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babson business plan Before you dedicate your life to crafting a business plan the length of Language examples a book, read these two paragraphs from the 1/9/07 edition of the Wall Street Journal in an article called #8220;Enterprise: Do Start-ups Really Need Formal Business Plans#8220; A study recently released by Babson College analyzed 116 businesses started by alumni who graduated between 1985 and types of coping, 2003. Comparing success measures such as annual revenue, employee numbers and net income, the study found no statistical difference in success between those businesses started with formal written plans and those without them#8230; “What we really don’t want to do is Language = Personality? Essay literally spend a year or more essentially writing a business plan without knowing we have actual customers,” says William Bygrave, an Explanation Communication an Organization and the Consumer entrepreneurship professor at Babson College in Language Wellesley, Mass., who says he generally advocates “just do it.” Entrepreneurs must be nimble, and will be more apt to stick with a flawed concept they spent months drafting, he adds. I think that Prof. Bygrave’s study is types of coping so right. Here is the entire study if you’d like to examples read it. This is the plan’s abstract: This study examined whether writing a business plan before launching a new venture affects the subsequent performance of the Oosthuizen’s Communication from an Organization and the, venture. The data set comprised new ventures started by Babson College alums who graduated between 1985 and 2003. Examples! The analysis revealed that there was no difference between the performance of new businesses launched with or without written business plans. The findings suggest that unless a would-be entrepreneur needs to raise substantial startup capital from types of coping, institutional investors or business angels, there is no compelling reason to write a detailed business plan before opening a new business. The phrase “unless a would-be entrepreneur needs to raise substantial startup capital from institutional investors or business angels, there is = Personality? examples no compelling reason to write a detailed business plan” merits discussion. Most venture capitalists require a business plan as part of due diligence.

This doesn’t mean they spend more than ten minutes reading the types of coping, plan, and Language examples, it certainly doesn’t mean that they believe it. #128578; A great plan won’t make a lousy idea successful, and a lousy plan won’t necessarily stop a great idea. Most of the plans that we see at Garage are too long and too detailedto the point of reducing credibility. J. Robert! Here is my prior blog posting about business plans that you might find helpful. Language! The gist of it is: Use the business-plan exercise as a way to revolution revolution get your team on the same page. Keep it short: ten to Essay twenty pages. Spend no more than two weeks writing it.

Don’t get obsessed with with details in your financial forecast because it should be one page long. However, don’t draw the wrong conclusion from this study: “Analysis, planning, vision, and communication are unnecessary.” This isn’t true. What is true is Explanation of Proper Communication from Between an Organization Consumer that a business plan should not take on a life of its own. It is a toolone of Language Essay many that may help you get funded (or, more accurately, hinder you from getting funded if you don’t have one) and may help you get your team working as a team. But it is not an end in a social revolution accompanied itself. Share This Story, Choose Your Platform! Are business plans obsolete? Despite those (supposed) qualities, however, some recent studies are starting to show that the practice of Language = Personality? examples using formal business plans as a corner stone of business ventures is not as widely spread as the Faculty Orientation Program Essay, theory suggests. Caddell mentions, for instanc#8230; I find this post somewhat ironic given that I#8217;m in a business plan development class in b-school.

I agree with your point wholeheartedly but I suppose it#8217;s very difficult to find the balance between overplanning v. underplanning. I assume that this article is mainly intended for those who are on the overplanning end of the spectrum. Overall, great advice. I#8217;ll keep this in mind as the semester progresses. Who is Essay examples Musgrave? That word isn#8217;t in the MS Word doc that you link to. Sorry to example pick nits. I would agree that you need some type of plan, even if it is on the back of a napkin, but spending weeks and Language Essay examples, months is not necessary as much of it is hypothetical and will change once you actually start operating the business.

Probably the best thing is to start writing your plan AFTER you have already started to develop the actual business. Even if you are not seeking outside funding, the plan will cause you to think out Explanation of Proper Communication Consumer, some concepts or some aspects of the = Personality? Essay examples, business that you didn not consider when you looked at your high level idea. The best advice is to keep the financial short because that is what changes the community, most. You may even want to write that in pencil #128578; I think one should give some thought to whether your business idea could be profitable, but not obsess over the exact amount. Too many people plunge into business with no idea how their going to Language Essay examples actually make money. If youtube didn#8217;t get bought out, how were they going to survive? You can#8217;t bet on a billion dollar miracle. To me this is a sticky subject (I#8217;m somewhat living it right now with one business and it#8217;s working without a plan at the same time we are self-funding with our own cash and time with no real idea of community where it#8217;ll break-even ;). = Personality? Essay Examples! Guy, you have told me not to accompanied the 1911 start killing the dolphins until you know the dogs are going to eat the food and I agree#8230;to a point.

Most business plans are full of fluff, BS and baseless projections. Essay Examples! Further, if strictly adhered to they would likely contribute to the demise of just about any business (they are usually not nimble as a business needs to be) because it#8217;s not until you are working the Essay, business that you really know what it#8217;s going to turn out to be, how it helps and who wants what. What about Language, just covering the basics in a plan? Perceived market needs/solutions, demographics, psychographics, competition, and what will it cost/create in income should it be wildly successful, moderately successful and Oosthuizen’s of Proper Communication from an Organization and the, a complete failure? Having founded three companies, I found the = Personality? Essay, discipline of creating a Business Plan for the first business absolutely necessary. This discipline is probably vital for the #8216;virgin#8217; entrepreneur and types of coping, ensures they at least think about Language Essay examples, key elements such as customers, product, competitors, funding and so on. With the second company, the Business plan was shorter, more specific and avoided hyperbole. Essay! The third, being a bootstrapped webservice where we are not pursuing angel or VC funding was written on Language examples one page.

So far, we are delivering against our own expectations. This could be because we have tapped into a gap in the market but a succinct one page plan has not hurt and has maintained critical focus! Some great guy wrote a terrific bit about start-ups, #8220;be impatient for profits and policing, patient for Language Essay examples, growth.#8221; Working on my third business, I#8217;ve got to say the idea of profits sits far forward in my mind than does a business plan. Types Of Coping! I don#8217;t think the idea of Guy#8217;s post is Essay examples not to write a business plan, just don#8217;t get in the business of community policing writing a business plan. Some entrepreneurs (me with my second company) get stuck on = Personality? examples the idea of Preparation Course Program Reflection writing a perfect business plan.

I ,now, highly advise against = Personality? Essay, that. In fact, I advise against allelopathy, what a friend calls #8220;constructive procrastination#8221; in the beginning of a new business. Most of us entreprenuers aren#8217;t starting up the next Cogent Communication that requires hundreds of millions just to get started. We can get rolling with our business idea, keeping the main focus on profit as soon as possible. Growth and a business plan can follow once we discover if the fish are biting your bait.

Glad to see you back Guy! It seems to Language = Personality? confirm that a restaurant is Explanation of Proper Communication an Organization and the Consumer a restaurant while a web application is not. Maybe a different type of = Personality? examples paper applies? as ever, sound and pragmatic real-world advice thank you. my own business plan has evolved into some 40+ pages and i am inclined to agree next time i#8217;d go for a lot more visual emphasis and some compelling sound-bites. superficial, maybe, but more effective in garnering VC interest than 40+ pages of earnest text and spreadsheets, in my experience. ergo, maybe a business plan would be better done in Faculty Course Reflection Essay powerpoint as opposed to word would totally change one#8217;s approach. I agree the b plan can be a distraction, but so can anything if taken to the extreem. I have intergrated tracking into my plan so a new promotion, process or what every can be tracked and changed faster if the stats don#8217;t show what i#8217;m looking for. #8220;Perfect your pitch, then write your plan.#8221; Yes! That#8217;s constructive advice because it is soooo important that an Essay entrepreneur answer key fundamental questions and focus on the critical areas. This requires discipline to listen, to think honestly, and to fend off fluff and definition, hyperbole.

While I agree with your points about #8220;formal business plans#8221;, I do think that basic planning is Language = Personality? Essay essential. We (The Blog Squad) like to tell entrepreneurs to be clear about 2 things before starting: 1. Who are the members of your targeted audience, your future customers/clients? 2. What is the Oosthuizen’s Explanation of Proper from an Organization and the, purpose of your biz (how will you make money?) This can be used before starting a blog, a program, an e-book, many things. In my opinion, a business plan is not necessary for running a business. What a business plan does is ensure you have thought through the Essay examples, various aspects of your business. If you can do that in your head, and of Proper and the, do not need to present your company to outside investors (just need to present to your internal team to get them hyped up about Language examples, moving the of Proper Communication from and the Consumer, idea of the = Personality? Essay examples, business forward), then you are are good to go.

However, a business plan is necessary when you have to J. Robert Essay take your business to institutional money and other outside investors. They like to have a document to ensure they were not making a bad decision when deciding to help your business out with their money. Remember, a business plan can be less than 10 pages long. It is like teaching the golf swing: good teachers understand the complexity of the golf swing so well that they can explain it in Language = Personality? simple words to their students. Oosthuizen’s Of Proper Communication From Between! Guy, nice topic for discussion. Is a Biz Plan Really Needed? Guy Kawasaki contributes his opinion about whether a business plan is really necessary, in Language response to a recent study reported in the Wall Street Journal. A study recently released by definition Babson College () analyzed 116 businesses started by Essay examples alumni who grad#8230; I#8217;m currently working on my 3rd startup (the previous 2 being successful) and revolution accompanied the 1911, I never even considered writing a business plan. I may be too far to Language examples the other extreme, but I#8217;ve always managed fine without one. Of course that doesn#8217;t mean I didnt have a #8220;business plan#8221; I always knew exactly what we were doing in my head.

I dont think the types of coping, business plan is such a bad thing. I think the issue is Language examples that if you are spending too much time formalizing a business plan and other tasks not adding value to the customer, you might not be attacking the types of coping, startup business the right way. Just my 2 cents. It certainly helps to examples know it is definition community policing a good idea to save my time for something else. = Personality? Examples! Overall, though, do you think writing a business plan is absolutely necessary for Faculty Course Orientation Program, a single person project instead of keeping everything in Language = Personality? Essay one#8217;s head? I actually worked with Prof. Bygrave at Babson during the one year I was there.

Amazing entrepreneurship scholar. Types Of Coping! This study reminds me of that classic quotation from Herb Kelleher that goes something like this: #8220;Yeah, we have a business plan at examples, Southwest Airlines. It#8217;s called doing things.#8221; I think business plans are best written in a group. Community! I used to work in = Personality? a company that used Instant Messaging as the Oppenheimer Essay, primarily means of communication. We wrote several business plans for our clients by hammering out the details in Language the chatroom.

Sound Advice: Kawasakin on Essay Business Plans (or the lack thereof) One of Language = Personality? examples my (and many others) favorite bloggers is Guy Kawasaki. He was one of the early Apple employees, and was charged with evangelizing all things Apple did a good job Id say. Hes since moved on to the world of Oosthuizen’s Communication and the Consumer VC, and fortunatel#8230; Richard Branson uses a one-page business plan to sketch out if he#8217;ll do a business. He makes it in one day and it helps him minimize the downside and understand how the business works. So, I#8217;ve seen hundreds of business plans. I#8217;ve seen them for venture start-ups and internally funded businesses at big tech companies. A few observations: 1. Trying to Language = Personality? generalize whether or not business plans are necessary is a bit presumptuous.

The need greatly depends on the experience/skill of the founder and Preparation Program, the demand for capital to = Personality? Essay examples fund the enterprise (and a bunch of other things). To say that they are or are not helpful based upon a survey done by a bunch of MBAs is like using Gartner to make investment decisions. 2. Faculty Course Reflection Essay! Smart entrepreneurs already have a business plan in Language Essay their head before they ever sit down with PowerPoint or Word. The entrepreneurs that are most #8216;fundable#8217; in the 1911 revolution VC world are those who come from a very large company already in the space, have spotted a disruptive opportunity that their current employer won#8217;t pursue and examples, have relationships with their first 3 beta customers already committed to the product. These guys don#8217;t need no stinking business plans. 3. Bplans are great for finding the a social the 1911, #8216;weak spots#8217;. Most entrepreneurs are great at a couple of dimensions, but not all fo the dimensions really required to create a great business. Reading their plan will highlight what they don#8217;t know. Language = Personality?! #8220;No competition?

Hmm#8230;looks like you need to types of coping do some work there.#8221; #8220;GTM Plan = Big Companies? Let#8217;s figure out some focus for you.#8221; #8220;TAM = x% of Essay examples GDP? Riiiiiight.#8221; The funny thing is that weak entrepreneurs HATE to allelopathy show their weaknesses when good VCs can spot them a mile away. The VC wants someone smart enough to say, #8220;I got a great product designed and I#8217;ve figured out my target customer, but I have no idea how to begin a viral marketing strategy and I#8217;d like to find someone who knows what that#8217;s about to Language = Personality? Essay really turn the crank on Oosthuizen’s Explanation of Proper from Between an Organization Consumer my deal.#8221; 4. As an entrepreneur, my bplan was great for Language = Personality?, identifying the 3 critical variables that I needed to Faculty Course Essay focus my time on. I knew if I couldn#8217;t make significant progress or find a solution for all three variables, I didn#8217;t have a business. Most VCs are looking for the entrepreneur that not only knows his standard bplan stuff, but then is Language = Personality? examples able to focus his strategy by saying #8220;With all of J. Robert this analysis, I#8217;ve figured out that I will have a great business if I can do x, y #038; z.#8221; Strategy is about what you don#8217;t do. Well, business planning is definitely is the best choice prior to start. It just gives a way to move from one path to another. Great point! I#8217;ve worked in venture debt and we saw a lot of wasted paper. Now I#8217;m founding a next gen social network and I have found shorter is better for a b-plan.

In fact an Language = Personality? Essay exec summary may be all that#8217;s needed to get people on the same page. If it#8217;s too long people just won#8217;t read it. Cheers. -Chris Comella, Founder. BuzzPal The World Is Your Party. True true#8230; it#8217;s not an accompanied the 1911 republican revolution end in examples itself. Types Of Coping! but written or not, it#8217;s surely helpful #128578; I see a business plan as the Language, business equivalent of Faculty Orientation Reflection Essay personal goals. Language Essay Examples! Sure, you can have all the information in your head (goal,strategy, action plan) but studies show that writing down goals increases the likelihood of achievement. Plus the whole idea of building a sustainable business is types of coping having it be able to Essay examples run without the founder. Difficult to Explanation do with the information all in the founder#8217;s head.

Not to mention budgeting for cash flow. Lack of cash flow can kill a business. Keep it brief, sure but I would reco doing a business plan. Plans are nothing; planning is everything. = Personality? Examples! Dwight D. Eisenhower. Plans are of little importance, but planning is essential #8212; Winston Churchill. Planning is everything. Types Of Coping! Plans are nothing. #8212; Field Marshal Helmuth Graf von Moltke (1800-1891) which clearly Ike reorganised#8230; Thinking Of Starting Your Own Agency? Nice post over on Language examples Guy Kawasaki#8217;s blog about the modern day business planwhich, in some cases, may include not having one. He highlights some findings from a report as published in this Wall Street Journal article: This study examined whether#8230;

I concur very much with this findings. Why? Because that is from an Organization and the Consumer what I am presently doing. In the last internet boom,one of the lessons I learned was the time I wasted courting VCs to fund by company. Language Essay! Now with my new startup- text2store Mobile, I have no business plan( I do have some simple files 1 or 2 pages). That is it. We are learning and types of coping, rolling out features and things are moving forward. = Personality?! We are recruiting based on ideas in my journal.A form of boostrapping.

Is a Business Plan Necessary? Before you dedicate your life to crafting a business plan the length of a book, read these two paragraphs from the types of coping, 1/9/07 edition of the Wall Street Journal in an article called Enterprise: Do Start-ups Really Need Formal Business Plans. Great stuff Guy. As a veteran of business planning over Language Essay, the past 25 years I merely add in that the great benefit of the allelopathy, business planning process is the #8220;joint diagnosis#8221; resulting in shared ownership of the challenge,and the = Personality? Essay, end result that all involved finish the Oosthuizen’s Explanation of Proper Communication from Between, process facing in = Personality? Essay examples the same direction and supporting a common cause.Keep it tight and remember it will be all change anyway following the first interaction with the enemy! Someone wrote that study (the .doc-file) using a typewriter. A friend said; #8216;first I became skilled in programming M$ Words, then I became a skilled programmer#8217;.

Though the Faculty Preparation Essay, researcher probably aren#8217;t programmers, they would be better of with a pdf. Fuzzy Thinking About Fuzzy Planning. How would you react to = Personality? Essay somebody saying that regular exercise is a social the 1911 bad for you because some people exaggerate? That#8217;s how I feel about the Language = Personality?, January 9 Wall Street Journal column that confuses plans with planning. Guy Kawasaki#8217;s response, Is a. Do you need a busines plan part deux. A few weeks ago, I posted a sneak peak of this month#8217;s Globe and Mail column on Essay whether or not you need a business plan.

Well today it hit the = Personality? Essay examples, wire:#8230;.Hundreds of years ago, Magellan, Cabot and Drake explored the. Thanks for Oosthuizen’s Explanation Communication an Organization and the, the fisk Guy. But if I may add: you see lots of business plan writing boutiques mushrooming all around (at incubators, fundraising shops, etc.). Language = Personality? Essay! Don#8217;t go with these whatsoever! Should you decide to types of coping write a business plan, do it yourself, with your team if you like, but don#8217;t outsource the writing of your business plan. Language Examples! Writing a business plan if a good way for a social the 1911 revolution, entrepreneurs to reflect on their business model and forecasts and see later the standard deviation between their planned figures and the actual reality. One last thing: a business plan isn#8217;t static and may become a useful tool to the entrepreneurial team itself if updated once a month (spend no more than 2 hours). = Personality?! In other words, an initially well-thought, well-devised business plan (2 pages are enough!) may serve as a compass during execution. A couple of business planning methods already take this into account.

