as a matter of first impression, the casual consumer somewhat in a hurry who sees the slaughter house quotes, Alavida trade-mark, when that consumer has no more than an Essay on Kyoto imperfect recollection of any one of the Masterpiece Inc. trade-marks or trade-name, would be likely to be confused; that is, that this consumer would be likely to think that Alavida was the same source of retirement residence services as Masterpiece Inc. (3) The Necessity to Consider Each Mark Separately. [42] As noted above, the basis for Masterpiece Inc.s claim under s. 16(3) of the Act is that the trade-mark for slaughter five which Alavida applied was confusing with any trade-mark or the trade-name it had used prior to December 1, 2005.

[43] Under s. Carandiru Movie! 16(3), even one confusingly similar trade-mark or trade-name will invalidate Alavidas registration. In pleading several potentially confusingly similar trade-marks and slaughter five quotes, trade-names, Masterpiece Inc. Mid Term Poem! presented several distinct bases for an invalidation of Alavidas registration. [44] Section 6(5) of the Act sets out the required approach to a confusion analysis. All surrounding circumstances must be considered including: ( a ) the inherent distinctiveness of the trade-marks or trade-names and the extent to which they have become known; ( b ) the length of time the trade-marks or trade-names have been in use; ( c ) the nature of the wares, services or business; ( d ) the nature of the trade; and. ( e ) the degree of resemblance between the trade-marks or trade-names in appearance or sound or in slaughter five the ideas suggested by them. [45] Some of the s. 6(5) factors that guide the Essay on How Family Life Has Changed, confusion analysis will be the same for each of the house five quotes, trade-marks and trade-name in this case. Protocol! For example, all of the evidence suggests that Masterpiece Inc. only engaged in the retirement residence industry and used all of its marks in relation to that industry.

In others, each mark will have to be considered separately. For example, because the Masterpiece Inc. House Five Quotes! trade-marks are different in content from one another, and are different from the trade-name, it will be necessary to consider the similarity of Alavidas proposed trade-mark, Masterpiece Living, to each of the trade-marks and trade-name for which Masterpiece Inc. has established use. [46] The trial judge found that Masterpiece Inc. demonstrated that it had used the trade-name Masterpiece and the trade-marks Masterpiece the Art of Retirement Living and Masterpiece the Art of Living. Alavidas application for machiavelli summary registration was for the trade-mark Masterpiece Living. Slaughter Five! It was therefore necessary to machiavelli summary compare Alavidas Masterpiece Living with each of Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks and trade-name separately. [47] However, instead of slaughter house quotes undertaking a separate resemblance analysis comparing each of carandiru movie Masterpiece Inc.s marks and slaughter house five, trade-name with Alavidas mark, the trial judge undertook a single composite analysis. He only Essay Kyoto Protocol, considered the issue of resemblance between Masterpiece Living and house five quotes, all of Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks and trade-name generally. At para. 46, he stated: There is obviously a degree of resemblance as between Masterpiece Inc.s trade-name and marks and Alavidas registered mark for Masterpiece Living. However, as part of the overall circumstances, I note that Alavidas use of Family Life Has Changed in Britain Masterpiece Living has been in slaughter house the nature of a slogan accompanying its corporate identity.

By contrast, Masterpiece Inc. uses Masterpiece to identify the company itself, along with various other words and phrases of far lesser prominence, alongside a distinctive butterfly logo. These differences help reduce the likelihood of confusion. Theory! [Emphasis added.] [48] However, under ss. Slaughter House Quotes! 16(3) ( a ) and ( c ) of the Act , Masterpiece Inc. was entitled to assert, and Essay on How Family Has Changed in Britain, have considered, any of the marks or trade-name that it had used prior to December 1, 2005, as a basis to challenge Alavidas application for registration. In my opinion, the trial judge erred in not conducting the separate analysis required by the Act . Some of the expert evidence which treated Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks and slaughter quotes, trade-name as a whole instead of one by one (see, e.g., paras. 21-23 and machiavelli the prince summary, 36), may have contributed to this error. (4) The Approach to Testing for Resemblance. [49] In applying the s. Quotes! 6(5) factors to the question of confusion, the trial judge conducted his analysis in the order of the criteria set forth in s. 6(5) , concluding with a consideration of the resemblance between the marks. While it is no error of law to do so, the degree of resemblance, although the last factor listed in s. 6(5) , is the statutory factor that is the prince summary, often likely to have the greatest effect on the confusion analysis (K. Gill and R. S. Jolliffe, Fox on Canadian Law of Trade-marks and Unfair Competition (4th ed. (loose-leaf)), at slaughter, p. 8-54; R. T. Hughes and T. P. Ashton, Hughes on Trade Marks (2nd ed. Carandiru Movie! (loose-leaf)), at 74, p. 939). As Professor Vaver points out, if the marks or names do not resemble one another, it is unlikely that even a strong finding on the remaining factors would lead to a likelihood of confusion.

The other factors become significant only once the marks are found to be identical or very similar (Vaver, at p. 532). Quotes! As a result, it has been suggested that a consideration of resemblance is where most confusion analyses should start ( ibid. The Prince Summary! ). [50] I will therefore first review the trial judges consideration of the degree of resemblance of the marks. (5) The Necessity to Consider the five quotes, Proposed Use Trade-Mark According to Its Terms, Rather Than by Its Actual Use. [51] In his analysis, the trial judge found that there was obviously a degree of resemblance as between Masterpiece Inc.s trade-name and marks and Alavidas registered mark (para. Machiavelli Summary! 46).

[52] It is slaughter house quotes, clear from the Essay on Kyoto, trial judges reasons that he took into account Alavidas actual use of its mark in comparing the Alavida and Masterpiece Inc. marks. For convenience, I repeat a portion of para. 46 of his reasons: However, as part of the five quotes, overall circumstances, I note that Alavidas use of Masterpiece Living has been in the nature of a slogan accompanying its corporate identity. [53] In my opinion, the trial judges consideration of Alavidas actual use of its mark was problematic. The difficulty is that it takes into account a single form of the trade-mark that Alavida used after the relevant date. This single use did not reflect the entire scope of exclusive rights that were granted to Alavida under its registration. As found by Binnie J. in Mattel , at para. 53:

The appellant argued that the courts below erred in looking at the respondents actual operations rather than at the terms set out in its application for the proposed trade-mark. It is quite true that the proper focus is the terms of the application, because what is at issue is what the registration would authorize the respondent to do, not what the respondent happens to be doing at the moment. [54] Alavidas registration process began on December 1, 2005, with an neo malthusian theory application based on proposed use. At s. House! 30, the Act sets out what must be included in carandiru movie an application for registration. When submitting the application, an applicant is required to provide a formulation of its trade-mark in addition to various other pieces of quotes information. The trade-mark on an application may simply be a word mark, or it may be a design, or it may be a word mark and design (for example, see the mid term, marks in Leaf Confections Ltd. v. Maple Leaf Gardens Ltd . (1986), 12 C.P.R. (3d) 511 (F.C.T.D.), affd (1988), 19 C.P.R. House Quotes! (3d) 331 (F.C.A.)). The application may identify the mark as being used only with particular colours: Trade-marks Regulations , SOR/96-195. An application may also contain disclaimers, or an applicant may be required by the Registrar to include disclaimers, to Essay on limit the scope of trade-mark rights: s. 35 of the Act . [55] In this case, Alavidas registration (TMA 684,557) identifies the trade-mark that Alavida applied for and was subsequently registered the words Masterpiece Living.

This trade-mark is identified only in a textual form. It would therefore permit Alavida to use the words Masterpiece Living in any size and with any style of lettering, color or design. Five! As found by the Federal Court of Appeal in Mr. Submarine Ltd. v. Amandista Investments Ltd. , [1988] 3 F.C. 91: Nothing restricts the appellant from Healing Essay, changing the colour of its signs or the slaughter, style of lettering of Mr. Submarine or from engaging in a telephone and delivery system such as that followed by the respondent or any other suitable system for the sale of its sandwiches.

Were it to make any of neo malthusian these changes its exclusive right to the use of Mr. Submarine would apply just as it applies to its use in the appellants business as presently carried on. Whether the respondents trade marks or trade names are confusing with the appellants registered trade mark must accordingly be considered not only having regard to the appellants present business in the area of the respondents operations but having regard as well to whether confusion would be likely if the house five quotes, appellant were to operate in that area in any way open to it using its trade mark in association with the machiavelli, sandwiches or services sold or provided in the operation. [Emphasis added; pp. 102-3.] [56] When engaging in a confusion analysis, it is important to keep in mind that the exclusive rights granted by the Act refer to a registered trade-mark (ss. 19 , 20 and 21 ). Where a court is called upon to slaughter five quotes decide if there is a likelihood of confusion between that registered trade-mark and any registered or previously used unregistered trade-marks, the break poem, analysis should address the five quotes, proposed trade-mark for which the registration was ultimately obtained. [57] If the trial judge had recognized that it was open to Alavida to use its trade-mark in break any way within the scope of its registration, he would have had to conclude that the actual use by Alavida did not limit Alavidas rights. Alavida was entitled to house quotes use the words in carandiru movie any form. [58] The problem with an analysis which takes into house, account limited use becomes apparent by observing that the bare words Masterpiece Living could be presented in many ways under the registration. Nothing would prevent Alavida from altering its advertising to highlight the word Masterpiece and give the word Living less prominence, just as Masterpiece Inc. had done, or from changing the font or style of lettering that it had used. [59] For this reason, it was incorrect in law to mid term poem limit consideration to Alavidas post-application use of its trade-mark to find a reduced likelihood of confusion.

Actual use is not irrelevant, but it should not be considered to house five quotes the exclusion of potential uses within the registration. Essay On! For example, a subsequent use that is within the scope of a registration, and house, is the same or very similar to on How Life in Britain an existing mark will show how that registered mark may be used in house five a way that is confusing with an Slowing By Psychological Stress Essay existing mark. (6) The Requirement to Assess the Unregistered Marks According to Their Actual Use. [60] As for Masterpiece Inc., because its trade-marks were unregistered on December 1, 2005, it may only slaughter five quotes, rely on Kyoto Protocol those trade-marks that it had actually used and the trade-name under which it had been carrying on slaughter house business, and which had not been abandoned up to that date (see s. 17(1)). There is no suggestion of abandonment in this case (transcript, at p. 17, lines 8-12). (7) The Resemblance Between the Trade-Marks in Issue. [61] In a case such as this, comparison can be approached by considering only those characteristics that define the relevant trade-marks or trade-name. Essay On How In Britain! It is slaughter five quotes, only these elements that will allow consumers to distinguish between the two trade-marks or between the mid term break, trade-mark and the trade-name. Here, because Alavidas proposed trade-mark is only the words Masterpiece Living, the difference between or similarity with each of Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks and trade-name must be assessed only on the basis of these words alone. In my opinion, Alavidas Masterpiece Living is closest to Masterpiece Inc.s Masterpiece the Art of Living.

I think that comparing this Masterpiece Inc. trade-mark with the Alavida trade-mark is slaughter house five, decisive. If Alavidas mark is not likely to cause confusion with this Masterpiece Inc. mark, it is unnecessary to consider the other Masterpiece Inc. marks and trade-name which are less similar to the Alavida trade-mark. Conversely, if Alavidas trade-mark is found to be likely to cause confusion with this Masterpiece Inc. mark, it is unnecessary to test resemblance of its trade-mark with other Masterpiece Inc. trade-marks or its trade-name, although they may be relevant as part of the surrounding circumstances when likely confusion with the Masterpiece the Art of Living trade-mark is considered. [62] Resemblance is defined as the Essay on How Has Changed in Britain, quality of being either like or similar; see Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (5th ed. 2002), at slaughter house five, p. 2544, under the definition of resemblance. The term degree of resemblance in s. Healing Stress Essay! 6(5) ( e ) of the quotes, Act implies that likelihood of confusion does not arise solely from identical trade-marks. [D]egree of resemblance recognizes that marks with some differences may still result in likely confusion. [63] The first word in both Alavidas and Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks is the identical word Masterpiece. It has been held that for mid term purposes of distinctiveness, the first word is important (see Conde Nast Publications Inc. Five Quotes! v. Union des editions modernes (1979), 46 C.P.R. (2d) 183 (F.C.T.D.), at p. Life In Britain! 188, per Cattanach J.). [64] While the first word may, for purposes of slaughter quotes distinctiveness, be the most important in some cases, I think a preferable approach is to first consider whether there is an aspect of the trade-mark that is particularly striking or unique.

Here there is Essay Family Life Has Changed, nothing striking or unique about the word Living or the words the Art of Living. Masterpiece is the word that distinguishes Alavida and Masterpiece Inc. from other sources of retirement residence services. It is a reasonable conclusion that Masterpiece is the dominant word in these trade-marks, and it is obviously identical as between Alavida and Masterpiece Inc. By the same token, in the context of the retirement residence industry, the idea evoked by the word Masterpiece, high quality retirement lifestyle, is the same for both Alavida and Masterpiece Inc. Finally, the word Living is identical as between the Alavida and Masterpiece Inc. trade-marks. [65] Given these striking similarities, it is, in my respectful view, very difficult not to find a strong resemblance as a whole between the two, Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks and Alavidas trade-mark. C. When Considering the Nature of the Trade Under Section 6(5) of the Act , What Effect Does the house quotes, Nature and Cost of the machiavelli the prince summary, Wares or Services Have on the Confusion Analysis?

[66] A further difficulty is the trial judges consideration of the cost associated with a retirement residence. He found that consumers in the market for a retirement residence will take more care and ultimately will be less likely to be led astray by confusing trade-marks than if they were in the market for less expensive wares or services. In taking into account both the slaughter house five quotes, nature of the parties business under s. 6(5)( c ) and the nature of the trade under s. Mid Term! 6(5)( d ), the trial judge wrote: Turning to the nature of the business, both companies operate in the area of expensive retirement residences and services. People take considerable care in choosing a residence and selecting the company that will provide it. In these circumstances, consumers can be presumed to be less susceptible to confusion about the source of the goods or services they are seeking because they are unlikely to make choices based on first impressions. They will generally take considerable time to inform themselves about the source of expensive goods and services ( General Motors Corp. v. Bellows , [1949] S.C.R. 678). [Emphasis added; para. 43.] [67] This Court has affirmed that consumers in the market for expensive goods may be less likely to slaughter house five be confused when they encounter a trade-mark, but the test is Life Has Changed in Britain, still one of first impression.

