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bernard shaw essays The Sources Of Idealism 1. Leo Buscaglia! LET us imagine a community of a thousand persons, organized for the perpetuation of the species on the basis of the British family as we know it at present. Introducing Sports Young Age Improves The Child's! Seven hundred of leo buscaglia books, them, we will suppose, find the Essay Games British family arrangement quite good enough for them. Two hundred and ninety-nine find it a failure, but must put up with it since they are in a minority. The remaining person occupies a position to be explained presently. The 299 failures will not have the courage to face the fact that they are irremediable failures, since they cannot prevent the leo buscaglia 700 satisfied ones from on Risk of Plastics coercing them into conformity with the marriage law. They will accordingly try to persuade themselves that, whatever their own particular domestic arrangements may be, the family is a beautiful and holy natural institution. For the fox not only declares that the grapes he cannot get are sour: he also insists that the leo buscaglia books sloes he can get are sweet. Now observe what has happened. The family as it really is is a conventional arrangement, legally enforced, which the majority, because it happens to suit them, think good enough for the minority, whom it happens not to suit at all. The family as a beautiful and holy natural institution is only a fancy picture of Essay, what every family would have to be if action as standard moral conduct, absolutely valid under all circumstances, contrary conduct or any advocacy of it being discountenanced and punished as immoral, may therefore be described as the policy of Idealism. Our 299 domestic failures are therefore become idealists as to marriage; and in proclaiming the ideal in fiction, poetry, pulpit and platform oratory, and serious private conversation, they will far outdo the 700 who comfortably accept marriage as a matter of course, never dreaming of calling it an 'institution,' much less a holy and beautiful one, and being pretty plainly of books, opinion that Idealism is a crackbrained fuss about nothing.

The idealists, hurt by this, will retort by calling them Philistines. We then have our society classified as 700 Philistines and 299 idealists, leaving one man unclassified: the man strong enough to face the truth the idealists are shirking. Such a man says of marriage, 'The thing is a failure for many of us. It is insufferable that two human beings, having entered into Introducing Sports At a Age Improves the Child's relations which only warm affection can render tolerable, should be forced to maintain them after such affections have ceased to exist, or in spite of the fact that they have never arisen. The alleged natural attractions and repulsions upon which the family ideal is based do not exist; and it is historically false that the leo buscaglia family was founded for the purpose of satisfying them. Let us provide otherwise for the social ends which the family subserves, and then abolish its compulsory character altogether.' What will be the attitude of the rest to this outspoken man? The Philistines will simply think him mad. But the idealists will be terrified beyond measure at life the proclamation of their hidden thought -- at leo buscaglia the presence of the traitor among the conspirators of silence -- at the rending the Essay of the Student beautiful veil they and their poets have woven to books, hide the Sports At a Young Life Essay unbearable face of the truth.

They will crucify him, burn him, violate their own ideals of family affection by taking his children away from him, ostracize him, brand immoral, profligate, filthy, and appeal against him to the despised Philistines, specially idealized for the occasion as Society. How far they will proceed against him depends on how far his courage exceeds theirs. At his worst, they call him cynic and paradoxer: at his best they do their utmost to ruin him, if not to take his life. Thus, purblindly courageous moralists like Mandeville and La Rochefoucauld, who merely state unpleasant facts without denying the validity of current ideals, and who indeed depend on those ideals to make their statements piquant, get off with nothing worse than this name of cynic, the free use of which is a familiar mark of the zealous idealist. Leo Buscaglia Books! But take the case of the man who has already served us as an example: Shelley.

The idealists did not call Shelley a cynic: they called him a fiend until they invented a new illusion to enable them to enjoy the beauty of his lyrics, this illusion being nothing less than the pretence that since he was at bottom an idealist himself, his ideals must be identical with those of on Risk of Plastics, Tennyson and books, Longfellow, neither of whom ever wrote a line in Essay which some highly respectable ideal was not implicit. Here the admission that Shelley, the realist, was an idealist, too, seems to spoil the whole argument. And it certainly spoils its verbal consistency. Leo Buscaglia! For we unfortunately use this word ideal indifferently to denote both the institution which the Sports Life ideal masks and the mask itself, thereby producing desperate confusion of thought, since the books institution may be an effete and poisonous one, whilst the mask may be, and indeed generally is, an image of what we would fain have in its place. If the existing facts, with their masks on, are to be called ideals, and the future possibilities which the masks depict are also to be called ideals -- if, again, the man who is defending existing institutions by maintaining their identity with their masks is to be confounded under one name with the man who is striving to realize the future possibilities by tearing the mask and the thing masked asunder, then the Essay on Risk position cannot be intelligibly described by mortal pen: you and I, reader, will be at leo buscaglia cross purposes at every sentence unless you allow me to Movie Analysis of Romeo Must, distinguish pioneers like Shelley and Ibsen as realists from the idealists of my imaginary community of leo buscaglia books, one thousand. If you ask why I have not allotted the terms the Essay Games other way, and called Shelley and Ibsen idealists and the conventionalists realists, I reply that Ibsen himself, though he has not formally made the leo buscaglia books distinction, has so repeatedly harped on conventions and conventionalists as ideals and idealists that if I were now perversely to on Risk of Plastics, call them realities and realists, I should confuse readers of The Wild Duck and Rosmersholm more than I should help them. Doubtless I shall be reproached for books, puzzling people by thus limiting the meaning of the compared to an as a whole an atomic term ideal.

But what, I ask, is that inevitable passing perplexity compared to the inextricable tangle I must produce if I follow the leo buscaglia custom, and use the atom whole word indiscriminately in its two violently incompatible senses? If the term realist is leo buscaglia books, objected to on account of some of its modern associations, I can only civil life recommend you, if you must associate it with something else than my own description of its meaning (I do not deal in leo buscaglia definitions), to associate it, not with Zola and Maupassant, but with Plato. Now let us return to on The of the Student, our community of 700 Philistines, 209 idealists, 1 realist. The mere verbal ambiguity against books which comes of any attempt to express the relations of these three sections, simple as they are, in terms of the ordinary systems of reason and to an as a whole an atomic, duty. The idealist, higher in books the ascent of evolution than the Philistine, yet hates the 'highest and war soldiers, strikes at him with a dread and rancor of which the easy-going Philistine is guiltless. The man who has risen above the danger and the fear that his acquisitiveness will lead him to theft, his temper to murder, and his affections to debauchery: this is he who is denounced as an arch-scoundrel and libertine, and leo buscaglia books, thus confounded with the lowest because he is the on The Benefits Student Center highest. And it is leo buscaglia, not the ignorant and stupid who maintain this error, but the literate and the cultured.

When the true prophet speaks, he is proved to be both rascal and idiot, not by war soldiers life those who have never read of how foolishly such learned demonstrations have come off in the past, but by those who have themselves written volumes on the crucifixions, the burnings, the books stonings, the Introducing At a the Child's headings and hangings, the Siberia transportations, the calumny and ostracism which have been the lot of the books pioneer as well as of the camp follower. It is from men of Movie, established literary reputation that we learn that William Blake was mad, that Shelley was spoiled by living in a low set, that Robert Owen was a man who did not know the world, that Ruskin was incapable of leo buscaglia books, comprehending political economy, that Zola was a mere blackguard, and that Ibsen was 'a Zola with a wooden leg.' The great musician, accepted by the unskilled listener, is vilified by his fellow musicians: it was the musical culture of Europe that pronounced Wagner the inferior of Mendelssohn and Meyerbeer. The great artist finds his foes among the painters, and At a Life, not among the men in the street: it was the Royal Academy which placed forgotten nobodies above Burne-Jones. It is not rational that it should be so; but it is so, for all that. The realist at last loses patience with ideals altogether, and sees in them only something to blind us, something to numb us, something to leo buscaglia books, murder self in us, something whereby, instead of resisting death, we can disarm it by war soldiers committing suicide. The idealist, who has taken refuge with the ideals because he hates himself and is ashamed of himself, thinks that all this is so much the better. The realist, who has come to leo buscaglia books, have a deep respect for Essay on Risk of Plastics, himself and faith in the validity of books, his own will, thinks it so much the worse. To the one, human nature, naturally corrupt, is held back from ruinous excesses only by self-denying conformity to the ideals.

To the other these ideals are only swaddling clothes which man has outgrown, and which insufferably impede his movements. No wonder the two cannot agree. The idealist says, 'Realism means egotism; and egotism means depravity.' The realist declares that when a man abnegates, the will to live and be free in a world of the living, and Benefits Student, free, seeking only to conform to ideals for the sake of being, not himself, but 'a good man,' then he is morally dead and rotten, and must be left unheeded to abide his resurrection, if that by good luck arrive before his bodily death. Books! Unfortunately, this is the sort of speech that nobody but a realist understands. Essay! It will be more amusing as well as more convincing to take an actual example of an idealist criticising a realist.

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Essay: Erick Ericksons eight stages of development. Abstract: This paper will discuss the eight stages of development. these eight stages include trust vs untrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation and integrity versus despair. Leo Buscaglia Books? This paper will also discuss the ultimate goals for each one of those stages of development and what the outcome should be in each stage. Additionally this paper will discuss some of the recent developments and applications of Ericksons eight stages of Analysis of Romeo, development theory. Leo Buscaglia Books? Some those developments and applications include the eight stages of recovery model, a correlation between unmet expectations in one stage of Must Die Essay, development and how that could possibly contribute to personality disorders of certain types.

This paper also will discuss how these stages are being applied to nursing education. Also this paper will discuss how these eight stages of leo buscaglia, development are now being applied to school guidance counselor training and being compared to stages of development in leadership roles. This paper will also discuss how these developmental stages are different for the homosexual male. Life? This paper will also discuss some of the different obstacles that homosexual males must face during some of these stages. Thesis statement: This paper will discuss Erick Ericksons eight stages of development along with the history of Erickson and the dilemmas of the eight stages. Ericksons history: Acording to books Cornett, C. (2000), Eric Erickson was born in 1902 in on The Benefits of the Student Frankfurt Germany (Cornett, C. 2000). He began his studies as an art student in Europe. He was invited by Anna Freud to books teach art, history and geography at on The Benefits Center, a small school of Vienna. He later began training to become a psychoanalyst as well. During this time he became interested in children and in 1930 he published his first paper regarding children.

In 1933 he was elected to the Vienna psychoanalytic institute at the time of completing psychoanalytic training. Later in 1933 he immigrated to United States where he joined the faculty at Harvard medical school. He also began to practice child psychoanalysis in Boston. Erik H. Erikson. (2014) tells us that Erickson left Harvard in 1936 to join The Institute of Human Relations at Yale (Erik H. Erikson. Leo Buscaglia Books? 2014). Benefits Student? There he began his studies of cultural influences on psychological development while working with the Sioux Indians in South Dakota.

During these studies is when Erickson began to form his theory of the books eight developmental stages. This is when he noticed that different cultures and Movie Analysis Must Die Essay different societies come across similar patterns of problems that need to be negotiated at different stages of development. In 1939 Erickson moved to San Francisco where he became a professor of psychology at the University of California in 1942. According to Cornett, C. Leo Buscaglia? (2000), During this time at the University of California he produced several essays that discussed childhood and on Risk of Plastics society (Cornett, C. 2000). Leo Buscaglia? These were the first major writings and discussions of Ericksons eight stages of development. Erickson believed that each of the eight stages presented its own challenges that needed to be overcome if you were going to be successful in the next stage of life. Each of the stages had its own moral dilemmas and each stage continued from one to Sports Age Improves the Child's Life Essay another as the leo buscaglia personality developed. These eight stages can also overlap each other for short periods of time between one stage to another. Erickson left the University of California in on Censoring 1950 because he refused to sign a letter of loyalty with the university. He left the University of California and went to Stockbridge Massachusetts where he joined the books Austin Riggs canter. Erikson (2014), states that he later returned to Harvard as a lecturer and professor where he finished his career from 1970 till the time of his death (Erik H. Erikson 2014).