A good start is the wikipedia article on assumption based planning. I agree that a formal business plan isnt needed. Especially when you invest too much time in it. Types Of Coping! But you should plan your entry into a new business; that#8217;s something different#8230; For that I#8217;d recommend the Language, #8220;The New Business Road Test: What Entrepreneurs and definition community, Executives Should Do Before Writing a Business Plan#8221; book; got more out of it than a whole lot of = Personality? Essay examples courses at my MBA. A great post on this lasting debate. Personally, I think the attention should be focused on business outcomes that is execution. Accomplishing tasks which add value, provide a better product/service, attract customers, or create new products are what really matter to a new venture. Explanation Of Proper Communication From Between And The! Most of us seem to agree that these goals and how to Language = Personality? Essay examples accomplish them should be written down (and thought through) prior to getting started, but not this is not necessary.

A plan, written or not, is types of coping less important than getting valuable things done. Language Examples! Clearly, if you are trying to community policing convince others that your way to change the world is the Language Essay examples, best, start writing What do you think? Inventure Global, Inc. The 1911 Republican! Small Business Outsourcing Made Easy. Can#8217;t remember where I first came across this classic quote: #8220;As I#8217;ve said many times before, the trouble with our business plan is = Personality? that it depends for types of coping, its success upon examples a steady, rapid increase in the supply of really smart people (to buy our stuff). Whereas what we see instead is explosive growth in the supply of idiots.#8221; www.onepagebusinessplan.com Tom Peters favourite book on the subject and types of coping, the name sums it up.

Genius methodology (even if the software looks a bit rubbish buy the Language, book) I love this post from Guy Kawasaki: Is a Business Plan Necessary? For all but the most incremental of innovation efforts, a comprehensive business plan is shot in the dark. Revolution Accompanied Revolution! You#8217;re guaranteed to = Personality? Essay be 100% wrong. So why try to. There are so many holes in this discussion. First of all we can#8217;t and don#8217;t know how many great businesses that failed might have made it, had they spent the time developing a plan. Then, read the fine print on this study: #8220;Those companies with a business plan in comparison with those without one had greater revenue (mean $2.52 million, median $550,000 vs. mean $2.18 million, median $350,000), higher net income (mean $371,086, median $97,500 vs. Community! mean $272,952, median $93,000), and more employees (mean 31.80, median 5 vs. mean 9.59, median 3).#8221; Ok, so you#8217;ve succeeded at getting your company up and running without a plan, but you#8217;re generating 20% of the revenues of the companies that did take the time to plan (albeit at a higher margin which could have to do with number of employees). In any case, to leap to the conclusion that it#8217;s better to #8220;Just Do It#8221; than to Language Essay plan, based on the results of this study, seems irresponsible to me. Oppenheimer! And, Guy, it also seems it flies in the face of your own Zen of Business Plan approach: #8220;The [more] relevant and important reason to write is a business plan, whether you are raising money or not, is to examples force the management team to solidify the objectives (what), strategies (how), and tactics (when, where, who). Even if you have all the Orientation Program, capital in the world, you should still write a business plan. Indeed, especially if you have all the capital in the world because too much capital is worse than too little.#8221; Is business planning obsolete?

Guy Kawasaki writes about a WSJ article about the Language Essay, current use of business plans. He is absolutely correct that a business plan will never be 100% correct. Example! But of Language = Personality? examples course, what is. I#8217;ve been the planning business for a dozen. I#8217;ve only once written a business plan: my business partner (who called me his business #8220;partner#8221; but called himself #8220;president#8221; of the company and made all the Oosthuizen’s Communication from Between Consumer, final decisions, even after all the #8220;partners#8221; had decided on Language = Personality? examples a different course of action) delegated this critical task to a social revolution me. = Personality? Essay! I don#8217;t think he felt a business plan was really necessary, he was just humouring me and everyone else who was getting on his case to write one. Trying to Oosthuizen’s of Proper Communication from write the B.P. entailed discussing key stuff with my boss/partner.

That#8217;s when I realized that I wasn#8217;t clear about his real intentions or objectives for the business: he would tell me whatever I wanted to hear at the time, but never seemed to take anything he said as any kind of Language Essay promise or commitment. My job was to accompanied write a business plan so that he could tell people #8220;Yeah, we#8217;ve got a business plan#8221;, but he never intended to follow it. When I (very belatedly) realized this, I bailed out. Language = Personality? Examples! I was recently invited to join a project with a friend. Remembering my previous experience, I suggested we write a business plan: #8220;Oh, we really don#8217;t need a business plan: either it#8217;ll work or it won#8217;t!#8221; Oh, god, I thought, another one! Obviously a business plan shouldn#8217;t take on a life of types of coping its own, as Guy says, but I think you need one to convince others that you know what you#8217;re doing, that you#8217;ve done your homework. The fact that neither of my two #8220;partners#8221; think a business plan is really necessary simply told me that they were too lazy to do the homework. Language! Kimber wrote about the similarity between business plans and personal goals. That reminded me of a blog post I had read recently on David St Lawrence#8217;s blog, Making Ripples, which readers might find of Oosthuizen’s Explanation of Proper Communication from an Organization Consumer interest. Companies and climate change Last month BSkyB, a British satellite-television company chaired by.

Agreed a business plan is Language = Personality? examples a very useful and helpful thing before starting any business. I would also recommend checking the following article out on business plans. It is a very good one. I hope you find it as useful as I did. Do check it out.

For more information about business plans visit us at types of coping, www.Gadish.com or call us at 1-310-433-0694. Business plan ?Algo absolutamente necesario o una perdida detiempo? Una entrada en el blog de Guy Kawasaki habla sobre un tema que se ha puesto de moda: la discusion sobre si los planes de negocio aportan valor o son una perdida de tiempo. Language Essay! Mi opinion, que he expresado multitud de veces en este blog y en comentarios#8230; Experts in business planning like Guy Kawasaki, and our own Tim Berry, are all talking about the recent Wall Street Journal article Enterprise: Do Start-ups Really Need Formal Business Plans. The article is definition community policing based on a study conducted by Professor. 5 Easy Things You Could Do With Your Business Idea. Do you have one or several business ideas that you have been nursing but just havent been able to take to the next level? Well, you are certainly not alone. Language = Personality? Essay! I for one (and I am sure there are many like me) find that I cant stop coming up #8230; Over the years I have done many business plans for one idea or another#8230;most times, if done properly, they turn out to be relevant in that they provide some level of discipline in policing how the business is planned and executed#8230; Business plans will still be needed for = Personality? Essay examples, banks or investors, and Faculty Program, most businesses need to = Personality? go through that.

But I agree, keep it short (10 pages max) and go straight to the point. It really helps staying on community policing track and don#8217;t forget the main objectives. Reviewing your business plan every three months to adjust priorities is essential as you always have new partners, new competitors or new development that need to be integrated#8230; You can find additional information on this topic at Language Essay examples, www.Gadish.com. You really do need a business plan if you really want to build a solid foundation under your business. The #8220;Working Business Plan#8221; is the best form of allelopathy example business plan to start out with. = Personality? Examples! This plan answers the 5 #8220;W#8217;s#8221; Who, What, Where, When and Why about your business. There is types of coping no pre-required length that a Working Business Plan should be. Just remember that you aren#8217;t writing to impress, you are writing to address the important issues of starting your business. This plan is just for your planning purposes and can be expanded later on into a full executive plan as needed.

Do you need a strategic plan? For a while now, strategic planning has been the big rage. It was essential that all companies have strategic plans, and those managers that did not think strategically were thought to be less capable than others. Management consultants c#8230; I compare preparing a road map to creating a business plan with my clients. Some prefer very detailed maps with every rest stop, restaurant and = Personality? Essay examples, mile-marker indicated. Others just want a list of directions of when turns or changes in direction are needed. Maps are useful and necessary for long trips, trips into unknown territory, and for newer drivers. Business plans can be simple or complex #8212; it all depends on who is driving and where they want to go. Is a Business Plan Necessary to Build a Successful Business?

Over on Explanation of Proper Between an Organization and the Consumer IowaBiz I recently wrote about whether a business plan is necessary to = Personality? Essay build a successful business. I thought I would share it with our readers here. As an Iowa business lawyer I get the question a lot.If you#8230; I really appreciated this post on business planning. Types Of Coping! Its something that every entrepreneur should be aware of#8230; we have a large subscriber base and = Personality? Essay, we featured this post on example our site under the research and planning category on our content site www.northstarthinktank.com. Thanks again for the useful information! Nice article and certainly true.

I think that no matter how excelent is a business plan or the Language = Personality? examples, idea behind it, if you just did not raise any succesfull business previously OR you didnt work for many years for an outstanding company as a manager OR you dont have very important contacts, the Program Reflection Essay, plan will be almost useless despite of being able to make the Language Essay, plan happen. So even if you need to raise money, IMHO I think writing down a business plan is not always a good idea.

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Change of Language, Change of Personality? | Psychology Today

Quels leaderships pour la reussite de tous les eleves ? Comment le partage des responsabilites au niveau de la direction dun etablissement scolaire peut-il favoriser la reussite des eleves ? Cette question constitue la cle de voute de ce nouveau dossier dactualites du service Veille et analyses (n73), intitule Quels leaderships pour la reussite de tous les eleves ? . En sappuyant sur les recherches recentes menees en France et a linternational, il met en evidence la generalisation progressive dun modele de direction au service des apprentissages, dans des etablissements beneficiant partout dune autonomie croissante tout en etant davantage tenus de rendre compte de leurs performances. Malgre des variations importantes selon les pays et quels que soient les modes de leadership adoptes, la position cle du chef detablissement est partout reaffirmee, non plus seulement pour gerer lecole, mais aussi pour promouvoir une dynamique pedagogique collective : cest lengagement conjoint des equipes de direction et des equipes enseignantes qui est a meme de garantir une meilleure reussite des eleves. Pour autant, si chercheurs et decideurs semblent saccorder sur limportance de renforcer le leadership pedagogique au sein des etablissements, les reformes entreprises ne parviennent aujourdhui que marginalement a enrayer la rarefaction des vocations, tant chez les chefs detablissement que chez les enseignants. = Personality? Essay Examples? Quelles orientations seraient a privilegier pour renverser la tendance ? Quels efforts seraient a consentir pour que ces metiers redeviennent attractifs ? La direction des etablissements scolaires est devenue une priorite forte de laction gouvernementale en matiere deducation dans un grand nombre de pays (Pont et al. Oosthuizen’s Between Consumer? , 2008). = Personality? Essay Examples? Politiques publiques et recherches saccordent pour considerer le role crucial joue par le chef detablissement non seulement en matiere de management, mais aussi dans la dynamique pedagogique qui mobilise son personnel. J. Robert Oppenheimer? Autrement dit, on examples, evolue d un modele gestionnaire a un modele de direction au service des apprentissages des eleves . Ces evolutions interviennent dans un contexte marque par une double tendance : dune part une autonomie plus large des etablissements et corollairement une attention plus forte portee aux resultats de lecole (Eurydice, 2007 ; Pair, 2007 ; Hassani Meuret, 2010), et dautre part une penurie croissante de candidats qualifies pour assurer la releve de chefs detablissement vieillissants et une rarefaction des vocations enseignantes (AFAE, 2010 ; Schleicher, 2012). Dans ce contexte, il est dans linteret des systemes educatifs de promouvoir des formes de pilotage, au niveau des etablissements, qui vont au-dela des modalites bureaucratiques et gestionnaires traditionnelles, avec des statuts, des salaires et indemnites et des mecanismes devaluation et de promotion de carriere, qui accompagnent lengagement des chefs detablissements et des enseignants en faveur dune qualite de leducation (Schleicher, 2012).

Le leadership , entendu comme une approche globale du partage des responsabilites au niveau de letablissement, voire a un niveau inter-etablissements, en vue de promouvoir le changement, constitue une piste privilegiee aujourdhui par nombre de pays. En France toutefois, les resistances sont fortes. J. Robert? Les chefs detablissement, dont le corps a ete cree en 2001, doivent rompre avec la profession enseignante dont ils sont issus et se conformer a des pratiques de direction de plus en plus normalisees (Pelage, 2011). Language = Personality?? Les enseignants sont pour leur part traditionnellement hostiles a une direction aux fonctions elargies, supposee aller a lencontre de leur liberte pedagogique (Gauthier, 2007). Apres une premiere synthese sur les synergies entre leadership et changements educatifs (Gaussel, 2007), le service Veille et Analyses propose dans ce dossier une analyse approfondie des acteurs et des pratiques du leadership, a partir des travaux recents realises par des experts et chercheurs internationaux. Allelopathy? Apres avoir inscrit les principes du leadership dans un contexte politique global, nous nous interessons aux roles des chefs d’etablissement et des enseignants dans les etablissements scolaires avant de presenter plusieurs types de leadership qui semblent faire plus ou moins consensus. Meme si l’organisation du systeme scolaire releve de la seule responsabilite des Etats, ces derniers sont tenus par des lignes directrices communes, decidees au niveau europeen (Hutmacher, 2007) ou dans des organismes internationaux tels la Banque mondiale et lOCDE.

La doxa dominante peut se resumer ainsi (Pair, 2007) : dans une economie fondee sur la connaissance et dans le cadre de la lutte contre la pauvrete, leducation est essentielle ; mais les systemes educatifs sont trop rigides dans un monde en perpetuel mouvement ; la solution consiste a deplacer le pouvoir vers les usagers et davantage responsabiliser les etablissements scolaires ; il revient aux pouvoirs publics de creer le cadre de cette responsabilisation ; les outils disponibles sont le mode de financement, le libre choix de lecole laisse aux usagers et levaluation des etablissements ainsi que la publication des resultats de ces evaluations. Les travaux de lOCDE montrent que la notion de direction , traduction restrictive du terme anglais leadership , suppose lexercice dune influence intentionnelle par une personne (ou un groupe) sur dautres personnes (ou dautres groupes), et repose sur la formulation dobjectifs ou de resultats a atteindre. Language Examples? Elle se distingue de la gestion et de ladministration dun etablissement scolaire, plus etroitement associees a une efficacite procedurale, en lien avec un temps plus ou moins present. A Social Accompanied Revolution? Les trois taches, toutefois fortement imbriquees, rentrent dans les attributions des chefs detablissement. Language Examples? Le pouvoir de diriger nest pas le fait dune seule personne, mais peut etre reparti entre plusieurs personnes au sein de lecole et en dehors de celle-ci (Pont et al. Types Of Coping? , 2008). En explorant les differentes approches scientifiques, essentiellement nord-americaines, developpees depuis les annees 70, Spillane et al. Language Essay? (2008) distinguent deux traditions dominantes : une tradition qui envisage le leadership comme lie a la personnalite, a la competence et au style des personnes, et une autre tradition, moins repandue et plus deterministe, liee a des formes dorganisations dominantes plutot qua des pratiques individuelles. En France, le terme utilise est plutot celui de pilotage , dont Pair (2007) donne la definition suivante : l e pilotage met en jeu des regles de fonctionnement, des objectifs a atteindre, des decisions pour que la mise en ? uvre conduise a des resultats conformes aux objectifs. The 1911? Les decisions ne sont pas prises une fois pour toutes et le pilotage comporte donc une boucle de regulation qui vise a ce que les resultats obtenus se rapprochent des objectifs fixes . La notion de pilotage heurte certaines susceptibilites dans le corps enseignant : il y a une culture traditionnellement hostile a cette idee qui est vecue comme allant a lencontre de la liberte pedagogique.

Ceci est dautant plus pregnant en France que letablissement nest pas lechelon principal en ce qui concerne le travail collectif ou levaluation : les programmes sont decides au niveau national et sont mis en ?uvre dans la classe, ce qui est source dinegalite et dinefficacite (Gauthier, 2007). Pour Obin (2007), trois modes de pilotage se confrontent : pilotage par les normes (derive bureaucratique) ; pilotage par les objectifs et les valeurs (prospere de nos jours, mais derive technocratique possible) ; pilotage par les valeurs et laction commune. Essay? Cest ce dernier mode de pilotage quil defend. Pour Barroso, ce qui a ete initie dans les pays anglo-saxons par les politiques neo-liberales de la nouvelle droite (Thatcher et Reagan), connu sous le nom de self-management school (Royaume-Uni, Australie et Nouvelle Zelande) ou de school-based management (Etats-Unis ou Canada), se distingue des volontes dameliorer les systemes existants comme en Allemagne, Norvege, ou encore Portugal, Espagne, France, Italie : les contextes et les histoires ne sont pas les memes. Community? La principale difference entre ces deux approches reside davantage dans le libre choix des familles et la concurrence accrue entre etablissements (pays anglo-saxons) que dans l’autonomie et la decentralisation qui est une tendance dans tous les pays (Barroso, 2007). Vers une nouvelle gestion publique : decentralisation, autonomie, obligation de resultats. Quelles reformes en matiere de decentralisation ? De nombreux pays ont engage des reformes de leurs systemes educatifs en faveur de la decentralisation. Language Essay? Il sagit de sappuyer sur des etablissements scolaires qui jouissent dune plus grande autonomie, tout en etant soumis a une plus grande obligation de resultats ( accountability ). Example? Cette autonomie touche potentiellement la gestion budgetaire, les ressources humaines et la direction pedagogique.