In his reasons, the trial judge used the importance and cost of house expensive goods and services to Essay change the likelihood of confusion test from one of first impression of a trade-mark to a test of consumers being unlikely to slaughter five quotes make choices based on first impressions. This approach is not consistent with the test for confusion under s. 6(5) which has been consistently endorsed by this Court, most recently in Veuve Clicquot . [68] While the hypothetical test for likelihood of confusion must be applied in carandiru movie all situations, it is flexible enough to reflect the observation of Binnie J. in Mattel , at para. 58: When buying a car or a refrigerator, more care will naturally be taken than when buying a doll or a mid-priced meal . . . . [69] However, as one element of the broader hypothetical test, this care or attention must relate to the attitude of the consumer approaching an important or costly purchase when he or she encounters the trade-mark, not to the research or inquiries or care that may subsequently be taken. As Rand J. put it in General Motors Corp. v. Bellows , [1949] S.C.R. 678, at p. House Five! 692:

Do the Family Life, words then in that situation [refrigerators] lend themselves to house the errors of faint impression or recollection of the average person who goes to neo malthusian their market ? [Emphasis added.] [70] The focus of this question is the attitude of a consumer in the marketplace. Properly framed, consideration of the nature of the house, wares, services or business should take into account that there may be a lesser likelihood of trade-mark confusion where consumers are in Essay Family Has Changed the market for expensive or important wares or services. The reduced likelihood of quotes confusion is still premised on Essay Kyoto Protocol the first impression of consumers when they encounter the marks in question. Where they are shopping for expensive wares or services, a consumer, while still having an imperfect recollection of a prior trade-mark, is likely to be somewhat more alert and aware of the trade-mark associated with the wares or services they are examining and house quotes, its similarity or difference with that of the prior trade-mark. A trade-mark, as Binnie J. observed in Mattel , is a shortcut for consumers. That observation applies whether they are shopping for more or less expensive wares or services. [71] It is not relevant that, as the trial judge found, consumers are unlikely to make choices based on first impressions or that they will generally take considerable time to inform themselves about the source of expensive goods and services (para. On How Life Has Changed! 43). Slaughter Five Quotes! Both of machiavelli summary these subsequent research or consequent purchase occur after the consumer encounters a mark in slaughter house quotes the marketplace.

[72] This distinction is important because even with this increased attentiveness, it may still be likely that a consumer shopping for expensive goods and Protocol, services will be confused by the trade-marks they encounter. Careful research and quotes, deliberation may dispel any trade-mark confusion that may have arisen. However, that cannot mean that consumers of expensive goods, through their own caution and wariness, should lose the benefit of Essay Life Has Changed trade-mark protection. Slaughter Quotes! It is confusion when they encounter the trade-marks that is relevant. Careful research which may later remedy confusion does not mean that no confusion ever existed or that it will not continue to exist in the minds of neo malthusian consumers who did not carry out that research. [73] Indeed, before source confusion is remedied, it may lead a consumer to seek out, consider or purchase the wares or services from a source they previously had no awareness of slaughter house five quotes or interest in. Such diversion diminishes the carandiru movie, value of the goodwill associated with the trade-mark and business the consumer initially thought he or she was encountering in seeing the trade-mark. Quotes! Leading consumers astray in this way is one of the the prince, evils that trade-mark law seeks to remedy. Five! Consumers of expensive wares or services and owners of the associated trade-marks are entitled to trade-mark guidance and protection as much as those acquiring and selling inexpensive wares or services. [74] For these reasons, it was an error to By Psychological Stress Essay discount the likelihood of confusion by considering what actions the consumer might take after encountering a mark in house quotes the marketplace.

The trial judge should have instead limited his consideration to how a consumer, upon encountering the Alavida mark in machiavelli the prince the marketplace, with an imperfect recollection of the Masterpiece Inc. mark, would have reacted. Because consumers for expensive retirement residence accommodation may be expected to pay somewhat more attention when first encountering a trade-mark than consumers of less expensive wares or services, cost is not irrelevant. However, in circumstances where a strong resemblance suggests a likelihood of confusion, and the other s. 6(5) factors do not point strongly against a likelihood of confusion, then the cost is unlikely to lead to five a different conclusion. D. When Should Courts Take Into Account Expert Evidence in Trade-Mark Confusion Cases? (1) The Judges Role in Controlling the Admission of Expert Evidence. [75] Tendering expert evidence in trade-mark cases is no different than tendering expert evidence in other contexts. This Court in R. v. Mohan , [1994] 2 S.C.R. 9, set out four requirements to be met before expert evidence is Essay Kyoto Protocol, accepted in a trial: (a) relevance; (b) necessity in slaughter quotes assisting the trier of fact; (c) the absence of mid term break any exclusionary rule; and house quotes, (d) a properly qualified expert.

In considering the standard for the second of these requirements, necessity, the Court explained that an expert should not be permitted to carandiru movie testify if their testimony is not likely to be outside the experience and house five quotes, knowledge of a judge: This pre-condition is often expressed in terms as to whether the evidence would be helpful to the trier of fact. The word helpful is not quite appropriate and sets too low a standard. However, I would not judge necessity by too strict a standard. What is required is that the opinion be necessary in the sense that it provide information which is likely to be outside the experience and knowledge of a judge or jury: as quoted by Dickson J. in R. Poem! v. Abbey , supra . As stated by house quotes Dickson J., the evidence must be necessary to enable the trier of fact to appreciate the matters in issue due to their technical nature. [p.

23] [76] In light of the the Wound Healing By Psychological Stress, relatively extensive expert evidence in this case, and the difficulties with the evidence that I discuss below, I think it is timely to recall that litigation is costly. Courts must fulfil their gatekeeper role to ensure that unnecessary, irrelevant and potentially distracting expert and survey evidence is not allowed to extend and complicate court proceedings. While this observation applies generally, I focus particularly on trade-mark confusion cases, which is the house five, subject of this appeal. [77] If a trial judge concludes that proposed expert evidence is theory, unnecessary or irrelevant or will distract from the issues to be decided, he or she should disallow such evidence from house, being introduced. I will also suggest that proposed expert and survey evidence be a matter for consideration at neo malthusian, the case management stage of proceedings so that if such evidence would not be admissible at trial, much of the cost of engaging experts and conducting surveys may be avoided. To explain my reasons, I turn to the expert evidence in this case.

(2) The Expert Evidence in This Case Did Not Assist With the Confusion Analysis. [78] A significant part of the trial judgment, and argument in this Court, was dedicated to the expert evidence submitted by house the parties. This evidence took two forms: expert testimony adduced by theory Alavida on how a consumer is likely to react when presented with the trade-marks, and a survey conducted by an expert for Masterpiece Inc. Slaughter Five Quotes! which was heavily critiqued by an expert for Alavida. [79] It is apparent that the mid term poem, expert evidence on either side was not particularly helpful. House Quotes! Significant portions of the evidence were contradictory and acrimonious. Machiavelli The Prince! In the result, these disputes appear to have substantially distracted from the confusion analysis rather than assisting it. [80] The first problem was that much of the expert testimony did not meet the house, second Mohan requirement of being necessary. In a case such as this, where the casual consumer is not expected to be particularly skilled or knowledgeable, and there is a resemblance between the Family Has Changed, marks, expert evidence which simply assesses that resemblance will not generally be necessary.

And it will be positively unhelpful if the expert engages in house five an analysis that distracts from the break poem, hypothetical question of likelihood of confusion at the centre of the analysis. [81] The evidence of one of Alavidas experts consisted in part of a discussion of morphology, semantics, rules of grammar and conventions of expression. This led him to conclude that in the case of Alavidas Masterpiece Living trade-mark, the focus of the mark is on slaughter house quotes life and living, where living is the dominant element. On the other hand, in Kyoto Protocol the case of Masterpiece Inc.s Masterpiece the Art of Living, his view was that Masterpiece is the house quotes, focal point which he thought reduced the likelihood of confusion. [82] I have considerable difficulty understanding how this expert reached these conclusions on the basis of his analysis. If a conclusion is rational, an expert must be able to explain the reasons for it. This is especially so where the opposite conclusion seems intuitively more likely. No such explanation was provided. The distinctive word is Masterpiece in both cases, not Living. Masterpiece is the first word in each trade-mark. Life Has Changed In Britain! The word Living appears in both the Masterpiece Inc. and Alavida trade-marks.

The idea of the trade-marks is the quotes, same. As discussed above, in this case, it is apparent that in the retirement residence industry, Alavidas Masterpiece Living closely resembles Masterpiece Inc.s Masterpiece the Art of Living. [83] Neither an expert, nor a court, should tease out and neo malthusian, analyze each portion of a mark alone. Rather, it should consider the mark as it is encountered by slaughter five quotes the consumer as a whole, and as a matter of first impression. In Ultravite Laboratories Ltd. v. Whitehall Laboratories Ltd. , [1965] S.C.R. 734, Spence J., in deciding whether the words DANDRESS and RESDAN for removal of dandruff were confusing, succinctly made the point, at pp. 737-38: [T]he test to be applied is with the average person who goes into the market and mid term break, not one skilled in semantics. [84] However, considering a trade-mark as a whole does not mean that a dominant component in a mark which would affect the overall impression of an average consumer should be ignored: see esure Insurance Ltd. v. Direct Line Insurance plc , 2008 EWCA Civ 842, [2008] R.P.C. 34, at para.

45, per Arden L.J. Slaughter House Five! This is because, while the consumer looks at the mark as a whole, some aspect of the on Protocol, mark may be particularly striking. That will be because that aspect is the most distinctive part of the five quotes, whole trade-mark. In this case, contrary to the view of the expert, the most distinctive and Essay, dominant component of the marks in slaughter house five issue is in all cases the word Masterpiece because it provides the content and punch of the trade-mark. The word Living is bland by comparison.

[85] Another difficulty with this expert evidence is that it compared Masterpiece Inc.s marks with Alavidas trade-mark in the format and font in which it was used by Alavida subsequent to December 1, 2005. The expert did not, as was necessary in this case, consider any other presentation available to carandiru movie Alavida in accordance with its trade-mark registration. For example, as discussed above, nothing would preclude Alavida from using the same format and font as Masterpiece Inc. and giving prominence to the word Masterpiece in house quotes the same manner as Masterpiece Inc. This may have been what led the trial judge into the same error in concluding that the subsequent use by Alavida of its trade-mark was sufficiently different from Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks and trade-name that it would reduce the likelihood of confusion. [86] Another problematic example in the expert evidence relates to theory the experts reference to the cost and importance of the goods or services in question. The expert expresses the opinion: As decision extend[s] from the shallow to the grave end of the decision spectrum, consumers exert a higher degree of consumer care and attention, increase their efforts to acquire information, engage in elaborate product search behaviours, and judge competing offers with elevated levels of slaughter house five quotes scrutiny. Most importantly, as the degree of care exercised increases, the likelihood of confusion decreases. Neo Malthusian! [A.R., vol.

II, at p. 75] [87] It is apparent that the expert was focusing on points in time after the consumer first encountered the trade-mark. As I have explained, subsequent research and care may unconfuse the consumer, but they do not detract from the confusion relevant for purposes of the Trade-marks Act that occurred when the consumer first encountered the trade-mark. The expert made assumptions of law that were wrong, and his conclusions were therefore wrong. House! This may have diverted the trial judge from the correct legal test to apply when judging confusion. [88] In view of these and other difficulties with the expert evidence in this case, I think it may be useful to comment generally on the use of expert evidence in a confusion case. In doing so, I have found guidance in the observations of Lord Diplock in General Electric Co. v. The General Electric Co. Ltd. , [1972] 2 All E.R. 507 (H.L.). He distinguished between goods sold in a specialized market of sophisticated consumers engaged in a particular trade, e.g., large industrial electrical machinery, on the one hand, and those sold to the general public, on the other. Where the market is specialized, evidence about the special knowledge or sophistication of the targeted consumers may be essential to determining when confusion would be likely to arise.

However, where goods are sold to the general public for ordinary use, he explained, at break, p. Slaughter Five Quotes! 515: . . Essay On How Family Life Has Changed! . the slaughter five quotes, question whether such buyers would be likely to be deceived or confused by the use of the trade mark is a jury question. By that I mean that if the issue had now, as formerly, to be tried by a jury, who as members of the general public would themselves be potential buyers of the Slowing Healing, goods, they would be required not only to consider any evidence of other members of the public which had been adduced but also to use their own common sense and to consider whether they would themselves be likely to slaughter house quotes be deceived or confused. [89] The question is not answered differently when the issue is determined by a judge. Lord Diplock wrote, continuing at p. 515: The judges approach to the question should be the same as that of Essay on Kyoto a jury. He, too, would be a potential buyer of the slaughter house, goods. He should, of course, be alert to the danger of allowing his own idiosyncratic knowledge or temperament to influence his decision, but the whole of his training in the practice of the law should have accustomed him to this, and this should provide the safety which in the case of the prince a jury is provided by their number. That in issues of this kind judges are entitled to give effect to their own opinions as to the likelihood of deception or confusion and, in house quotes doing so, are not confined to the evidence of Essay on How Family Life in Britain witnesses called at the trial is well established by decisions of this House itself. [Emphasis added.] [90] In esure , the same concern and caution was expressed about expert evidence of confusion. At para.

62, Arden L.J. stated: Firstly, given that the critical issue of confusion of five quotes any kind is to be assessed from the viewpoint of the average consumer, it is difficult to carandiru movie see what is gained from the evidence of an slaughter house five expert as to his own opinion where the tribunal is in a position to theory form its own view. That is not to say that there may not be a role for an expert where the markets in question are ones with which judges are unfamiliar . . . . [91] In Ultravite , Spence J. was quite satisfied to express and apply his own view of the first impression of a trade-mark on the average consumer. At p. 738, he stated: In expressing my view, I am putting myself in the position of the slaughter house quotes, average person going into the market to purchase a dandruff remover and hair tonic.

[92] I would endorse these comments about expert evidence and follow the approach of Spence J. in Ultravite, the on How Family Life in Britain, House of Lords in General Electric and the English Court of Appeal in esure . In cases of five quotes wares or services being marketed to the general public, such as retirement residences, judges should consider the marks at issue, each as a whole, but having regard to the dominant or most striking or unique feature of the trade-mark. They should use their own common sense, excluding influences of their own idiosyncratic knowledge or temperament to determine whether the casual consumer would be likely to be confused. [93] Surveys, on the other hand, have the potential to provide empirical evidence which demonstrates consumer reactions in the marketplace exactly the question that the the Wound Essay, trial judge is addressing in five a confusion case. This evidence is not something which would be generally known to a trial judge, and thus unlike some other expert evidence, it would not run afoul of the second Mohan requirement that the evidence be necessary. However, the on How in Britain, use of survey evidence should still be applied with caution. [94] The use of slaughter consumer surveys in trade-mark cases has been recognized as valid evidence to inform the Family in Britain, confusion analysis. As Binnie J. noted in house Mattel , often the Essay Protocol, difficulty with survey evidence is whether it meets the first of the Mohan requirements: relevance.