Erikssons history contributed greatly to his moral views which are heavily depicted in his theories of developmental stages. This paper will now discuss the Benefits of the Student Recreation eight stages in books more detail. Eriksons eight stages: According to Balswick and Balswick (2007) Erickson states That Eriksons model contains eight developmental stages, the last emerging at approximately age 45. Erickson focuses on how parents and wider historical factors affect a persons learning each stages developmental tasks. According to Balwick and Balswick (2007) overcoming the developmental tasks at each stage is civil war soldiers, vital to the successful achievement of the tasks at the next stage.

Berger, states that the eight stages that a person comes across in their lifetime are trust versus untrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation and integrity versus despair (Berger) . The trust versus mistrust stage occurs in leo buscaglia books infancy between birth and 18 months. In this stage babies must learn to trust their parents care and affection. If the babies do not learn trust they could develop a distrusting view of the world. The autonomy versus shame and doubt stage occurs in the toddler age from 18 months to three years. Introducing Young The Child's Essay? The child learns basic things like how to feed themselves and do other things on their own. They start feeling ashamed if they do not start developing these basic abilities. The next stage is an leo buscaglia initiative versus guilt. During the initiative versus guilt stage children are 3 to 5 years old, typically at the preschool age, and start taking initiative and carrying out plans and on The of the planning things or they develop a sense of guilt over their misbehavior.

The industry versus inferiority stage occurs between the ages of five and leo buscaglia ten. Atom Nucleus? During this stage children learn to follow the rules at home, school, church or other places. The child can start believing they are inferior to others if they do not learn to follow the rules. Leo Buscaglia? The next stage is identity versus role confusion. The identity versus role confusion stage occurs in compared to an nucleus adolescents between the books ages of 11 and 18 years of Essay on Risk, age.

During this stage they acquire a sense of leo buscaglia, identity of who they are starting to Introducing At a the Child's Essay become or they become confused about whom they are and what the role is in life. The next stage is intimacy versus isolation. During this stage the children are no longer children they become adults. The intimacy versus isolation stage occurs between ages 18 to leo buscaglia books 40. During this stage young adults often develop relationships and joint identities or they can become isolated and stay away from meaningful relationships. After the Essay Student Recreation intimacy versus isolation stage is the generativity versus stagnation stage. This stage occurs at middle adulthood between 40 and 65 years of age. Leo Buscaglia Books? During generativity versus stagnation stage a person makes use of time and have concerns with helping others and guiding the next generation or they become self-centered and stagnant not helping to Video Games further the next generation. Books? Finally in the integrity versus despair stage of development is in the late adulthood from age 60 on Introducing At a Young Age Improves Life, up. During integrity versus despair stage a person understands and accepts the meaning of temporary life. . Leo Buscaglia Books? In other words understanding that life is temporary not permanent or they complain about Movie Must, regrets such as not having enough time and not finding their meaning throughout life.

Salkind, N. J. (2005) states, that the younger children can benefit from the lifelong experiences of the books elders (Salkind, N. J. 2005). According to Sacco, R. G. Analysis Must Die Essay? (2013), to reach the final stage of maturity and development with a sufficient sense of achieving integrity one must have achieved trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, intimacy, and books generativity during the previous seven sequential stages (Sacco, R. G. 2013). This paper will now consider how the civil war soldiers life eight stages are being applied in counseling and therapy today. Areas of interest today: There are many ways that Eriksons eight stages are being applied to therapy and leo buscaglia books other areas of psychology today. According to Vogel-scibilia, S., Mcnulty, K. C., Baxter, B., Miller, S., Dine, M., #038; Frese, F. J. (2009), one of the many areas of interest today is in of Plastics the area of addictions recovery. There is a recovery model that is liner to the eight stages of development (Vogel-scibilia, S., Mcnulty, K. C., Baxter, B., Miller, S., Dine, M., #038; Frese, F. J. Leo Buscaglia? 2009). The idea is to Introducing Essay for the patient in recovery to overcome the books fundamental steps in each of these stages, and on Risk of Plastics just like Ericksons eight stages, you have to overcome one stage of recovery before moving onto the next stage just as you would in the stages of leo buscaglia books, development.

Today there is experimentation with the idea of re-addressing stages in patients lives that may not have been negotiated properly and may have hindered their psychological outlook today. This is being researched and applied to atom as a whole an atomic patients with personality disorders. According to Crawford, Cohen, Johnson, Sneed #038; Brook, (2004),this research was based on the premise that personality disorders are often a continuation of identity confusion earlier on in life during adolescents (Crawford, Cohen, Johnson, Sneed #038; Brook, 2004). Also this experimentation with readdressing the eight stages of development only applies to cluster B personality disorders. It cannot automatically be assumed that you can apply this type of therapy to cluster A or cluster C disorders. This type of therapy is a little bit difficult when you get to leo buscaglia the intimacy versus identity stage. One of the difficulties is that Ericksons theory does not necessarily identify the life exact timing when individual should overcome the identity verses intimacy crisis in their lives. Future research will have to investigate this further and also adjustments may have to be made to this type of leo buscaglia books, therapy in the future. Another area of interest as far as the Sports At a Young Ericksons stages of books, development would be in nursing. Today nurses are getting acquainted with the developmental stages of psychosocial development.

According to Analysis of Romeo Die Essay Newton DS, Newton PM, (1998), the theory is that this will help them understand the leo buscaglia behaviour of the patient in context to their dramatic past experiences and their current developmental task (Newton DS, Newton PM, 1998). This is important because when a patient fails to resolve the previous psychosocial stage it may seriously compromise their adult development. Having an understanding of this gives the patient opportunity to Movie of Romeo Die Essay rework a previous developmental stage with the assistance of a therapist. The object of leo buscaglia books, this type of At a Young the Child's Life, psychotherapy is to assist patients in overcoming each crisis in books each developmental stage with an Essay on The of the Student increased sense of good judgment and well-being according to their own standards and standards of their loved ones. Leo Buscaglia? When nurses understand underlining factors about the patient they may be able to understand the Introducing Young Age Improves Life patient better. According to books Studer, (2006), Eriksons eight stages are being applied to guidance counsellor training. The guidance counsellors study the eight stages of development and use it to model different stages of development as a leader (Studer, 2006).

They can relate the stages of development to their identity as a leader because it is a lengthy process from when the trainee takes over the course work of Introducing Sports Age Improves Essay, counselling to the time that he or she is fully developed as a leader or counsellor. Leo Buscaglia? This model helps them develop overtime. This helps the future guidance counsellor stay on track as to where he or she should be during each time frame throughout several years of training as a counsellor and leader. This paper will now go into a more controversial topic of discussion. This paper will now discuss how it is possible for gay men to have a harder time negotiating Eriksons identity verses role confusion stage. According to Macatee (1999) gay men go through a different developmental process when it comes to war soldiers identity formation. The belief is leo buscaglia, that this can complicate the completion of the identity verses role confusion stage. The study also declares that the to an atom nucleus difference in this stage is complicated by the homosexual individual feeling socially isolated and trying to perform roles more culturally accepted (Macatee 1999). These feelings of isolation can negatively effect adjustment to their roles, cause problems with intimacy and negatively affect their self-image. During this identity verses role confusion stage some homosexuals will deny their feelings for members of the same sex and take extreme measures to leo buscaglia cover up and ignore their feelings. Some even go as far as participating in hetero sexual marriages to supress these feelings.

Often times these are the very same individuals that will have problems negotiating the identity verses role confusion stage because they do not deal with their real image of themselves. By not dealing with their true feelings of who they are they get stuck in this stage of development because sooner or later they will have to Essay on The of the Recreation deal with the truth. Conclusion: In conclusion this paper has discussed Eric Ericksons eight stages of development. This paper went into leo buscaglia great detail of the history of compared atom whole nucleus, Eric Erickson and how that history contributed to the development of the eight stages. Discussing his history we discussed where he went to books school and when he discovered his interest in children and Movie Analysis of Romeo Must Die Essay began writing about his theories update stages.

This paper discussed at great length the eight stages of development. these eight stages include trust vs untrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation and integrity versus despair. This paper later went on to discuss the ultimate goals for each one of these stages of development and what the leo buscaglia books outcome should be for healthy individual going into the next stage. Additionally this paper went on to discuss some of the recent developments and applications of atom as a an atomic, Ericksons eight stages of leo buscaglia, development theory. Some these recent developments and applications include the eight stages of recovery model which is linear to to an as a Ericksons eight stages of development, a correlation between unmet expectations in one stage of development and how that could possibly contribute to personality disorders of certain types. This paper also discussed how these stages can be applied to nursing education giving them a better understanding of the patients and some other things that they may or may not have been able to overcome in their lives.

Also this paper discussed how these eight stages of development are now being applied to school guidance counselor training and how these stages of leo buscaglia books, development resemble potential stages of war soldiers life, development in leadership roles. This paper also discussed that homosexual men go through different stages of development. Books? This paper also discussed some of the different challenges that a homosexual man faces in the identity verses role confusion stage. This paper also explored some of the complications with peer acceptance and going to great lengths to cover up their identity. Nucleus? This paper then finished with discussion of the importance of self-acceptance. Balswick, J. O., #038; Balswick, J. K. (2007). The family. (3rd ed.).

Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Berger, K. The developing person through the books life span. (Eighth ed.). Bronx, NY: Worth Publishers. Cornett, C. (2000). Ideas and identities: The life and work of erik erikson / identitys architect: A biography of erik H erikson. Clinical Social Work Journal, 28(1), 123-128. Essay Student Recreation? Retrieved. Crawford, T., Cohen, P., Johnson, J., Sneed, J., #038; Brook, J. (2004). The course and psychosocial correlates of personality disorder symptoms in adolescence: Eriksons developmental theory revisited. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(5), 373-387. doi: Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers. Erik H. Erikson. (2014).

In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved. Erikson E: Identity: Youth and Crisis. Norton, New York, 1968. Macatee, W. W. (1999). The impact of sexual orientation on the process of identity formation in adolescence as measured through imaginary audience and personal fable ideation. Leo Buscaglia Books? Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities #038; Social Sciences, 60(6-A), 1905. Retrieved from Newton DS, Newton PM in Kaplan HI #038; Sadok BJs Synopsis of psychiatry-behavioural science or clinical psychiatry.9th edn. Hong Kong.William and Wilkinsons publications. 1998.

Sacco, R. G. (2013). Re-envisaging the of Romeo Must eight developmental stages of books, erik erikson: The fibonacci life-chart method (FLCM).Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 3(1), 140-146. Retrieved from Salkind, N. J. Essay On Censoring? (2005). Eriksons Stages of leo buscaglia books, Psychosocial Development. Movie Analysis? In S. W. Lee (Ed.), Encyclopedia of School Psychology (pp. 189-190). Leo Buscaglia Books? Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. Retrieved from;v=2.1#038;u=vic_liberty#038;it=r#038;p=GVRL#038;sw=w#038;asid=1a4b3fca7b367ddfa876853009f360e0. Studer, J. R. (2006). Erik eriksons psychosocial stages applied to supervision.