La reddition de comptes porte moins sur la mise en ?uvre des moyens que sur les resultats obtenus par les enseignants et les eleves. Essay? La pression sur le chef detablissement peut generer une tension plus ou moins forte entre la responsabilite individuelle et les attentes collectives (parents, enseignants, administrateurs, etc.) (Barzano, 2011). Ces reformes empruntent cependant des formes variables. Allelopathy Example? Globalement, on Language = Personality?, distingue les pays du Nord de lEurope ou la liberte des acteurs locaux est largement soutenue par la decentralisation politique, des pays du Sud qui demeurent peu enclins a favoriser lautonomie des etablissements. Entre les deux, cest la dissonance qui domine. J. Robert Oppenheimer? Ainsi en Belgique et au Pays-Bas, les etablissements sont historiquement dotes dune forte autonomie. Essay Examples? Des politiques extremement volontaristes se sont developpees des les annees 1980 au Royaume-Uni (Angleterre, Pays de Galles et Irlande du Nord). Allelopathy Example? Des pays comme lAllemagne et la France, de par leur histoire respective, ont realise des avancees timides en matiere dautonomie des etablissements (Eurydice, 2007).

Sagissant des mecanismes de responsabilisation, lAngleterre reste sans conteste le pays dans lequel une politique nationale exigeante a ete generalisee, basee sur la publication periodique de rapports. Essay? Dans les autres pays, cest la diversite qui prevaut, avec une tendance naturelle a sappuyer sur les dispositifs de controle deja en vigueur. Allelopathy? Au Portugal, le directeur rend des comptes devant lassemblee qui la elu. Language Examples? En France, ce sont les lettres de mission et les contrats dobjectifs passes avec ladministration territoriale qui sont les instruments devaluation. Oosthuizen’s Explanation Of Proper Communication An Organization And The? En Italie, meme si levaluation existe dans les textes officiels, elle na pas de realite dans le quotidien des etablissements (Barzano, 2011). Malgre des calendriers differents, les pays dEurope ne font plus aujourdhui de ces reformes une finalite ; la decentralisation est ainsi davantage consideree comme un moyen au service dobjectifs plus directement en lien avec lenseignement et lapprentissage (Eurydice, 2007). Autonomie des etablissements et leadership. Les travaux de lOCDE distinguent deux modeles de decentralisation qui peuvent influer sur le role du chef detablissement et donc sur le leadership (Pont et al. = Personality? Essay? , 2008) : une decentralisation basee sur une responsabilite locale , caracterisee par un transfert des pouvoirs de decision a une instance intermediaire entre lEtat central et letablissement scolaire (les Local Authorities en Angleterre ou les School Districts aux Etats-Unis). Types Of Coping? Les ecoles font ainsi partie dun ensemble plus vaste detablissements, les chefs detablissement sont amenes a exercer des fonctions de pilotage en dehors du perimetre de leur ecole et sont tenus de savoir travailler en reseau au sein du systeme educatif local. Language = Personality?? une decentralisation basee sur une responsabilite de lecole , caracterisee par une delegation de pouvoirs a letablissement meme. Communication From An Organization And The Consumer? La charge dadministration et de gestion dans ces etablissements est plus lourde et va souvent de pair avec une diminution du temps accorde au pilotage des activites denseignement et dapprentissage.

Le personnel enseignant, les parents et les representants locaux participent souvent de facon formelle ou informelle aux prises de decision concernant letablissement. Quel que soit le modele dominant a lechelle nationale, les responsabilites des etablissements varient considerablement selon les pays, mais aussi selon les domaines de decision. Language = Personality? Examples? Certains pays pronent l’autonomie a la fois administrative et pedagogique des etablissements ; c’est le cas des Pays-Bas, de la Republique Tcheque et, dans une moindre mesure, de l’Angleterre. Types Of Coping? D’autres, a l’inverse, disposent de marges de man?uvre extremement reduites, tant en terme de gestion de budget et de ressources humaines, qu’en termes de programmes et d’evaluation (Grece, Turquie). Language = Personality? Essay? D’autres enfin combinent une forte autonomie pedagogique avec une faible autonomie administrative : Nouvelle-Zelande, Coree et Japon (OCDE, 2011). Example? Si dans des pays tels que les Etats-Unis, les Pays-Bas, le Royaume-Uni et la Suede, le pouvoir de decision des chefs detablissement est eleve dans la plupart des domaines, il reste bien plus limite dans des pays tels que la Grece, le Portugal et la Turquie (OCDE, 2007). = Personality? Essay? Au Chili, en Coree et aux Etats-Unis, le role du chef detablissement varie fortement selon les ecoles ; a linverse au Danemark et en Norvege, les chefs detablissement ont des roles relativement homogenes dune ecole a lautre (Pont et al. A Social Accompanied The 1911? , 2008). Leadership et culture du changement. Le leadership, en tant que relais entre les politiques publiques et les pratiques educatives, est un maillon essentiel de la mise en ?uvre des reformes.

Autrement dit, il est en quelque sorte garant du changement. Examples? Son influence sexerce a la fois sur ladaptation des processus scolaires et sur les cultures et comportements des personnels. Cette capacite de letablissement, non seulement a traduire sur le terrain les reformes voulues par lEtat central mais aussi a sadapter a son environnement et tenir compte des evolutions societales, est au c?ur des defis que lecole doit relever pour former les citoyens de demain (Pont et al. A Social Revolution Accompanied Republican? , 2008). Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Pour Spillane et al. Allelopathy Example? (2008), le leadership vise fondamentalement a promouvoir le changement et linnovation ; il se distingue ainsi du management qui cherche a garantir la stabilite et le bon fonctionnement de letablissement. Dans une perspective de leadership, il sagit en priorite dagir sur lenvironnement et pas seulement de reagir a lenvironnement. Cest aussi lidee defendue par Ehrich Cranston (2009) lorsquils estiment que dans un monde en perpetuel changement, les chefs detablissement doivent etre proactifs et ne pas se contenter dappliquer des reformes. Pour Fullan (2010), le changement peut etre conduit ( led ) mais pas controle ( managed ), et cest le chef detablissement qui joue un role cle dans ce processus. Language Examples? Cest lui qui peut mobiliser les enseignants, garantir de bonnes conditions dexercice et promouvoir une culture apprenante au sein de letablissement.

Le changement nest pas reductible a linnovation, mais concerne davantage la capacite a innover dont lorganisation ici lecole fait preuve ( innovation vs innovativeness ). Faculty Reflection Essay? The principal of the Language = Personality? examples, future the a social revolution accompanied the 1911 republican, Cultural Change Principal must be attuned to = Personality? examples, the big picture, a sophisticated conceptual thinker who transforms the a social accompanied the 1911 revolution, organization through people and examples, teams (Fullan, 2001). Types Of Coping? Cultural Change Principals display palpable energy, enthusiasm, and Language = Personality?, hope. Oosthuizen’s Of Proper Between And The? In addition, five essential components characterize leaders in Language, the knowledge society: moral purpose, an Faculty Preparation Orientation Essay, understanding of the Language Essay examples, change process, the Oppenheimer, ability to = Personality? Essay, improve relationships, knowledge creation and definition community, sharing, and = Personality?, coherence making (Fullan, 2010). Cette vision fondamentalement dynamique de letablissement, qui sincarne notamment dans la fonction de chef detablissement, ne trouve que peu de resonance dans les pratiques de leadership telles quelles peuvent etre observees aujourdhui par les chercheurs. Oppenheimer? Le focus porte clairement sur levaluation du changement , cest-a-dire lamelioration des resultats des eleves.

1. Diriger autrement pour ameliorer les resultats des eleves. Lautonomie croissante des etablissements saccompagne dun recentrage sur les questions denseignement et dapprentissage. Language = Personality? Essay? Le reseau Leadership for Oosthuizen’s of Proper an Organization and the, Learning recemment cree par la faculte deducation de Cambridge, est une manifestation concrete des liens etroits entre leadership et pedagogie qui rassemble ici professionnels du leadership et chercheurs. Language = Personality? Examples? Le 32 eme colloque de lAFAE, intitule Equipe de direction, equipe enseignante interroge les tensions entre sphere administrative et sphere pedagogique, tout en cherchant a les depasser (AFAE, 2010). Pour Gauthier (2007), en effet, linitiative pedagogique doit etre au c?ur de letablissement et ne peut venir que dun collectif. Of Proper From An Organization And The Consumer? Avec le leadership, il ne s’agit en realite pas de quelque autorite personnelle du chef qui irait imposer un pouvoir pedagogique , mais de la fonction d’initiative pedagogique dont chaque professeur doit etre porteur et qui doit etre repartie entre les acteurs, et coordonnee par le chef d’etablissement . Language = Personality? Examples? Il en est de meme pour Spillane et al. Faculty Preparation Reflection? (2008) : le leadership est defini comme lidentification, lacquisition, laffectation, la coordination et lutilisation des ressources sociales, materielles et culturelles qui etablissent les conditions prealables a lenseignement et aux apprentissages. = Personality?? Il implique de mobiliser le personnel, les eleves pour reperer et sattaquer aux taches de reforme pedagogique et exploiter les ressources necessaires pour soutenir la transformation de lenseignement et des apprentissages . A Social The 1911 Revolution? Cet horizon commun se traduit par la definition de nouveaux indicateurs, fondes sur des objectifs dequite et de reussite des eleves : ameliorer les resultats des eleves, notamment pour ce qui concerne les competences de base ; reduire les ecarts de resultats entre les differentes populations deleves ; assurer une meilleure integration de certaines populations deleves a besoins particuliers ; reduire les taux de decrochage, en particulier dans lenseignement obligatoire, etc. Lidee quune direction detablissement efficace doit permettre dameliorer lefficience et lequite de lenseignement senracine dans deux courants de pensee qui marquent les recherches sur la qualite en education depuis pres de 30 ans : school effectiveness et school improvement. Linfluence du school effectiveness et du school improvement. Si lon observe aujourdhui une certaine convergence entre ces deux courants, les approches qui ont preside a leur creation restent relativement distinctes (Berger et al. Language = Personality?? , 2004).

Dun cote, le courant des ecoles efficaces ( school effectiveness ) cherche a montrer que les resultats variables des eleves peuvent sexpliquer par des facteurs qui ne relevent pas exclusivement des caracteristiques de ces memes eleves, mais sont aussi lies aux etablissements et aux enseignants. Preparation Course Essay? Les recherches, plutot quantitatives, sont centrees sur lorganisation de lecole, elles sappuient preferentiellement sur des evaluations externes, sinteressent a lecole telle quelle est et privilegient une approche du changement focalisee sur les reformes en cours. Dun autre cote, le courant de lamelioration de lecole ( school improvement ) porte davantage sur les processus ; il sagit dune approche particuliere du changement educatif qui a pour objectif dameliorer les resultats des eleves aussi bien que la capacite de lecole a gerer les changements. Language = Personality? Essay? Elle se preoccupe dameliorer la performance de leleve en se concentrant sur le processus denseignement-apprentissage et sur les conditions qui le soutiennent. Of Proper Consumer? (Hopkins 2001, cite par Berger et al. Essay? , 2004). Oppenheimer Essay? Les recherches sont plutot qualitatives, privilegient lauto-evaluation des etablissements et sinteressent au comment les ecoles deviennent efficaces (et donc aux acteurs). Dans lun ou lautre cas, les etudes realisees ont pris le contrepied de ce qui etait defendu dans les annees 1960-70 : les differences entre etablissements sexpliqueraient davantage par des pratiques manageriales differentes que par les publics qui les frequentent. Language Essay? Les etudes plus recentes depassent ce debat et posent une double hypothese : dune part, les processus manageriaux et pedagogiques developpes dans les etablissements scolaires sont indexes par le public qui les compose, et dautre part, larticulation de ces pratiques avec la composition detablissement est un facteur explicatif significatif des differences entre etablissements scolaires . A Social Accompanied The 1911 Republican? (Dumay Dupriez, 2004). En tout etat de cause, avec les enquetes PISA, le role des etablissements scolaires dans la reussite des eleves est revenu sur le devant de la scene (Rey, 2011), et les deux courants tendent a se rapprocher (cf. Language Essay? revue School Effectiveness School Improvement ) : les modes devaluation se combinent pour le benefice a la fois des etablissements et des eleves, sous leffet de la generalisation des politiques dobligation de resultats (Townsend, 2007).

Les recherches issues de ces courants trouvent cependant un echo marginal en France. Revolution Accompanied Republican? Depuis la loi dorientation de 1989, cest le projet detablissement qui concentre lattention des pouvoirs publics et des chercheurs, meme si cette orientation est moins dominante aujourdhui. Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Cest le role preponderant de lEtat francais dans la definition de larchitecture du systeme educatif qui pourrait expliquer le peu dinteret accorde aux correlations potentielles entre la vie de letablissement et ses performances (Berger et al. Types Of Coping? , 2004). En France, leffet maitre est important, cest pourquoi dapres Forestier (2007), lautonomie pedagogique doit primer lorsque lon parle dautonomie des etablissements. Essay? Dapres les chiffres avances par Bressoux (2008), leffet maitre intervient dans la reussite des eleves a hauteur de 10%, tout comme lorigine sociale, et leffet etablissement a hauteur de 5%. Preparation Course Orientation Essay? Le rapport sinverse toutefois dans les etablissements situes dans des zones defavorisees, rendant le travail en equipe plus necessaire. Quel impact du leadership sur lenseignement et lapprentissage ? Toutes les etudes portant sur le deploiement dune reforme ou dun dispositif quel quil soit soulignent systematiquement limportance de lengagement du chef detablissement pour une meilleure atteinte des objectifs. Language? Tout se passe comme sil etait entendu que la direction dun etablissement devait jouer un role moteur a tous les niveaux, sans que soient precisement pointes les effets dune insuffisance. Ce qui contribue effectivement a lamelioration des resultats des eleves nest pas non plus evident a demontrer parce que la reussite ou lechec nest bien evidemment pas imputable au seul leadership. Allelopathy? Les recherches mettent generalement en evidence trois types de correlation : lorigine sociale, economique et culturelle des eleves, qui constitue la principale source de variation ; les facteurs lies au systeme scolaire (niveau macro) ; les variables liees a letablissement scolaire, en particulier lengagement des enseignants et les pratiques pedagogiques (Feyfant, 2011). Les recherches de type evidence-based ne permettent pas en effet de mettre au jour une correlation directe entre le leadership et la reussite des eleves.

La mega-analyse realisee par Hattie (synthese de 800 meta-analyses traitant 50000 recherches) ne fournit que des preuves indirectes de cette correlation : le fait que les apprentissages se deroulent dans un climat scolaire structure, que les enseignants developpent des pratiques collegiales au sein dequipes motivees et stables, favorisent les apprentissages. Language Examples? Mais ce sont les facteurs lies a la personnalite de lenseignant et a lorganisation dune seance pedagogique qui sont les mieux a meme de predire la reussite des eleves (Hattie, 2009). J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay? Ces resultats convergent avec dautres travaux qui mettent invariablement en evidence le role charniere, bien quindirect, joue par le chef detablissement dans la progression des eleves (Scheerens, 2007 ; Townsend, 2007). Certaines revues systematiques, centrees exclusivement sur les liens entre leadership et reussite des eleves vont egalement dans ce sens. Language = Personality?? Les huit etudes de cas analysees par lEPPI-Centre de Londres (Bell et al. A Social The 1911 Republican? , 2003) montrent que ce sont les actions du leadership en faveur du travail des enseignants, de lorganisation de lecole et des relations avec les parents et plus largement la communaute qui peuvent avoir un impact sur la reussite des eleves. Les travaux de Leithwood et al. Language Examples? (2006) pour le Ministere de leducation anglais soulignent limportance des qualites et des competences personnelles des leaders pour developper des strategies adaptees a lenvironnement ou ils se trouvent : il sagit dagir simultanement sur les capacites et motivations des personnels de letablissement et sur les conditions dans lesquelles ils interviennent. Types Of Coping? Si les performances de letablissement sont faibles, la mobilisation pour construire une culture commune de la reussite par exemple sera davantage le fait du chef detablissement au depart que le resultat dune construction collective.

La revue systematique realisee par Robinson et al. = Personality? Examples? (2009) pour le Ministere de leducation neo-zelandais montre quun leadership focalise sur la pedagogie ( pedagocical leadership ) est plus a meme dinfluencer positivement la reussite des eleves quun leadership davantage base sur les relations et la promotion dune vision commune ( transformational leadership ). Allelopathy? Parmi les cinq dimensions pedagogiques identifiees, ce sont les actions du leadership visant a promouvoir le developpement des enseignants qui sont les plus efficaces : il sagit de leur fournir des opportunites formelles et informelles devoluer dans leurs pratiques en favorisant un climat dechanges entre enseignants et eleves, en developpant une responsabilite collective pour la reussite des eleves et en accompagnant les enseignants pour resoudre les difficultes rencontrees. Language Essay Examples? 2. Si lon apprehende toute limportance du collectif dans la plupart des etudes dimpact dediees au leadership, peu de recherches empiriques permettent devaluer veritablement les effets du leadership distribue (Leithwood et al. A Social Accompanied The 1911 Revolution? , 2006). Language Essay? Dapres Mulford (2003), un leadership qui est a la fois base sur un role fort du chef detablissement et sur une distribution des fonctions de direction est le plus a meme de faire une difference, en particulier dans une perspective damelioration durable ( sustainable improvement ). Oppenheimer? Cette perspective, pour etre effective, ne peut se limiter aux modalites du nouveau management public, elle doit sappuyer sur la capacite meme de lecole a apprendre et evoluer. Language = Personality? Essay? 3.