At para. 45, he further divided the question of relevance into two sub-issues: As to five the usefulness of the results, assuming they are elicited by a relevant question, courts have more recently been receptive to such evidence, provided the survey is both reliable (in the sense that if the survey were repeated it would likely produce the neo malthusian, same results) and valid (in the house, sense that the Essay Family in Britain, right questions have been put to the right pool of respondents in the right way, in the right circumstances to provide the information sought). [Emphasis added.] [95] In Mattel , the five, survey at issue was found to machiavelli the prince summary be invalid, as it did not address the likelihood of confusion, only a mere possibility, rather than a probability, of confusion (para. 49). This was because the survey asked consumers whether they thought that the company that makes Barbie dolls might have anything to do with a restaurant that used the slaughter quotes, trade-mark Barbies (para. 1 (emphasis in original)). [96] In this case, the problem is somewhat different. Unlike Mattel, Masterpiece Inc. had not yet established a presence in the community in which it operated. Thus, there were no casual or average consumers with imperfect recollection of Masterpiece Inc.s marks to test.

As a result, the survey was based on a series of questions that attempted to establish a proxy for imperfect recollection, and Slowing the Wound, only thereafter test how such customers would react when exposed to the second mark. This is not asking questions in the right way, in the right circumstances to elicit evidence of how those with an imperfect recollection of Masterpiece Inc.s marks would react to house quotes Alavidas proposed mark. For a survey to be valid, it seems elementary that there must be some consumers who could have an imperfect recollection of the first mark. Simulating an imperfect recollection through a series of lead-up questions to consumers will rarely be seen as reliable and valid. [97] While I would not absolutely foreclose the possibility that a party may devise a valid survey in a case where a trade-mark user has not established a sufficient presence in the marketplace for the Wound Healing By Psychological Stress Essay consumers to have formed an imperfect recollection of its trade-mark, I would venture that it is slaughter, highly unlikely that such a survey would meet the requirements of reliability and mid term break poem, validity.

[98] I do not know the exact circumstances in slaughter house quotes which the expert evidence was introduced in this case or what was requested of the trial judge, and there is neo malthusian theory, no suggestion that the trial judge erred in admitting it. Nonetheless, I think it is apparent, particularly with respect to the survey, that the evidence was of little assistance to the trial judge and house, indeed distracted from the required confusion analysis. [99] Where parties propose to introduce expert evidence, a trial judge should question the necessity and relevance of the break poem, evidence having regard to the Mohan criteria before admitting it. As I have already pointed out, if a trial judge concludes that the expert evidence is unnecessary or will distract from the issues to be decided, he or she should disallow such evidence from house five quotes, being introduced. [100] I would further suggest that it would be salutary to have a case management judge assess the carandiru movie, admissibility and usefulness of five proposed expert and theory, survey evidence at an early stage so as to avoid large expenditures of resources on slaughter house evidence of little utility. [101] As I have said, I do not know the machiavelli summary, exact pre-trial procedures in this case or whether the Federal Court generally includes the scope and methodology of proposed surveys within the case management process in trade-mark confusion cases. However, in making this recommendation I have had regard to a similar recommendation made by Arden L.J., at para.

63 of esure , where she observed that surveys can be costly and sometimes based on slaughter house five wrong questions and produce irrelevant or unhelpful responses, precisely the difficulty with the survey in Essay on How Family Has Changed this case. I have had regard to her recommendation for case management direction on proposed surveys in making the recommendation outlined above. As she explained, at para. 64: My object of referring to this developing practice [case management directions] is to slaughter house five give it wider publicity and to encourage practitioners in this field to use this mechanism, so that any waste of neo malthusian costs and court resources is slaughter house five, minimised.

My object is the same. VII. The Confusion Analysis. [102] The determination of whether a likelihood of source confusion exists is a fact-finding and inference-drawing exercise, and thus, appellate courts should generally defer to the trial judges fact findings and inferences, unless the facts and inferences were based on an error of law or constituted a palpable or overriding error of fact: Housen v. Nikolaisen , 2002 SCC 33, [2002] 2 S.C.R. Mid Term Poem! 235. [103] In this case, three errors of law have been identified in the interpretation and application of the confusion analysis conducted by the trial judge. House Five Quotes! It is now necessary to consider whether the matter should be remitted to the trial judge for redetermination in accordance with these reasons, or whether this Court should make a fresh assessment of the evidence. In Hollis v. Machiavelli The Prince! Dow Corning Corp. , [1995] 4 S.C.R.

634, at para. Slaughter Five Quotes! 33, this Court found: It is well established that appellate courts have the jurisdiction to make a fresh assessment of the evidence on the record where they deem such an assessment to Essay Kyoto be in the interests of justice and five quotes, feasible on neo malthusian a practical level . . . Slaughter House Five! . In Hollis , the bulk of the critical evidence adduced at trial was documentary, not testimonial which made the reassessment feasible. Here, this Court has a similarly complete record on which to make a redetermination, having concluded that the expert evidence was of little or no use to the issue of the Wound Healing By Psychological Stress confusion. In order to avoid further protracting the proceedings between these parties, I believe that the interests of justice would be served by this Court finally deciding the matter. [104] Without repeating the findings above, there is no doubt that there is a strong resemblance between Masterpiece Inc.s trade-mark, Masterpiece the Art of Living and slaughter house five, Alavidas trade-mark, Masterpiece Living.

In my opinion, a casual consumer observing the Alavida trade-mark and having no more than an imperfect recollection of Masterpiece Inc.s trade-mark would likely be confused into thinking that the source of the services associated with the Essay Life Has Changed in Britain, Alavida trade-mark was one and quotes, the same as the source of the services associated with the Masterpiece Inc. trade-mark. The question now is whether any of the other circumstances reduce this likelihood of confusion to carandiru movie the point that confusion is not likely to occur. [105] As to the cost and importance of retirement residence services, such considerations are relevant. However, in view of the close resemblance between the marks, even a consumer in the market for relatively expensive retirement residence accommodation would not likely recognize that Alavidas Masterpiece Living signified a different source than Masterpiece Inc.s Masterpiece the Art of Living. The ideas conveyed by house five both companies marks are the same. Looking at Essay on How in Britain, the marks as a whole and the dominant word Masterpiece in particular, there is little to dispel the consumer from thinking that the slaughter house five quotes, source of the marks was the same.

[106] As to the nature of the wares, services or businesses, Alavida has argued that the services it sought to provide were up-market while Masterpiece Inc. only neo malthusian, provided middle-market services. This parsing of the services is too narrow. Alavidas registration provides: Real estate development services, real estate management services, residential building construction services, dining services namely a dining room restaurant, housekeeping services, medical services namely medical clinic services, spa services, fitness services namely a fitness centre and concierge services. [R.R., vol. I, at house five, p. 210] [107] Nothing in this registration limits Alavida to the up-market.

Its registration would entitle it to use its trade-mark in the exact same market as that serviced by Masterpiece Inc. The Wound Healing By Psychological Essay! For the five, purpose of a confusion analysis, the services provided by the parties are essentially the same retirement residence services. There is no justification for subdividing between up-market and middle-market. Consideration of the nature of the services involved, in my view, enhances the on, likelihood of confusion for the casual consumer. [108] The trial judge found that while the term Masterpiece is a common word with wide use in describing goods and five quotes, services, its use in the retirement residence industry is somewhat distinctive in the sense that it is intended to distinguish the retirement residence services provided by its owner from the mid term break, retirement residence services provided by others. I agree with that finding. [109] As for acquired distinctiveness, the trial judge found that at the time the application was made, neither Masterpiece Inc. nor any of its trade-marks were particularly well known. While the evidence presented by Masterpiece Inc. was sufficient to establish that there had been use of its trade-name and trade-marks, including Masterpiece the quotes, Art of Living, for the purposes of the Act , it did not rise to the level of demonstrating any acquired distinctiveness. I agree with the trial judge. [110] Finally, there is another potentially relevant surrounding circumstance.

As explained at para. 11 above, not long after Alavidas application, Masterpiece Inc. applied to register both Masterpiece as well as Masterpiece Living for retirement residence services. These applications were rejected by the Registrar of Trade-Marks because of Alavidas existing application. [111] This refusal was founded on the observation that each of these marks submitted by Masterpiece Inc. was confusingly similar to Essay Family in Britain Alavidas proposed registration. Five Quotes! For purposes of the confusion analysis in this case, Masterpiece Inc.s application to register the mark Masterpiece Living is irrelevant since it had not used that precise word formula prior to December 1, 2005, when Alavida filed its application. However, the word Masterpiece had been the trade-name under which Masterpiece Inc. had carried on neo malthusian theory business prior to that date, and it was the dominant part of the Masterpiece the Art of Living trade-mark. [112] Despite the five, fact that the trial judge noted the rejection of Masterpiece Inc.s applications at Slowing Healing Essay, the outset of his reasons, there is no indication that this evidence was taken into account in his confusion analysis. It is true that the trial judge was not conducting an appeal or judicial review of the reasonableness of the decision of the Registrar, owed no deference to the Registrars decision and was certainly not bound by it.

However, as a relevant surrounding circumstance under s. 6(5), I am of the opinion that the trial judge should have acknowledged the slaughter house, Registrars finding, which was diametrically opposite to his conclusion, in weighing the evidence before him. The Registrars decision supports a finding of likelihood of confusion between Alavidas trade-mark and Masterpiece Inc.s trade-name, and thus the Masterpiece the Art of Living trade-mark. [113] Consideration of all the circumstances of the case, including the Essay on How Family in Britain, factors set out in s. 6(5) of the Trade-marks Act and particularly that Alavidas trade-mark Masterpiece Living and Masterpiece Inc.s Masterpiece the Art of Living are very similar, leads to a finding that Masterpiece Inc. has proven that the use of Alavidas trade-mark in the same area as those of Masterpiece Inc.s would be likely to lead to the inference that the five, services associated with Masterpiece Inc.s trade-marks were being performed by Alavida. [114] Because Masterpiece Inc.s use preceded Alavidas proposed use, Alavida was not entitled under s. Carandiru Movie! 16(3) to registration of its trade-mark. As a result, Alavida was not the person entitled to secure the registration of its trade-mark under s. 18(1) and this ground of invalidity has been made out. I would therefore allow the slaughter five quotes, appeal with costs here and below and, pursuant to s. 57(1) of the Trade-marks Act , I would order the Registrar to expunge this registration from the register of trade-marks. confusing , when applied as an adjective to a trade-mark or trade-name, means a trade-mark or trade-name the use of which would cause confusion in carandiru movie the manner and circumstances described in section 6 ; distinctive, in house five relation to a trade-mark, means a trade-mark that actually distinguishes the wares or services in association with which it is used by its owner from the wares or services of others or is adapted so to distinguish them; proposed trade-mark means a mark that is proposed to be used by a person for Essay on Protocol the purpose of distinguishing or so as to distinguish wares or services manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by him from those manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by others; register means the register kept under section 26; registered trade-mark means a trade-mark that is on the register; Registrar means the house five, Registrar of Trade-marks appointed under section 63; ( a ) a mark that is used by a person for the purpose of distinguishing or so as to Essay on How in Britain distinguish wares or services manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by him from those manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by others, ( b ) a certification mark, ( c ) a distinguishing guise, or.

( d ) a proposed trade-mark; trade-name means the name under which any business is carried on, whether or not it is the name of a corporation, a partnership or an slaughter house five quotes individual; use, in neo malthusian relation to five a trade-mark, means any use that by section 4 is deemed to be a use in association with wares or services; 4. (1) A trade-mark is break, deemed to be used in house five quotes association with wares if, at the time of the transfer of the property in or possession of the wares, in the normal course of trade, it is marked on the wares themselves or on the packages in which they are distributed or it is in any other manner so associated with the on, wares that notice of the slaughter five, association is then given to the person to whom the property or possession is transferred. (2) A trade-mark is neo malthusian theory, deemed to be used in association with services if it is slaughter five quotes, used or displayed in the performance or advertising of those services. (3) A trade-mark that is marked in Canada on wares or on the packages in which they are contained is, when the wares are exported from machiavelli the prince, Canada, deemed to be used in Canada in association with those wares. 6. (1) For the purposes of this Act , a trade-mark or trade-name is house quotes, confusing with another trade-mark or trade-name if the use of the first mentioned trade-mark or trade-name would cause confusion with the last mentioned trade-mark or trade-name in carandiru movie the manner and circumstances described in this section. (2) The use of a trade-mark causes confusion with another trade-mark if the use of both trade-marks in slaughter house the same area would be likely to lead to the inference that the wares or services associated with those trade-marks are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the wares or services are of the same general class. (3) The use of a trade-mark causes confusion with a trade-name if the use of Slowing the Wound By Psychological Stress Essay both the trade-mark and trade-name in the same area would be likely to lead to slaughter quotes the inference that the wares or services associated with the trade-mark and those associated with the business carried on under the trade-name are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the wares or services are of the same general class. (4) The use of a trade-name causes confusion with a trade-mark if the use of both the trade-name and trade-mark in the same area would be likely to lead to the inference that the carandiru movie, wares or services associated with the business carried on under the slaughter house five quotes, trade-name and those associated with the trade-mark are manufactured, sold, leased, hired or performed by the same person, whether or not the wares or services are of the same general class. (5) In determining whether trade-marks or trade-names are confusing, the court or the Registrar, as the case may be, shall have regard to all the surrounding circumstances including. ( a ) the inherent distinctiveness of the trade-marks or trade-names and the extent to which they have become known; ( b ) the length of time the trade-marks or trade-names have been in use; ( c ) the nature of the wares, services or business; ( d ) the nature of the trade; and.

( e ) the degree of resemblance between the trade-marks or trade-names in appearance or sound or in the ideas suggested by them. 16. (1) Any applicant who has filed an application in machiavelli accordance with section 30 for registration of five quotes a trade-mark that is registrable and on Kyoto, that he or his predecessor in title has used in Canada or made known in Canada in association with wares or services is entitled, subject to section 38, to secure its registration in respect of those wares or services, unless at the date on slaughter house five which he or his predecessor in title first so used it or made it known it was confusing with. ( a ) a trade-mark that had been previously used in Canada or made known in Essay on Protocol Canada by any other person; ( b ) a trade-mark in respect of slaughter which an application for registration had been previously filed in Canada by any other person; or. ( c ) a trade-name that had been previously used in Canada by any other person. (3) Any applicant who has filed an application in accordance with section 30 for registration of a proposed trade-mark that is registrable is Healing By Psychological Essay, entitled, subject to sections 38 and 40 , to secure its registration in respect of the wares or services specified in the application, unless at the date of slaughter house five filing of the on Kyoto, application it was confusing with. ( a ) a trade-mark that had been previously used in Canada or made known in Canada by any other person; ( b ) a trade-mark in slaughter five quotes respect of which an application for machiavelli summary registration had been previously filed in slaughter five quotes Canada by any other person; or. ( c ) a trade-name that had been previously used in Canada by any other person.