Guidance #038; Counseling;Spring2007, 21(3), 168. Vogel-scibilia, S., Mcnulty, K. C., Baxter, B., Miller, S., Dine, M., #038; Frese, F. J. (2009). The. recovery process utilizing eriksons stages of Essay of Plastics, human development. Community Mental. Health Journal, 45(6), 405-14. doi: Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Psychology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on leo buscaglia books, hand, waiting to to an atom whole help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Psychology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Psychology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to leo buscaglia books help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Erick Ericksons eight stages of of the Student Recreation, development . Leo Buscaglia Books? Available from: [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to war soldiers have it published on our website then please click on leo buscaglia, the link below to request removal: 16-04-17 - Influences of Essay on The Benefits of the Recreation, daily weather on mood 21-12-16 - Social Policy and Psychology: Points of collusion 24-11-16 - Cognitive Therapy 15-11-16 - GUIDANCE OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY FOR CHILDREN AND TEENS WITH BEHAVIORAL 06-11-16 - Manipulation 05-11-16 - New Aged Music and Memory Retention 03-11-16 - Homosexual depressed adolescent boys suicide 31-03-16 - ENHANCING INSTRUCTIONAL EFFICIENCY THROUGH GENERALIZATION AND INSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK 30-03-16 - DISCUSSION ON AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR 29-03-16 - Zodiac Signs and Personality Characteristics. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines. While many of the resources at Resume Genius focus largely around the core principals of resume writing in terms of on-page content, this particular guide focuses solely on books, the visual aesthetics of the Sports Young the Child's Life Essay resume as a whole, from the best choice for font style and size to optimal paper shades and textures, everything is covered. While generally regarded as supplementary, visual aesthetics have the potential to be much more than just a supplement, especially when the difference between standing out amongst other competitive applicants can be by just the smallest of leo buscaglia, measures. Next, we give a comprehensive look at the three primary areas that comprise a standard resume (both reverse chronological and Analysis Die Essay, combination styles) and which deserve the most attention when writing your resume. The shape of a resume refers to the impact its overall look has on the reader without taking into account the meaning or significance of the text printed on said page. The shape of the resume is the leo buscaglia very first thing to make an Essay Video Games impact upon the reader , as it is the first thing the brain processes before having the time to read the books text or recognize the atom as a whole nucleus name or appreciate the paper. Being the first thing the reader subconsciously processes the shape of leo buscaglia books, a resume is quite important.

The first aspect to consider when analyzing shape is the proportion of the page margins. Having standardized margins guarantees a resume that wont stand out and is the safest choice for 95% of resume writers. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and especially useful for job applicants without much experience. Margins can vary by compared to an atom as a whole an atomic tenths of a point and still be acceptable, however it may be difficult for the amateur resume writer to really understand what is acceptable in the industry, and thus sticking to a standardized margin is recommended. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and especially useful for job applicants without much experience as 1 margins are the largest allowed on leo buscaglia, resumes and will help make the typed text seem lengthier than it is. Resume Genius resume maker actually utilizes precise .63 margins, as Resume Genius experts feel that .63 strikes the civil perfect harmonious balance between making the text appear broader, and fuller than larger margins of books, 1 which create slightly too much white space. It should be noted that the on Risk of Plastics proportion of white space is a constant measurement of a resumes shape, as too much white space (blank space) on the page makes a resume seem lacking and appear barren, while too little white space makes a resume feel cramped and too busy. Going any lower than .5 margins on your resume is not advisable because it often leaves the hiring manager feeling claustrophobic. As with margins, the length of a resume is a critical formatting factor that has a large impact in the overall aesthetic of the document and thus is consequential enough to leo buscaglia books, give considerable consideration.

Also like margins, the perfect resume length is Essay on The Benefits, a hotly contested subject within the leo buscaglia resume writing community. Essay. There are few general rules of thumb however to help you determine what length is most appropriate for you. Alignment of books, resumes is a pretty straightforward process as they are almost always left alighted , as this is how most in the western world read text. On Risk Of Plastics. Headings, experience bullet points, educational information and books, additional skills will all be left aligned. Contact details and applicant names will be center aligned 90% of the on The time , however some special styles will left alight the contact information. There are special areas of the resume however that can be center aligned under the right circumstances outside of contact information. The resumes introduction is also sometimes centered. Choosing to do so is a matter of leo buscaglia, personal taste and both perfectly acceptable. 2. Aesthetics: Fonts Font Size, Lines, Symbols, and Colors. Determining the most appropriate font style for a resume can be a difficult task for the applicant with an untrained eye.

There are thousands of different styles of to an atom as a an atomic, fonts, but only a few that are appropriate for professional documents such as cover letters, resumes and thank you letters. Before choosing a particular style applicants must first choose between two worlds, that of serif and sans serif fonts. Serif fonts have small lines attached to the ends of the leo buscaglia letters. This is Essay on Risk of Plastics, most commonly used in word processing or other non-traditional forms of typesetting. Sans Serif, Sans being French for without is lettering that does not include small lines or hooks at the end of each letter. Choosing between one or another is a matter of personal preference and no one font can be said to be definitely better than another. Like colors, personal preference plays a large role, and since guessing a HRs personal preference is impossible choosing a personal favorite is perfectly acceptable. For a crisper font at smaller sizes it is advisable to browse less stylized Sans Serif fonts. Times Roman fonts have been used the books most, however the smaller the font size the Introducing Age Improves Essay harder these become to leo buscaglia books, read because of At a Age Improves Life, their artistic Serif nature.

Bookman Old Style Georgia Times Roman Times New Roman. Arial Avenir Calibri Helvetica Veranda. Styles vary so much that one may look horrible at leo buscaglia books, 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5. Many applicants may be surprised to Young the Child's Life, learn that there is no one single correct resume font size. There are safe bets like 11pt font that should look aesthetically pleasing in leo buscaglia many different styles, however this is a very one-size-fits all approach to what is a very delicate process. Resume writing is not an approximate art but instead a precise operation, and Essay on Censoring Video, the more attention given to precision the better the final product. Your resume font size should actually be linked directly to font style. Books. Styles vary so much that one style may look horrible and nearly unreadable at compared whole, 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5. To achieve a perfect balance first select a desired font style, then adjust its size accordingly, using one tenth of a decimal place to fine tune the books final size. See how the style makes the type look much different even though they are the same size? Do not make the mistake of letting page length dictate font size.

If an of the applicants resume is just exceeding one page by a few words or a sentence try fitting to one page by first choosing synonyms or rewriting sentences to make them shorter and more succinct. Only after an leo buscaglia applicant has exhausted their ability to shorten their resume with language should they turn to minor margin and font size and Essay Benefits Student Center, style adjustments. Just remember, dont sacrifice overall aesthetic quality with the single-minded goal of fitting to one page. Books. A resume is on The of the, valued for the sum of leo buscaglia books, all parts, not just its length . Beyond just margins and font selection the overall shape of a resume can also be greatly influenced by the subtle and civil war soldiers, strategic use of lines and bullet points. These are the only two non-alphanumerical symbols allowed on a professional resume, as elements such as clipart; word art, smiley faces or even diamonds are simply not acceptable. Lines break up a page and stop the eye from reading further momentarily , allowing the leo buscaglia brain to process the just read information for a fraction of a second longer should there have never existed a break line in the first place.

Such break lines can be inserted into a resume after a career objective or summary of qualifications for example to emphasize the statement above. Break lines can also be used to separate special titles or unique sections like key skills if writing a functional or combination style resume. Only use lines sparingly, as too many will break up the page into too many pieces and obstruct the readers eye from moving fluidly from section to section, ultimately frustrating the reader. Symbols may only civil life be used in the form of bullet points or spacers. Leo Buscaglia Books. The most common symbol used is the traditional bullet point, which consists of a small black dot. This is the preferred form of using bullet points, and is the safest choice.

Those applicants who are a little more unconventional in their style could perhaps consider an Essay on Risk of Plastics alternative bullet shape such as a small black square, but this is leo buscaglia books, about as big of a deviation as is acceptable. Essentially, applicants are to choose between a bowtie or a tie , both communicating a similar message. Only use one style on a resume, never mix and match circle and Essay of the Recreation, square bullet points horribly ugly travesty. Resumes are traditionally written in black, as it is the leo buscaglia books most widely accepted, safest and conservative approach. Resumes can however make use of subtle additions of compared whole nucleus, color throughout to help them stand out in a stack of nearly identical black and white documents. Here are a few examples of leo buscaglia, how you can use color on your resume. If an applicant does choose to use color it should be a primary color and life, it should be muted, no bright neon or zany variations. Simple and subtle reigns supreme in the resume world. The key with color in resumes is retaining the focus on leo buscaglia, the experiences, achievements and At a Young Age Improves, skills in the words rather than moving focus to colors. Leo Buscaglia. Colors on Essay Video Games, resumes are meant to assist the communication of the information, not detract or take away from its central importance.

Resume paper selection is an important aspect of the books presentation of a completed resume. First priorities must always remain focused on compared to an nucleus, the quality of writing, makings sure every sentence, every word is chosen for a purpose and is the best possible choice. After the content of a resume, next in importance comes the leo buscaglia books formatting, the margins, the fonts and the spacing. Finally, with a completed product in hand, its time to print and distribute. Compared Nucleus. This is where paper comes into play. Not sure which kind of leo buscaglia, paper is best for you? Check out our resume paper comparison where we rate the top 7 styles that you can buy. White paper is the traditional color choice for resumes written by amateurs and professionals alike. White takes away nothing from the words on the page but doesnt contribute anything either.

White is traditional and Essay, a safe choice for books resumes of all career levels and for all different industries. Colored paper has been a quick way to add style to any resume for years now, as next to a bunch of true white documents a slightly yellowed or cream hued resume will instantly stand out without being obnoxious. While this isnt the conservative approach, it is by no means radical and thus a fair option for anyone who feels their resume may need a boost in Movie Die Essay standing out amongst others for a highly competitive position. A common resume paper weight in office and home printers is about 20lbs bond. This is acceptable for leo buscaglia a resume however for such an important document it may be worth spending a little extra money for 24-25lb bond weight paper, as this is Young Essay, just slightly weightier and leo buscaglia, feels better in Video the hand. Anything exceeding 25lb bond weight is books, bordering on excessive. Our experts find that 24-25lbs bond is the Essay Benefits of the Student Recreation sweet spot for resume paper weight. Paper texture is determined by its composition and the press used to manufacture it. Some premium papers are pressed with very subtle crosshatching while others have even less noticeable imperfections pressed upon them to give them a unique feel to the touch.

Look for leo buscaglia books a well-weighted paper, with texture or not, with at least 25% cotton composition. The more cotton the stronger the to an paper and crisper it feels. Many colored and textured papers are already manufactured as premium and will thus have a cotton fiber percentage of 50-100%, resulting in a very impressive document. All resume paper should be 8.5 X 11; there are NO EXCEPTIONS to this rule. 8.5 X 11 is the leo buscaglia size that filing units are built to contain, the size scanners are by default set to Analysis of Romeo Die Essay, process, and the size common manila envelopes are made to contain, so it is highly inadvisable to print paper any smaller or larger. By taking into consideration all of the above guidelines, any job applicant can write a perfect resume sure to be impressive to even the most critical of human resources managers. Dont want to go through the hassle of creating your own resume?

We encourage you to use our resume builder here, which will format your resume into one of books, our 8 battle tested templates, which have been proven to land more interviews. We also invite you to download those resume templates for free, and insert the bullet point yourself. If youre having trouble coming up with bullet points, take inspiration from our numerous industry resume samples and to an, writing tips. Additional Resume Aesthetic Resources. What a well written comprehensive piece! Thank you so very much!

We are glad that you found it helpful! Glad you like it! very informative. Leo Buscaglia. Thanks a lot. Youre Welcome! We like Bookman Old Style the most. This is very helpful. Thank you. #128578;

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Essay on Oligopoly: Top 8 Essays on Oligopoly | Markets | Microeconomics. Here is a compilation of essays on Oligopoly for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Leo Buscaglia Books. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on Oligopoly especially written for school and college students. Essay on the Introduction to Oligopoly Essay on the Characteristics of Oligopoly Essay on the Scope of Study of Oligopoly Essay on Analysis Die Essay, the Models of Oligopoly Essay on the Sales (Revenue) Maximisation Essay on the Constrained Revenue Maximisation Essay on leo buscaglia, Game Theory Essay on Payoff (Profit) Matrix. Essay # 1. Introduction to Oligopoly: Two extreme market forms are monopoly (characterised by the existence of Essay on The Benefits of the, a single seller) and perfect competition (characterised by a large number of sellers).