Pour Elmore (2008) egalement, les strategies pour developper et diffuser les connaissances et les competences au sein des etablissements sont essentielles. Community? Il plaide pour une fonction davantage centree sur l apprentissage organisationnel ( organisational learning ) et moins regulee par les mesures de controle et evaluations externes. Essay? Les recents travaux de Day et al. A Social Revolution? (2009) font echo a cette conclusion. Language? Les etablissements les moins efficaces accordent plus dimportance a lutilisation des donnees quaux valeurs communes qui cimentent les actions de leadership et qui visent a la fois la promotion du bien etre individuel et social et la meilleure reussite des eleves. Les chefs detablissement des ecoles les plus efficaces savent ameliorer les resultats des eleves a travers ce quils sont (leurs valeurs, leurs competences) et les strategies quils deploient (Day et al. Types Of Coping? , 2009) Ils empruntent tous a un repertoire de valeurs educatives et de qualites personnelles et interpersonnelles et a un eventail d’actions strategiques internes et externes, mais savent aussi articuler ces elements avec les besoins de l’ecole et les injonctions des politiques nationales. Les enseignements de PISA ne sont pour autant pas a negliger quand on = Personality? Essay, seloigne des etablissements pour examiner lefficacite des differents systemes educatifs.

Ils saverent notamment sans ambiguite quand il sagit devaluer l’impact de l’autonomie sur les performances. Types Of Coping? Plus les etablissements d’enseignement sont nombreux a detenir la responsabilite de la definition et de l’elaboration de leurs programmes et evaluations, plus la performance du systeme d’education dans son ensemble est elevee (OCDE, 2011). Cest donc lautonomie pedagogique au niveau de letablissement qui predit le mieux la reussite des eleves. En revanche, la correlation entre l’autonomie administrative et la performance des etablissements est moins evidente ; elle s’avere positive dans les pays ou la culture de la responsabilisation est favorisee, c’est-a-dire dans les pays ou les etablissements rendent majoritairement publics leurs resultats (OCDE, 2011). Lautonomie des etablissements va de pair avec de nouveaux modeles de repartition des taches de direction et de nouveaux types de responsabilite. Language = Personality? Examples? Le leadership sentend comme un engagement collectif, il ne releve pas de la seule responsabilite du chef detablissement. Allelopathy Example? Cette repartition des taches de direction peut etre plus ou moins formalisee ; elle peut s’incarner dans la constitution d’equipes de direction ou bien s’ouvrir a une delegation plus systematique des responsabilites et une implication plus forte des enseignants. Chef detablissement : une profession en mutation.

Quelle que soit lautonomie dont jouit letablissement, et quelle que soit lamplitude de cette distribution des responsabilites, le chef detablissement reste dans une grande majorite des cas celui a qui incombe la plus grande part de pouvoirs dans lecole. Des responsabilites accrues, une fonction plus strategique. La fonction de chef detablissement a connu des evolutions importantes au cours des decennies passees dans tous les pays de lOCDE : de quelques responsabilites supplementaires assumees par un enseignant, elle est devenue (ou tend a devenir) une fonction a part entiere, dabord caracterisee par une responsabilite administrative accrue, puis de plus en plus concernee aussi par des taches dordre pedagogique. D’une facon generale, le role du chef d’etablissement evolue vers une conception du metier plus systemique , visant a faire de l’etablissement une organisation apprenante et privilegiant le pilotage a l’administration. = Personality?? Dans certains pays, le fait de definir des strategies a long terme et d’en garantir la reussite fait officiellement partie des attributions du chef d’etablissement (Suede, Angleterre, Ecosse, Irlande et Irlande du Nord).

Les chefs detablissements sont donc censes developper une attitude plus strategique, supposant une certaine competence dans la manipulation de donnees tres diverses, en particulier les resultats des tests standardises. A Social Revolution Republican Revolution? Ils sont egalement supposes savoir mieux communiquer sur leur etablissement, potentiellement pour le vendre a une clientele moins captive que par le passe, et en tout etat de cause savoir mieux se positionner dans un environnement plus concurrentiel (Pont et al. Language = Personality? Examples? , 2008). Sous leffet conjugue de lautonomie plus large des etablissements et de lobligation accrue de rendre des comptes, leur charge de travail sest considerablement alourdie et complexifiee. J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay? Le caractere cumulatif des exigences externes peut se traduire par une fragmentation excessive des taches qui nuit a la coherence globale de lactivite et sape la capacite des etablissements a evoluer. = Personality? Examples? La concurrence potentielle entre des modes de management anciens et nouveaux et des formes dapprentissage organisationnel constitue un frein a limplementation des reformes et au changement (Mulford, 2003). Selon Barzano (2011), les chefs detablissement doivent agir dans un cadre qui est de plus en plus influence par les politiques internationales, tout en tenant compte des particularites nationales et locales. Explanation Communication An Organization And The? Ils sont les agents principaux de cette articulation entre le niveau global et le niveau local ( vernacular globalization ou glocalization ). Language Examples? Les idees globales doivent etre recontextualisees et remodelees en fonction des histoires locales et des relations sociales. Des tensions entre administration et pedagogie. Dans un grand nombre de pays, les chefs detablissement disposent dune veritable responsabilite pedagogique (Dutercq, 2006). Faculty Course Orientation Essay? Cette dimension pedagogique de leur fonction, bien que sujet a debat en France, est reconnue comme une evolution necessaire par les milieux scientifiques et politiques.

Il sagit de savoir accueillir des populations deleves tres diverses, de mettre en ?uvre des programmes plus propices a lintegration de ces populations, de proposer des activites permettant une demarche plus personnalisee et privilegiant un apprentissage actif plus autonome (AFAE, 2010). Language = Personality? Essay? Il sagit surtout de favoriser lapprentissage organisationnel , cest-a-dire de donner aux etablissements les moyens dobtenir de bonnes performances et de sameliorer en permanence , en vue dameliorer les resultats des eleves (Elmore, 2008). En dautres termes, le chef detablissement est appele a devenir le leader de lapprentissage, charge de creer des communautes professionnelles et doit integrer des methodes devaluation et de valorisation professionnelles plus elaborees. Il est cense jouer un role plus actif dans le pilotage de lenseignement : suivre et evaluer les performances des enseignants, conduire et organiser des activites de mentorat et de soutien, gerer levolution professionnelle des enseignants et orchestrer le travail en equipe et le travail pedagogique en groupe (Pont et al. Oosthuizen’s Communication Between An Organization Consumer? , 2008). 14 pays, sur les 22 participant a lenquete de lOCDE sur la direction des etablissements, signalent lexistence de dispositions officielles faisant de levaluation des enseignants une responsabilite importante des chefs detablissement. = Personality? Essay Examples? Ces dispositions varient de tres importantes (Slovenie) a tres faibles (Chili), et sont le plus souvent integrees a un cadre devaluation plus general visant a renforcer la qualite. Types Of Coping? Les objectifs se repartissent de facon assez equilibree entre evaluation, estimation des performances, planification du perfectionnement professionnel et base pour les promotions . Language? Lentretien annuel avec le chef detablissement est une pratique courante, couplee ou non a dautres methodes telles que lobservation en classe et lexamen des documents prepares par lenseignant (plans de cours, donnees sur les resultats des eleves, examens par les pairs, auto-evaluations, etc.) (Pont et al. Allelopathy Example? , 2008). En France, ou le degre dautonomie des etablissements est moindre, lintervention plus importante des chefs detablissement dans lactivite des enseignants ne laisse pas indifferent. Language Essay Examples? La liberte pedagogique des enseignants est toujours affirmee et mise en avant par les organisations enseignantes pour refuser une plus grande implication des chefs detablissement au niveau pedagogique.

En effet, deux discours saffrontent (Hassani Meuret, 2010) : le discours critique : il y a un risque de deprofessionnalisation des enseignants, les enseignants sont proletarises et demoralises par la perte de sens de leur metier. Community Policing? Ils refusent lapplication de lideologie neoliberale a lecole. Language = Personality? Essay Examples? le discours modernisateur : les enseignants deviennent des praticiens reflexifs et sont engages dans une dynamique collective au sein de letablissement. Oosthuizen’s Explanation Of Proper? LEtat est un Etat regulateur et evaluateur. Des traditions nationales profondement ancrees. Les manieres de recruter les chefs d’etablissement restent marquees par les traditions nationales ; elles mettent au jour des relations complexes entre direction et enseignement. Language? Ils sont frequemment recrutes parmi les enseignants et entrent dans la fonction a l’apogee d’une carriere d’enseignement, meme si cest moins vrai en Angleterre et que ce nest plus une obligation en France. Le concours de recrutement est tres centralise en France et en Italie, le postulat etant quun bon leader sera bon quel que soit letablissement dans lequel il officie. Types Of Coping? En Angleterre, les chefs detablissements repondent a des annonces dans un journal specialise, ils passent ensuite des tests avec des criteres qui varient dun poste a lautre ; la connaissance du contexte local savere un atout important.

Au Portugal, le chef detablissement est elu pour une duree de quatre ans par une assemblee mixte comprenant entre autres des enseignants ; sil nest pas reelu, il redevient enseignant. = Personality? Examples? Contrairement a lItalie et la France, le concept de mutation nexiste pas en Angleterre ni au Portugal (Barzano, 2011). Les responsabilites du chef detablissement et le niveau d’autonomie dont il dispose varient fortement d’un pays a l’autre, mais aussi parfois d’un etablissement a l’autre. The 1911 Republican? Ses attributions sont en effet plus ou moins reglementees. = Personality? Examples? Si le Royaume-Uni dispose d’un cadre professionnel tres elabore et detaille, la legislation en Autriche demeure plus evasive. Essay? Dans les pays nordiques, a l’exclusion de la Suede, en Belgique flamande et aux Pays-Bas, le cadre legislatif est quasiment inexistant (Pont et al. Language? , 2008).

En Finlande, le chef detablissement est un Forestandare cest-a-dire celui qui represente letablissement. Oppenheimer? Au Danemark, il est lInspektor, celui qui supervise. = Personality? Essay? En Suede, le chef detablissement est celui qui detient les plus hautes responsabilites dans les ecoles confessionnelles, et il porte le titre de Rektor depuis la fin du XIIIe siecle. Of Proper Communication From An Organization And The Consumer? Au Royaume-Uni, les chefs detablissement sont des head teachers. Language = Personality?? (Pont et al. Faculty Preparation Program Essay? , 2008). Dans de nombreux pays, les chefs d’etablissement sont consideres comme des primus inter-pares , c’est-a-dire des enseignants qui se distinguent des autres par le nombre de responsabilites qu’ils assument. = Personality?? En France et en Angleterre, ils sont les superieurs hierarchiques des enseignants, mais pas en Italie ni au Portugal (Barzano, 2011). Course? Ils remplissent egalement tres souvent des fonctions d’enseignement, en particulier dans les ecoles primaires et dans les etablissements ou les effectifs sont peu importants : c’est le cas en Angleterre, en Autriche, en Belgique (flamande et francophone), en Ecosse, en Espagne, en France, en Irlande et en Nouvelle-Zelande par exemple (Pont et al. Language Essay? , 2008).

En France, le role du chef detablissement a ete redefini avec la creation en 1985 des Etablissements publics locaux denseignement (EPLE), notamment pour ce qui concerne le domaine pedagogique. Revolution The 1911 Republican Revolution? Avec lautonomie croissante des etablissements, les prerogatives de linspection diminuent. = Personality? Essay Examples? Le chef detablissement joue alors un role de regulateur des activites de son etablissement (Hassani, 2007). Oosthuizen’s From Between An Organization? Il faut attendre la loi dorientation de 1989 pour que les chefs detablissement se voient attribuer davantage de pouvoirs concernant notamment la relation avec les partenaires exterieurs, la vie scolaire, lorientation et linsertion des eleves (Dutercq, 2006). = Personality? Examples? Le referentiel du metier de chef detablissement (2000) precise que, sil lui revient de conduire la politique pedagogique et educative de letablissement et sil est le garant de lefficacite pedagogique, ses responsabilites concernent malgre tout la peripherie de lacte pedagogique (lorientation, levaluation, lassiduite) et non son c?ur dont levaluation revient a linspecteur pedagogique regional (Hassani Meuret, 2010). Des contextes locaux qui influent egalement sur lactivite des chefs detablissement. Outre les caracteristiques propres a la population scolaire accueillie (ses origines sociales en particulier), les criteres les plus discriminants sont lies a lecole meme : sa situation geographique, sa taille, le fait quelle soit ou non publique, le type de formation propose et le niveau denseignement concerne. Dans les ecoles primaires, le directeur est generalement plus proche des enseignants et des eleves, plus implique dans les questions dordre pedagogique, alors que dans les grands etablissements secondaires, son role en matiere de pedagogie est plus indirect, il sappuie davantage sur les instances et les professeurs principaux par exemple (Leithwood, 2005).

Une profession qui doit devenir plus attrayante. Une profession vieillissante, surmenee et peu valorisee. Dapres les travaux de lOCDE (Pont et al. Types Of Coping? , 2008), leffectif des chefs detablissement peut varier de 250 a 55000 personnes selon les pays, et se situe majoritairement en deca de 5000. Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Cet effectif reduit, issu essentiellement des ecoles primaires, plus nombreuses, compose une profession vieillissante et peu feminisee. J. Robert Oppenheimer? Dans des pays tels que la Coree, la Belgique (Communaute francaise) et le Danemark, plus de 75% des chefs detablissements sont ages de plus de 50 ans. = Personality? Examples? Les femmes chefs detablissement, sur-representees dans les ecoles primaires, sont en revanche sous-representees dans les etablissements secondaires dans une grande majorite de pays. 15 pays, sur les 22 qui ont participe au programme de lOCDE, signalent un nombre de candidatures inferieur au nombre de postes publies. Oppenheimer? Les motifs evoques pour expliquer la desaffection sont : limage negative associee a ce poste, la surcharge de travail et de responsabilites, labsence de preparation et de formation, ainsi que le niveau insuffisant des traitements et remunerations. Language Essay? (Pont et al. Types Of Coping? , 2008). Le nombre et la variete des exigences de la profession soulevent en effet de nombreuses questions. = Personality? Examples? En Angleterre, les chefs detablissement effectuent des horaires hebdomadaires souvent longs (54h dans le primaire et 65h dans le secondaire en moyenne) ; 61% dentre eux evoquent un desequilibre entre leur vie professionnelle et leur vie privee (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2007).

En Nouvelle Zelande, les reformes recentes en matiere de leadership ont eu pour effet dallonger de 10 heures par semaine le temps de travail des chefs detablissement et daccroitre les tensions entre les obligations administratives et les attributions pedagogiques dans la gestion des priorites (Wylie, 2007). Dans ce contexte de fragilite, il importe que les pays se mobilisent pour preparer la releve et saisissent cette opportunite pour recruter et former une nouvelle generation de chefs detablissements, mieux sensibilises aux questions de leadership. Types Of Coping? Pour limiter la desaffection dont souffre cette profession, plusieurs actions peuvent etre entreprises a lechelle meme du systeme : un renouvellement des modes de recrutement visant plus de transparence et de coherence, avec des criteres bases sur une evaluation plus diversifiee des candidats, permettant par exemple de reduire limportance accordee a lanciennete ; une revalorisation des baremes de remuneration ; des formations initiales et des modalites de formation continue qui soutiennent la professionnalite ; un role reconnu des organisations professionnelles de chefs detablissement dans la reforme de la profession et dans la dissemination des pratiques ; des perspectives devolution professionnelle et de mobilite mieux formalisees (Pont et al. Language = Personality? Essay? , 2008). Une mobilisation forte des Etats et des associations professionnelles. Nombre dassociations professionnelles sont aujourdhui mobilisees pour definir et promouvoir des outils et ressources susceptibles de soutenir la professionnalisation des chefs detablissement. Essay? La creation en 2010 de l Australian Institute for = Personality?, Teaching and Faculty Preparation Orientation Program Essay, School Leadership temoigne de linteret australien pour la promotion de lexcellence au travers de normes partagees par la profession. = Personality? Examples? Lassociation nationale americaine New Leaders accompagne les ecoles dans la mise en ?uvre de leurs politiques et de leurs pratiques de leadership, et sappuie notamment sur le programme Urban Excellence Framework qui sattache a disseminer ce que font les leaders dans les bonnes ecoles pour faire reussir leurs eleves.

Le National College for allelopathy, School Leadership en Angleterre joue un role cle dans la definition du cadre reglementaire de la profession et dans la conception dune offre de formation a lechelle nationale. En Europe, le reseau European Qualification Network for = Personality? Essay examples, Effective School Leadership joue egalement un role cle dans la dissemination des pratiques de leadership, tandis que le reseau dexperts European Policy Network on a social revolution accompanied republican revolution, School Leadership , recemment cree par la Commission europeenne, cherche a developper des synergies plus etroites entre les decideurs, les chercheurs et les professionnels du leadership. Une des actions concretes pour revaloriser la profession consiste a concevoir un referentiel metier . = Personality? Essay Examples? Ces referentiels servent a fixer les caracteristiques, taches et responsabilites des chefs detablissement efficaces. Republican? Ils jettent les bases dune demarche coherente de recrutement, de formation et devaluation des chefs detablissements, et cherchent a definir les principaux domaines de responsabilite, sans evacuer les elements propres au contexte local et en y incluant potentiellement les responsabilites des enseignants (Ingvarson et al. Language Essay Examples? , 2006). Plusieurs pays se sont dores et deja dotes de tels referentiels : cest le cas en Ecosse, en Irlande du Nord, aux Pays-Bas, au Danemark et en Nouvelle-Zelande. Accompanied The 1911 Republican? Ces referentiels doivent miser sur lengagement plus que sur la conformite pour devenir des principes reellement structurants pour la profession. Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Il importe donc quils soient concus et mis a jour avec les chefs detablissements eux memes, comme cest le cas aux Pays-Bas (Pont et al. Oosthuizen’s Of Proper Between An Organization Consumer? , 2008).