17. (1) No application for registration of a trade-mark that has been advertised in accordance with section 37 shall be refused and Life Has Changed in Britain, no registration of a trade-mark shall be expunged or amended or held invalid on the ground of any previous use or making known of a confusing trade-mark or trade-name by a person other than the applicant for that registration or his predecessor in slaughter house quotes title, except at the instance of that other person or his successor in title, and the burden lies on that other person or his successor to establish that he had not abandoned the confusing trade-mark or trade-name at the date of advertisement of the machiavelli the prince, applicants application. (2) In proceedings commenced after the expiration of five years from the date of registration of a trade-mark or from July 1, 1954, whichever is the later, no registration shall be expunged or amended or held invalid on the ground of the slaughter five quotes, previous use or making known referred to in subsection (1), unless it is established that the person who adopted the registered trade-mark in Canada did so with knowledge of machiavelli summary that previous use or making known. 18. (1) The registration of a trade-mark is invalid if. ( a ) the trade-mark was not registerable at the date of registration, ( b ) the house five quotes, trade-mark is theory, not distinctive at the time proceedings bringing the validity of the registration into question are commenced, or. ( c ) the trade-mark has been abandoned, and subject to section 17 , it is invalid if the applicant for registration was not the person entitled to house secure the registration. (2) No registration of a trade-mark that had been so used in Canada by the registrant or his predecessor in title as to have become distinctive at the date of registration shall be held invalid merely on the ground that evidence of the distinctiveness was not submitted to the competent authority or tribunal before the grant of the registration.

19. Subject to sections 21 , 32 and 67 , the registration of a trade-mark in respect of any wares or services, unless shown to be invalid, gives to the owner of the Essay Kyoto, trade-mark the slaughter house, exclusive right to the use throughout Canada of the trade-mark in Essay Family Life Has Changed respect of those wares or services. 20. (1) The right of the owner of a registered trade-mark to its exclusive use shall be deemed to be infringed by a person not entitled to its use under this Act who sells, distributes or advertises wares or services in association with a confusing trade-mark or trade-name, but no registration of a trade-mark prevents a person from making. ( a ) any bona fide use of his personal name as a trade-name, or. ( b ) any bona fide use, other than as a trade-mark, (i) of the geographical name of his place of business, or. (ii) of any accurate description of the character or quality of his wares or services, in such a manner as is not likely to have the effect of depreciating the value of the goodwill attaching to the trade-mark. (2) No registration of a trade-mark prevents a person from making any use of house any of the neo malthusian theory, indications mentioned in subsection 11.18(3) in association with a wine or any of the indications mentioned in subsection 11.18(4) in association with a spirit.

21. Slaughter Five! (1) Where, in any proceedings respecting a registered trade-mark the registration of Slowing Stress which is entitled to the protection of subsection 17(2), it is made to appear to the Federal Court that one of the parties to the proceedings, other than the registered owner of the slaughter house five quotes, trade-mark, had in good faith used a confusing trade-mark or trade-name in Canada before the date of Essay on Kyoto filing of the application for that registration, and the Court considers that it is not contrary to the public interest that the house, continued use of the confusing trade-mark or trade-name should be permitted in a defined territorial area concurrently with the use of the registered trade-mark, the Court may, subject to such terms as it deems just, order that the other party may continue to use the confusing trade-mark or trade-name within that area with an adequate specified distinction from the registered trade-mark. (2) The rights conferred by an order made under subsection (1) take effect only if, within three months from its date, the other party makes application to the Registrar to enter it on the register in connection with the registration of the registered trade-mark. 30. An applicant for carandiru movie the registration of a trade-mark shall file with the Registrar an slaughter house quotes application containing. ( a ) a statement in ordinary commercial terms of the specific wares or services in association with which the machiavelli the prince summary, mark has been or is proposed to be used; ( b ) in the case of a trade-mark that has been used in Canada, the date from which the applicant or his named predecessors in title, if any, have so used the trade-mark in association with each of the general classes of wares or services described in the application; ( c ) in the case of a trade-mark that has not been used in Canada but is made known in slaughter house five Canada, the name of a country of the carandiru movie, Union in which it has been used by the applicant or his named predecessors in title, if any, and the date from and the manner in which the applicant or named predecessors in title have made it known in Canada in association with each of the slaughter house, general classes of wares or services described in the application; ( d ) in the case of a trade-mark that is the subject in or for another country of the Union of a registration or an application for registration by the applicant or the applicants named predecessor in title on which the applicant bases the mid term break, applicants right to registration, particulars of the application or registration and, if the trade-mark has neither been used in Canada nor made known in Canada, the name of slaughter quotes a country in which the trade-mark has been used by the applicant or the applicants named predecessor in title, if any, in association with each of the general classes of wares or services described in the application; ( e ) in the case of a proposed trade-mark, a statement that the applicant, by itself or through a licensee, or by itself and through a licensee, intends to use the trade-mark in Canada; ( f ) in the case of a certification mark, particulars of the defined standard that the use of the mark is intended to indicate and a statement that the Essay on Protocol, applicant is not engaged in slaughter house five quotes the manufacture, sale, leasing or hiring of wares or the performance of services such as those in association with which the certification mark is used; ( g ) the address of the applicants principal office or place of business in carandiru movie Canada, if any, and if the applicant has no office or place of business in Canada, the address of his principal office or place of house quotes business abroad and Slowing Healing By Psychological Stress, the name and slaughter, address in Slowing the Wound Healing By Psychological Essay Canada of a person or firm to whom any notice in respect of the application or registration may be sent, and on whom service of any proceedings in respect of the application or registration may be given or served with the same effect as if they had been given to or served on the applicant or registrant himself; ( h ) unless the slaughter house, application is for the registration only of a word or words not depicted in a special form, a drawing of the trade-mark and such number of accurate representations of the trade-mark as may be prescribed; and. ( i ) a statement that the applicant is satisfied that he is entitled to use the machiavelli summary, trade-mark in Canada in association with the wares or services described in house five quotes the application. 35. The Registrar may require an applicant for registration of a trade-mark to disclaim the right to the exclusive use apart from the trade-mark of machiavelli the prince summary such portion of the trade-mark as is quotes, not independently registrable, but the disclaimer does not prejudice or affect the applicants rights then existing or thereafter arising in the disclaimed matter, nor does the neo malthusian theory, disclaimer prejudice or affect the applicants right to registration on a subsequent application if the five, disclaimed matter has then become distinctive of the applicants wares or services. 40. (1) When an application for registration of a trade-mark, other than a proposed trade-mark, is allowed, the Registrar shall register the trade-mark and issue a certificate of its registration. (2) When an application for registration of a proposed trade-mark is allowed, the Registrar shall give notice to the applicant accordingly and shall register the trade-mark and issue a certificate of registration on receipt of a declaration that the use of the trade-mark in Canada, in association with the wares or services specified in the application, has been commenced by.

( b ) the applicants successor in title; or. ( c ) an entity that is licensed by or with the neo malthusian, authority of the applicant to slaughter five use the trade-mark, if the applicant has direct or indirect control of the on Kyoto, character or quality of the wares or services. 57. (1) The Federal Court has exclusive original jurisdiction, on the application of the house five, Registrar or of any person interested, to order that any entry in the register be struck out or amended on the ground that at the date of the application the entry as it appears on the register does not accurately express or define the the prince summary, existing rights of the five, person appearing to be the registered owner of the mark. Appeal allowed with costs. Solicitors for the appellant: MacLeod Dixon, Calgary; Gowling Lafleur Henderson, Toronto.

Solicitors for the respondent: MBM Intellectual Property Law, Ottawa. Solicitors for the intervener: Bereskin Parr, Toronto.

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Creative Nonfiction in Writing Courses. Creative nonfiction is a broad term and encompasses many different forms of writing. This resource focuses on the three basic forms of creative nonfiction: the personal essay, the memoir essay, and the literary journalism essay. A short section on the lyric essay is also discussed. The personal essay is commonly taught in first-year composition courses because students find it relatively easy to slaughter house quotes, pick a topic that interests them, and to in Britain, follow their associative train of thoughts, with the freedom to digress and house circle back. The point to having students write personal essays is to help them become better writers, since part of becoming a better writer is the ability to express personal experiences, thoughts and opinions. Since academic writing may not allow for personal experiences and opinions, writing the personal essay is a good way to allow students further practice in writing. The goal of the personal essay is to convey personal experiences in a convincing way to the reader, and in this way is related to carandiru movie, rhetoric and house five quotes composition, which is also persuasive.

A good way to explain a personal essay assignment to a more goal-oriented student is Slowing the Wound Healing simply to ask them to try to persuade the reader about the significance of a particular event. Most high-school and first-year college students have plenty of experiences to draw from, and house they are convinced about the importance of certain events over others in their lives. Often, students find their strongest conviction in the process of writing, and the personal essay is a good way to Essay Protocol, get students to start exploring these possibilities in writing. A personal essay assignment can work well as a prelude to a research paper, because personal essays will help students understand their own convictions better, and will help prepare them to choose research topics that interest them. An Example and Discussion of a Personal Essay. The following excerpt from Wole Soyinka's (Nigerian Nobel Laureate) Why Do I Fast? is an example of a personal essay.

What follows is a short discussion of Soyinka's essay. Soyinka begins with a question that fascinates him. He doesn’t feel required to immediately answer the question in five quotes, the second paragraph. Carandiru Movie? Rather, he takes time to house, consider his own inclination to believe that there is a connection between fasting and sensuality. Soyinka follows the Slowing the Wound Stress flowing associative arc of slaughter house five his thoughts, and he goes on to write about sunsets, and quotes from a poem that he wrote in his cell. Essay On? The essay ends, not on a restatement of his thesis, but on yet another question that arises: This question remains unanswered.

Soyinka is not interested in even attempting to answer it. The personal essay doesn’t necessarily seek to make sense out of life experiences; rather, personal essays tend to let go of that sense-making impulse to do something else, like nose around a bit in the wondering, uncertain space that lies between experience and the need to house five, organize it in a logical manner. However informal the machiavelli the prince personal essay may seems, it’s important to keep in slaughter house five, mind that, as Dinty W. Moore says in The Truth of the Matter: Art and Craft in Life Has Changed in Britain, Creative Nonfiction , “the essay should always be motivated by the author’s genuine interest in wrestling with complex questions.” Generating Ideas for Personal Essays. In The Truth of the Matter: Art and slaughter five quotes Craft in Creative Nonfiction , Moore goes on the prince to explain an effective way to help students generate ideas for personal essays:

“Think about ten things you care about deeply: the environment, children in poverty, Alzheimer’s research (because your grandfather is five quotes a victim), hip-hop music, Saturday afternoon football games. Neo Malthusian? Make your own list of ten important subjects, and then narrow the larger subject down to specific subjects you might write about. The environment? How about that bird sanctuary out on Township Line Road that might be torn down to make room for a megastore. . What is it like to be the food service worker who puts mustard on two thousand hot dogs every Saturday afternoon? Don’t just wonder about it - talk to the mustard spreader, spend an afternoon hanging out behind the counter, spread some mustard yourself. Transform your list of ten things into a longer list of slaughter five possible story ideas.

Don’t worry for now about whether these ideas would take a great amount of summary research, or might require special permission or access. Just write down a master list of possible stories related to your ideas and passions. Keep the list. You may use it later.” It is this flexibility of form in the personal essay that makes it easy for students who are majoring in engineering, nutrition, graphic design, finance, management, etc. to slaughter house, adapt, learn and practice. The essay can be a more worldly form of machiavelli the prince writing than poetry or fiction, so students from various backgrounds, majors, jobs and slaughter house five cultures can express interesting and powerful thoughts and the prince feelings in quotes, them. The essay is more worldly than poetry and fiction in another sense: it allows for break poem, more of the world and its languages, its arts and food, its sport and slaughter five quotes business, its travel and politics, its sciences and entertainment, to be present, valid and important. These resources discuss some terms and techniques that are useful to the beginning and intermediate creative nonfiction writer, and to instructors who are teaching creative nonfiction at these levels.

The distinction between beginning and intermediate writing is provided for both students and instructors, and numerous sources are listed for more information about creative nonfiction tools and how to use them. A sample assignment sheet is also provided for machiavelli, instructors. Because the personal memoir is more demanding than the slaughter house five quotes personal essay, for both writer and reader, it doesn’t fit into introductory courses as well as the personal essay. An intermediate level course is a good place to introduce the memoir. However, if the instructor takes the time to explain and Essay Kyoto Protocol introduce the memoir form, it can be adapted for house, introductory courses. Difference Between the Personal Essay and the Memoir. While the personal essay can be about almost anything, the memoir tends to carandiru movie, discuss past events. Memoir is similar to the personal essay, except that the slaughter five quotes memoir tends to focus more on striking or life-changing events. The personal essay can be a relatively light reflection about what’s going on in your life right now. Where the personal essay explores, free from any need to interpret, the memoir interprets, analyzes, and seeks the deeper meaning beneath the surface experience of carandiru movie particular events. The memoir continually asks the quotes following questions:

Why was this event of particular significance? What did it mean? Why is it important? In this sense, the memoir is heavier than the personal essay, and it mines the past to shed light on the present. The memoir seeks to make sense of an individual life. The questions that are left unanswered in Wole Soyinka’s essay from the neo malthusian theory personal essay resource, Why do I Fast? are answered in the memoir. Generating Ideas for Personal Memoirs. Moore’s memoir exercise from The Truth of the Matter: Art and Craft in Creative Nonfiction is useful in both beginning and intermediate courses: “Make a list of six to ten events or circumstances in your own life, or the lives of those very close to you, that still provoke your curiosity. Mine your own life for the events and circumstances that still raise questions in your mind. Five Quotes? Once you have the list (and this list should be private - don’t share it with others - and don’t hold back because you think someone else will be looking), pick one of the questions on the list that you are willing to explore.“

The potential questions Moore asks in this exercise are meant to be answered in the memoir. Kyoto Protocol? While the memoir tries to make sense of experience, it also shares something in common with the personal essay - the exploration of the question, and slaughter five quotes the process of trying to arrive at an answer, is at least as important as the answer or resolution you may arrive at. Writing the memoir is poem not a simple Q A with yourself; rather, the complicated process of trying to slaughter quotes, seek the answers is what makes the memoir engaging to write, and read. Here is an example from Carlos Fuentes’ How I Started to Write : Fuentes is constantly questioning and answering, interpreting and analyzing his experience, trying to make sense of why and how he did what he did in order to become a writer. He seeks answers and tries to make sense of his life by interpreting his own experience, the cultural and political life of mid term his time, the meaning of language and literary influence, and by stepping over imagined nationalist borders.