Competition is leo buscaglia of two types- perfect competition and monopolistic competition. In perfect competition, all sellers sell ho­mogeneous products while in monopolistic competition they sell heterogeneous products. In monopoly there is no rival. So the monopolist is not concerned with the effect of his actions on rivals. In both types of competition, the number of civil life, firms is so large that the actions of any one seller have little, if any, effect on its competitors. Leo Buscaglia Books. An industry with only a few sellers is known as an oligopoly, a firm in such an Essay on The Benefits of the Student Recreation, industry is known as an leo buscaglia books, oligopolist. Although car-wash is a million rupee business, it is not exactly a product familiar to most consumers. However, often many familiar goods and services are supplied only by a few com­peting sellers, which means the industries we are talking about are oligopolies.

An oligopoly is not necessarily made up of large firms. When a village has only two medi­cine shops, service there is Analysis Must Die Essay just as much an oligopoly as air shuttle service between Mumbai and Pune. Essentially, oligopoly is the result of the same factors that sometimes produce monopoly, but in somewhat weaker form. Books. Honestly, the most important source of Introducing At a Young Life Essay, oligopoly is the exist­ence of economies of scale, which give better producers a cost advantage over smaller ones. When these economies of scale are very strong, they lead to monopoly, but when they are not that strong they lead to competition among a small number of firms. Since an oligopoly con­tains a small number of firms, any change in the firms price or output influences the sales and profits of books, competitors.

Each firm must, therefore, recognise that changes in its own policies are likely to elicit changes in the policies of its competitors as well. As a result of this interdependence, oligopolists face a situation in which the optimal deci­sion of on Risk, one firm depends on what other firms decide to do. And so there is opportunity for both conflict and cooperation. Oligopoly refers to a market situation in which the leo buscaglia books number of sellers is few, but greater than one. A special case of oligopoly is monopoly in which there are only Introducing Sports Young Essay two sellers. Essay # 2. Characteristics of Oligopoly: The notable characteristics of oligopoly are: An oligopolist is neither a price-taker (like a competitor) nor a price-maker (like a monopolist).

It is a price-searcher. An oligopolist is neither a big enough part of the market to books, be able to act as a monopolist, nor a small enough part of the market to be able to act as a competitor. On The Benefits Recreation. But each firm is a dominant part of the market. In such a situation, competition among buyers will force all the sellers to books, charge a uniform price for a product. Essay On Risk. But each firm is sufficiently so large a part of the market that its actions will have noticeable effects upon leo buscaglia books his rivals. This means that if a single firm changes its output, the prices charged by all the compared atom as a an atomic firms will be raised or lowered. In oligopoly, there may be product differentiation as in books monopolistic competition (called differ­entiated oligopoly) or a homogeneous product may be traded by all the few dominant firms (as in pure oligopoly).

3. Introducing At A. Interdependence and Uncertainty : In oligopoly no firm can take decision on price independently. It is because the decision to fix a new price or change an existing price will create reactions among the books rival firms. But rivals reactions cannot be predicted accurately. If a firm reduces its price its rivals may reduce their prices or they may not. So there is lack of symmetry in the behaviour of rival firms.

This type of reaction of rivals is on The of the Student not found in perfect competition or monopolistic competition where all firms change their price in the same direction and by leo buscaglia books the same magnitude in Essay on Risk of Plastics order to leo buscaglia, remain competitive and survive in the long run. So the outcome of a firms decision is uncertain. For this reason it is difficult to Essay on Risk of Plastics, predict the total demand for the product of an oligopolistic industry. It is still more difficult, and in some situations virtually impossible, to estimate the share of an leo buscaglia, individual firm in industrys output. It is life true that the consequences of attempted price variations on the part of an individual seller are uncertain. His rivals may follow his change, or they may not, but they will, in all likelihood, notice it. The results of any action on the part of an oligopolist or even a duopolist depend upon books the reactions of Video Games, his rivals.

In short, it is not possible to books, define general price- quantity relations for an individual firm, since reaction patterns of civil war soldiers, rivals are highly uncertain and almost completely unknown. 4. Different Reaction Patterns and Use of Models : It is not true to say that, in oligopoly, profit is always maximised. It is because an oligopolist does not have control over all the variables which affect his profit. Books. Moreover, a variety of possible reaction patterns is possible in this marketthere is a conjectural variation in this market. Just as firm As profit depends on the output of firm B also, firm Bs profit, in its turn, depends on Essay Games, firm As output. This is why various models are used to leo buscaglia, describe the diverse behaviour of oligopoly markets where a variety of civil, outcomes is possible. As in monopolistic competition there is not only price competition but non-price competition as well in oligopoly (and, to books, some extent, in duopoly). Essay On Censoring Video. For example, advertising is often a life and death question in this type of market due to strategic behaviour of all firms.

In most oligopoly situations we find intermediate outcomes. Economists are yet to emerge with a definite behaviour pattern in oligopoly. Essay # 3. Scope of Study of Oligopoly : Here we study a few of the many possible reaction patterns in duopoly and oligopoly situa­tions. The focus is on pure oligopoly. Here we assume that all firms produce a homogeneous product. We do not discuss the case of leo buscaglia, differentiated oligopoly and the issue of Essay on Censoring Video, selling cost (advertising) separately. Of course, we discuss briefly Baumols sales maximisation hypoth­esiswithout and with advertising. The focus here is on the interdependence of the various sellers reactions, which is the essential distinguishing feature of oligopoly.

If the influence of one sellers quantity decision from the profit of another, ?? i /?q j , is negligible, the industry must be either perfectly competi­tive or monopolistically competitive. If ?? i /?q j , is leo buscaglia perceptible, the industry is duopolistic or oligopolistic. The optimum quantity and Introducing Sports At a Age Improves Life Essay, maximum profit of a duopolist or oligopolist depend upon the actions of the leo buscaglia books firms belonging to the industry. Sports The Child's Essay. He can control only his own output level (or price, if his product is differentiated), but he has no direct control over other variables which are likely to (or do) affect his profits. In truth, the profit of each oligopolist is the result of the interaction of the decisions of all players in books the market. Since there are no generally accepted behavioural assumptions for oligopolists and duopolists as is found in other market forms, there are diverse patterns of behaviour and many different solutions for oligopolistic and compared to an as a an atomic nucleus, duopolistic markets. Each solution is based on different types of models and each model is based on a different behavioural assumption or a set of assumptions. Here we start with one or two simple duopoly models.

The same analysis (solution) can be extended to cover any oligopolistic market. The earliest model of duopoly behaviour is the Cournot model, with which we may start our review of different oligopoly models. We end with the game theoretic treatment of oligopoly which shows decision-making under conflict. Essay # 4. Models of leo buscaglia books, Oligopoly: The Cournot model (presented in 1838) is based on war soldiers life, the analysis of a market in which two firms produce a homogeneous product.

Augustin Cournot (a French economist) noticed that only two firms were producing mineral water for sale. He argued that each firm would choose quan­tity that would maximise profit, taking the quantity marketed by its competitor as given. Two main features of the model are: (i) Each firm chooses a quantity of output instead of price; and. (ii) In choosing its output each firm takes its rivals output as given. In Cournots model, then, strategies are quantities of output. Here we assume that firms produce a homoge­neous good and know the leo buscaglia books market demand curve. Each firm must decide how much to produce, and Essay on Censoring Video Games, the two firms make their decisions at the same time. When taking its production decision, each duopolist takes into consideration its competitor. It knows that its competitor is also de­ciding how much to produce, and the market price will depend on the total output of leo buscaglia books, both firms. The essence of the Movie Analysis Must Die Essay Cournot model is that each firm treats the output level of its competitor as fixed and then decides how much to produce. Each Cournots duopolist believes that the others quantity will not change.

In Fig. 1 when I produces Q M , II maximises its profit by producing 1/4Q C . In order to sell Q M plus Q c , the price must fall to P 1 . Here Q M is the mo­nopoly output which is half the competitive output Q c . The inverse demand function, stating price as a function of the aggregate quantity sold, is expressed as: where q 1 and q 2 are the output levels of the duopolists. Leo Buscaglia. The total revenue of each duopolist depends upon on The Benefits of the Student Recreation his own output level as also as that of his rival: The profit of each equals his total (sales) revenue, less his cost, which depends upon his output level above: The basic behavioural assumption of the Cournot model is that each duopolist maximises his profit on the assumption that the leo buscaglia books quantity produced by his rival is invariant with respect to his own decision regarding output quantity. To An Atom Whole An Atomic. Duopolist I maximises ? 1 with reference to books, q 1 , treating q 2 as a parameter, and duopolist II maximises ? 2 , with reference to Benefits Student Center, q 2 , treating q 1 as a parameter. Setting the partial derivatives of books, (3) equal to zero, we get: The first order (necessary) condition of profit-maximisation requires that each duopolist equates his marginal cost to his marginal revenue. War Soldiers Life. The second order (sufficient) condition of each duopolist requires that. The slope of the marginal revenue curve of each duopolist must be less than that of the leo buscaglia books marginal cost curve.

Unlike the two-cost monopolist, where a single individual controls the Essay on Risk value of leo buscaglia books, both output levels, in the Cournot model each duopolist maximises his profit with reference to a single variable under his control. This simply implies that the Introducing Sports Age Improves Essay marginal revenues of the leo buscaglia books duopolists are not necessarily the same. The marginal revenues of the duopolists are: Since the demand curve is downward sloping the duopolist with the greater output will have the Video smaller marginal revenue (because a duopolist has to books, reduce price to sell more). The Cournot solution is simple enough. In this model, the duopolist market is in Essay equilibrium if the values of q 1 and leo buscaglia books, q 2 are such that each duopolist maximises his profit, taking the output of the sole rival as a parameter, and neither desires to change his output level. Thus, there is no conjectural variation in this model.

The optimum solution (equilibrium condition) can be found out in this model by solving (3) for q 1 and q 2 if (4) is satisfied. At this stage we have to introduce an additional step to get a more complete picture of duopoly. Reaction functions which express the output of each duopolist as a function of his rivals output are determined by solving the first equation of (3) for q 1 and the second for q 2 : The reaction function of duopolist I gives a relationship between q 1 and q 2 with the property that, for any specified value of q 2 , the corresponding value of q 1 maximises p 1 . In a like man­ner, duopolist IIs reaction function gives the value of life, q 2 which maximises p 2 for leo buscaglia, any specified value of q 1 . An equilibrium solution here is a pair of Must Die Essay, values for q 1 and q 2 which satisfy both reaction functions. Let us suppose the demand and cost functions of duopolists are: All parameters are positive here.

So the profits of the duopolists are. The corresponding reaction functions are: Since the parameters B, b 1 q 1 and b 2 , q 2 are all positive, an increase in output of ei­ther duopolist will lead to a fall in the other optimum (profit-maximising) output. The reaction functions are linear as shown in books Fig. 2. An equilibrium is found out by solv­ing (7), or by the intersection point E of the two reaction curves (point E in Fig. 2). The solution of (7) is. The second-order (sufficient) conditions are satisfied by the linear demand and quadratic cost functions:

The restrictions of the civil life Cournot model lies in leo buscaglia books its basic behavioural assumption regarding the continuing belief that a firms only rival will always produce the quantity that is currently being produced. Each duopolist acts on the basis of the assumption that his rivals output remained fixed. Center. However, this need not necessarily be true. If we assume that equilib­rium is reached through a sequence of finite adjustments, one duopolist sets an leo buscaglia, output; this induces the other to Essay on Risk of Plastics, adjust his output, which, in turn, induces the first to adjust his, and so on. It is quite unlikely that each will assume that his quantity decisions do not affect his rivals quantity decision if each of his adjustments is immediately followed by a reaction on the part of his rival. To be more specific, if equilibrium is assumed to be reached simultaneously, the leo buscaglia books optimal quantity of a duopolist is not given by q 1 =f 1 (q 2 ), but by on Risk q 1 =f 1 [f 2 (q 1 )] and, similarly for II, since each knows the behaviour pattern of leo buscaglia books, his rival. Alternatively stated, the Cournot model assumes that each duopolist maximises his profit at to an as a whole nucleus, the assumption that his rivals price re­mains constant. But this is leo buscaglia books not a very realistic assumption for Essay on Risk of Plastics, a homogeneous product.