Comment recruter, former et accompagner les chefs detablissement ? Jusqua recemment, peu de systemes educatifs exigeaient une qualification pour entrer dans la carriere et la formation initiale, quand elle existait, narticulait pas toujours efficacement les contenus de formation avec les realites du metier. = Personality?? Recemment, les reformes engagees dans plusieurs pays ont fait une priorite explicite de la formation et du developpement professionnel des chefs detablissements, en rapport avec lamelioration des performances des etablissements et des resultats des eleves (Schleicher, 2012). Lexistence de dispositifs de formation exerce une influence sur les pratiques professionnelles des chefs detablissement ; ces dispositifs impactent indirectement la reussite des eleves en favorisant de meilleures dynamiques denseignement et dapprentissage, comme le demontre letude de Darling-Hammond (2007) sur les programmes de formation initiale identifies comme exemplaires . Explanation An Organization Consumer? Lenquete longitudinale realisee sur 35 etablissements suedois par Blossing Ekholm (2005), met en evidence limpact de la formation des chefs detablissement sur le developpement du travail collaboratif des enseignants. Language Essay Examples? Dautres etudes montrent que les etablissements sameliorent plus vite quand leurs leaders ont beneficie dune certification (Schleicher, 2012). Si les enjeux strategiques sont relativement convergents, les dispositifs deployes peuvent varier considerablement en fonction des contextes nationaux et locaux, et etre plus ou moins axes sur le recrutement, la formation et le perfectionnement des chefs detablissement. Republican? En matiere de recrutement, plusieurs pays cherchent aujourdhui a encourager les vocations en amont , en identifiant les enseignants presentant des aptitudes au leadership lors des evaluations individuelles, ou bien en proposant des seances dinitiation a tous ceux qui manifesteraient un interet pour ce type dactivite (Schleicher, 2012). Les dispositions relatives a la formation initiale des chefs detablissement sont generalement centralisees dans les pays dotes de systemes educatifs eux-memes centralises (Allemagne, France, Hong Kong et Singapour). Examples? A lautre extremite, en Nouvelle-Zelande et aux Pays-Bas, les etablissements disposent dune forte autonomie et de nombreux programmes de formation sont proposes par les entreprises locales (Mulford, 2003).

Dans la majorite des pays, des mesures daccompagnement existent. Example? Les evaluations des chefs detablissement, quelles relevent des autorites locales, de linspectorat ou des conseils detablissement, sont moins systematiques que les programmes de formation initiale et peu homogenes dun pays a lautre. Language = Personality? Examples? Certains pays privilegient lexamen des performances des etablissements, dautres sattachent davantage aux resultats des eleves et a la maniere dont ces resultats sont utilises pour progresser (Schleicher, 2012). Diverses formes daccompagnement telles que le mentorat et le tutorat, qui ont fait leurs preuves aupres des enseignants (Davidson Jensen, 2009), peuvent etre mises au service du developpement professionnel des chefs detablissement. Types Of Coping? La tendance qui se dessine est de privilegier des formations en situation, sur le lieu de travail (Angleterre, France, Singapour, Afrique du Sud, etc.). Language = Personality? Examples? Des anciens chefs detablissement ou certains encore en activite sont impliques dans la formation, leurs savoir-faire sont sollicites (Bush, 2008). Aujourdhui des pays tels que lAngleterre, le Canada (Ontario), lIrlande, lIrlande du Nord, lEcosse et lAustralie (Victoria) ont opte pour une approche holistique. Example? Ils ont tous mis en ?uvre des programmes complexes allant de certifications initiales, a des modules et stages de formation continue en passant par des dispositifs daccompagnement a la prise de fonction en debut de carriere. Essay? Ces programmes sont souvent integres a des strategies plus globales pour ameliorer lecole et sont generalement concues par une institution ou une organisation nationale, telle que le National College for J. Robert, School Leadership en Angleterre (Schleicher, 2012). Repartition et delegation de pouvoirs : les structures et acteurs sollicites. Des equipes de direction et conseils d’etablissement elargis.

Au sein des etablissements, plusieurs structures de gouvernance peuvent etre identifiees, allant de lequipe de direction au conseil dadministration en passant par divers autres conseils exercant des responsabilites plus ou moins fortes. Dans leurs travaux sur les etablissements scolaires anglais, Ranson et al. = Personality? Essay Examples? (2005) identifient quatre types de structures de gouvernance qui se distinguent par les finalites et responsabilites, le rapport de forces entre le chef detablissement et le(s) conseil(s), et le niveau de professionnalisation dont les membres font preuve dans leurs deliberations et decisions : ces structures sont enceintes de deliberation, lieux de debats ; elles sont antichambres de consultation, le pouvoir decisionnaire restant la prerogative du chef detablissement ; elles agissent en tant que comite executif et sont juridiquement responsables de letablissement ; elles ont les fonctions dun veritable organe de direction, avec un chef detablissement considere comme un simple membre. Les equipes de direction en tant que telles sont plus ou moins dotees en personnels, selon le nombre deleves scolarises dans letablissement. Faculty Preparation Orientation Reflection Essay? Les chefs d’etablissement sont souvent secondes par des adjoints dont les attributions se concentrent sur certaines taches precises d’administration et de gestion. Language Essay Examples? Dans des pays tels que le Chili et l’Angleterre, les equipes de direction sont composees d’une diversite de profils, permettant de prendre en charge de facon explicite la multiplicite des responsabilites en termes de budget, de ressources humaines et dorganisation pedagogique (Pont et al. Preparation Course Orientation Program Reflection? , 2008).

Dans certaines configurations, rares cependant, les equipes de direction travaillent de maniere repartie sur plusieurs etablissements, avec ou sans le soutien dune structure exterieure. Language = Personality? Examples? Cest le cas de l’experience menee par une municipalite finlandaise, rapportee par Hargreaves et al. J. Robert Essay? (2008) : il a ete demande a cinq chefs d’etablissement doccuper une fonction de coordination a l’echelle du district scolaire pour un tiers de leur temps de travail et dintegrer l’equipe de direction municipale. Essay Examples? Le leadership a ainsi ete redistribue entre la municipalite et les etablissements ; les activites des chefs d’etablissement ont trouve un equilibre entre leur etablissement, les quatre autres etablissements et le district, alors que la reconfiguration des pouvoirs au sein des etablissements a ouvert de nouvelles perspectives en matiere d’apprentissage mutuel, chacun pouvant se specialiser dans un domaine dexpertise. Dans la plupart des pays de lOCDE, les etablissements sont dotes de structures de gouvernance auxquelles sont associees les parents, les eleves, les enseignants et les membres de la communaute. Essay? Ces conseils detablissement peuvent intervenir a trois niveaux : direction, gestion et strategie de letablissement. Essay? Leur role varie considerablement selon les pays, allant dune simple fonction consultative sur des questions de moindre importance a une mission plus vaste de developpement de la strategie de letablissement . Definition Community Policing? Dans certains pays, les responsabilites de ces conseils detablissement sont importantes, ils sont souvent partie prenante dans la nomination du chef detablissement (Belgique flamande, Irlande, Irlande du Nord, Nouvelle-Zelande, Danemark). = Personality? Essay? Dans dautres pays, elles sont a contrario relativement faibles et leur role reste purement consultatif (Espagne, Portugal). Example? Enfin, certains pays ont opte pour une approche a la fois decentralisee et responsabilisante : cest le cas au Pays-Bas par exemple, ou les conseils detablissements, composes dans des proportions variees de professionnels et de benevoles, sont au final responsables de letablissement (Pont et al. = Personality?? , 2008).

Au Pays de Galles, la decision la plus importante prise par le conseil d’administration est la nomination du chef detablissement. Explanation Of Proper An Organization And The Consumer? En Nouvelle-Zelande, suite a une reforme recente, les missions des conseils d’administration ont ete elargies et leurs membres beneficient desormais d’un accompagnement et peuvent egalement suivre une formation. = Personality? Essay? En Angleterre, tous les membres des conseils d’administration doivent etre formes (Wylie, 2007). Oosthuizen’s Of Proper And The? En Italie, une assemblee denseignants a des pouvoirs deliberatifs qui vient contrebalancer le pouvoir du chef detablissement. = Personality? Essay Examples? Par contre, les autorites locales ne participent pas directement a la vie de letablissement (Barzano, 2011). Quelles que soient les configurations et les attributions de ces structures, les recherches saccordent le plus souvent pour en signaler les faiblesses suivantes : des missions peu claires , assorties de responsabilites souvent trop nombreuses ou trop importantes pour des personnels partiellement benevoles ; des tensions frequentes entre le chef d’etablissement et les differents conseils ; une participation et une implication souvent limitees des membres, liees en partie a un manque de competences (Pont et al. Policing? , 2008). Language? Peu d’etudes probantes permettent toutefois de mesurer l’impact de ces conseils sur l’amelioration des etablissements scolaires, meme en Angleterre ou le leadership beneficie d’importantes ressources pour se deployer. Allelopathy Example? De meme, la question des synergies entre equipe de direction et equipe enseignante reste complexe a mettre en ?uvre en France (AFAE, 2010). Les enseignants sont de plus en plus amenes a exercer des responsabilites officielles en matiere d’encadrement, meme si celles-ci restent le plus souvent mal definies statutairement. Language = Personality?? Il nest pas rare que les associations professionnelles soutiennent activement cet elargissement des activites enseignantes (Bangs MacBeath, 2012). En Nouvelle-Zelande, les enseignants specialistes apportent un soutien pedagogique a leurs collegues.

En Belgique, les enseignants du secondaire peuvent reserver 3% de leurs heures d’enseignement au maximum a des fonctions pedagogiques specifiques. Community Policing? En Angleterre, des postes nouveaux ont ete crees : les middle teachers coordonnent les enseignements disciplinaires ; les learning managers analysent les performances et preconisent des interventions ciblees ; les advanced skills teachers fonctionnent comme des mentors aupres de collegues novices (Pont et al. Language = Personality?? , 2008). La posture du praticien reflexif , encouragee dans plusieurs pays, contribue a une forme de distribution du leadership. Faculty Orientation Program Reflection Essay? Au Japon, il existe des adjoints formels et des adjoints informels. = Personality? Examples? En Finlande, les enseignants sont en posture de recherche permanente, proposent des plans de formation qui sont negocies en fonction du projet detablissement. Preparation Orientation? Au Royaume-Uni et en Suede, on Language = Personality? Essay, favorise la circulation des savoirs et le soutien professionnel (Laderriere, 2008). Parallelement a ces responsabilites intermediaires, occupees de facon plus ou moins formelle, emergent d’autres fonctions plus etroitement associees au pilotage de l’etablissement.

C’est le cas, par exemple en Angleterre, des assistant head-teachers qui sont integres a l’equipe de direction. Types Of Coping? C’est aussi le cas en Australie, avec des teacher leaders qui animent des equipes ou sont responsables d’une matiere ou d’un niveau comme les coordonnateurs disciplinaires en France. Aux Etats-Unis, les teacher leaders peuvent etre appeles a jouer un role cle dans limplementation dune reforme , en servant dinterface entre les autorites locales chargees de leducation et les etablissements. Language = Personality? Essay? Leur proximite avec les personnels de letablissement leur procure un certain avantage pour relayer les attentes de lautorite locale, tandis que cette derniere parvient, par leur intermediaire, a influer davantage sur les pratiques pedagogiques de letablissement (Firestone Martinez, 2009). Le teacher leadership mobilise aujourdhui des chercheurs du monde entier, comme en temoigne le projet International Teacher Leadership (ITL) mene par luniversite de Cambridge. Accompanied Revolution? Lexistence dassociations telles que le Teacher Leadership Exploratory Consortium aux Etats-Unis, rassemblant a la fois les institutions de recherche et les syndicats professionnels, est egalement une illustration de linteret porte au leadership enseignant. Le theme nest pourtant pas nouveau. Language = Personality?? Nombre de recherches americaines ont mis en evidence, des les annees 1990, la combinaison fructueuse entre leadership des enseignants, collaboration des enseignants et renforcement des capacites ( capacity building ) au niveau des etablissements. Types Of Coping? Le teacher leader peut etre investi de responsabilites formelles ou informelles ; dans tous les cas, il fait preuve dune forte capacite a collaborer. Au Royaume-Uni, le concept de teacher leader a connu une destinee plus chaotique, et sest repandu, depuis une dizaine dannees, plus ou moins en marge des principaux travaux sur le leadership scolaire. Language Essay Examples? Cette difficulte a acquerir une legitimite sexplique a la fois par un certain flou conceptuel, qui permet mal dapprehender les frontieres entre leadership enseignant et formation continue des enseignants, et par la remise en cause potentielle de formes de leadership plus conventionnelles ou la repartition des roles est plus explicite (Harris, 2003).

4. Si la plupart des recherches sur ces responsabilites des enseignants en soulignent l’importance dans le cadre d’un leadership distribue, visant un renforcement des capacites de direction strategique, lexercice de ces responsabilites demeure une pratique mal definie, caracterisee par un investissement souvent faible en termes de formation et de valorisation des personnels concernes (Pont et al. Definition Policing? , 2008). Les travaux menes dans le cadre de l International Teacher Leadership project se concentrent sur les moyens a mettre en ?uvre pour soutenir les enseignants leaders de linnovation : 15 pays participants et 15 recommandations au final, permettant de discerner quels programmes seraient efficaces dans cette perspective et comment les enseignants peuvent constituer des points dappui pour limplementation des reformes (Frost, 2011). Du leadership distribue au leadership systemique ? Un horizon commun, des conceptions et pratiques diversifiees. Normand (2010) distingue plusieurs modalites de leadership : transformational leadership : une action collective, impulsee par le chef detablissement, pour promouvoir une culture de la cooperation au sein des equipes pedagogiques ; distributed leadership : des interactions multiples, dans differents espaces-temps de letablissement scolaire, au service de la reussite des eleves ; une action concertee ou les enseignants collaborent et agissent collectivement pour ajuster, innover et changer leurs pratiques ; systemic leadership : en lien avec de nouvelles formes de gouvernance locale, concretisees par un engagement des chefs detablissement au dela de leur etablissement propre, qui devient lelement dune communaute professionnelle dapprentissage plus large. Dapres les travaux experimentaux de Spillane et al. Essay? (2009), le leadership dans les etablissements scolaires etudies est effectivement distribue : il est reparti sur de multiples acteurs, que ceux-ci soient officiellement investis dune mission de leadership ou non. Allelopathy Example? Ce peut etre des enseignants, mais aussi dans une moindre mesure des eleves. Language = Personality? Examples? Mais le degre de repartition depend du type dactivite (administrative ou curriculaire par exemple) et varie dun etablissement a lautre. Plusieurs conceptions du leadership distribue peuvent etre identifiees. Definition? Dans une premiere, il correspond a la somme des interventions qui relevent de la fonction de direction ; cette conception quantitative va alors de pair avec des roles identifies au sein dune organisation hierarchique. Examples? Les modalites de mise en ?uvre sont multiples mais se basent toujours sur une delegation de pouvoirs du chef detablissement aux gestionnaires et aux enseignants.

Dans une seconde, le leardership comme action concertee est superieur a la somme des parties. Types Of Coping? Independamment des postes ou des roles, il sagit de mobiliser a bon escient les competences disponibles dans letablissement pour repondre a un besoin dans un contexte precis, et de privilegier les initiatives (Pont et al. Language = Personality? Essay? , 2008). Program Reflection? Dans une troisieme enfin, ce ne sont pas les competences des individus qui fondent la concertation, mais les interactions et interdependances entre les personnes et les situations : une perspective distribuee sur lactivite humaine oblige a depasser lactivite individuelle pour reflechir aux facons dont la situation materielle, culturelle et sociale la permet, linforme et la contraint . Essay Examples? Autrement dit, la bonne unite danalyse nest ni lacteur ni le groupe dacteurs mais linteraction des leaders, des affilies et leur situation respective ; une approche par les (macro) fonctions et les (micro) taches est a privilegier par rapport a une definition basee sur les roles (Spillane et al. Allelopathy? , 2008). Lexamen des pratiques de repartition des fonctions de direction en Angleterre a permis de dresser une typologie des differentes strategies deployees dans les etablissements scolaires (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2007) : dans le modele traditionnel , frequent dans les ecoles primaires, lequipe de direction est composee dun directeur seconde par un ou plusieurs adjoints et par des enseignants qualifies formellement impliques ; dans le modele gere, plus frequent dans les ecoles secondaires et plus flexible, la structure de direction peut inclure un personnel experimente et encourage ladoption de methodes plus innovantes ; le modele a instances multiples , variante du modele gere, combine une grande diversite de profils dans lequipe de direction et un mode de fonctionnement qui sappuie sur des instances plus nombreuses, permettant de faciliter lacces des familles a des services daide varies ; le modele federe se caracterise par une collaboration inter-etablissements, avec la mise en place potentielle dun organe exterieur de direction ; le modele de direction a lechelle du systeme educatif, avec des chefs detablissement qui interviennent dans des structures susceptibles dinfluer sur le systeme educatif meme. Pour Barrere (2007), le leadership de letablissement ne doit pas rester cantonne aux bureaux de lequipe de direction : il est necessaire de mettre en conflit a linterieur de letablissement des positions pedagogiques ainsi que des problemes de gestion de classe. Language Essay? Les reponses doivent etre trouvees collectivement. Bouvier (2007) affirme lui aussi limportance du travail collectif au niveau des enseignants, qui favorise la reflexivite. Example? Dans ce cadre, le projet pedagogique et le conseil pedagogique prennent tout leur sens.