These resources discuss some terms and house five techniques that are useful to the beginning and intermediate creative nonfiction writer, and to instructors who are teaching creative nonfiction at these levels. The distinction between beginning and intermediate writing is provided for Essay Life, both students and instructors, and numerous sources are listed for more information about creative nonfiction tools and how to use them. A sample assignment sheet is also provided for instructors. Literary journalism is another essay form that is best reserved for intermediate and advanced level courses, but it can be incorporated into introductory and composition courses. Slaughter House Five? Literary journalism is the creative nonfiction form that comes closest to newspaper and magazine writing. It is fact-driven and carandiru movie requires research and, often, interviews. Literary journalism is sometimes called “immersion journalism” because it requires a closer, more active relationship to the subject and to house quotes, the people the literary journalist is neo malthusian theory exploring. Five? Like journalistic writing, the literary journalism piece should be well-researched, focus on a brief period of time, and concentrate on what is happening outside of the writer’s small circle of personal experience and feelings. An Example and Discussion of a Literary Journalism. The following excerpt from George Orwell is Healing Essay a good example of literary journalism. Slaughter House Five? Orwell wrote about the colonial regime in Slowing the Wound Healing By Psychological, Marrakech.

His father was a colonial officer, so Orwell was confronted with the reality of empire from an early age, and that experience is reflected in his literary journalism piece, Marrakech : Orwell isn’t writing a reflective, personal essay about slaughter, his travels through Marrakech. Essay On How In Britain? Neither is he writing a memoir about what it was like to be the son of a colonial officer, and how that experience shaped his adult life. He writes in a descriptive way about the Jewish quarters in Marrakech, about the invisibility of the house “natives,” and about the way citizenship doesn’t ensure equality under a colonial regime. Generating Ideas for Literary Journalism. One way to incorporate literary journalism into an introductory or intermediate level course is simply to have students write personal essays first. Then the students can go back and research the facts behind the neo malthusian personal experiences related in their essays. They can incorporate historical data, interviews, or broaden the range of their personal essay by exploring the cultural or political issues hinted at in their personal essays. If a student writes, in passing, about the first presidential candidate they were eligible to vote for, then she can include facts and figures around that particular election, as well as research other events that were current at that time, for house, example. Healing Essay? As with other essay forms, students should find topics that are important to them.

These resources discuss some terms and house techniques that are useful to the beginning and intermediate creative nonfiction writer, and to instructors who are teaching creative nonfiction at these levels. Neo Malthusian? The distinction between beginning and intermediate writing is provided for both students and instructors, and numerous sources are listed for more information about creative nonfiction tools and how to use them. A sample assignment sheet is quotes also provided for instructors. Because the lyric essay is Essay on How Family Has Changed a new, hybrid form that combines poetry with essay, this form should be taught only at the intermediate to advanced levels. Slaughter House Five Quotes? Even professional essayists aren’t certain about Essay on Kyoto, what constitutes a lyric essay, and lyric essays disagree about what makes up the form. For example, some of the slaughter “lyric essays” in magazines like The Seneca Review have been selected for the Best American Poetry series, even though the “poems” were initially published as lyric essays. A good way to teach the lyric essay is in conjunction with poetry (see the Purdue OWL's resource on teaching Poetry in Writing Courses). Carandiru Movie? After students learn the basics of poetry, they may be prepared to learn the lyric essay. Lyric essays are generally shorter than other essay forms, and focus more on language itself, rather than storyline. Contemporary author Sherman Alexie has written lyric essays, and to slaughter house five quotes, provide an example of this form, we provide an excerpt from Slowing the Wound Healing By Psychological Essay his Captivity : He (my captor) gave me a biscuit, which I put in my. pocket, and not daring to eat it, buried it under a log, fear-

ing he had put something in it to make me love him. FROM THE NARRATIVE OF MRS. MARY ROWLANDSON, WHO WAS TAKEN CAPTIVE WHEN THE WAMPANOAG. DESTROYED LANCASTER, MASSACHUSETS, IN 1676

I remember your name, Mary Rowlandson. I think of you now, how necessary you have become. House Five Quotes? Can you hear me, telling this story within uneasy boundaries, changing you into a woman leaning against a wall beneath a HANDICAPPED PARKING ONLY sign, arrow pointing down directly at you? Nothing changes, neither of us knows exactly where to carandiru movie, stand and measure the beginning of our lives. Was it 1676 or 1976 or 1776 or yesterday when the Indian held you tight in his dark arms and promised you nothing but the sound of slaughter quotes his voice?

Alexie provides no straightforward narrative here, as in a personal essay; in carandiru movie, fact, each numbered section is only loosely related to slaughter quotes, the others. Alexie doesn’t look into his past, as memoirists do. Rather, his lyric essay is a response to a quote he found, and which he uses as an carandiru movie, epigraph to his essay. Though the narrator’s voice seems to be speaking from the present, and slaughter addressing a woman who lived centuries ago, we can’t be certain that the narrator’s voice is Alexie’s voice. Is Alexie creating a narrator or persona to ask these questions? The concept and the way it’s delivered is similar to poetry. Poets often use epigraphs to write poems. The difference is that Alexie uses prose language to explore what this epigraph means to him. These resources discuss some terms and techniques that are useful to the beginning and intermediate creative nonfiction writer, and to instructors who are teaching creative nonfiction at these levels. The distinction between beginning and Essay Life Has Changed intermediate writing is provided for both students and instructors, and numerous sources are listed for slaughter five quotes, more information about creative nonfiction tools and how to use them.

A sample assignment sheet is also provided for instructors. Sample Assignment: Personal Memoir. Make another list of ten events in your life that are important to Slowing the Wound Healing Essay, you and provoke your curiosity. Often, this list contains events that are still mysterious to you in some way, and that intrigues you in slaughter house five quotes, a way that you can’t quite make concrete conclusions about. Write down all the questions that come to mind around these events. Make a list of questions. Essay ideas often arise out of an exploration of these questions (adapted from Dinty W. Moore). Wayne Koestenbaum’s lyric essay, Assignments , provides good prompts for writing your own lyric essays: Make a list of media you gave up (e.g. watercolors). Say why. Theory? Quote from a line from a novel or a poem.

Selfishly manipulate and misuse the slaughter house five quotes quote. From memory, describe a scene from a movie you haven’t watched in years. Then, see the movie again and Protocol write a second description of the scene. Becky Bradway and Doug Hesse. Five? Creating Nonfiction: A Guide and Anthology . Bedford/St. Martin, 2009. Phillip Lopate, editor. The Art of the Personal Essay: An Anthology from the Classical Era to the Present . Doubleday, 1994.

Dinty W. Moore. The Truth of the Matter: Art and Craft in Creative Nonfiction . Pearson Longman, 2007. Mary Oliver and Robert Atwan, editors. Life Has Changed? The Best American Essays 2009 . Mariner Books, 2009. Copyright 1995-2017 by The Writing Lab The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission.

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5 Things You Should Never Put in Your Cover Letter. A cover letter can demonstrate to a hiring manager why you are the best fit for a position, so it#39;s worth your time and house, effort to get it just right. However, it can be challenging to machiavelli the prince summary craft an effective cover letter that showcases your skills without making you seem self-important or succumbing to cliches. Slaughter House. To help you stay clear of the most treacherous cover letter pitfalls, Business News Daily asked hiring managers and business owners for carandiru movie, the absolute worst thing a candidate can include in his or her cover letter. From small details like typos to huge red flags like bad-mouthing your old boss, here are the five most damaging cover letter mistakes. 1. Highlighting any lack of slaughter quotes skills. It#39;s easy to feel vulnerable when applying for a job, especially if you know that you have limited experience with some of the skills the position requires. However, starting off a cover letter by underselling yourself or drawing attention to the skills or knowledge you are lacking is never the way to go. I have seen one too many cover letters with the following phrase: #39;Although I do not yet have. Essay Family Has Changed In Britain. #39; If you do not have something, why are you emphasizing it? said Lavie Margolin, author, consultant and career coach.

Instead, Margolin advised job seekers to focus on writing about existing skills, experiences and talents that will be of interest to the potential employer. Slaughter House Quotes. If you are looking for a job, then you are in the sales business. What you write in your cover letter should most effectively sell the skills, experience and abilities that you do have, as opposed to emphasizing those things that are lacking. Carandiru Movie. Emphasizing a weakness on your cover letter may be costing you the job, explained Margolin. Sometimes job seekers get so caught up with trying to find the best way to express their big ideas that they forget to pay close attention to the fine details.

Typos are one of the top mistakes job seekers make when it comes to cover letters, said Joe Weinlick, senior vice president of marketing with Beyond. Slaughter House Quotes. Rigorously proofreading your cover letter will give your great content an opportunity to shine. Spell-check is your friend. Use it, but don#39;t rely on it, said Weinlick. Print out your cover letter, read it from start to finish and make sure there aren#39;t any typos before sending it out. Your cover letter is the Kyoto Protocol first impression you make on a hiring manager make sure it#39;s a good one. Slaughter Five Quotes. You can reuse parts of your cover letter when applying for similar positions with different companies. Essay On How Family Life. However, failing to update the company information for each letter is an unforgivable offense. Slaughter. Nothing will get your cover letter thrown in the recycling bin faster than giving the wrong company name, said Chaz Pitts-Kyser, founder and author of Careeranista. According to Pitts-Kyser, checking for accuracy includes making sure you have the correct company name and carandiru movie, address, specifying the slaughter house quotes position for which you are applying, and including the carandiru movie name of the hiring manager, if available.

While you are proofreading, you may also want to delete all those cliches that sound nice, but say very little. Instead of using vague words to describe your work ethic or experience, provide specific examples that demonstrate the qualities that you#39;d like to highlight. House Five. Don#39;t use buzzwords, said Bob Kovalsky, vice president of North Highland. Including descriptors such as #39;detail-oriented,#39; #39;hardworking,#39; #39;team player#39; and #39;proactive#39; doesn#39;t tell HR managers anything about your experience. Maybe you were let go from your last job or maybe you are just looking for Family Life Has Changed in Britain, new opportunities. But regardless of the reason for your job search, don#39;t spend the five limited space available of your cover letter focusing on your past. The worst thing a potential employee can do is to explain why they left their current or former position, said Kim Kaupe, co-founder of ZinePak. It#39;s like starting out a first date by talking about your ex! I don#39;t want to hear about your past; I want to break poem hear about your now and future, and five quotes, how you are going to carandiru movie become an slaughter house five, asset to neo malthusian my company. Slaughter. Steering clear of the past is especially important if you had a contentious relationship with an mid term break, employer.

Saying that you#39;re looking for five quotes, a new opportunity because your previous employer was unfair or you had an incompetent boss will only make you look bad, said Tracey Russell, talent acquisition professional for 5-Star Staffing Solutions. Essay On Kyoto Protocol. Oftentimes, if this type of negative information is in slaughter house five quotes, the cover letter, recruiters won#39;t even look at the resume, explained Russell. There is a time and place to discuss salary during the hiring process, but your cover letter isn#39;t it. Lisa Benson, president and CEO of Mary Kraft Staffing HR Solutions, recommends that job seekers not provide any unsolicited salary information in machiavelli summary, their cover letter, unless they are specifically asked to slaughter five quotes do so, particularly if there is a disparity between what is advertised or indicated in Essay on, the ad they are responding to. Slaughter House Five Quotes. No prospective employer wants to hire someone who is only about the Slowing the Wound Healing Essay money, Benson added.

Another common mistake that applicants make is using their cover letter to boast about their talents without acknowledging how they will use these skills to benefit a perspective employer. The worst thing a candidate can do in their cover letter is make it all about themselves and what they#39;re looking for, said Ian Yates, co-founder and managing director of Fitzii. The best thing to do is focus on five quotes why they#39;ll be a great fit, how they#39;ll make a contribution and what they#39;ve done, or will do, to support [the organization]. It is a fine line between confident and arrogant, added Sue Hardek, managing partner and talent acquisition consultant at Slowing Sue Hardek Associates. She noted that any candidate should avoid overselling him or herself, or being boastful about accomplishments and slaughter house five quotes, strengths. Applicants should also stay clear of oversharing personal history, exaggerating or providing false information. On How Family Life. Ultimately, the slaughter quotes job seekers who do their homework researching the company, learning about industry trends, and identifying specific ways they can address challenges faced by the business have a much better shot at setting the right tone with their cover letters. Additional reporting by Brittney Morgan.

Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article. On How Life Has Changed. Paula is a New Jersey-based writer with a Bachelor#39;s degree in English and a Master#39;s degree in Education. She spent nearly a decade working in education, primarily as the house director of carandiru movie a college#39;s service-learning and community outreach center. Her prior experience includes stints in corporate communications, publishing, and public relations for house quotes, non-profits. Reach her by email.

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Canadian Peacekeeping Essays and Research Papers. Rwanda solidified our commitment to ensuring peace is established and maintained. This mission relied heavily on the help of Canadian forces . directly on and off the battle field. Peace keeping is the preservation of international peace and security by deployment of military forces. The development of this will be more evident, when it shows how Canada became a more peacekeeping nation over the 20th century due to slaughter five quotes, our role in the Paris Peace Conference, Suez Crisis and Battle of Rwanda. Efforts to.

Egypt , Lester B. Poem! Pearson , Louis St. Slaughter! Laurent 1328 Words | 4 Pages. Canadian Identity Essay Canada is known worldwide for Life Has Changed our peoples resilience to nature, our acceptance of many different cultures, our . universal healthcare, and our contributions to world peace. Five Quotes! I believe for neo malthusian these reasons Canada is one of the greatest nations on Earth. Firstly, Canadian citizens are among the hardiest people on earth when it comes to resisting Mother Nature. Canada is five battered each year with ice storms, hurricanes and windstorms, yet we Canadians grit our teeth and fight.

Canada , Lester B. Life Has Changed! Pearson , Medicine 792 Words | 3 Pages. CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION Since its inception in 1945, the United Nations has been involved in peacekeeping operations and . conflict resolutions in the international system. According to Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations, the UN is expected to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to slaughter house five, bring about by lawful means, and in conformity. Cold War , Korean War , Peacekeeping 1924 Words | 6 Pages. Canadian Peacekeeping: Afghanistan. Peace keeping essay: Afghanistan The Country Afghanistan is the most significant to Canadian peacekeeping . Machiavelli! Afghanistan is . very significant to our Canadian peacekeeping because we have been involved with this peacekeeping for years now.

It has come to the point where there is long term, immediate and widespread impact on us and Afghanistan. House! By going to Afghanistan and break, keeping peace, many events will influence us for an extended period of time. Families lives change from this peace keeping and. Canada , Hamid Karzai , Kosovo 502 Words | 2 Pages. 4th SPECPOL, Peacekeeping with Middle- East Terrorists I. Background of house quotes, Topic It is evident that in these times of hostility with Middle . Eastern nations, there is a threat of terrorist attacks, but as many of us know, its better to focus on a solution instead of a problem. Protocol! Peacekeeping with Middle Eastern Terrorists has been a goal of the West and nations all over the world for nearly twenty-five years. Ever since political instability erupted in the Mideast, diplomats from all over the world. Asia , Middle East , Peacekeeping 946 Words | 4 Pages. EU UN Cooperation in slaughter five, Peacekeeping and P. ?EU-UN Cooperation in Peacekeeping and mid term poem, Peacebuilding A study of field and headquarter cases in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Democratic . Slaughter House Five Quotes! Republic of the prince summary, Congo Table of Contents List of Acronyms/Abbreviations DRC Democratic Republic of Congo EU European Union EUPM EU Police Mission (in Bosnia and Herzegovina) IFOR Implementation Force ( in Bosnia and Herzegovina ) IPTF UN International Police Task Force MONUC UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Democratic Republic of the Congo , European Union , Italy 1277 Words | 7 Pages.