As a general rule, duopolists and oligopolists take into leo buscaglia books, consideration their mutual interdependence while taking output decisions. The simple Cournot model can be extended to Movie Analysis of Romeo Must, cover more than two firms. As the number of firms expands, industry output expands according to the relation. where n denotes the leo buscaglia number of on Risk, firms. Books. Clearly, as the number of firms increases, n/(n + 1) will approach one, and the industry output (Q) will approach the competitive level (Q c ). In gen­eral, we can write the duopolists profit functions as ? 1 (q 1 , q 2 ) = q 1 D (q 1 +q 2 ) C (q 1 ) and ? 2 (q 1 , q 2 ) = q 2 D (q 1 + q 2 ) C (q 2 ) where D is the demand for, and C is the cost function. The first firm chooses a quantity q 1 , where the partial derivatives of ?, with functions to Movie Analysis Must Die Essay, q 1 is equal to zero: Of course, this is an implicit expression for the first firms best-response function because it determines the profit-maximising quantity of the first firm (q 1 ) for any value of leo buscaglia books, q 2 . Atom As A Whole. Similarly, the second firms best response function is implicitly defined by.

The Cournot equation is then a pair of quantity q 1 C q 2 C that satisfies both the leo buscaglia best-response functions. To operate a cartel successfully, the firms must learn to threaten to punish each other for cheating on the cartel agreement. Benefits Student Recreation. Let us consider a duopoly consisting of two identical firms such that each firm produces just half the leo buscaglia books monopoly amount of civil, output where total profits will be maximised and each firm will get a payoff of books, ? p ( say). In order to make this outcome stable, one firm threatens the other in terms of the production of Video Games, output such that if any one of them tries to cheat by producing more than the joint industry profit level of output, then it will be punished by leo buscaglia the other firms, who will be producing at the Cournot level of output forever. This is known as a punishment strategy.

Now we assume that cheating occurs, and on Risk, the punishment is carried out. As the books ultimate optimal response to Cournot behaviour is the Cournot behaviour, it will result in each firm receiving a per-period profit of, say ? c , such that. where ? c > Cournot payoff. We suppose that each of the two firms is of Romeo Die Essay producing at the collusive monopoly level of output. If a firm produces more output, deviating from its quota of production, the level of its profit is leo buscaglia such that. and it is the standard temptation facing a cartel member.

Each firm has an incentive to capitalize on the high price by increasing its production, if each one restricts output and raises the Essay Games price and for this there can be a punishment for cheating. Clearly, if a firm produces at the cartel amount, each one gets a steady flow of payments of ? p . Thus, the leo buscaglia present value of this flow today can be given by: Present Value of cartel behaviour ? p + ? p /r. The firm gets a one-time benefit of profit, ? d , if it produces more than the cartel amount. This results is the reversion to Cournot behaviour: Here the numerator of this fraction is positive, as the monopoly profits are larger than the Cournot profits, and the deviation is even more profitable than sticking with the monopoly quota which helps the denominator to be positive.

The inequality suggests that as long as the rate of interest is quite small, it will be profitable for the firms to Sports At a Life Essay, adhere to their quotas, so that the prospect of future punishment is sufficiently important. The Bertrand model was developed in 1883 by the French economist Joseph Bertrand. Like the Cournot model, it applies to books, firms that produce the same homogeneous good and make other decisions simultaneously. Introducing Sports Age Improves The Child's. This change may affect market outcome dramatically. The Bertrand model substitutes price ? 1 and ? 2 for leo buscaglia, quantities q 1 and q 2 as the variables to be chosen.

Thus, the Cournot and Bertrand equilibrium are logical first cousins. What is the first firms demand function if it takes its rivals price p 2 as given? The first firm will anticipate that if it charges a price higher than its rivals (p 1 p 2 ), everyone will buy from Essay Recreation Center its rival. If the first firm charges a lower price than its rivals (p 1 p 2 ), however, everyone will buy from it. Leo Buscaglia Books. And if it charges a price equal to its rivals (p 1 = p 2 ), the firms will divide the market among them. On Risk Of Plastics. The dia­gram for this profit function is shown in Fig. 3. Here OM is the marginal cost of producing the leo buscaglia commodity. Essay. The second firms price is leo buscaglia books p 2 . The first firms profit function is composed of three segments. When p 1 p 2 , the first firm captures the Essay Games entire mar­ket, and its profit increases as its price increases.

When p 1 p 2 , the two firms split the total profits equal to distance CA, and each makes a profit equal to CB. When p 1 p 2 , the books first firms profit is zero because it sells nothing when its price exceeds the second firms price. The Bertrand model has been criticised on two main grounds. First, when firms produce a homogeneous good, it is more natural to on Risk, compete by setting quantities rather than prices. Second, even if firms do set prices and choose the same price (as the model predicts), what share of leo buscaglia, total sales will go to each one? The model assumes that sales would be divided equally among the firms, but there is no reason why this must be the civil war soldiers life case. However, despite these shortcomings, the leo buscaglia books Bertrand model is useful because it shows how the equilibrium out­come in an oligopoly can depend crucially on the firms choice of to an nucleus, strategic variable. The Stackelberg model (presented by leo buscaglia the German economist Heinrich von Stackelberg) is Video a modified version of the books Cournot model.

In the Cournot model, we assume that two duopolists make their output decisions at the same time. Civil Life. The Stackelberg model examines what happens if one of the firms can set its output first. The Stackelberg model of duopoly is different from the Cournot model, in which neither firm has any opportunity to react. The model is based on the assumption that the profit of each duopolist is a function of the output levels of leo buscaglia, both: The Cournot solution is Sports the Child's Life found out by maximising ? 1 with reference to leo buscaglia books, q 1 , assuming q 2 to Essay on Censoring Games, be constant and ? 2 with reference to q 2 , assuming q 1 to be constant. In general, each firm might make some other assumption about the response (reaction) of its only rival. In such a situation, profit-maximisation by the two duopolists requires the fulfillment of the books following two condi­tions:

The terms of ?q 2 /?q 1 and ?q 1 /?q 2 represent what economists call the Essay on The Student Recreation conjectural variation, i.e., the assumed response of each firm to the output of its lone rival. If firms make wrong assumptions about leo buscaglia, each others responses, (2) will not represent an improvement over the Cournot model. The Stackelberg model contains one of the of Romeo Must more interesting set of assumptions about con­jectural variation based on leo buscaglia, the analysis of leadership and followership. A follower obeys his reaction function q 1 =f 1 (q 2 ) or q 2 =f 2 (q 1 ) and adjusts his output level with a view to maximising his profits given the quantity decision of Analysis Die Essay, his rival, when he assumes to be a leader. But a leader does not obey his (the followers) reaction function. Leo Buscaglia Books. He simply assumes that his rival acts as a follower, and Introducing Sports At a Young Age Improves Essay, maximises his profit, given his rivals reaction function.

If the first duopolist acts as a leader, he assumes his rivals reaction function is valid and, therefore, substitutes this relation into his own profit function. The first duopolists profit is now a function of q 1 alone. So it can be maximised with respect to this single variable. Leo Buscaglia. The second duopolist can also determine the maximum profit from leadership on the assumption that the Die Essay first one obeys his reaction function and acts as a follower. The first duopolists maximum profit from leo buscaglia followership is determined by substituting his rivals optimum leadership output level in his reaction function. Similarly, the second duopolists maximum profit from followership is war soldiers life determined by substituting the first duopolists optimum leadership output level in his reaction function. This kind of first mover advantage occurs in books many strategic situations. Each duopolist determines his maximum profit levels from both leadership and followership and seeks to play the role which yields the larger maximum.

Stackelberg thinks of four possible outcomes: (1)1 desires to be a leader and 2 a follower; (2) 2 desires to be a leader and 1 a follower; (3) both desire to be leaders; and. (4) both desire to be the followers. The first outcome results in a consistent behaviour pattern and, therefore, a determinate equilibrium (assuming that the first and second order conditions for maximum are fulfilled in all cases). Similarly, the second outcome results in a determinate equilibrium. But if both desire to act as followers, their expectations are not fulfilled, since each assumes that the other will take the leadership role. Comparison with Cournot Model: Even in terms of the Stackelberg model, the Cournot solution is achieved if each desires to Movie of Romeo Must Die Essay, act as a follower, knowing fully well that the leo buscaglia books other will also take a followers role.

Otherwise, one has to change his behaviour pattern and act as a leader before attaining equilibrium. If both desire to Essay, act as leaders, each assumes that the others behaviour is governed by his reaction function, but, in fact, neither of the reaction functions is obeyed. Consequently, a Stackelberg disequilibrium situation is encountered, which, in Stackelbergs view, is the most frequent outcome. However, if Stackleberg was correct, the situation will result in quantity market-sharing war, and equilibrium will not be achieved until one has succumbed to the leadership of the other or a collusive agreement has been reached. However, by using this model, it is possible to books, show that each duopolist can receive a greater profit from leadership. So it is quite obvious that both desire to Essay of Plastics, act as leaders. The Cournot and Stackleberg models are alternative representatives of oligopolistic behaviour.

Which model is the more appropriate depends on the industry. In an industry where all firms are more or less identical, none of books, which has a pricing advantage or leadership position, the Cournot model is probably the Analysis of Romeo Must more appropriate. On the other hand, some industries are dominated by a large firm that usually takes the lead in introducing new products or setting pricethe mainframe computer market is an example, with IBM as the leader. Then the Stackelberg model may be more realistic. Duopolists (or oligopolists) often recognise their mutual interdependence and agree to act to­gether (in collusion) in order to leo buscaglia, maximise the total profit of the industry. Essay Benefits Of The Student. Collusive model of oligopoly shows what happens when oligopolists do decide to collude on a joint strategy. In such situations, both output levels are under a single control, and the industry is, in effect, a monopoly. Let us suppose we represent total revenue as. Total profit is.

This type of profit function is found in leo buscaglia case of a two-plant monopolist. Here we substitute two plants by Movie Analysis Must two producers. The first order condition of profit-maximisation requires that marginal cost of each producer be equated to books, marginal revenue for on Censoring Video, output as a whole. In this model, the books profit levels of two duopolists are determined as the basis of their indi­vidual profit functions. However, joint profit-maximisation or the final distribution of the ag­gregate profit is largely the matter for negotiation between the duopolists. Like the Cournot equilibrium, the Bertrand equilibrium is to an as a nucleus individually rational, but collec­tively irrational. Again, firms of the Bertrand equilibrium have a clear incentive to collude. Does this mean that the collusive model makes better sense of oligopoly than do the Cournot and Bertrand models? Not necessarily.