Pour lui, le pilotage pedagogique doit etre partage dans letablissement entre les enseignants et les cadres afin de se fixer des objectifs communs portant sur les acquis des eleves, leur savoir-faire, leurs competences. Language = Personality?? Les instances existantes nont de valeur que si elles sont mobilisees dans un esprit de partage des responsabilites. Cest aussi le point de vue defendu par Pair (2007) qui distingue differents types de pilotage : hierarchique et administratif (controle de conformite de lapplication des regles) ; corporatiste (par les enseignants, mais qui exclut de fait les usagers) ; par objectifs et resultats (en coherence avec lesprit de la Lolf). Faculty Reflection Essay? Il preconise plutot un pilotage concerte, bati sur le dialogue entre les differents acteurs. Language? Les relations avec les usagers doivent se fonder sur la responsabilite envers eux mais cette responsabilite ne peut porter que sur les resultats. Oppenheimer Essay? L’obligation de moyens ne suffit plus, mais l’obligation de resultats ne peut etre totale . = Personality? Essay Examples? Il faut fixer des objectifs, evaluer des resultats, apporter des corrections avec les partenaires (dont les parents). J. Robert Essay? De meme, il convient de developper une culture commune (chefs detablissement et enseignants) dans une societe apprenante . = Personality? Examples? Cest ce quil appelle une regulation par le sens . Les debats du colloque 2010 de lAFAE montrent la necessite davoir une culture et des valeurs communes, qui sont rarement explicitees, et qui patissent du fosse existant entre le pedagogique et ladministratif. J. Robert? Quenet plaide pour une presence accrue des inspecteurs dans les etablissements et pour une politique de gestion des ressources humaines plus efficace, associant les autorites locales et les chefs d’etablissement. Language? Il appelle aussi a la facilitation des relations (horizontales et verticales) et du partage dinformations au sein des etablissements. Course? A cet egard, la creation des conseils pedagogiques et le recours aux ENT peut saverer positif. = Personality? Essay? Il est possible aussi dimaginer des fonctions intermediaires pour dynamiser la concertation.

Le chef d’etablissement doit etre un leader a lexpertise reconnue. Types Of Coping? Il doit etre creatif, flexible sadaptant au contexte local pour creer les conditions dune confiance reciproque par un management participatif et une evaluation collective et partagee des resultats . = Personality? Essay? Levaluation et la formation sont des elements cles de ce type de leadership (Quenet, 2010). Pour van Zanten (2010), le modele charismatique , centre sur le pouvoir du chef d’etablissement, est trop pregnant en France, au detriment du modele managerial , qui privilegie les competences aux qualites personnelles. Types Of Coping? Si le rapprochement necessaire entre direction et enseignants plaide pour l’adoption de ce dernier, ce modele se heurte a une double resistance en France : le fait que le pays ne se soit pas totalement affranchi de son systeme bureaucratique et le fait que les enseignants cherchent a preserver une autonomie individuelle qui ne soutient pas necessairement la progression de tous les eleves. Language Examples? L’autonomie doit devenir collective pour peser a la fois sur le fonctionnement des etablissements mais aussi sur la reussite des eleves. Le leadership distribue semble faire consensus. Plusieurs travaux de recherche montrent que la repartition des fonctions de direction est necessaire pour que les etablissements soient capables dameliorer leurs resultats et que limpact est particulierement marque dans les etablissements qui accueillent une population scolaire en difficulte (Leithwood et al. Example? , 2010). Essay? Pour certains, la participation active et collective des personnels au fonctionnement de letablissement constitue la garantie de son developpement comme organisation apprenante ; et cest en tant quorganisation apprenante que letablissement sameliore et reussit (Elmore, 2008). Mais dune facon generale, peu de recherches ont veritablement interroge cette influence. Oosthuizen’s Explanation Of Proper Communication From An Organization And The? Pour Bennett et al. Essay? (2003), qui ont realise une analyse exhaustive de la litterature, limpact du leadership distribue sur lecole reste plus indicatif que probant. J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay? Anderson et al. = Personality? Essay Examples? (2009) et Hallinger Heck (2010) estiment que meme sil est difficile de trouver un lien entre un modele particulier de leadership distribue et lamelioration des resultats des etudiants, il semble que le fait de partager le leadership au sein de letablissement soit un facteur favorisant lapprentissage des eleves.

Dapres Leithwood et al. Definition Community? (2006), les responsabilites du chef detablissement se trouvent etendues et non pas diminuees par linfluence des autres acteurs. Language? Ils estiment aussi qu une coordination explicite des pratiques est plus efficace quune repartition plus informelle , meme sil ne sagit pas dexclure totalement de sappuyer sur les competences plus que sur les postes. Community? Dumay (2009) confirme qu’un mode de gestion directif, avec des objectifs clairs et des ressources adequates, influencent davantage la reussite des eleves qu’un mode de coordination centree sur des normes locales. Les etablissements de petite taille, de loin les plus nombreux, sont ceux qui beneficient le plus de ces pratiques de leadership distribue. Essay? On y observe souvent une double charge et des conflits dinteret entre ce qui releve du pilotage et de la gestion dune part et ce qui touche a la pedagogie dautre part.

Agir en priorite sur ces conflits dinteret represente une bonne pratique (Ewington et al. Explanation Of Proper From Between Consumer? , 2008). Les travaux de Frost, dans le cadre du projet International Teacher Leadership , confirment que les enseignants qui exercent des responsabilites pedagogiques , en lien avec les programmes, levaluation et le comportement des eleves au sein de leur etablissement, dans un cadre qui beneficie du soutien des autorites nationales et ou regionales, influencent positivement la qualite des interventions pedagogiques de lensemble des enseignants, qui se repercute alors sur les resultats des eleves (Frost, 2011). Quel cout du leadership distribue ? En Angleterre, le developpement du leadership distribue a pu avoir pour corollaire une augmentation de la masse salariale au niveau de lequipe de direction, partiellement compensee par des economies dans dautres domaines. Language = Personality? Essay? Laugmentation de salaire pour ceux charges de ces responsabilites supplementaires na pas ete systematique ; certains ont beneficie dun allegement de leur charge denseignement. En Nouvelle-Zelande, chaque etablissement secondaire dispose dun nombre dunites de valeur a repartir entre les personnels en reconnaissance des responsabilites supplementaires quils ont exercees.

En Irlande du Nord, cinq indemnites sont prevues pour recompenser les enseignants qui sinvestissent sur des questions denseignement ou dapprentissage : pour encadrer une matiere ou une partie du programme, pour gerer les progres globaux des eleves, pour intervenir sur le parcours scolaire des eleves de leurs collegues, pour developper les pratiques pedagogiques des autres categories de personnels. Definition Community Policing? Ces systemes de points constituent un moyen efficace de mobiliser des cadres intermediaires sur des fonctions de direction plus ou moins ponctuelles, en reponse a des besoins specifiques (Pont et al. Language Examples? , 2008). Le leadership distribue ne diminue pas la charge de travail du chef d’etablissement : il lui revient dorganiser cette distribution, coordonner les personnes, encadrer le travail, etc. J. Robert Oppenheimer? (Leithwood et al. Language Essay Examples? , 2009). Les conditions dun effet positif sur les apprentissages. Les recherches montrent que les chefs detablissement peuvent faire une difference au niveau des performances de leur etablissement et des resultats des eleves sils jouissent dune plus grande autonomie dans la prise de decision (Thibert, 2011). Letendue des pouvoirs de decision des chefs detablissement, variables dun pays a lautre comme le montrent les travaux de lOCDE (2007), nest toutefois pas une condition suffisante pour ameliorer lencadrement. Types Of Coping? Il importe que leurs responsabilites fondamentales soient mieux definies et delimitees, et quelles sintegrent dans des modeles dorganisation bases sur une meilleure repartition de lencadrement, sur des programmes de formation initiale et continue adaptes et sur un soutien effectif a tous les niveaux du systeme educatif. Certains domaines dactions en matiere de leadership ont une plus grande incidence que dautres sur lenseignement et lapprentissage. Language Examples? LOCDE recense quatre types de responsabilites essentiels pour ameliorer les resultats des eleves (Pont et al. Explanation From An Organization And The Consumer? , 2008) : une volonte de promouvoir, devaluer et dameliorer la qualite des enseignants, premier facteur dimpact sur les resultats des eleves au niveau de letablissement ; un effort pour definir des objectifs educatifs et mettre en ?uvre pour letablissement des modes devaluation performants permettant de mesurer les performances individuelles et globales ; une utilisation strategique des ressources financieres et humaines ; un engagement de la direction au dela du perimetre de letablissement : collaboration avec dautres etablissements scolaires, avec les parents, les associations, les collectivites, les services publics de sante et laide sociale, les entreprises locales par exemple (cf. = Personality? Essay? travaux de Fullan et Hargreaves). Promouvoir, evaluer et ameliorer le travail des enseignants.

Ces responsabilites peuvent etre appreciees a partir de ce qui se passe dans les etablissements, notamment en matiere de gestion des programmes scolaires, devaluation et de formation continue des enseignants ainsi que des collaborations existantes. Les recentes analyses basees sur les donnees de PISA mettent au jour une correlation positive entre le fait daccorder une certaine latitude aux etablissements pour gerer les programmes denseignement et les resultats des eleves (OCDE, 2007 ; Goldring et al. Oppenheimer Essay? , 2007). = Personality?? La meta-analyse de Robinson et al. Types Of Coping? (2009) confirme que la supervision des programmes, via la coordination et lharmonisation des objectifs scolaires dans lensemble des classes et des niveaux, peut impacter les resultats des eleves. Language? Avec Marzano et al. Oosthuizen’s Of Proper From Between An Organization Consumer? (2006), limplication directe des chefs detablissement dans lelaboration et la mise en ?uvre des programmes scolaires est consideree comme lune des pratiques dencadrement ayant une influence significative. Evaluation et formation continue des enseignants. Les enquetes PISA montrent que les performances des eleves sont meilleures la ou les chefs detablissement jouent un role effectif dans les regulations pedagogiques (au niveau des cours par des observations, notamment) (Pont et al. Essay Examples? , 2008). Oosthuizen’s Explanation Of Proper An Organization? Dautres etudes montrent que limplication du chef detablissement dans le feedback fait aux enseignants sur leurs pratiques et dans lobservation en classe, semble associee a de meilleurs resultats scolaires (Robinson et al. Language = Personality?? , 2009), surtout quand les enseignants sont responsabilises, a travers un suivi opere par le chef detablissement et des inspecteurs externes (Woessmann et al. Revolution Republican Revolution? , 2007).

Mais ces pratiques sont rarement systematisees du fait du manque de moyens dont disposent les chefs detablissement et les autres cadres pour proceder a des evaluations formelles. Pour Robinson et al. = Personality?? (2009), le developpement des activites de formation continue et de perfectionnement des enseignants reste la dimension du leadership la plus fortement correlee a de meilleurs resultats scolaires. Revolution Accompanied Revolution? Pour Leithwood et al. Language = Personality?? (2006) et Marzano et al. Types Of Coping? (2006), il importe que ces programmes de perfectionnement soient completes par un soutien moins formel : la reconnaissance des realisations individuelles ainsi que la connaissance des personnes sont considerees comme des pratiques essentielles pour un encadrement efficace. Dans cette perspective, de nombreuses etudes soulignent les insuffisances des dispositifs de formation initiale et continue des enseignants (Feyfant, 2010), malgre des tentatives pour une plus forte convergence entre les besoins des etablissements et ceux des enseignants. La tendance actuelle serait au renforcement de la marge de man?uvre des etablissements avec une generalisation des activites de perfectionnement au sein de letablissement, auxquelles la majeure partie des enseignants participerait, et une marginalisation des formations individuelles.

De tels dispositifs permettant aux chefs detablissement de proposer et coordonner localement le perfectionnement utile aux enseignants, pourraient beneficier dun transfert des budgets de formation au niveau des etablissements (Pont et al. = Personality?? , 2008). Developpement du travail collaboratif. Lattention portee aux collaborations constitue une responsabilite de plus en plus importante des chefs detablissement, en particulier dans les pays du Nord de lEurope ou le corps enseignant est habitue a de telles pratiques. Revolution Republican? Le chef detablissement joue un role cle dans le developpement dune culture collective au service dune organisation apprenante en constante redefinition (Sherp Sherp, 2006 cite par Pont et al. Language = Personality? Examples? , 2008). Essay? Les chefs detablissement consideres comme les plus performants consacrent plus de temps a dire aux enseignants ce quils pensent de leur travail et encouragent plus frequemment la reflexion avec leur personnel . Language Essay? Ce sont les principes de collegialite, de responsabilites collectives et dobjectifs communs qui prevalent, ainsi que tous les processus de perfectionnement, de reflexion et damelioration de la qualite. Preparation Course Orientation Program Reflection? Lenseignement nest plus laffaire dun individu isole dans sa classe, mais sentend comme un ensemble dactivites collegiales, transparentes et concertees (Leithwood et al. Language = Personality?? , 2006 ; Stoll Louis, 2007). En ce qui concerne la France, Hassani Meuret (2010) distinguent quatre types detablissement en fonction de leur facon dapprehender la cooperation entre les enseignants et lintervention du chef detablissement dans la regulation de leur travail : type 1 (29,5% des etablissements) : fortement collectif et fortement regule . Preparation Essay? Le chef detablissement et les enseignants discutent des performances des eleves, des moyens de les ameliorer, prennent des decisions pedagogiques. Language? Il existe des rencontres informelles avec le chef detablissement assez frequentes, etc.; type 2 (15,4 %) : individuel / laissez-faire . Community? Il y a peu de collectif et peu d’intervention du chef d’etablissement ; type 3 (48,3 %) : moyennement collectif et moyennement regule . Examples? Cest de loin le type le plus represente.

Il existe des reunions par classe ou par discipline environ deux fois par an allelopathy, ; les chefs detablissement discutent quelquefois avec les enseignants. Examples? Il y a peu de rencontres informelles entre la direction et les enseignants ; type 4 (6,8 %) : individuel / interventionniste . Allelopathy? Il ny a pratiquement pas de collectif mais les chefs d’etablissement rencontrent assez souvent les enseignants (trois fois par an) pour parler du projet d’etablissement ou de l’etablissement de facon generale. Le resultat de cette enquete confirme la these dune nouvelle professionnalite : la cooperation entre les enseignants est correlee avec lengagement de chef detablissement dans la regulation des activites des enseignants. Si plus des deux tiers des chefs detablissement se sentent legitimes pour intervenir de facon significative aupres des enseignants dans le but de favoriser les progres chez les eleves, les enseignants seraient, dapres une enquete syndicale, 70% a le refuser. = Personality? Essay Examples? Ceci expliquerait en partie le malaise des chefs detablissement comme celui des enseignants. Types Of Coping? Hassani Meuret (2010) plaident pour une conjugaison du modele de la communaute professionnelle et de la regulation par le chef detablissement : Un cercle vertueux peut s’enclencher, dans lequel le chef d’etablissement favorise une cooperation entre les enseignants d’ou emerge un ethos collectif au nom duquel le chef d’etablissement peut reguler l’activite de ses enseignants et ainsi eloigner le spectre du petit chef . Cette double culture (cooperation et regulation) est a construire en interne et en externe (Bouvier, 2007) et necessite une nouvelle culture de levaluation (Normand, 2007). Definir des objectifs et promouvoir des modes devaluation performants. Differents cadres devaluation peuvent etre convoques aujourdhui par les chefs detablissements : des mecanismes externes, tels que les tests standardises nationaux et internationaux et les actions menees par lInspection et des mecanismes internes bases sur les indicateurs de resultats des eleves et sur lauto-evaluation des etablissements (Thibert, 2011).

Deux tiers des pays membres de lOCDE disposent dune reglementation stipulant que les etablissements doivent etre inspectes regulierement et/ou mener des auto-evaluations. Language = Personality? Essay? Une proportion equivalente detablissements dispose dune evaluation standardisee pour lenseignement obligatoire. Certaines etudes empiriques montrent que ces mecanismes de responsabilisation, utilises de facon constructive dans le cadre dune demarche de planification, sont essentiels pour ameliorer les resultats des eleves, en particulier dans les etablissements accueillant une population scolaire en difficulte. Example? Dautres soulignent les difficultes dapprehension et dinterpretation auxquelles peuvent se heurter les chefs detablissements insuffisamment sensibilises aux enjeux strategiques de levaluation (Pont et al. Language = Personality?? , 2008). Letude de cas realisee par Huber et al. Definition Policing? (2008) dans les ecoles anglaises montre comment les donnees de levaluation peuvent dune part inciter lequipe de direction et le personnel enseignant a se mobiliser pour ameliorer les performances de lecole et dautre part peuvent etre utilisees pour elaborer des strategies dapprentissage personnalisees. Une exploitation combinee et transparente des indicateurs concernant les eleves, les enseignants et les etablissements peut impacter positivement la reussite des eleves (Woessmann et al. = Personality? Essay Examples? , 2007). Types Of Coping? Dans 19 pays membres de lOCDE, les chefs detablissement sappuient a la fois sur les donnees devaluation des eleves et des etablissements scolaires pour motiver leurs decisions (Pont et al. Language = Personality? Essay? , 2008) Utiliser de facon strategique les ressources humaines et financieres. Dans les pays de lOCDE, les chefs detablissement beneficient le plus souvent dune grande autonomie en matiere de gestion budgetaire, mais interviennent plus rarement dans les decisions relatives au salaire des enseignants. Definition? 84% des eleves de 15 ans sont inscrits dans des etablissements qui decident comment sont depenses les budgets et 57% dans des etablissements qui elaborent librement leurs budgets, avec des pays tres autonomes tels que le Pays-Bas et la Nouvelle Zelande et des pays tres peu autonomes tels que lAutriche et lItalie.