United Nations Peacekeeping Operation in Cyprus (1974 present) United Nations Peacekeeping Operation in Cyprus (1974 present) 1. What is peacekeeping ? 2. Cyprus historical background of quotes, . Slowing By Psychological Stress Essay! conflict 3. Slaughter House! UN intervention 4. UN peacekeeping operation history in Cyprus 5. The future of UN presence in Cyprus 6. Conclusion 1. United Nations Peacekeeping Operations The United Nations, founded after World War II in 1945, with the objective to stop wars between countries and provide a platform for dialogue, is the most representative inter-governmental organization. Canada , Cyprus , European Union 1454 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmopolitan Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone: What Can Africa Contribute? David Curran and Tom Woodhouse. Cosmopolitan peacekeeping and peacebuilding in Sierra Leone: what can Africa contribute? David Curran and mid term, Tom Woodhouse Kofi Annan called . for slaughter house five quotes a reform in the UN General Assembly in Protocol, regards to global politics. Slaughter House Quotes! Annans process of theory, reform was called thinking anew. In spite of Annans process of thinking anew, more than 300 recommendations for reform have been filed. Debates at the theoretical level has developed, which places an emphasis on reconceptualizing security. Norms on slaughter, security have changed.

Canada , Conflict , European Union 996 Words | 3 Pages. History. His journey into politics began when he joined a new government department in 1927, the Department of External Affairs. During his twenty-year . career in the department, Pearson served in the Canadian High Commission in Britain, the Canadian Embassy in carandiru movie, the United States and served as the Canadian Ambassador to the United States as well as leading Canada into joining NATO and attending the conference that created the United Nations in 1945. In 1948, newly elected to five, Parliament as a Liberal. Canada , Canada Pension Plan , Lester B. On Protocol! Pearson 1188 Words | 4 Pages.

Impact of a complex 1990's peacekeeping operation. Case of Somalia. Impact of a complex 1990's peacekeeping operation. House Five! Case of Somalia. Peacekeeping has no one definition and neo malthusian, has been . evolving since the slaughter house quotes beginning of its existence, from the end of 1940s. The end of Cold War opened up the doors for UN to take steps towards collective actions that had been handicapped for decades due to the ideological and self-interest differences of great powers.

As a result, the number of Essay Family Life Has Changed, peacekeeping operations and similar interventions increased significantly during the. Canada , Italy , Multinational Force and Observers 1969 Words | 6 Pages. Canada's Contributions Toward World Peace. governments occupation of Afghanistan politically, militarily, and through its oil infrastructure in secret. House Five Quotes! Canadas participation in NORAD, NATO, and UN . peacekeeping missions has decreased since the 1970s, when compared to involvement levels of the United States and other Western nations.

However, this military draw down has not reduced the Essay Life Has Changed Canadian Governments military expenditures. While many of house, Canadas citizens feel its government is different from the United States, we can never forget the political. Canada , European Union , Federal government of the United States 1219 Words | 4 Pages. Peacekeeping in Canada The Canadian military as peacekeepers is carandiru movie a very prominent notion of the majority of . Canadians . Quotes! It is what distinguishes Canada most strongly from the United States, and what has become an important aspect of their foreign policy. Machiavelli Summary! Peacekeeping , since the conclusion of the house five Cold War, however, is a myth. This essay will explore the history of peacekeeping , its use as a tool during the Cold War, and Canada's very prominent role in its development and use. Slowing The Wound Stress Essay! Peacekeeping , in. Canada , Cold War , Peace 2736 Words | 8 Pages. A Review of: Sovereignty and Standby: the 1964 Conference on house quotes, Un Peacekeeping Forces A REVIEW OF: SOVEREIGNTY AND STANDBY: THE 1964 CONFERENCE ON UN PEACEKEEPING FORCES John Macfarlanes article Sovereignty and Standby: . Neo Malthusian! The 1964 Conference on UN Peacekeeping Forces details a 1964 meeting of 23 UN member-nations in quotes, Ottawa, Canada.

The purpose behind the meeting was a focus-group discussion regarding the creation of either a standby force of military peacekeepers or some form of permanent military force, consisting of contributed military units from participating countries. Canada , Department of Peacekeeping Operations , European Union 1296 Words | 4 Pages. Lester B. Pearson and mid term, the Suez Canal Crisis. Canada had no direct ties to the Suez crisis, in terms of control or economic interest. However, Canadian Secretary of slaughter five, State for Foreign . Affairs, Lester B. Pearson, persuaded the UN General Assembly to Family Life Has Changed in Britain, send in slaughter five quotes, the United Nations Emergency Force. Even though Lester B. Pearson dismayed the Commonwealth with his measures for peace, Canada was recognized for Slowing Healing Essay starting the first ever United Nations Peacekeeping mission. In the 1950s the Middle East was affected by four different conflicts; each one separate. Cold War , Egypt , Gamal Abdel Nasser 1434 Words | 4 Pages. Position paper: Should internationalism be embraced? Position Paper The source presented talks about the Canadian governments upcoming actions as it deals with the countrys economic . affairs. It can be inferred that the author feels that economic prosperity is the most important sign of progress and a good quality of life for slaughter quotes Canadians , as jobs and economic growth can lead to long-term prosperity that will benefit every citizen of the country.

An example of this envisioned economic prosperity is the Harper governments economic action plan. Canada , Economics , International relations 1081 Words | 3 Pages. The Legendary Canadian Many great people and Essay on How Family Has Changed in Britain, many great things shape history to what it is today. An example would be Adolf Hitler. Quotes! Hitler was . Carandiru Movie! a great man but that does not mean what he did was essentially a great thing. Hitler helped in shaping the slaughter five worlds history by causing World War 2. Family In Britain! He was trying to shape the future as well because he wanted Germans to be the superior race.

However there are good people who did good things to slaughter house, shape history. One specific person that comes to mind is Lester. Canada , Lester B. Pearson , Multinational Force and theory, Observers 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Over the years, there have been many Great Canadians . Whether they have had numerous amazing accomplishments, or only one very grave one, they . are defined as a huge role in the country. Many Great Canadians have changed Canada in a good way, or have done things for house quotes the citizens. Lester B. Pearsons efforts and accomplishments as Prime Minister helped improve Canada. He helped create Canadas reputation as peacekeepers. When he felt Canadians needed it, he brought Universal Health Care into Canada.

Health care , Lester B. Pearson , Louis St. Poem! Laurent 1001 Words | 3 Pages. Lester B Pearson and the Suez Canal. prevented another world war from occurring with the decisions he made during the Suez Canal Crisis. Pearson prevented the war from occurring by his overall . personality, his achievements before the five Suez Crisis, and him forming the poem United Nation Peacekeeping Force. His overall personality helped him mentally prepare for and keep him calm during the house Suez Canal Crisis.

Pearson had a deep personal reserve that people found difficult to machiavelli, penetrate (Bothwell). It would be hard to persuade him into doing. Cold War , Lester B. Slaughter House! Pearson , Louis St. Kyoto Protocol! Laurent 870 Words | 3 Pages. Lester B. Pearson, as he showed the world that Canada is a very peaceful and independent country. The final one was the Canadian Constitution . of 1982, as Canada showed that we are an independent and multicultural country. Three 20th century events that defined Canada as a nation were Canadas participation in the battle of house five, Vimy Ridge, the carandiru movie actions of Lester B. Pearson, and the Canadian Constitution Act of 1982. Slaughter! One event that defined Canada as a nation was Canadas participation in the battle. Canada , Constitution of Canada , Lester B. Pearson 941 Words | 3 Pages.

keeping Tasks Patrolling Unarmed monitoring Maintain a physical presence Dextraze in the Congo How peace keeping is kept in carandiru movie, 1950s Consent . Impartiality Non-threating behaviour UNEF in slaughter house five, Egypt The 1960s The rise and decline of peacekeeping A government priority as it falters in theory, practice 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy create a quarantine Behind the scenes October First time military resources were used despite the prime minister Fight over how to use missiles . 1903 , 1912 , 1913 458 Words | 4 Pages. the Suez Canal Zone o This prompted the UN to call for an emergency session to discuss the state of affairs UN Initiative: . Peacekeeping : Once the UN had realized that this conflict was going to happen, and with backing from other nations, they called together an emergency session, to discuss their intervention in the conflict Canadian Affairs minister, Lester B. Pearson, was in perfect position to carve out a middle ground between two extreme positions o His diplomatic. Canada , Egypt , Gamal Abdel Nasser 1112 Words | 4 Pages. cur- rent and house five quotes, strident debates have centered on Essay Kyoto, peacekeeping , a term that appears nowhere in the U.N. House Quotes! charter but has always been the . On Kyoto Protocol! organizations foremost priority. The term peacekeeping was first used to describe the activities of the first U.N. observer mission in 1948, in which U.N. personnel were sent to the Middle East to prevent hostilities between the newly created state of slaughter five, Israel and its Arab neighbors. The first lightly armed peacekeeping mission was conducted in 1956 along the Kyoto Suez Canal. Canada , European Union , Peacekeeping 2256 Words | 6 Pages.

four days without stopping in order to present a resolution on November 3rd, 1956. Calling for a UN police force, the resolution from house, Pearson included a . Essay On How Family! plan for setting up a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) which would become the UNs first peacekeeping force to secure peace in the region. Under Pearsons collaboration with the Secretary-General, all shooting stopped at midnight on November 6th; by the 15th the first UN troops arrived in five, the Canal Zone. The resolution provided peace which many. Cold War , Egypt , Lester B. Pearson 1522 Words | 5 Pages. ?ROBUST PEACEKEEPING Introduction 1. The UN Capstone Doctrine, in its Glossary of terms, defines Robust Peacekeeping as, . the use of force by machiavelli the prince summary a United Nations peacekeeping operation at the tactical level, with the authorization of the Security Council, to defend its mandate against spoilers whose activities pose a threat to slaughter house five quotes, civilians or risk undermining the peace process. 2. Carandiru Movie! A Concept Note on Robust Peacekeeping issued in 2009 by the DPKO Office of Military Affairs offers an interim definition. Department of Peacekeeping Operations , European Union , Military operations other than war 1174 Words | 4 Pages. In several instances, the UN has proven itself credible to its peace-keeping and philanthropic mandate, settling international strife and promoting . socioeconomic good, even to the extent of winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988 for its effective peacekeeping force (NobelPrize.org).

The UN generally does this by their work in keeping good relations between nations on a day by day basis, building up a sort of war immunity. Various treaties, negotiations, and organizations have been promoted and supported. League of Nations , Peacekeeping , Rwandan Genocide 1880 Words | 5 Pages. see whether they support these solutions. The solutions are 1) shoot on sight ,2) deployment of UN peacekeeping troops in slaughter house, Somalia. More than . Summary! half agree to the shoot on sight solution and more than one third of the slaughter house five respondent have shown support to the deployment of UN Peacekeeping troops in Somalia. Overall, the majority agree to the solutions.

However the respondent show more support in peacekeeping activities in Somalia than shoot on sight order. Moreover, from the data collected, more of the. Gulf of Aden , Islamic Courts Union , Peacekeeping 1121 Words | 6 Pages. Nations The last of the three main ways that Australia contributes to the United Nations is in peace operations. Machiavelli Summary! Australia has a large contribution in the . Peace and security operations of the UN as mentioned before. Part of the United Nations role in peacekeeping is it invites member states to contribute soldiers or people with other special skills to work in an area of the slaughter house world that is troubled or where outbreaks of conflict may happen in the future. The United Nations aims to break, stop war before it even. Canada , Multinational Force and Observers , Peace 922 Words | 3 Pages.

International court of justice, Economic and social council, Security Council, secretariat and the trainee council. All have different, yet major roles in . striving to make the slaughter five quotes UN a success. Break Poem! 4. The Security Council is the council in charge of the peacekeeping side of the United Nations. The Security Council contained 15 countries in 1995. The countries were Argentina, Botswana, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Honduras, Indonesia, Italy, Nigeria, Oman, Russian Federation, Rwanda, UK and the U.

European Union , Peace , Peacekeeping 772 Words | 3 Pages. Unamir (United Nations Assistance Mission for slaughter house Rwanda) discuss, in depth, the, United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) that took place in Rwanda in 1994. This essay will provide; an explanation of . why Rwanda was in need of a UN peacekeeping forces by covering the events leading up to the 1994 genocide, an explanation of the role Australia played in the peacekeeping mission by covering the assistance Australia provided and Slowing the Wound Stress Essay, an outline of the slaughter house five quotes situation in the country now, and how the UNs involvement assisted in this situation by outlining the countries. Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana , Paul Kagame 1399 Words | 5 Pages. United Nations who already had UN peacekeeping forces stationed in Rwanda.

The United Nations have also recognized this atrocity as UN failure. . Another example would be the second Congo war. Neo Malthusian! The United Nations had failed to send humanitarian aid as well as intervene which led to the death of over 3 million people in less than 5 years. In 1995, the UN again fails to get involved in the Srebrenica Massacre and defend the Bosnians. It could have permitted the peacekeeping forces to actually keep the peace. European Union , Peacekeeping , Republic of China 1651 Words | 4 Pages. its power in the UN, aside from the US to keep this organization vital. France and Great Britain as members of the slaughter house five quotes P-5 hold veto power, continue to neo malthusian theory, be . significant donors and major actors in the UN. They have played key roles in post Cold War UN peacekeeping and slaughter five, enforcement operations by providing troops in the Gulf War and Afghanistan. Since 1990, each had a responsibility for a subcontracted enforcement operation, Great Britain in Essay on How Family Has Changed, Sierra Leone and France in Rwanda. This explains what kind of power. Cold War , European Union , Peacekeeping 1325 Words | 4 Pages.

1. Education Institutes,! 2. Hospitals,! 3. Slaughter House Quotes! Roads;! Emphasizes that militaristic action can only be taken through Security Council consent, and that . disobedience will result in such consequences but not limited to:! 1. Economic Sanctions! 2. UN Peacekeeping Force Involvement if necessary;! Requests the UN to form a new department named as The Department of Economic Sanctions (DoES) that is carandiru movie tasked with the house quotes following but not limited to:!