On the one hand, if firms find themselves at a Cournot or a Bertrand equi­librium, they have a clear incentive to collude. On the other hand, if firms manage to force a collusive agreement, there is a clear private incentive for each party to cheat on the collusive agreement. In the Cournot model, the individual incentive to cheat on a collusive agreement increases as the number of parties to the agreement increases, which means that the leo buscaglia books larger the Essay on Censoring Games number of firms in an industry, the less likely is a collusive equilibrium. If the number of firms is large enough, some firm or firms will succumb to the temptation to cheat, thereby destroying the collusive agreement. The Market-sharing Solution : Some economists have analysed the nature of oligopolistic interdependence in case of differen­tiated products. Leo Buscaglia Books. In truth, product differentiation is likely to Analysis of Romeo Die Essay, occur with duopoly and leo buscaglia, oligopoly as with monopolistic competition. If duopolists produce differentiated products we can think of a type of conjectural variation (different from the one assumed by Stackleberg). This form of conjectural variation assures that duopolist 2 desires to maintain a fixed share of the Introducing Sports Young Life Essay total sales of a differentiated product, regardless of the effects of his actions on his short-run profits.

He is books mainly concerned with the long-run advantages that can be gained from maintaining a given market share. A quantity change on the part of duopolist I will be immediately followed by a proportionate change on the part of duopolist II. The relation is: where k is duopolist IIs market share, will always hold. Here duopolist I is of Romeo Must a market leader in leo buscaglia the sense that his actions will always be followed by duopolist II in a predetermined manner. Substituting from (1) for q 2 , Thus, duopolist Is profit is a function of his own output (q 1 ) and may be maximised with reference to this single variable as long as duopolist II reacts to maintain his market share. In 1939, Paul Sweezy presented the kinked demand curve model to demonstrate clearly that some duopolistic and oligopolistic markets are characterised by infrequent price changes. Introducing Sports At A The Child's. Sweezy has argued that in most real-life oligopoly markets firms usually do not change their price- quantity combinations in response to small shifts of their cost curves as is normally found in most market situations. The kinked demand curve model is books consistent with the behaviour of firms. Starting from an At a Life, initial price-quantity combination, if one of the duopolists lowers his price (increasing his quantity), the other is assumed to react by lowering his price (increasing his quantity) in order to maintain his market share. If one of the leo buscaglia duopolists raises his price, his rival is assumed to leave his own price unchanged and, thereby, increases his share of the market.

Price cuts are matched, but price increases are not. Since implicit collusion tends to be fragile, oligopolistic firms often have a strong desire for stability, particularly with reference to price. This is why price rigidity is a characteristic of oligopolistic industries. Unless there are substantial changes of costs or demand, firms hesitate to change price. If costs fall or market demand declines, oligopolists fear that lower prices might give the wrong signal to their competitors and initiate some sort of price war.

And if cost or demand rises, they are reluctant to raise prices because they are afraid that their competitors may refuse to raise prices. This price rigidity forms the basis of the At a Young Life kinked demand curve model of leo buscaglia, oligopoly. Accord­ing to this model, each firm faces a demand curve kinked at current prevailing price P?, as shown in Fig. 4. At prices above P the demand curve is highly elas­tic because price increase is not matched. So the exist­ing firm will lose its market share considerably. On the other hand, the firm believes that if it lowers its price below P?, other firms will make matching price cuts, because they do not lose their market share.

Thus, for price increase, the demand curve is inelastic. In that case, sales will expand only to the extent that a lower market price increases total market demand. On Risk Of Plastics. Thus, nei­ther price cut, nor price increase is leo buscaglia desirable. In each case, the Video Games firm loses. Since the firms demand curve is kinked, its combined marginal revenue curve is discon­tinuous. This means that the firms cost can change without leading to leo buscaglia books, price change. In this figure, marginal cost could increase but would still equal marginal revenue at civil life, the original out­put level. This means that price remains the same.

The kinked demand curve model fails to explain oligopoly pricing. It says nothing about how marginal revenue firms arrived at the original price P? to start with. In fact, some arbitrary price is taken as both the starting and end point of our journey. Why firms did not arrive at some other price remains an open question. Leo Buscaglia Books. It just describes price rigidity but cannot explain it. Introducing Sports Young Age Improves. In addition, the leo buscaglia model has not been supported by empirical tests. In reality, rival firms do match price increases as well as price cuts. Market-sharing Price Leadership : Oligopolists often colludejointly restrict supply to raise price and cooperate. This strategy can lead to war soldiers, higher profits. Collusion is, however, illegal. Moreover, one of the main impedi­ments to implicitly collusive pricing is the fact that it is difficult for leo buscaglia books, firms to agree (without talking to each other) on civil, what the price should be.

Coordination becomes particularly problem­atic when cost and demand conditionsand, thus, the correct priceare changing. However, benefits of cooperation can be enjoyed without actually colluding. One way of leo buscaglia books, doing this is through price leadership. Price leadership may be provided by a low-cost firm or a dominant firm. In this context, we may draw a distinction between price signalling and price leadership. Price signalling is a form of implicit collusion that sometimes gets around this problem. For example, a firm might announce that it has raised its price with the expectation that its competi­tors will take this announcement as a signal that they should also raise prices.

If competitors follow, all of the firms (at least, in the short run) will earn higher profits. At times, a pattern is established whereby one firm regularly announces price changes and civil, other firms in the industry follow. This type of strategic behaviour is called price leadership one firm is implicitly recognised as the leader. The other firms, the leo buscaglia books price followers, match its prices. This behaviour solves the problem of coordinating price: Everyone simply charges what the leader is charging. Price leadership helps to overcome oligopolistic firms reluctance to change pricesfor fear of being undercut. With changes in cost and demand conditions, firms may find it increas­ingly necessary to change prices that have remained rigid for some time.

In that case, they wait for the leader to signal when and by atom an atomic nucleus how much price should change. Sometimes a large firm will naturally act as a leader; sometimes different firms will act as a leader from time to time. Leo Buscaglia. In this context, we may discuss the dominant Firm model of leadership. This is known as market- sharing price leadership. In some oligopolistic markets, one large firm has a major share of total sales while a group of Games, smaller firms meet the leo buscaglia books residual demand by supplying the remainder of the market. The large firm might then act as a dominant firm, setting a price that maximises its own profits. The other firms, which individually could exert little, if any, influence over price, would then act as perfect competitors; they all take the price set by Analysis of Romeo Must Die Essay the dominant firm as given and leo buscaglia, produce accordingly. Die Essay. But what price should the dominant firm set? To maximise profit, it must take into account how the output of the other firms depends on the price it sets. Fig.

5 shows how a dominant firm sets its prices. A dominant firm is one with a large share of total sales that sets price to leo buscaglia, maximise profits, taking into account the supply response of smaller firms. Here D is the market demand curve and Movie Must Die Essay, S F is the leo buscaglia books supply curve (i.e., the aggregate marginal cost curves of the smaller firms, called competitive fringe firms). The dominant firm must determine its demand curve D D . This curve is just the difference between market demand and the supply of fringe firms. For example, at price P 1 , the supply of fringe firms is on The of the Recreation just equal to market demand.

This means that the dominant firm can sell nothing at this price. At a price P 2 or less, fringe firms will not supply any of the good, in which case, the dominant firm faces the market demand curve. If price lies between P 1 and P 2 , the dominant firm faces the leo buscaglia demand curve D D . The marginal cost curve of the dominant firm corresponding to D D is MR D . The dominant firms marginal cost curve is MC D . In order to maximise its profit, the Movie Must Die Essay dominant firm produces quantity Q D at the interaction of books, MR D and MC D . From the demand curve D D , we find P 0 . At this price, fringe firms sell a quantity Q F , thus the total quantity sold is Essay on Censoring Video Q T = Q D + Q F . 7. Collusive Oligopoly: The Cartel Model : Various models have been formulated to leo buscaglia, explain the strategic behaviour of firms in Essay on Risk of Plastics an oligopolistic market. A price (cut-throat) competition exists among the rivals who try to books, oust the others from the market. Sometimes there ex­ists a dominant firm that acts as the leader in the market while the others just follow the leader. As a result, there happens to be a clear possibil­ity of the formation of At a the Child's, a cartel by the rival firms in an oligopolistic market in order to eliminate competition among themselves.

This is termed as collusive oligopoly because the firms some­how manage to combine together in order to be­have collectively as a single monopoly. Now let us see graphically what incentives the firms get for forming a cartel. In Fig. 6, the market demand curve is given by the D M the total supply curve is the horizontal summation of the books marginal cost curves of civil life, all existing firms in the industry, which is denoted by books MC M . The market equilibrium is attained at the point of intersection between the Essay on Risk of Plastics D M (demand curve) and the marginal cost curve MC M , if the firms compete with each other. OP M is the leo buscaglia equilibrium price at which the total output of the industry is OQ M . In order to determine its own quantity, each firm equates this price to its marginal cost. On Risk. The sum of the quantities of the leo buscaglia books firms is OQ. If the firms form a cartel in of Plastics order to act as a monopolist, the leo buscaglia price rises to OP M and the quantity is reduced to OQ M to Essay on Risk, be in equilibrium. Now, when the quantity is being reduced by Q M Q M , then all the firms together save the cost represented by leo buscaglia the area below the MC M curve which is Q M E M F M Q M . Thus, a rise in price due to a reduction in the quantity is followed by a decrease in the total revenue represented by the area below the MR M curve, i.e., area Q M G M F M Q M . On Censoring Video. This, in turn, shows that the cost saved exceeds the loss in revenue and, so, all the firms taken as a whole can increase their profit represented by the area E M F M G M . The prospect of earning this extra profit actually acts as the incentive to leo buscaglia books, form a cartel in the oligopoly market structure. Since the cartel is formed, all firms agree together to Essay, produce the total quantity OQ M . In order to carry this out, each and every firm is allotted a quota or a certain portion of books, production such that the sum of all quotas is equal to Movie Analysis of Romeo Die Essay, OQ M . For this, the best way of quota allotment would be to books, treat each firm as a separate entity (plant) under the same monopolist.

Thus, all the compared as a whole nucleus firms have the same marginal cost (MC) such that MC = MR (marginal revenue). Finally, the leo buscaglia books total profit is maximised because the total output is produced at the minimum cost. Each and every firm can increase its profit by reducing the profits of other firms, simply by increasing its output quantity above the allotted quota. The system of cartel formation must guard against the desire of individual firms to on Risk, violate the books quota and to an as a nucleus, the cartel breaks down when the books cost of guarding against quota violation is very high. The OPEC is an example of Movie Analysis Die Essay, collusive oligopoly or cartel in which members (producers) explicitly agree to leo buscaglia, cooperate in setting prices and output levels. All the producers in war soldiers an industry need not and often do not join the cartel. Leo Buscaglia Books. But if most producers adhere to the cartels agree­ments, and if market demand is sufficiently inelastic, the cartel may drive prices well above competitive levels. Two conditions for success:

Two conditions must be fulfilled for cartel success. Student Center. First, a stable cartel organisation must be formed whose members agree on price and production levels and both adhere to that agreement. The second condition is the potential for monopoly power. A cartel cannot raise price much if it faces a highly elastic demand curve. If the potential gains from cooperation are large, cartel members will have more incentive to share their organisa­tional problems. Analysis of Cartel Pricing: Cartel pricing can be analysed by using the leo buscaglia books dominant firm model of oligopoly. It is because a cartel usually accounts for Introducing the Child's, only a portion of books, total production and Movie of Romeo Must, must take into account the supply response of competitive (non-cartel) producers when it sets price. Leo Buscaglia Books. Here we illustrate the compared OPEC oil cartel. Fig. 7 illustrates the case of OPEC.

Total demand TD is the world demand curve for crude oil, and S c is the competitive (non-OPEC) supply curve. The demand for OPEC oil D 0 is the difference between total demand (TD) and competitive supply (SC), and MR 0 is the corresponding marginal revenue curve. MC 0 is OPECs marginal cost curve; OPEC has much lower production costs than do non-OPEC producers. Leo Buscaglia. OPECs marginal revenue and to an, marginal cost are equal at quantity Q 0 , which is the quantity that OPEC will produce. Books. Here we see from Essay Video Games OPEC s demand curve that the price will be P 0 . Since both total demand and leo buscaglia books, non-OPEC supply are inelastic, the demand for OPEC oil is also fairly inelastic; thus the cartel has substantial monopoly. In the 1970s, it used that power to drive prices well above competitive levels. In this context, it is important to distinguish between short-run and compared to an whole an atomic, long-run supply and leo buscaglia books, demand curves. The total demand and non-OPEC supply curves in Introducing Sports the Child's Life Essay Fig.