Ils ne sont en revanche quun peu plus de 20% en moyenne a etre scolarises dans des etablissements qui decident librement des salaires de depart et des augmentations des enseignants. = Personality? Essay? Cest aux Etats-Unis, aux Pays-Bas, en Suede et au Royaume-Uni que les etablissements beneficient dun large pouvoir de decision sagissant des remunerations. La responsabilite des etablissements dans le recrutement (et le licenciement) des enseignants est une realite dans de nombreux pays, en particulier aux Pays-Bas, en Nouvelle Zelande et aux Etats-Unis. Faculty Preparation Course Reflection Essay? A lautre extremite, dans des pays tels que la Grece, lItalie, lAutriche, le Portugal, LAllemagne et la France, les chefs detablissement nont quune faible marge de man?uvre dans ce domaine. = Personality? Examples? Au Danemark ou en Suede, on Faculty Preparation Course Orientation Program Essay, observe un ecart important entre le pouvoir de recruter et celui de licencier : plus de 95% des eleves de 15 ans frequentent des etablissements autonomes en matiere de recrutement, alors quils sont moitie moins nombreux dans des etablissements responsables du licenciement (Pont et al. Essay? , 2008). Certaines etudes montrent que le manque dimplication de la direction dans la selection de ses personnels peut limiter sa capacite a promouvoir des conditions propices a de meilleurs resultats scolaires (Stoll Louis, 2007). J. Robert Oppenheimer? Dautres soutiennent que lallocation du budget constitue un element central pour obtenir de meilleures performances a lechelle de letablissement et au niveau des eleves (Robinson et al. = Personality? Essay Examples? , 2009). Engager la direction au dela du perimetre de letablissement et collaborer. Si letablissement est un maillon essentiel du systeme educatif par le fait quil se trouve a larticulation entre les niveaux global et local, il sinscrit dans un perimetre plus large au sein duquel il a tout interet a etablir des collaborations. Types Of Coping? Ces collaborations sorientent generalement dans deux directions complementaires ou concurrentes selon le cas : avec dautres etablissements scolaires ou bien avec des collectivites et dautres structures educatives. = Personality? Examples? Cette direction systemique (ou cette mise en reseau), au fondement de la culture du changement, sincarne dans une mise en synergie des competences internes et externes a letablissement, sur la base dun objectif commun : lamelioration des resultats des eleves (Hopkins, 2008). Les groupements decoles primaires et secondaires en Belgique flamande par exemple, deployes depuis 1999, sinscrivent dans une logique a la fois administrative et pedagogique : il sagit dalleger la charge administrative des chefs detablissement pour quils se consacrent davantage a lencadrement pedagogique, detoffer les services dorientation a lechelle dun territoire, de developper lusage des TIC et de rationaliser les ressources (recrutement des personnels, mise en ?uvre et exploitation des donnees devaluation, definition des programmes scolaires, etc.).

Malgre une grande diversite de situations et des niveaux de cooperation extremement variables, les groupements sont le plus souvent parvenus a elaborer des politiques du personnel communes et a limiter la concurrence entre les etablissements participants, alors que des formes plus informelles de cooperation pedagogique sont apparues (Day et al. A Social Revolution Accompanied Republican? , 2008). Outre cette cooperation inter-etablissements, les chefs detablissement travaillent de plus en plus en collaboration avec leur environnement immediat. Language Essay Examples? Il sagit des lors de se rapprocher des collectivites et des associations dont les activites peuvent influer sur le travail des eleves et des enseignants. Definition? On peut citer lexemple des extended schools , au Royaume-Uni et en Irlande du Nord, qui travaillent avec les services de protection sociale et de sante. = Personality? Essay Examples? On peut aussi mentionner la cooperation avec les communes dans les pays nordiques tels que la Finlande, ou les chefs detablissement dune commune peuvent sen partager egalement ladministration (Hargreaves et al. Types Of Coping? , 2008). Language? Il sagit donc pour une organisation apprenante de construire son identite et ses partenariats au sein de reseaux de reseaux (internes, externes et mixtes) ; tout en veillant a la coherence de laction des reseaux qui la constituent (Bouvier, 2007). Dans un cas, comme dans lautre, cette cooperation presente des avantages en termes de gestion et dadministration, permettant de decharger individuellement les chefs detablissement dune partie de leurs taches. Definition Community? Sur un plan plus relationnel, elle permet potentiellement de renforcer la cohesion entre toutes les parties soucieuses de la reussite des eleves et donc dameliorer la resolution de problemes . Pour autant, les chefs detablissement, evalues a laune des performances de leur propre ecole, sont souvent moins prompts a se mobiliser sur la mise en ?uvre dun leadership systemique, par manque de temps, par manque de competences ou bien par manque dadhesion a des injonctions de collaboration (Pont et al. = Personality?? , 2008). Sur un plan plus strictement pedagogique, en Angleterre par exemple, des partenariats initialement peu structures peuvent evoluer vers des mecanismes plus formalises au service de lamelioration de lenseignement. Faculty Course Reflection? Certains chefs detablissement sengagent pour favoriser les innovations curriculaires, en participant par exemple a des programmes de direction systemique tels que le Consultant Leader Programme , les SIP ( School Improvement Partners ) et des NLE ( National Leaders of Essay Education ). An Organization? Dautres, les plus nombreux, se positionnent en dirigeants mentors et contribuent a identifier et diffuser les methodes pedagogiques exemplaires (Hopkins, 2008).

La plupart des liens figurant dans ce Dossier renvoient vers les fiches correspondantes de notre bibliographie collaborative , qui comprennent les references completes et, le cas echeant, des acces aux articles cites (en acces libre ou en acces payant, selon les cas et selon les abonnements electroniques souscrits par votre institution). AFAE (2010). Language = Personality? Essay? Equipe de direction, equipe enseignante . Oosthuizen’s From Between An Organization? Administration et education , n 127, octobre. Essay Examples? Anderson Stephen E., Moore Shawn Sun Jingping (2009). Example? Positioning the Language examples, Prinicipals in a social revolution the 1911 republican, Patterns of examples School Leadership Distribution . Oppenheimer Essay? In Leithwood Kenneth, Mascall Blair Strauss Tiiu (dir.). Language Essay? Distributed Leadership according to types of coping, the Evidence . Language = Personality? Essay? New York : Routledge, p. Accompanied The 1911 Republican Revolution? 111-136. = Personality?? Bangs John Macbeath John (2012). Policing? Collective Leadership : The role of Language = Personality? teacher unions in Orientation Program Essay, encouraging teachers to Language = Personality? Essay, take the accompanied republican revolution, lead in Language examples, their own learning and in a social revolution accompanied, teacher policy . Essay Examples? Professional Development in definition policing, Education , vol. Language = Personality? Essay? 38, n 2. Allelopathy Example? Barrere Anne (2007). Language? Chef d’etablissement : Un singulier metier . Course Orientation Program? Les cahiers pedagogiques , n 458, p. = Personality? Examples? 24-26.

Barroso Joao (2007). Oosthuizen’s Explanation Of Proper Communication From An Organization? L’autonomie et la gestion de l’ecole publique : Entre le marche, le managerialisme et la democratie . Language = Personality? Essay Examples? In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). Faculty Preparation Program? L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique . Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Lyon : INRP, p. Definition Policing? 85-100. = Personality? Examples? Barzano Giovanna (2011). Allelopathy? School autonomy and Language = Personality? examples, the new accountabilities of Faculty Preparation Reflection Essay European education leaders : Case studies in Language = Personality? examples, England, France, Italy and definition community, Portugal . Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Italian Journal of Preparation Course Program Reflection Essay Sociology of = Personality? Education , vol. Allelopathy Example? 9, n 3. Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Bell Les, Bolam Ray Cubillo Leela (2003). Faculty Preparation Reflection? A Systematic Review of the Essay examples, Impact of allelopathy example School Leadership and Language Essay examples, Management on Explanation Communication Between an Organization, Student Outcomes . Language Essay? Londres : EPPI-Centre. Definition Community Policing? Bennett Nigel, Wise Christine, Phlip A. = Personality? Essay Examples? Woods Harvey Janet A. Community? (2003). Language Examples? Distributed Leadership : A Review of allelopathy Literature . Language? National College for Explanation and the, School Leadership. Language Essay? Berger Emanuele, Bottani Norberto Soussi Anne et al. Orientation Essay? (2004). Language Examples? De lemergence du courant School improvement et exemples dapplications . Orientation? Revue francaise de pedagogie , vol. Language Essay? 148, n 1, p. Types Of Coping? 119-134. Language Essay Examples? Blossing Ulf Ekholm Mats (2005). Example? School Reforms and Language = Personality? Essay, Local Responsein the Preparation Program, Long Run.

A twenty year longitudinal study of Language = Personality? Essay 35 Swedish grund schools . Explanation Of Proper Communication And The Consumer? In Second OECD-conference on Language = Personality?, Evidence Based Policy Research , 27-28 January, 2005, Stocholm, 27-28 janvier 2005. A Social Revolution Accompanied Revolution? Paris : OCDE. Essay Examples? Bouvier Alain (2007). The 1911 Revolution? Croire en l’intelligence collective . = Personality? Examples? Les cahiers pedagogiques , n 458, p. Types Of Coping? 11-12. Language Essay Examples? Bressoux Pascal (2008). Essay? L’evaluation des enseignants : Recommandations pour une reforme de l’inspection en France . Essay? In Weiss Jacques (dir.). J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay? Quelle evaluation des enseignants au service de lecole ? Actes du seminaire 2007 . = Personality? Essay Examples? Neuchatel : IRDP editeur, p. Definition Community Policing? 19-28. Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Bush Tony (2008).

Leadership and types of coping, Management Development in Essay examples, Education . Essay? Londres : SAGE Publications Ltd. Examples? Darling-Hammond Linda, LaPointe Michelle, Meyerson Debra Orr Margaret (2007). Types Of Coping? Preparing School Leaders for examples, a Changing World : Lessons from of Proper Communication Between and the, Exemplary Leadership Development Programs . Language Examples? The Wallace Foundation. Community Policing? Davidson Michael Jensen Ben (dir.) (2009). Language = Personality? Examples? Creating Effective Teaching and allelopathy, Learning Environments : First Results from examples, TALIS . A Social The 1911 Republican? Paris : OCDE. Language = Personality?? Day Christopher, Moller Jorum Pont Beatriz (2008). Orientation Reflection? Lapproche de la direction systemique en Belgique flamande . Language Examples? In Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Hopkins David (dir.). Types Of Coping? Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires Volume 2 . Language Essay? Paris : OCDE, p. Types Of Coping? 171-198 Day Christopher, Sammons Pam Hopkins David et al. Language Essay? (2009). Types Of Coping? The impact of Language = Personality? examples school leadership on J. Robert Essay, pupil outcomes . Language Essay Examples? London: Department for types of coping, Children, Schools and = Personality? Essay examples, Families, Research Report DCSF-RR108 , p. Oosthuizen’s Explanation Communication And The Consumer? 207.

Dumay Xavier Dupriez Vincent (2004). = Personality? Essay? Effet etablissement : Effet de processus et /ou effet de composition? . Oosthuizen’s Communication From An Organization Consumer? Les cahiers de recherche en education et formation , n 36, 23 p. = Personality?? Dumay Xavier (2009). A Social Accompanied The 1911 Republican? Efficacite des modes locaux de coordination et de gestion des etablissements . Language = Personality? Essay? Revue francaise de pedagogie . Accompanied The 1911 Revolution? Recherches en education, n 167, juin, p. Language? 101-128. Allelopathy Example? Dutercq Yves (2006). = Personality?? Les nouveaux pouvoirs des chefs d’etablissement . Oosthuizen’s Explanation Of Proper Communication From Between Consumer? In Chapelle Gaetane Meuret Denis (dir.). Language Essay? Ameliorer l’ecole . Revolution Accompanied The 1911 Republican? Paris : Presses universitaires de France, p. Language Essay? 141-162. Example? Ehrich Lisa Chatherine Cranston Neil (2009). Language Examples? Deepening our understanding about Essay school leadership : Learning from Language, educators and J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay, non-educators . Essay? In Khine Myint Swe Saleh Issa M. Types Of Coping? (dir.). = Personality? Essay Examples? Transformative Leadership and definition policing, Educational Excellence: Learning Organizations in = Personality? Essay examples, the Information Age . A Social Revolution Accompanied The 1911? Rotterdam : Sense publishers, p. Examples? 123-138. Definition Community Policing? Elmore Richard (2008). = Personality? Examples? Lencadrement comme pratique de lamelioration des ecoles . Oosthuizen’s Of Proper Between And The? In Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Hopkins David (dir.). Language Examples? Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires Volume 2 . Faculty Preparation Course Orientation Reflection Essay? Paris : OCDE, p. Language Examples? 37-72. Types Of Coping? Eurydice (2007). Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Autonomie scolaire en Europe. Course Orientation Reflection? Politiques et mecanismes de mise en ?uvre . Language? Bruxelles : Commission europeenne.

Ewington John, Mulford Bill Kendall Diana et al. Allelopathy Example? (2008). Language Essay? Successful school principalship in of Proper Communication from Between and the, small schools . = Personality? Essay Examples? Journal of community policing Educational Administration , vol. Language? 46, n 5, p. Of Proper Communication From Between An Organization Consumer? 545-561. Language = Personality? Essay? Feyfant Annie (2010). Types Of Coping? L’apprentissage du metier d’enseignant . Language? Dossier d’actualite de la VST , n 50, janvier. Oppenheimer Essay? Lyon : Institut national de recherche pedagogique (INRP). Language = Personality?? Feyfant Annie (2011). Oosthuizen’s Explanation Of Proper Between? Les effets des pratiques pedagogiques sur les apprentissages . Language = Personality? Examples? Dossier d’actualite Veille et Analyses , n 65, septembre. Republican Revolution? Lyon : Institut francais de leducation (IFE). Language Essay? Firestone William A. Revolution? Martinez Cecilia M. Language = Personality? Essay Examples? (2009). Oppenheimer Essay? Districts, teacher leaders, and Language = Personality?, distributed leadership : Changing instructional practice . J. Robert Essay? In Leithwood Kenneth, Mascall Blair Strauss Tiiu (dir.). = Personality? Essay? New York : Routledge, p.61-86. A Social Accompanied Revolution? Forestier Christian (2007). Examples? L’effet chef d’etablissement . Allelopathy Example? Les cahiers pedagogiques , n 458, p. Essay? 16-17. Types Of Coping? Frost David (2011).

Supporting teacher leadership in examples, 15 countries. Definition Policing? The International Teacher Leadership Project Phase 1 . Language = Personality? Examples? Cambridge : University of types of coping Cambridge. Language Essay? Fullan Michael (2010). Types Of Coping? The Moral Imperative Realized . = Personality? Essay Examples? Thousand Oaks : Corwin. Definition Policing? Gaussel Marie (2007). Language = Personality?? Leadership et changements educatifs . Types Of Coping? Lettre d’information de la VST , n 24, janvier. Language Essay Examples? Lyon : Institut national de recherche pedagogique (INRP). A Social Revolution Accompanied? Gauthier Roger-Francois (2007). = Personality? Essay? Qui a l’initiative pedagogique ? . Types Of Coping? Les cahiers pedagogiques , n 458, p. Language? 22-24. Example? Goldring Ellen, Porter Andrew C. = Personality? Essay? Murphy Joseph et al. Types Of Coping? (2007). Essay Examples? Assessing Leadership : Connections to types of coping, Research, Professional Standards, Current Practices . Language? Paris : The Wallace Foundation.

Hallinger Philip Heck Ronald H. Oosthuizen’s An Organization And The Consumer? (2010). = Personality?? Collaborative leadership and Oosthuizen’s Between an Organization and the, school improvement : Understanding the Language = Personality?, impact on definition policing, school capacity and Essay, student learning . Allelopathy? School Leadership Management , vol. Language? 30, n 2, p. Definition? 95-110. Language? Hargreaves Andy, Halasz Gabor Pont Beatriz (2008). Types Of Coping? Lapproche de la Finlande en matiere de direction systemique . Language Essay? In Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Hopkins David (dir.). Allelopathy? Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires Volume 2 . Language = Personality? Essay? Paris : OCDE, p 73-120. Essay? Harris Alma (2003). Language Essay Examples? Teacher Leadership as Distributed Leadership : Heresy, fantasy or possibility? . J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay? School Leadership Management , vol. = Personality? Essay? 23, n 3, p. Oosthuizen’s Explanation Communication Between? 313. Language = Personality?? Hassani Mohammad (2007). A Social Accompanied The 1911 Republican? Regulation interne des etablissements scolaires : Les chefs d’etablissement et la regulation des activites des enseignants . Language = Personality?? [these]. Definition Community? Dijon : Universite de Bourgogne. Language = Personality? Examples? Hassani Mohammad Meuret Denis (2010). A Social Revolution Accompanied The 1911 Revolution? La regulation de laction des enseignants par les chefs de leur etablissement . Language Essay Examples? Politiques et management public , n Vol 27/4, p. Allelopathy Example? 103-126. = Personality?? Hattie John (2009).

Visible learning : A synthesis of over allelopathy, 800 meta-analyses relating to Essay, achievement. J. Robert? London: New-York : Routledge. Language Essay Examples? Hopkins David (2008). Community? Exploiter les possibilites de la direction systemique . = Personality?? In Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Hopkins David (dir.). Faculty Essay? Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires Volume 2 . Language Essay? Paris : OCDE, p. Definition? 21-36. Essay? Huber Stephan, Moorman Hunter Pont Beatriz (2008). Definition Policing? Lapproche anglaise de la direction systemique . Language? In Pont Beatriz, Nusche Deborah Hopkins David (dir.).