1. Discussing the initiation of unified economic sanctions, and. Middle East , Military operations other than war , Multinational Force and Essay on How Family Has Changed in Britain, Observers 716 Words | 3 Pages. Hiv/ Aids as a Global Security Threat: an house five quotes Overview. of HIV among the militaries in troop-contributing countries may make it more difficult to staff peacekeeping missions [3]. Essay Kyoto! High rates of HIV in slaughter house quotes, . the South African and Nigerian militaries in particular, which are major contributors of peacekeeping troops, may imperil African-led responses to regional crises such as that in the prince, Sudan. Countries may also be less willing to contribute personnel for slaughter quotes peacekeeping operations if soldiers risk returning from the mission infected with HIV [3]. 3. Essay On! Consequently.

AIDS , Armed forces , HIV 1592 Words | 5 Pages. Outline Plan: I have chosen the siege at slaughter house quotes, Jadotville which took place in the Congo in September 1961 as the subject of this study. I have chosen this . subject because I am an African living in Ireland and this event involved Irish soldiers on peacekeeping duty in Africa. The aim of this study is to describe the events that took place in Jadotville and also the neo malthusian theory subsequent treatment by the Irish authorities of these brave men. House Quotes! I intend to do this by giving a detailed description of the events that. Artillery , Irish Army , Military operations other than war 1210 Words | 3 Pages.

Chapter 7:International Organizaton, Law, and Human Rights. though they are great powers that contribute substantial UN dues and Life, make large contributions to UN programs and peacekeeping operations. Any . overhaul of the Security Council would require a change in five quotes, the UN Charter, and a change in membership would reduce the power of the current five permanent members, any of which could veto the change, making any change very difficult. Peacekeeping Forces. International relations , Peacekeeping , United Nations 791 Words | 3 Pages. time of need. Neo Malthusian Theory! That Im sorry. Slaughter Five! In another reading, a story called Cri De Coeur (Heart Cry), by Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire, compassion is used in a . different way. Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire who was commander of Essay Life, a United Nations peacekeeping force in Rwanda during the 1994 genocide that took place and claimed over five quotes 500, 000 East African lives.

Mr. Dallaire explains seeing a child wandering across the road, in a particularly dangerous part of the country that had been known to be open. Boy , Compassion , Man 2020 Words | 5 Pages. Social and Family Life Has Changed, Psychological Sources of Power in Bangladesh. others. Being internationally responsible and eager to participate in multilateral peacekeeping missions is an important part of social and quotes, . psychological sources of power of Bangladeshi self-image. This friendly attitude is confirmed by the actions of Bangladeshi governments. Nearly 10,000 Bangladeshi military personnel are deployed overseas on peacekeeping operations, making it a large contributor to the UN peacekeeping forces.

Under UN auspices, Bangladeshi troops have served or are serving in theory, Somalia. Bangladesh , Bangladesh Liberation War , East Pakistan 1788 Words | 5 Pages. militia and government soldiers announced a curfew and put up roadblocks around the quotes capital. The Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and the Hutu militia known as the the prince summary . Interahamwe then went from house to house killing Tutsis and moderate Hutu politicians. U.N peacekeeping forces known as the slaughter house UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda) stood by as the slaughter went on as they were forbidden to intervene, because it would breach their monitoring mandate.

The next day on April 7th , 1994 ten Belgian soldiers. Arusha Accords , Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana 1759 Words | 5 Pages. The UN is Healing By Psychological Stress now an outdated body, discuss. in which challenges increasingly have a transnational if not global dimension, such weak intergovernmentalism may no longer be appropriate. This was . Slaughter House! illustrated with the Rwandan genocide of 1994 and by the difficulties in the UN carrying out its peacekeeping role. Another example can be seen in the recent case of Syria. Although the West would ideally intervene, under humanitarian intervention.

Within the the Wound Healing Stress UN security council, Russia and China would use their power of veto since they resent Western. Peacekeeping , People's Republic of China , United Kingdom 1599 Words | 5 Pages. FORCES Peacekeeping , as defined by the United Nations, is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for house five quotes sustainable peace. . Slowing By Psychological Stress! Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. India is a charter member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialized agencies. India is regular contributor to United Nations peacekeeping missions. Diplomacy , Human rights , Peace 921 Words | 4 Pages. Internationalism: Nation and World.

involvement of global organizations, treaties and agreements made by nation states. An example peacekeeping carried out by the United Nations. . In order to be involved and benefit from peacekeeping efforts, a nation-state must be a member of the United Nations which can only be done if they act through international means. An evident example that presents us with the benefits of being a part of peacekeeping efforts is seen through the Suez Canal crisis. The canal was owned by the British and at the. European Union , Nation , Nation state 1021 Words | 3 Pages.

themselves to disarmament and gave power of intervention, by force, to the UN against anyone who broke the agreement. The peace-making principle was . effectively put into slaughter house quotes, place. Peacekeeping in carandiru movie, this instance would have been most effective though the slaughter house quotes deployment of a UN presence in the field. In this principle of peacekeeping military personnel is deployed into an area of conflict to try and minimize or contain the conflict and machiavelli the prince, this was most applicable during the slaughter house quotes ceasefire .During this period the UN. Boutros Boutros-Ghali , Mohamed Farrah Aidid , Peace 1456 Words | 4 Pages. The United Nations was more successful than the Slowing By Psychological Essay League of Nations in maintaining world peace by comparing with the scale and powerfulness of house quotes, members, structure and measures in machiavelli the prince summary, solving conflicts. Geneva, Switzerland. In the other side, even before the WW2, the Allies decided to form a new international peace keeping org to house five quotes, replace LN.

In 1942, the . 20 Allied nations agreed with the carandiru movie plan for setting up a more comprehensive and permanent peacekeeping body. During the five wartime period, the Allies discussed about it, and Has Changed, about to the end of 1945 50 nations joined the house UN. It was aimed at neo malthusian, maintaining the slaughter five quotes world peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations according to the principles. Gulf War , Peace , Peacekeeping 957 Words | 3 Pages. the united nations success or failure. achieved little progress in theory, early and mid-1992 brokering a ceasefire among the warring clans and subclans.

General Mohamed Farah Aideed rejected the five quotes . Essay On How Family Life Has Changed! deployment of peacekeepers until fall. In lieu of this, the secretary-general followed standard peacekeeping procedures: no blue helmets would be deployed unless all parties consented. The result was that the civil war in slaughter five quotes, Somalia continued unabated, humanitarian assistance could not be delivered, thousands of Somalis died of mid term break, disease and starvation. Peacekeeping , Rwandan Genocide , Srebrenica massacre 1486 Words | 5 Pages. Latest Reports: Future Of The Malaysian Defense Industry 2014, Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast. Attractiveness and Emerging Opportunities 3.1. Five! Defense Market Size Historical and Forecast 3.1.1.

The Malaysian defense budget is expected to reach US$6.5 . billion by 2019, at a CAGR of 6.07% 3.1.2. Modernization of the armed forces, participation in UN peacekeeping operations, and Protocol, territorial disputes are the major drivers of the Malaysian defense industry 3.1.3. Defense budget as a percentage of GDP will remain at an average of 1.4% over the forecast period 3.2. Analysis of Defense Budget Allocation 3. Arithmetic mean , Arms industry , Capital expenditure 813 Words | 4 Pages.

How Efficient Is the United Nations Security Council in Promoting Global Security (with Specific Reference to Darfur and Iraq)? would allow UN peacekeeping troops to enter (Majendie 2006). The Economist Magazine (Mission Impossible, 2007) showed that ethnic wars and house five quotes, . religious violence are not by any means uncommon phenomena. In fact, they argue that following the Cold War, the UN, with no standing army, little equipment, military or peacekeeping experience and on Kyoto Protocol, training had to grapple with these uncomfortable realities and today the UN Security Council needs much more resources in order to slaughter house, accomplish peacekeeping (Spiegel et. George W. Bush , Human rights , Peacekeeping 2767 Words | 7 Pages. International Organizations: the United Nations. contributors to the UN in 2011. As of 1 January 2011, the top providers of asessed financial contributions to the United Nations peacekeeping . operations were: the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, China, Canada, Spain and the Republic of Korea (www.UN.org, 2011). A RAND Corp studied revealed that the UN successfully accomplishes two out of three peacekeeping efforts, and compared to the UN nation-building effort to the United States and found that seven out of ten UN cases are.

Canada , European Union , Peacekeeping 1465 Words | 5 Pages. weapons, and establishing a high level of consent and authority for the follow-on mission. As a result, the INTERFET mission was conceptualised as a peace . support operation because the carandiru movie military forces had to be able to move between traditional peacekeeping tasks (in order to facilitate conflict resolution and house five quotes, lay the groundwork for the interim administration) and peace enforcement tasks (in response to Essay on Protocol, specific breaches of the peace by the militias). INTERFETs task was complicated by the fact . East Timor , Humanitarian aid , Indonesia 1621 Words | 5 Pages. massacres of the kind which began in Rwanda after the plane crash which killed the quotes Presidents of Rwanda and Essay Kyoto Protocol, Burundi. However, the Inquiry has found that the . fundamental capacity problems of UNAMIR led to the terrible and humiliating situation of a UN peacekeeping force almost paralyzed in the face of a wave of slaughter, some of the worst brutality humankind has seen in this century. Despite the failures of UNAMIR, it should be said that United Nations personnel within UNAMIR and in the programs and agencies also. Genocide , Hutu , Peacekeeping 1553 Words | 5 Pages. decision making; rational, bureaucratic, garbage can and political will be discussed. The review will also look into the geo-political relations. Dallaires . assessment was to make a decision whether the UN should commit in sending a full-fledged peacekeeping force to Rwanda.

Dallaire required a long period of time to come out with his decision as it required him to do a fact finding mission. Cray, David ; Mallory, Geoffrey R. Mid Term Poem! ; Butler, Richard J. ; Hickson, David J. ; Wilson, David C. (1998) indicated. Decision making , Flipism , Genocide 1768 Words | 7 Pages. The Un Us Mishandling of the Rwandan Genocide. and United Nations pulled out. Their negligent attitude towards world conflicts restricts this organization from achieving its goals.

Most people know all . too well of the genocide between the Hutus and Tutsis in house quotes, Rwanda and Essay on How Family Life, the U.N.s role in slaughter, peacekeeping , but to understand the on Kyoto Protocol full picture one would need to visit the origins of this conflict. After World War I Belgium received Rwanda as a colony. Under the Belgians colonial rule over Rwanda, the minority Tutsi ethnic group was favored over. Genocide , Hutu , Peacekeeping 1367 Words | 4 Pages. community with the power to prevent the five quotes genocide did not and the Rwandan government not only failed to protect its people but also aided in the killings. The . most moving part of the film for me unquestionably was when the commander of the U.N. peacekeeping force in Rwanda, Gen. Romeo Dallaire says he remains haunted by his inability to the prince, stop the killing. Rwanda will never leave me: it's in the pores of my body. We saw lots of slaughter house five, them dying, and lots of those eyes still haunt me -- angry eyes, innocent. Democratic Party , European Union , Genocide 769 Words | 3 Pages. international territory.The Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-General. . COLD WAR ERA Though the carandiru movie UN's primary mandate was PEACEKEEPING , the division between the US and USSR often paralysed the organization, generally allowing it to intervene only in conflicts distant from the slaughter house quotes COLD WAR.(A notable exception was a Security Council resolution in Essay on Protocol, 1950 authorizing a US-led coalition.

European Union , Human rights , Peacekeeping 1797 Words | 7 Pages. Political Unrest in Bangladesh Its Impact on slaughter quotes, Economy. for their role in the 2005 murder of two judges. Bangladesh is machiavelli a world peace Keeper! Bangladesh is generally a force for moderation in international . forums, and it is also a long-time leader in five, international peacekeeping operations.

It is the Family Has Changed in Britain second-largest contributor to five, UN peacekeeping operations, with 10,481 troops and carandiru movie, police active in November 2009. Its activities in international organizations, with other governments, and with its regional partners to promote human rights, democracy, and house quotes, free. Bangladesh , Bangladesh Awami League , Dhaka 1164 Words | 4 Pages. debate and negotiation, as well as through UN-sponsored fact-finding missions, mediators, and truce observers. UN Peacekeeping forces, . On Kyoto Protocol! comprised of slaughter quotes, troops and equipment supplied by member nations, have usually been able to Slowing Stress, limit or prevent conflict, although sometimes not. Some conflicts, however, have proven to be beyond the slaughter five capacity of the UN to influence. Key to the success of UN peacekeeping efforts is the willingness of the machiavelli summary parties to a conflict to come to terms peacefully through a viable political. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty , Peacekeeping , United Kingdom 1273 Words | 4 Pages.

developing countries, and house, more than 30 per cent volunteering within their own countries. UN Volunteers help to poem, organize and run local and national elections . and support a large number of peacekeeping and quotes, humanitarian projects. UN Volunteers comprise one third of all international civilians working in UN peacekeeping operations. UNV also operates the Online Volunteering service, which connects development organizations directly with thousands of Essay on Kyoto, online volunteers who can provide services and slaughter house five quotes, advice. Peacekeeping , United Nations , United Nations Volunteers 1026 Words | 2 Pages.

was done in order to on, guarantee that an extremity of conflict like WWII would never occur again. 51 countries with a commitment to maintaining peace . world-wide founded the organization, replacing the slaughter quotes League of on, Nations. The UN is well known for its peacekeeping , peace building, prevention of conflicts and involvement in humanitarian efforts. The four main purposes of the United Nations are; to keep peace across the world, to develop friendly relationships among nations while promoting social progress;. Haiti , Human rights , Peace 2421 Words | 7 Pages. problem for social justice (i.e. what ought to be done). In particular, protection of the global environment should . be an issue with less political controversy (as compared to, for example, Japans participation in the UN Peacekeeping Operations). But in slaughter house, reality, each countrys effort on environmental affairs is dependent on the interplay of various international / domestic factors and economic gains. As a result, it would continue to be a difficult . Economics , Economy of Japan , European Union 692 Words | 2 Pages.

International Relations Case Study UN. from international security, in doing so 'when the Security Council was not able to Has Changed, act, the general assembly also played a key part in initiating or . providing guidance for peacekeeping operations.' (N. et al. 1996) Strengths and weaknesses The United Nations has had a lot of slaughter quotes, strengths in neo malthusian, dealing with the issue of world peacekeeping and order. One of its primary strengths, has been to revel where the League of Nations failed; the attainment of house five, Near-Universal Membership. It has accomplished this due. Cold War , League of Kyoto, Nations , Peacekeeping 2207 Words | 8 Pages. EMILIO AGUINALDO, Quezon City The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) marks another milestone in its commitment to house, international peace by deploying the break . first all-Navy Fleet Marine contingent to conduct peacekeeping operations in Haiti. Slaughter Quotes! It is also the Healing By Psychological Stress Essay first group to have undergone Peacekeeping Operations Training at slaughter house five quotes, the AFP Peace Keeping Operations Center (AFPPKOC) headquarters in Essay Protocol, Camp ODonnell, Tarlac the home of AFPs peacekeepers. Slaughter House! The send-off ceremony for on How Life Has Changed in Britain the 14th Philippine Contingent.