7 apply to short-or intermediate-run analysis. In the long run, both demand and supply will be much more elastic, which means that OPECs demand curve will also be much more elastic. We would thus expect that, in the long run, OPEC would be unable to maintain a price that is so much above the competitors level. Books. In truth, during 1982-99, oil prices fell steadily, mainly because of the long- run adjustment of demand and non-OPEC supply. However, cartel is not an unmixed blessing. Movie Analysis Of Romeo. No doubt cartel members can talk to one an­other in order to books, formalize an agreement.

But it is not that easy to reach a consensus. Different members may have different costs, different assessments of market demand, and even different objectives, and compared to an, they may, therefore, want to set prices at different levels. Furthermore, each member of the leo buscaglia books cartel will be tempted to cheat by lowering its price slightly to capture a larger market share than it was allotted. Most often, only the threat of a long-term return to competi­tive prices deters cheating of this sort. But if the profits from cartelization are large enough, that threat may be sufficient. Essay # 5. Sales (Revenue) Maximisation : W.J. Baumol presented an alternative hypothesis to profit maximisation, viz., sales (revenue) maximisation. He has suggested that large oligopolistic firms do not maximise profit, but rather maximise sales revenue, subject to the constraint that profit equals or exceeds some minimum accepted level.

Various empirical studies support Baumols hypothesis. On Censoring Video Games. And it accurately cap­tures some aspects of oligopolistic firms behaviour. Most important, when firms are uncertain about their demand curve they actually face, or, when they cannot accurately estimate the marginal costs of their output (due to uncertainty about factor prices, or when they produce more than one product), the decision to try to maximise sales appears to leo buscaglia books, be consistent with their long-term survival. This is why many oligopolist firms seek to Essay on Censoring Video, maximise their market share in order to protect themselves from the adverse effects of uncertain market environment. A revenue-maximising oligopolist would choose to produce that level of output for which MR = 0. When MR = 0, TR is maximum. That is, the oligopolist should proceed to leo buscaglia books, the point at which selling any extra unit(s) actually leads to a fall in TR. This choice is illustrated in Fig. 8. For the firm which faces the demand curve D, TR is maximum when output is q s . For q q s , MR is positive. Life. This means that selling more units increases TR (though not necessarily profit). For q q s , however, MR is leo buscaglia books negative.

So further sales actually reduce TR because of price cuts that are necessary to on Censoring Video Games, induce consumers to buy more. We know that. MR = 0 if e p = 1, in which case TR will be maximum. Leo Buscaglia. TR is constant in a small neighbourhood of that output quantity at M 1 P = 0, TR is maximum, and when TR is maximum, e p = 1. We may now compare the revenue-maximisation choice with the profit-maximising level of output, q s . At q p , MR equals marginal cost MC in Fig. Life. 8. Increasing output beyond q p would reduce profits since MR MC. Leo Buscaglia. Even though TR continues to increase up to q s , units of output beyond q p bring in less than they cost to Essay Video Games, produce. Since marginal revenue is positive at q p , equation (1) shows that demand must be elastic (e p 1) at this point. Essay # 6. Constrained Revenue Maximisation : A firm that chooses to maximise TR is neither taking into account its costs nor the profitabil­ity of the leo buscaglia output that it is selling. Essay Of Plastics. And it is quite possible that the output level q s in Fig.

8 yields negative profit to books, the firm. To An. However, it is not possible to any firm to books, survive for ever with negative profits. Compared To An Atom An Atomic. So it may be more realistic to assume that firms do meet some mini­mum level (target rate) of profit from their activities. Thus, even though oligopolists may be prompted to produce more than q p with a view to maximising revenue, they may produce less than q p units in order to ensure an acceptable level of profit. They will, therefore, behave as constrained revenue maximises and books, will choose to produce an output level which lies between q p and q s . Let us assume that a unique unrestricted maximum profit ? m exists at the output q p with R'(q r ) 0, C(q) 0 for q q r , and R (q) 0 for q 0. If ? 0 ? m , (2) cannot be satisfied and Movie Analysis of Romeo, the maximum-revenue problem has no solution. A solution will exist if ? 0 ? m . If ? 0 = ? m is q r is the maximum solution since it is the only output that satisfies (2). If ? 0 ? m , revenue will increase and profit will decrease as q is increased beyond q r Thus, the oligopolist will continue to increase q until either (i) he reaches the unrestricted maximum of R(q); or (ii) (2) is satisfied as an books, equality, whichever occurs as the lower output.

If (i), (3) states that R (q) = 0 and ? = 0. If (ii) happens short of the output for (i), C'(q) R'(q) 0 and ? 0. The multiplier ? gives the rate at At a the Child's Life Essay, which revenue can be expanded per rupee of profit sacrificed. An example will make the idea clear. Suppose an oligopolist faces a linear demand curve p = 100 4q and his cost function is leo buscaglia books C = 50 + 20q. Assume that Rs 334 = ? 0 ? m = Rs 350. How much profit has to be sacrificed per unit of revenue? The unrestricted maximum for R(q) is Rs 625 which occurs at q = 12.5 with ? = Rs 325. Movie Analysis Must Die Essay. This option may be excluded because it yields too low a profit. Books. The equality of (2) is (100 4q 2 ) (50 + 20q) = Rs 334.

It may also be expressed as: The quadratic equation has the an atomic nucleus roots 8 and 12 with respective total revenues of Rs 544 and Rs 624. Thus, the leo buscaglia revenue-maximising oligopolist produces 12 units which he sells at a price of Rs 52 to gain a total revenue of Rs 624 and a profit of Rs 334. By contrast, a profit-maximising oligopolist produces 10 units which he sells at a price of Rs 60 to gain a total revenue of Rs 600 and a profit of Rs 350. From (3), ? = 0.25. On Censoring Video Games. So the oligopolist sacrifices at the marginal rate of Rs 4 of profit to earn extra rupee of sales revenue. The theories of duopoly and oligopoly lead to leo buscaglia, compact mathematical solutions with the cal­culus method. However, the various models developed are based on arbitrary (and often unrealistic) assumptions about each firms beliefs about rivals reactions to its actions. The theory of games, developed by J. von Neumann and O. Morgentern, is an alternative ap­proach that has been applied to markets in which there are few sellers with interdependent outcomes. On Risk Of Plastics. Here we restrict ourselves to non-cooperative, or competitive games, known as two-person zero-sum games. The game theory has been developed to determine a rivals most profitable counter-strategy to one owns best moves and to formulate the appropriate defensive measures.

A game is any situation in which players (the participants) make strategic decisions, i.e., decisions that take into account each ones actions and responses, e.g., firms competing against each other for setting prices or spending money on advertising. Strategic decisions result in payoffs to the players: outcomes that generate rewards or benefits. For price-setting firms, the payoffs are profits. A duopoly game consists of a single move on the part of each firm. In this context, we define a few key terms: A strategy is a rule or plan of leo buscaglia books, action for playing the game; it is the specification of a particular move for one of the participants. The strategy of a duopolist may consist of select­ing a particular value for each of the variables under his control.

If price is his only strategic variable, a strategy consists of Games, selecting a particular price. If price and advertising expenses are both variables, a strategy consists of setting specific values for both the variables. Each duopolist is leo buscaglia assumed to have a large but a limited number of strategies, in war soldiers life which case there is no possibil­ity of continuous variation of the action variables. The final outcome of the duopolistic game is the profit earned by each of the participants. This is determined from the relevant cost and demand functions once each firm has selected its own strategy. Books. A key objective of the game theory is to determine the optimal strategy for Essay on Censoring Video Games, each player. The optimal strategy for books, a player is the one that maximises his expected pay-off.

There are two criteria of classifying duopolistic games: (i) The number of participants; and. (ii) The net outcome. Since game theory is Introducing At a essentially a theory of deci­sion-making involving conflict the first criterion simply involves a counting of the number of participants with conflicting interests. Here we discuss any two-person games. The per­sons are like players of chess or card. In this case, there are the two duopolists, and each one is trying to outguess his rival. Leo Buscaglia Books. The second criterion allows us to a draw a distinction between zero-sum and non-zero-sum games. War Soldiers Life. A zero-sum game is leo buscaglia one in which the sum of the compared to an as a whole an atomic nucleus out­comese.g., profitsfor all the participants equals zero for every possible combination of strategies. The economic games that firms play can be either cooperative or non-cooperative. In a cooperative game, players can negotiate binding contracts that allow them to plan join strategies.

In a non-cooperative game, negotiation and enforcement of binding contracts are not possible. In any game, however, the most important aspect of strategic decision-making is understanding ones opponents point of view, and (assuming ones opponent is leo buscaglia rational), deducing his likely responses to actions. Analysis Of Romeo Must Die Essay. Two-person zero-sum games are competitive (non-cooperative) in nature. The reason is books that if one player always loses what the other wins, there can be no room for cooperation. A two-person zero-sum game can be applied to a duopolistic market in which one partici­pants gain always equals the loss of the other.

In general, if I has m strategies and II has n strategies, the possible outcome of the game is given by the following payoff matrix which shows what I will receive as a result of each possible combination of strategy choice by Introducing Sports Essay himself and by II: where the a ij is books Is profit if I employs his ith strategy and II employs his jth. In case of zero-sum sum, the corresponding profit earned by II is a ij . Duopolists adopt two approaches, viz., maximin and minimax. I can make the best of the situ­ation aiming at war soldiers life, the maximum of the minimal payoffs. This decision rule is called a maximin strategy. Similarly, the best of IIs most pessimistic payoff is called IIs minimax strategy. Let us consider the following payoff matrix: If I employs his first strategy and II employs his second, Is profit is books 40, and IIs is Essay Video Games 40. If I employs his second strategy and II employs his third, Is profit is 10 and IIs is 10.

The duopolists decision problem consists of books, choosing an optimal strategy. On Censoring Video. I desires the outcome (40) in the first row and second column of (2), and II desires the outcome (- 10) in the second row and books, third column. The final outcome depends upon the strategies of Essay on Risk of Plastics, both duopolists, and neither has the books power to enforce his desires. If I selects his first strategy, II might select his fourth, and the outcome would be 5 rather than 40. Die Essay. If II selects his third strategy, I might select his first, and the outcome I would be 20 rather than -10. The theory of books, games postulates behav­iour patterns which allow the determination of civil life, equilibrium in leo buscaglia books these situations.

The decisions of the duopolists are consistent and the equation is achieved if. If (3) holds, the war soldiers life strategies of I and II are respectively, called an equilibrium pair of leo buscaglia, strate­gies. In example (2), suppose I employs his first strategy. Atom As A An Atomic Nucleus. If II anticipates Is choice, Is profit will be 5. If I employed his second strategy, and II anticipated his choice, his profit would be -10. II will employ his fourth strategy and leo buscaglia books, his loss will be limited to 5. Every other column of Essay, (2) has a maximum greater than 5. In this case, The duopolists decisions are consistent, and an equilibrium is established. Neither duopolist can increase profit by leo buscaglia books changing his strategy if his opponents strategy remains unchanged.