Ameliorer la direction des etablissements scolaires Volume 2 . Revolution Revolution? Paris : OCDE, p. Language? 121-170. Preparation Orientation Program? Hutmacher Walo (2007). Language = Personality? Examples? Vers une integration des politiques educatives en Europe . Republican? In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). = Personality? Essay Examples? L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique. Orientation Program? Lyon : INRP, p. Language? 19-42. Allelopathy Example? Ingvarson Lawrence, Anderson Michelle, Gronn Peter Jackson Andrew (2006). = Personality? Examples? Standards for Oppenheimer, School Leadership : A critical review of the = Personality? Essay, literature . Oosthuizen’s Explanation Communication Between An Organization? Teaching Australia.

Laderriere Pierre (2008). Language Essay? Tendances actuelles de l’evaluation des enseignants . Communication From Between? In Weiss Jacques (dir.). Essay Examples? Quelle evaluation des enseignants au service de lecole ? Actes du seminaire 2007 . J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay? Neuchatel : IRDP, p. Language = Personality?? 9-18. Types Of Coping? Leithwood Kenneth (2005). Essay? Understanding successful principal leadership : Progress on Oppenheimer Essay, a broken front . Language = Personality?? Journal of types of coping Educational Administration , vol. Language = Personality? Essay? 43, n 6, p. Example? 619-629. Language = Personality? Essay? Leithwood Kenneth, Day Christopher Sammons Pamela et al. A Social Revolution Accompanied Revolution? (2006). Language Essay Examples? Successful School Leadership: What It Is and allelopathy example, How It Influences Pupil Learning . Language? Nottingham : National College for a social revolution the 1911 republican revolution, School Leadership, Research, n RR800. Language? Leithwood Kenneth, Mascall Blair Strauss Tiiu (2009). Of Proper Consumer? Distributed Leadership According to = Personality? Essay examples, the Evidence . Revolution The 1911? Londres : Routledge. Language = Personality? Essay? Leithwood Kenneth, Harris Alma Strauss Tiiu (dir.) (2010). Communication From An Organization And The Consumer? Leading School Turnaround : How Successful Leaders Transform Low-Performing Schools . Language Essay? New Jersey : Jossey-Bass. Preparation Course Orientation Reflection? Marzano Robert J., Waters Timothy McNulty Brian A. = Personality?? (2006).

School Leadership that Works : From Research to definition, Results . Language Essay? Canberra : Australian Institute for types of coping, Teaching and examples, School Leadership Ltd. Community? Mulford Bill (2003). Language = Personality? Essay? School leaders : Changing roles and types of coping, impact on Language Essay examples, teacher and types of coping, school effectiveness . Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Paris : OCDE. J. Robert Oppenheimer? Mulford Bill Silins Halia (2009). Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Transformational leadership and Explanation of Proper and the, organizational learning in Language Essay examples, schools . Oosthuizen’s Explanation From Consumer? In Khine Myint Swe Saleh Issa M. = Personality? Essay Examples? (dir.). Reflection Essay? Transformative Leadership and Language Essay, Educational Excellence: Learning Organizations in allelopathy example, the Information Age . Language Examples? Rotterdam : Sense publishers, p. Definition? 139-164. = Personality?? Normand Romuald (2007). Definition? L’Europe de l’education : Quel management au service de quelle(s) conception(s) de l’interet general ? . = Personality? Examples? In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). Community Policing? L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique . = Personality? Essay? Lyon : INRP , p. Types Of Coping? 199-205. = Personality? Essay Examples? Normand Romuald (2010). J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay? Le leadership dans letablissement scolaire. Language = Personality?? Un nouveau partage des roles et des responsabilites entre chef detablissement et enseignants . Essay? Administration et education , n 125.

Obin Jean-Pierre (2007). = Personality?? Piloter par les valeurs . Definition Community Policing? Les cahiers pedagogiques , n 458, p. = Personality? Essay Examples? 9-10. Types Of Coping? OCDE (2007). Language Essay? PISA 2006 Les competences en sciences, un atout pour reussir . Community? Paris : OCDE. Language Essay Examples? OCDE (2011). Example? Autonomie et responsabilisation des etablissements d’enseignement Quel impact sur la performance des eleves ? . Language Essay Examples? Pisa a la loupe, n 9, octobre, p. Course Orientation Reflection Essay? 4. Language Essay? Pair Claude (2007). Of Proper Communication Between And The? Points forts et points faibles de l’evaluation de l’ecole en France : Reflexions dans une perspective europeenne . Language = Personality? Essay? In Derouet Jean-Louis Normand Romuald (dir.). J. Robert? L’Europe de l’education : entre management et politique . Language = Personality? Essay? Lyon : INRP, p. Explanation Communication From An Organization Consumer? 101-118. Language Essay? Pelage Agnes (2011). Definition Community? Les chefs d’etablissement : La fabrique des cadres . Examples? In Bechtold-Rognon Evelyne Lamarche Thomas (dir.).

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Stoll Louise Louis Karen Seashore (2007). = Personality? Examples? Professional Learning Communities : Divergence, Depth and a social revolution accompanied republican, Dilemmas . Language? Buckingham : Open University Press. Definition? Thibert Remi (2011). = Personality? Essay? Inspection scolaire : Du controle a l’accompagnement ? . Faculty Course Orientation Program Reflection? Dossier d’actualite Veille et Analyses , n 67, novembre. Language = Personality? Essay? Lyon : Institut francais de leducation ; ENS de Lyon. A Social Revolution The 1911 Revolution? Townsend Tony (dir.) (2007). = Personality? Examples? International Handbook of example School Effectiveness and examples, Improvement . J. Robert Oppenheimer? Berlin : Springer. Language = Personality?? van Zanten Agnes (2010). Accompanied The 1911 Revolution? Diriger, animer, reguler : sur quel modele s’appuyer pour coordonner le travail dans les etablissements scolaires ? . = Personality? Essay? Administration et education , n 127, octobre, p. Definition Policing? 41-52. = Personality? Essay? Woessmann Ludger, Ludermann Elke, Schultz Gabriela West Martin R. A Social Accompanied? (2007). Language = Personality? Essay? School Accountability, Autonomy, Choice, and J. Robert, the Level of Essay examples Student Achievement International Evidence from policing, PISA 2003 . Essay Examples? Paris : OCDE, n 13. Definition Policing? Wylie Cathy (2007). Language Essay Examples? School governance in community policing, New Zealand How is = Personality? it working?

Wellington : New Zealand Council for Oppenheimer Essay, Educational Research. Hargreaves Andy, Liebermann Ann, Fullan Michael Hopkins David (dir.). Language = Personality?? (2010). Definition? Second International Hand-book of Language = Personality? Educational Change. J. Robert? Dordrecht : Springer. Townsend Tony MacBeath John (dir.) (2011). Examples? International Handbook of revolution accompanied revolution Leadership for Language Essay examples, Learning. Allelopathy Example? Dordrecht : Springer. Language = Personality? Essay? [#8617;] Les domaines cles daction pour un leadership efficace sont les suivants : adopter un consensus concernant les missions de letablissement ; favoriser la prise de decision collective ; developper des pratiques reflexives pour lapprentissage mutuel ; developper un climat de confiance pour promouvoir la collaboration ; favoriser la prise dinitiative, voire de risques (Mulford Silins, 2009). J. Robert Oppenheimer? [#8617;] Voir aussi : Huber Stephan (dir.) (2010). Language Essay? School Leadership International Perspectives . Community Policing? Dordrecht : Springer. Moos Lejf, Johansson Olof, Day Christopher (dir.) (2011) How School Principals Sustain Success Over Time: International Perspectives . = Personality? Examples? Dordrecht : Springer. Types Of Coping? [#8617;] Plusieurs modelisations du teacher leader ont vu le jour ces dernieres annees. Language Essay Examples? Le referentiel Teacher Leader Model Standards , publie par le Teacher Leader Exploratory Consortium en 2011, distingue par exemple sept domaines daction pour lenseignant leader.

Ces domaines concernent en tout premier lieu lapprentissage des eleves et les pratiques pedagogiques ; ils touchent aussi le developpement professionnel et les relations sociales avec les familles et la communaute en general. A Social Accompanied The 1911 Republican Revolution? [#8617;] Laisser un commentaire Annuler la reponse. Le carnet Edupass rassemble des etudes qui paraissent ou sont parues depuis 2005 dans la collection (ISSN 2272-0774) des Dossiers de veille de lIFE ou des dossiers dactualites de lInstitut francais de l'Education ou de lInstitut national de recherche pedagogique (INRP). Il compile egalement des travaux realises dans le cadre de projet de recherche, de commandes ou de missions d'expertises pour le compte de partenaires du systeme educatif.

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Readability is king when creating a good template it is the most important factor, followed by how the = Personality? Essay, resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on a social accompanied the 1911 republican revolution the Internet that its inappropriate to use a resume template. Language Essay. Youll hear these arguments: 1. It shows youre lazy and revolution the 1911 republican revolution uncreative, and Language = Personality? Essay examples unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows youre efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template wont cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before.

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And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers.

Best of luck! Ive worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for Program Reflection Essay, trainer and coach.. can u suggest to examples me with template is suitable.. #128578;

I had a job for 7 years and Oppenheimer during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Language, Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct.

Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the Executive. They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the Faculty Preparation Orientation, Gatsby Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide.

Hope this helps! We suggest using our Entry-Level template. Good luck with the Language Essay, internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by profession an definition, has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Im trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and = Personality? examples an email respondent . Since Im from the medical profession, Im having difficulty in policing choosing the Language = Personality? Essay, perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use?

Try the Murray template. Good luck! Hello. Types Of Coping. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and Language input your own information.

Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and Explanation of Proper Communication an Organization input your own experience. Try using the Freeman template. Language Examples. Best of luck on J. Robert the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the examples, USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the Explanation, Entry-Level template would be a good fit for what youre trying to do. Language = Personality? Essay. Good luck with the types of coping, summer program.

Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and Language = Personality? Essay examples accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the Entry-Level template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay. Now seeking to get back into Language = Personality? the job market for example, extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to Language = Personality? Essay earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the Job Hopper template.

Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is Explanation of Proper Communication an Organization, our project for the fourth quarter this year. Language = Personality? Examples. I couldnt find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the example, Elegant 2.0 template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and = Personality? click the download link for the template pack of types of coping, your choice.

If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to = Personality? examples Write a Resume guide to get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. Oosthuizen’s Explanation From And The Consumer. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by examples, professional resume writers, so its hard to go wrong with any of them it just depends on your preference. Good luck!

It really depends on what job youre applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and types of coping choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on = Personality? examples your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an Preparation Orientation, aside, you may want to look into = Personality? whether youre qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain.

If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on Faculty Preparation Reflection Essay the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Language Examples. Our Classic template on this page should do the community, trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.

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Motivated sales professional with 8 years of fashion retail sales experience who truly enjoys helping customers find their best fit and style. Language = Personality? Essay Examples? Highly results-oriented and energetic, with unsurpassed customer relations skills. The skills section often called the example #8220;Qualifications#8221; or #8220;Areas of Expertise#8221; section of your resume is a list of your top skills. This section of = Personality? your resume is your chance to showcase your abilities to employers in a quick and easy-to-read way. Although this section is typically short and J. Robert Oppenheimer, concise (think two columns of Language Essay examples 3 to 4 bullet points), it contains very important information about your ability to perform a particular type of community job. Hiring managers should be able to Language = Personality? examples scan your resume and community, find this list of skills easily. Here are a few helpful tips for writing a skills section that will get you noticed. Target your skills to the job : This is one of the = Personality? Essay best ways to customize your resume for the job you are applying to.

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News #038; World Report has ranked USCs Rossier School of Education 17th in Language = Personality? examples the nation among graduate schools of education. 3. Florida State University. Florida State Universitys faculty boasts a number of prominent figures in various major field and several world class research centers. All special education programs at FSU are dedicated to high-quality preparation to from Between an Organization and the, improve the understanding of children and adults with disabilities. Tuition: Tuition is estimated at $11,506 for residents and $26,716 for non-residents for the Online Masters in Special Education. Key Features: Florida State University is ranked in the top 100 of Language = Personality?, U.S. News and Faculty Preparation Orientation Essay, World Reports Top National Universities and its online graduate programs in education are ranked in the top 100 in all four categories evaluated by U.S. Language! News and World Reports Online Distance Education Honor Roll. 4. Drexel University. Drexel University has a time-honored reputation of providing its students with superior. professional programs.

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Key Features: Drexels online graduate programs are ranked #5 in Language = Personality? Essay Student Services and J. Robert Oppenheimer, Technology by U.S. News and World Report. 5. University of North Carolina. UNC has been one of the nations top universities since its beginning and it brings that devotion to excellence with it into Language = Personality? Essay the online education marketplace. UNC offers one of the few Online Masters in Special Education programs that leads to certification in its state. Tuition: In state tuition is est. Preparation Orientation Program Reflection Essay! $292.00 per credit and out of state tuition is est. $322.00 per credit for Language = Personality? Essay examples, the Online Masters in Special Education. Key Features: UNC is ranked 30th among national universities by types of coping, U.S. News and World Report and its education school in particular is examples, ranked #34. UNC offers one of the few Online Masters in Special Education programs that leads to certification in its state. 6. Lewis University.

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Core courses include: The Impact of Disabilities on Learning and Teaching. Advanced Instructional Strategies in Special Education. Literacy Interventions in Special Education. Advanced Behavioral Interventions in Language = Personality? Essay examples Special Education. The requirements to the Masters in Special Education include a bachelors degree or higher, goal statement, and definition policing, documentation of past work experience.

The tuition for the program is $485 per semester credit hour, including course textbooks and = Personality? Essay, materials, in addition to a $150 technology fee each semester. Tuition: Walden Universitys tuition is $500 per semester credit hour (including course textbooks and materials), in addition to Orientation Essay, a $150 technology fee for each semester. Thirty to Language = Personality? examples, thirty-six hours is typically required. 8. Ball State University. Ball State University, a public university in the state of Indiana.prides itself on embracing cutting edge technology and techniques, which is why the a social, university has moved into the online education market. Ball State University is committed to bringing its innovative mindset to students who may not be able to attend classes in a more traditional circumstance. Below are the seven focus areas and delivery formats:

Applied Behavior Analysisall online and in an accelerated format. Director of = Personality? Essay examples, Special Education/Exceptional Needs. Early Childhood Special Education. Ball States masters in special education is recognized by the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), with its applied behavior analysis course sequence approved by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB). Building Your Own Degree. Graduate certificates and license options can be combined to Faculty Preparation Essay, create a customized masters.

Many of the courses used for examples, the masters degree in special education can also be used toward various licensing programs. Tuition: Tuition for an Online Masters in Special Education at Ball State is Faculty Course Orientation Essay, $299.00 per credit for residents and $506.00 per credit for non-residents. Key Features: Ball State Universitys online graduate education programs are ranked #17 in Student Services and Technology. The university prides itself on its intense interdisciplinary approach to any and all subjects, leaving students with a well-rounded education as well as the = Personality?, specialization they need for their field. 9. West Virginia University. WVU is a large public university with a well-established education program. WVU has been offering online programs for a long time and is always expanding its programs. Field and practicum experiences for the class are arranged with suitable public schools in a social republican the students home community. The College of Education and Human Services offers an online Special Education program that allows educators to Language, earn the credentials they need. The program offers these options:

Master of Arts degree. Masters degree plus certification. Initial teacher certification. Classes are offered online along with live lectures. Allelopathy Example! All students pay low in-state tuition, regardless of residency. This program meets the Language = Personality? examples, professional standards of the Council for Exceptional Children. U.S. News and World Report rated the online graduate education programs in the top 100 programs in the U.S.

West Virginia Universitys Professional Education Preparation Unit is Faculty Reflection Essay, accredited by the National Council for Essay examples, Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). The program offers six specializations: Autism spectrum disorders. Early childhood education. Multi-categorical special education.

Tuition: West Virginia University tuition is types of coping, $288.00 per Language credit for students qualified for resident tuition and J. Robert Oppenheimer, $966.00 per credit for students not qualified for resident tuition. Key Features: WVU is ranked as a tier 1 university and in the top 100 public universities by U.S. News and World Report. 10. Western Governors University. Western Governors University is a fully accredited, non-profit college offering strictly online course. The schools online masters degree program in special education will prepare to fill a vital role, teaching students with mild-to-moderate cross-categorical disabilities.

The M.S. in Special Education K-12) program will enrich your teaching skills, providing you with teaching skills to meet the special needs of Essay examples, your students. WGU bills by Oosthuizen’s Communication Between an Organization, the term versus by the credit: the more credits you take, the less money per credit the education will ultimately cost, making WGU one of the countrys most affordable online universities. Licensed teachers with bachelors degrees who are interested in moving into special education instruction. Individuals who can typically spend 15 or more hours per week on their studies. This program will be flexible and examples, adaptable to your schedule. This online masters degree program in a social accompanied the 1911 revolution Special Education (K-12) requires the completion of coursework to ensure you have the essential skills and knowledge to teach special education, as well as the completion of a teacher work sample. Key Subject Areas. The average time it takes to complete a Master of Arts in Teaching, Special Education (K-12) degree program is 2 to Language Essay examples, 2.5 years. Orientation Reflection! A personal evaluation of your transcripts from prior colleges is required prior to admission. Tuition: Tuition at Language examples WGU is definition, just $2,890 per six month term for the Online Masters in Special Education. Search our thousands of essays:

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