Armed forces , Army , Military 1507 Words | 4 Pages.

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Hiv and house five quotes Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using appropriate examples, discuss the implications of HIV and AIDS on development in Sub Saharan Africa. HIV and theory AIDS is a critical issue for slaughter development in Sub Saharan Africa because of the scale of Life Has Changed in Britain, HIV infection and the numbers of deaths that occur in the main productive and slaughter quotes reproductive age group 15-49 year olds (Jackson, 2002). The Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (2004) donates that the carandiru movie epidemic has caused and is continuing to cause untold suffering among those infected with the virus and among those otherwise affected by the epidemic. The epidemic also has pervasive impact on society and economy. AIDS affects all socio-economic groups and all sectors, ranging from impoverished subsistence farmers, informal sector workers, domestic workers and unskilled factory workers to top managers, professionals, civil servants and (Jackson, 2002). The essay seeks to discuss the implications of HIV and AIDS on development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper attempts to discuss how HIV and AIDS have influenced negatively on health, agriculture and food security, education, economy and just to mention a few. Need essay sample on Hiv and Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for slaughter only $12.90/page. In Sub-Saharan Africa, it appears that HIV and AIDS have profound social and economic effects which impact on development. Evidence from around the world seems to suggest that HIV and neo malthusian AIDS is one of the most pressing challenges facing rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa.

The most affected households are heavily dependent on agriculture. As a result the pandemic has ended the ability of rural African households to produce food and other agricultural products, to generate income, and to care and feed family members. Parker, Jacobsen and Komwa (2009) assert that while prevalence rates have declined over time in some regions, and while availability of antiretrival drugs (ARVs) has reduced the effects of infection in communities where ARVs are widely available, recent studies have shown that the house five pandemic continues to exert significant negative economic and social effects in affected areas. Parker, Jacobsen and neo malthusian Komwa further assert that HIV and AIDS affects not only the slaughter five health of infected individuals, but the mid term poem socio-economic status of the slaughter house five individuals, their families, and their broader community. In addition to the direct costs of paying for medical care, HIV affected households experience a loss of labour productivity both from household members who are ill and from their caregivers.

Furthermore Parker, Jacobsen and Komwa argues that in rural areas where farming is the primary source of income and food, decreases in household labor supply can lead directly to reductions in the nutritional status of all household members. Aim deaths from AIDS related illness have drastically affected household economies, reducing human capital, agricultural productivity, and lobour supply, and in turn reversing progress towards meeting other development challenges. Essay On? Continuous sickness and death in these families reduces the ability of affected households to participate in community and national development. Shocks to households and communities from disease events such as AIDS can reverse development progress, threatening the social and five quotes economic sustainability of Essay Family Has Changed in Britain, these systems (Parker, Jacobsen and slaughter house five Konwa, 2009) HIV and AIDS epidemic adds to reduction in agricultural production and food insecurity, as agricultural work is Essay Family, neglected or abandoned due to household illness. According to Avert (2013) in other countries such as Mocambique, Botswana, Nambia and Zimbabwe, the reduction is likely to be over 20%. As in other Sub-Saharan Africa countries, it was generally found that the death of a male reduced to production of cash crops (such as coffee, tea and sugar) while the death of slaughter house five quotes, a feme reduced the production of Essay on, grain and slaughter quotes other crops necessary for household survival. The Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (2004) points out that , the chronic illness that accompany deteroration of the immune system deplete household assets, reduce labour, and lead to reduced crop production. The Ministry further states that, in Zimbabwe, one survey found that agricultural output declined by nearly 50percent among households affected by AIDS illness and deaths. Frequent funeral attendance also affects land use and agricultural productivity.

In addition the Ministry states that, woman headed households are particularly vulnerable. This vulnerability is especially important because women in carandiru movie rural areas are 1:35 more times likely to be infected than men, and they constitute the majority of infections. This situation negatively affects agricultural production because women provide the bulk of agricultural labour. When a family member becomes ill with AIDS related opportumistic infections, it is usually the woman who cares for the sick person. They then face competing demands to maintain crop production, care for family members suffering from `Aids, and quotes protect their own health.

Furthermore the on Protocol Ministry of house five, Health and Child Welfare argue that admit deaths from AIDS often lead to Essay on How Family Life Has Changed in Britain a loss of traditional knowledge of agricultural practices. Skills may not be transferred to either children or relatives, which has negative implication for slaughter house five food production. When mothers die, children are usually forced to take the place of adults in the subsistance economy, this increasing child labour and lowering productivity. Overtime, HIV and theory Aids can contribute to declines in land use, crop yields, and slaughter five crop variety. FAO (2001) argues that agriculture, particularly food production, is affected in several ways by HIV and AIDS.

First, there is a toll on the agricultural labour force. Carandiru Movie? FAO estimated that in the 27 most affected countries in Africa, 7 million agricultural workers have died from slaughter house five quotes AIDS since 1985, and 16 million more deaths are likely in the next two decades. In the carandiru movie most effected countries which include Nambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa and just to mention a few, labour force diseases ranging from quotes 10 26 percent are anticipated. Secondly, FAO states that AIDS affects food production, through sickness and death. Remote fields tend to be lift follow and the total output of the agricultural unit declines. Switching from labour intensive crops to less demanding ones has been observed, animal husbandry and livestock production may decline, post production, food storage and processing are in period, a breakdown in support services occurs as staff fall ill, and credit for agricultural production may be diverted for the medical care of the prince summary, sick relatives, funeral expenses and food. Thirdly, FAO states that HIV and AIDS can have a detrimental effect an commercial production.

On small farms, cash crops may be abandoned because there is not enough labour for both cash subsistence crops. The reported reduced cultivation of cash crops and labour intensive crops by small farmers also affects food availability at national level. Slaughter House Five? Furthermore, FAO states that the Slowing the Wound By Psychological impact of HIV and AIDS on agricultural production and food availability well be felt in terms of quantity and quality of food. House Quotes? For example in Zimbabwe, communal argue cultural output has decreased 50 percent in a five year period, largely due to HIV and AIDS. The production of maize, cotton, sunflowers and groundnuts has been particularly affected.

According to the Ministry of Health and Essay on Kyoto Child Welfare (2004), the health sector is slaughter, hit particularly herd by the epidemic. The treatment of opportumstic infections resulting from AIDS is expensive and is straining the delivery of all health services in Stress Essay the country. HIV and AIDS patients command a disproportionate share of slaughter five quotes, bed at Essay on Protocol, health centres and hospitals. Increasing expenditures on AIDS diverts spending from other health care needs. The Ministry estimated that the cost of conventional care for HIV and AIDS related illnesses the budget by about 60 percent. Slaughter Quotes? Health providers are also affected. Some become infected themselves and large numbers suffer from the intense physical and the prince summary emotional strain of dealing with AIDS patients.

The quality of health services has also been greatly affected due to high AIDS related mortality and sickness among health workers. Slaughter House Quotes? In addition, the Ministry of Health and summary Child Welfare argues that the epidemic also affects the sector in other ways. For example, the slaughter house five spread of HIV in Southern Africa has caused a surge in tuberculosis (TB) cases. Neo Malthusian Theory? This is caused by the immune system which has been weakened by HIV, such that it can no longer control the latest infection and full blown tuberculosis can develop. Many other diseases are also on the increase due to HIV and AIDS, such as different cancers and meningitis. FAO (2001) i. e. of the new that providing drugs for slaughter quotes HIV infected individuals has exorbilant costs; these expenditures are beyond the reach of many governments and most individuals. Treatment costs of HIV and AIDS patients are very high and the increase d burden on government will divert funds from productive investments.

Moreover, Avert (2013) argues that taking care of a person sick with Aids is not only an emotional strain for household members, but also a major strain on household resources. Loss of income, additional care related expenses, the the Wound reduced ability of caregivers to work, and mounting medical fees push affected households deep into poverty. HIV and AIDS impacts education in several ways Jacksen (2002) argues that it reduces the pool of personnel as teachers, managers and support staff become ill and die, and it increases the costs of maintain educational services and the need for education (to replace staff in all sectors who are dying in rising numbers ). The actual demand for education, however, typically declines. Jacksen further argues that AIDS impoverishes many families who can no longer afford school fees and uniforms. When their parents die, many girls are withdrawn from school to care for the sick or for house five quotes younger siblings. In Zimbabwe for example, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare points out that HIV and AIDS are causing considerable turbulence in the education sector as the epidemic affects the supply of educational services, the demand for education, and the overall management of the system. According to the Ministry of on How Family Has Changed in Britain, Education, Sports and slaughter quotes Culture study in 2002, four out of five school heads say that the epidemic is seriously undermining the provision of quality education. Essay On How Life Has Changed? The study revealed that teachers are at a high risk of HIV infection. AIDS among teachers is slaughter five quotes, resulting in Slowing Healing By Psychological increased absenteeism and poor quality of instruction by infected and or affected staff. Training costs for teachers and slaughter five quotes other education officers are rising to replace those lost to the epidemic.

Experienced teachers who die as result of AIDS are often replaced by untrained teachers in additional to that the Ministry of Health and machiavelli the prince Child Welfare further argues that because on AIDS death to an adult results in the loss of house five quotes, household labour and income, children are often required to leave school and remain at machiavelli the prince, home or go to work to compensate for loss and to avoid school costs. Orphans often lose the necessary financial, material and slaughter house five quotes emotional support that they need for successful schooling. Wagt and Connolly (2002) point out that, when a parent becomes ill, the education of break poem, a child is five, disrupted. There is a decline in school attendance, decline in school performance because children stay home to care for sick parents, they have increased household responsibilities and need to care for young children. They suffer from emotional distress that interferes with school and they have less money for school expenses. Although HIV and AIDS epidemic may affect overall economic growth, its economic consequences are more often considered in on How Life Has Changed terms of their impact on household poverty, on the economic success of firms and on government revenue and expenditures (Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, 2004). According to slaughter house five quotes the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, economic impacts are most severe for households, this include loss of employment, loss of household productivity and By Psychological Essay income, increased health expenditures, erosion of savings and funeral and mourning costs. FAO (2001) asserts that at house quotes, household level a downward spiral of the family or households welfare begins when the first admit in a household falls ill. There is an increased spending for health care decreased productivity and higher demands for care. Food production and income drop dramatically as more adults are affected. Once savings are gone, the family seeks support from relatives, borrows money, sells its productive assets.

Children are forced to discontinue schooling, as the Essay on Kyoto Protocol family needs help and cannot pay school expense. House? When AIDS patient dies, expenditures are incurred for the funeral and the productive capacity of the household in reduced. In addition, the toll of HIV and AIDS on households can be very severe. Although no part of the population is unaffected by HIV, it is often the poorest sectors of machiavelli summary, society that are most vulnerable to house five quotes the epidemic and for carandiru movie whom the consequences are most severe. In many cases, the presence of Aids causes the household to dissolve, parents die and children are sent to relatives for care and up bringing (May, 2008). Victoria (2009) states that child bearing is another major driver of family formation and building in Southern Africa. Instead, Victoria states that HIV and AIDS has been shown to exert a downward pressure on fertility in HIV infected people, and to a lesser extent on fertility in the general population in high prevalence countries. In HIV infected people, many factors have been shown to contribute to reduced fertility including biological effects on the fecuadity of HIV infected women and the indirect effects of reductions in sexual activity and new partners, a desire to avoid subsequent pregnancies, the use of house five, condoms to prevent HIV transmission and the negative impact of HIV and AIDS on the quality and stability of relationships.

Avert (2013) points out that, HIV and AIDS affect labour, setting back economic and social progress. AIDS damages businesses by squeezing productivity, adding costs, diverting productive resources, and depleting skills. Company costs for health care, funeral benefits and pension fund commitments are likely to rise as the number of people taking early retirement or dying increases. Avert further asserts that as the Essay on Protocol impact of the epidemic on households grows more severe, market diamond for products and services can fall. The epidemic hits productivity through increased obseltceism In addition Avert argues that HIV and AIDS has played an important role in the reversal of human development in Africa. One way in which HIV and AIDS affects the economy is by reducing the labour supply through increased mortality and illness. Slaughter Five Quotes? Amongst those who are able to work, productivity is likely to decline as a result of HIV related illness. Government income also declines, as tax revenues fall and governments are pressured to increase their spending to Stress Essay deal with the expanding HIV epidemic. Slaughter House Quotes? Revenues drop because of the declining productivity in the economy.

At the same time, expenditure demands increase to deal with the multi-sectoral impacts of the epidemic. In addition HIV and AIDS economically eats government budget, forces companies to employ more people company productivity brought down, government revenue is reduced as taxation goes down and it also affects the machiavelli the prince summary investment climate. The Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (2004) also asserts that, one of the most serious consequences of the HIV and Aids epidemic is the rapid increase in the number of quotes, orphans has risen dramatically in the country, largely as a consequence of the Essay on HIV and AIDS epidemic. In addition, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare assert that the need to provide care and support for the large number of orphans is placing considerable strain on social systems. At the family level, the extended family, which has the traditional responsibility to slaughter quotes care for orphans, is under ever increasing pressures. Many grandparents are being left to care for young children. In other cases, children and adolescents are heading families themselves. At the community and national levels, there is an increased demand to provide health, education, and care for these children. Many (2003) argues that, in neo malthusian many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, Aids is erasing decades of progress in extending life expectancy. In the five quotes worst affected countries, average life expectancy has fallen by twenty years because of the epidemic. For example, life expectancy at birth in Swaziland, which has the highest HIV prevalence in the world, is Slowing the Wound By Psychological, just 48.

7 years. The impact that Aids has on average life expectancy is partly attributed to child mortality as increasing numbers of babies are born with HIV infections acquired from their mothers. However, even though HIV and AIDS have negative impacts on the socio-economic development, it also have some positive impacts, especially on the socio-economic development. The prolife ration of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in Africa, which include the Sub-Saharan Africa created employment for many people. Creation of employment has led to the reduction of poverty as those infected by HIV and AIDS epidemic are employed in house these organizations.

The infected and affected are also given food and this has reduced poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some organizations also provide funds to machiavelli assist the orphans through payment of school fees. Quotes? To conclude, HIV and AIDS have drastically affected household economies, reducing human capital, agricultural productivity, and labour supply, and in turn reversing progress towards meeting the Millenium Development Goals agreed upon by leaders from around the world in 2000. It in turn reverses progress towards meeting other development challenges. HIV and AIDS affects not only the health of infected individual, but the socio-economic status of the individuals, their families and neo malthusian theory their broader community. The social and economic impacts of HIV and Aids include health, agriculture and slaughter five quotes food security, education, economy and orphans.

To a lesser extent, HIV and AIDS has contributed to the creation of employment through the proliferation of on Protocol, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).