An equilibrium point in terms of compared to an, a payoff matrix is called a saddle point. However, the books coinci­dence of maximin-minimax strategy payoffs does not always occur. There are some cases in which the payoff matrix possesses no equilibrium pair. To understand this problem, we have to introduce the concept of dominance. A dominant strategy is one that is optimalno matter what an opponent does. In general, the on Censoring Games ith row dominates the hth if a ij ? a hj for all j, and leo buscaglia, a ij a hj for at least one j. Benefits Student Recreation Center. A rational duopolist will never employ a dominant strategy. If he does, no equilibrium pair will exist. However, when every player has a dominant strategy, we call the outcome of the game an leo buscaglia, equilibrium in dominant strategies. Benefits Of The Recreation. Equilibrium in dominant strategies refers to leo buscaglia, the outcome of a game in which each firm is Must Die Essay doing the best it can, regardless of what its competitors are doing. In such a game, each players optimal strategy can be determined without worrying about the actions of the other players.

Welcome to! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to leo buscaglia, discuss anything and everything about Economics. On Censoring Video. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by leo buscaglia visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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Essay: Lego#039;s identity crisis and leo buscaglia books, its impact on the organisation. An introduction to LEGO. The LEGO Group is a great example of a successful organization that have had great growth since it was created in 1933. However, in the early 2000s Poul Plougmann and his team put innovation at the top of their management agenda and drove it throughout the Movie Analysis company (Robertson, 2013). Plougmann and his management followed a strategy where they focused on using the LEGO brand to create other things such as games, clothes and merchandise. They wanted to be the books best known brand among families in Movie Analysis of Romeo Must the whole world, but they forgot the core idea and values in LEGO the Bricks. However, at the beginning of the 2000s the LEGO Group was passing through an identity crisis, and they had an economic loss owing to books, the implementing of a new growth strategy. Finally, J??rgen Vig Knudstorp was hired, and he should get the LEGO Group back on track with a new strategy called Shared Vision.

This also meant that they should focus more on their core values, and therefore focus on their core product, the LEGO Brick. To get back on track they sold the Lego Theme Parks. The change in on Risk of Plastics leadership created a bigger social community, which made the employees feel safe in the organization. In that way J??rgen Vig Knudstorp and his management succeed in coming back to leo buscaglia, LEGOs core values, with a focus on leading it into our digital and interactive age. (Lindholm, 2012) Part 1: LEGO through modern, symbolic-interpretive and postmodern perspectives. This paper will focus on LEGOs identity crisis, and its impact on the organization. Furthermore this paper will focus on the implementation of the new Shared Vision strategy that was implemented in the beginning of the 2000s. 1.2: Modern perspective.

The modernists sees the world through an objectivist view where the world exists as an independent object. On The Benefits Center! They believe that truth is discovered through valid information and reliable measurement. The modernist sees organizations as real entities operating in a real world (Hatch, 2013). From a modernist point of view, organizations are characterized by having either a flat or tall organizational structure. Books! Tall structures are characterized by having many hierarchical levels with fewer departments whereas flat structures have more divisions but less hierarchical level (Hatch, 2013). The modernists wants to resolve problems in the organization, and Sports the Child's Essay, this also refers to LEGO, when Poul Plougmann was hired as a new financial manager in leo buscaglia the LEGO Group. Plougmann and his team instituted a cost-cutting plan where LEGO should save one milliard danish kroner.

When speaking of Essay Benefits Student, LEGOs cost-cutting plan, they had a rational view of the situation. If the outcome were higher than the books income, then cuts had to be made. Of Plastics! Cutting down the employees had to leo buscaglia books, be done, and it seemed as an easy way out of the crisis. J??rgen Vig Knudstorp saved LEGO from an identity crisis, and they have since then been one of the largest toy companies in the world. Essay On Risk Of Plastics! LEGO has achieved being the number two most successful toy company in this year according to an article from The Richest (Sicoli 2014). Books! LEGO earned 11.504 million danish kroner the first half year of january 2014, compared with 10.408 in Essay of Plastics january 2013. This was an outstanding development seen from an economic perspective (Annual report, Klausen, 2013, 20014).

Before J??rgen Vig Knudstorp became a leader the organization was characterized by the modern perspective. LEGO was becoming a bureaucratic management. Their only focus was now to obtain a higher income. They did not think about being the best anymore, but rather being the leo buscaglia most successful and the biggest company in the world (OConnell, 2009). British organization theorist Gareth Morgan explores organizations as metaphors. For instance he explored parallels between organizations and machines. Looking at LEGO before J??rgen Vig Knudstorp became a leader, one can say that the organization functioned as a machine. Student! Every part of a machine had a task that needs to be done efficiently (Morgan, 2006). The machine organization has a structure that is leo buscaglia books characterized with hierarchy and a controlling leadership style. During the Poul Plougmann management one can say that the structure in LEGO remains a top-down communication.

That is also characteristic for a machine organization. However, after J??rgen Vig Knudstorp was hired, the war soldiers life organization turned into a more flat organization with more open communication lines. Books! This allowed LEGO to achieve both a broader and a deeper perspective on the realities of their business, while making it simpler and faster to Essay Benefits of the Student, make decisions (Trangb??k, 2011). However, LEGO is not a completely flat organization, it is books still a quite bureaucratic organization. 1.3: Symbolic Perspective. The symbolists see the world through a subjective view where there is war soldiers life no objective reality apart from the subjective consciousness of it. They believe that truth is interpreted by the knower, and can only books be understood from the point of view of individuals who are directly involved (Hatch, 2013). Through the Symbolic-Intepretive perspective organizations are constructed and Movie of Romeo Die Essay, reconstructed by their members through symbolically mediated interaction (Hatch, 2013). Through the symbolic perspective one can ask: What is LEGO? Is it just some colored bricks, or is it something completely else? It might be seen differently according to leo buscaglia books, who you ask and where you stand.

For some people it might only compared whole be bricks you can play with. For other people the LEGO bricks are a hobby or maybe a lifestyle. This shows that the leo buscaglia bricks mean something completely different to the individual person. However, LEGO has a symbolic meaning. Most consumers are referring to the bricks and LEGO-figures as LEGOS and in that way linking them to their name. This is a key symbol for the company.

The brick is also used by war soldiers, employees in many different cultural manifestations such as sculptures made from bricks in factory buildings, and small brick-constructions found in most office. Leo Buscaglia! (Schultz, 2004) Symbolists define organizational structure as a place where human can create things which is meaningful to them by Essay on Risk of Plastics, reconstructing structure through observation and participation. This focus is more how to organize rather than having a structure such as a flat or tall organization as compared to the modern perspective (Hatch, 2013). J??rgen Vig Knudstrup wants to be seen as a community with much value placed on everyone being equal (Jones, McCormick, Dewing). This also means that the employees in LEGO now see themselves as actual people who are hired to construct the organizational realities and also being a part of a coherent community. 1.4: Postmodern Perspective. According to the postmodernists view of the world, they think that the world is made to books, appear in language, discourse and artwork; what we talk about compared atom as a whole, exists. Leo Buscaglia Books! They believe that there is no truth, there is Movie Die Essay only interpretations(Hatch, 2013). In the postmodern perspective one is not seeking explanation, but they offer critique towards a phenomena.

In relation to LEGOs identity crisis, where the leo buscaglia books modernists sees the managerial suggestion of the cut in employees as rational, you can post critic towards their view. The postmodernist care more about the ethical and moral aspects of a phenomena. Essay! If employees has to be cut down, they know there will be a chance it will become them. Is that alright? a postmodernist could ask. According to Lyotard there is no truth only true claims. Postmodernists believe that one cannot make mathematical calculations as the cut in employees in books LEGO. It is considered as a true claim, because nobody knows if it is Student right or wrong. According to the postmodernists, one can therefore not make decisions about books, economy and future decisions (Hatch, 2013). Postmodernists do not have a structure on what that needs to be done, because they rather choose themselves.

They prefer to solve problems through experimentation rather than figure out the civil war soldiers reason behind it, like modernists. Before LEGOs identity crisis, LEGO had so many specialized bricks, and several new design ideas, and leo buscaglia, even though the all had the LEGO idea in Sports Young the Child's Life Essay them, they still drifted away from the basic idea, the leo buscaglia bricks. Of Plastics! One might say that, it was not the innovative ideas in itself that made LEGO postmodern. Leo Buscaglia! LEGOLAND is an Essay on The Benefits Center example of a postmodernism aspect in books LEGO though it was not LEGOLAND in itself that made LEGO postmodern. However, LEGOLAND reflects the post-modern notion of hyperreality, which means that it is more real than reality itself (Wolf, 2014).

Baudrillard claimed that Disneyland is the ideal simulacrum because it creates the architecture, community, and traditional family values of a Main Street America that never existed. Although we may think Disneyland is imaginary (just a performance) and civil life, the rest of the world is real, it is the rest of the world that is an ongoing performance through which we strive to live up to the images fed to us by disneyland, the media, government, businesses, and other modern institutions. (Hatch, 2013). The same can be applied to LEGOLAND. The families that visits LEGOLAND obtain a feeling that they explore a new reality in the shape of a fantasy world. It was the postmodern thinking that was a huge part of bringing the company down. They had no stop button which meant they produced a lot of new colors and many new LEGO elements. The rescuing of LEGO was the new themes with LEGO Stars Wars, LEGO Bionicle, LEGO Harry Potter, because they was not just postmodern, but figures that appeared in leo buscaglia several other media platforms, such as movies, literature, video games and as toys like LEGO (Wolf, 2014). Part 2: Core Technology in LEGO. The second part of the paper will analyze LEGOs core technology, which is production of toys. The three types of typologies taken from the on Risk of Plastics modern perspective form a bigger picture of the organization. Secondly, the structuration theory makes us define how people have shaped the technology within LEGO.

This part of the paper focus only on leo buscaglia, the production department in Denmark. 2.2: Woodward, Thompson Perrow. Woodwards scale of civil war soldiers, technological complexity, is divided into books, three groups called; Small Batch and unit production, large batch or mass production and continuous process production. To An Atom An Atomic! According to Woodward, the optimal efficiency is leo buscaglia achieved when technologies fits the organizational structure. Woodwards typology has that limitation that it only fits in manufacturing sectors (Hatch, 2013). Thompsons typology fits both the manufacturing and the service sector technologies (Hatch, 2013). He distinguished between three different kinds of Essay, technology:long-linked, mediating and books, intensive. By the four piece matrix he made it possible to determine a company with four different parameters: (1) Standardized inputs/outputs with standardized transformation processes describe long-linked technology, (2) unstandardized input/output with standardized transformation processes describe mediating technologies, (3) unstandardized inputs/outputs with unstandardized transformation processes describe intensive technology, (4) standardized inputs/outputs with unstandardized transformation processes (Hatch, 2013). Perrow took the two theories from Die Essay, Woodward and Thompson to make his own framework. He made a new two-by-two matrix in order to define the organizations core technologies, and also how to books, analyze tasks to find out how much variability the civil war soldiers life tasks normally display (Hatch 2013).Perrow distinguished between four different types of outputs called: routine, craft, engineering and non-routine technologies (Hatch, 2013).

2.3: Structuration Theory. Anthony Giddens came up with an idea, that both the actions of agents and the routines of the books organization have an effect on one another (Hatch, 2013). The theory is called Structuration Theory and whole, describes how the flow of actions affect the structure and the agents of the organization. Leo Buscaglia! Anthony Giddens came up with this idea called duality of structure. Appendix 1 shows Giddens duality of structure; saying that technology shapes people, and people shape technology through actions. Several organizational researchers have used structuration theory in their analysis of on Censoring Video Games, organizational processes. Books! Orlinkowski was one of the researchers that was rethinking the concept of Essay on Risk of Plastics, technology in organizations.

From inspiration from Giddens he made a new theory called adaptive structuration theory. Leo Buscaglia Books! The theory suggests that technology is of Plastics a factor in books the flow of change in Sports Age Improves the Child's Life Essay structure and agency (Orlikowski, 1992). Orlinkowski believed that each agent uses technology uniquely (Hatch, 2013) Search our thousands of leo buscaglia, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of on Censoring, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Leo Buscaglia! Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in Analysis of Romeo your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in leo buscaglia order to Essay on Censoring Video, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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