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Science/ Black Holes term paper 19763. A Dream Speech Date! The Search for Black Holes: Both As A Concept And An Understanding. For ages people have been determined to turn an animal, explicate on everything. I Have A Dream Speech Date! Our search for explanation rests only when there is a lack of questions. Our skies hold infinite quandaries, so the quest for answers will, as a result, also be infinite. Since its inception, Astronomy as a science speculated heavily upon discovery, and only came to concrete conclusions later with closer inspection. Aspects of the skies which at one time seemed like reasonable explanations are now laughed at as egotistical ventures.
Time has shown that as better instrumentation was developed, more accurate understanding was attained. Now it seems, as we advance on scientific frontiers, the new quest of the heavens is to find and exchange, explain the phenomenom known as a black hole. The goal of this paper is to explain how the i have a dream date concept of exchange year, a black hole came about, and give some insight on how black holes are formed and might be tracked down in our more technologically advanced future. Gaining an understanding of a black hole allows for a greater understanding of the i have speech concept of circe odyssey, spacetime and a dream speech, maybe give us a grasp of both science fiction and science fact. Exchange! Hopefully, all the clarification will come by the close of this essay. A black hole is probably one of the most misunderstood ideas among people outside of the astronomical and physical communities. Before an understanding of how it is formed can take place, a bit of an introduction to stars is necessary.
This will shed light (no pun intended) on the black hole philosophy. A star is an enormous fire ball, fueled by a nuclear reaction at its core which produces massive amounts of heat and pressure. It is speech formed when two or more enormous gaseous clouds come together which forms the core, and as an aftereffect the conversion, due to circe odyssey, that impact, of i have speech, huge amounts of energy from the circe odyssey two clouds. The clouds come together with a great enough force, that a nuclear reaction ensues. This type of a dream, energy is created by fusion wherein the atoms are forced together to form a new one. In turn, heat in excess of millions of is Better One in a Home Essay, degrees farenheit are produced. This activity goes on for eons until the point at which the nuclear fuel is exhausted. Here is where things get interesting. For the entire life of the star, the i have speech date nuclear reaction at its core produced an enormous outward force.
Interestingly enough, an exactly equal force, namely gravity, was pushing inward toward the center. The equilibrium of the two forces allowed the star to Touching The Void Essays, maintain its shape and i have a dream, not break away nor collapse. Eventually, the fuel for the star runs out, and Divorce: than Essay, it this point, the outward force is overpowered by the gravitational force, and the object caves in on itself. This is date a gigantic implosion. Depending on the original and final mass of the star, several things might occur. A usual result of such an implosion is Divorce: Two than One in a star known as a white dwarf.
This star has been pressed together to form a much more massive object. It is said that a teaspoon of i have a dream speech date, matter off a white dwarf would weigh 2-4 tons. Is Better Than Essay! Upon the first discovery of a white dwarf, a debate arose as to how far a star can collapse. And in the 1920’s two leading astrophysicists, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekgar and Sir Arthur Eddington came up with different conclusions. Speech! Chandrasekhar looked at the relations of mass to radius of the Touching by Joe star, and concluded an i have speech date, upper limit beyond which collapse would result in if i turn something called a neutron star. I Have A Dream Speech! This limit of 1.4 solar masses was an accurate measurement and in 1983, the Nobel committee recognized his work and awarded him their prize in Physics.
The white dwarf is massive, but not as massive as the next order of imploded star known as a neutron star. Often as the nuclear fuel is burned out, the star will begin to if i turn an animal, shed its matter in an explosion called a supernovae. When this occurs the star loses an enormous amount of mass, but that which is a dream date left behind, if greater than 1.4 solar masses, is a densely packed ball of neutrons. This star is so much more massive that a teaspoon of it’s matter would weigh somewhere in the area of 5 million tons in earth’s gravity. The magnitude of such a dense body is unimaginable. But even a neutron star isn’t the extreme when it comes to a star’s collapse.
That brings us to the focus of Touching by Joe Simpson, this paper. It is felt, that when a star is a dream speech date massive enough, any where in the area of or larger than 3-3.5 solar masses, the collapse would cause something of a much greater mass. In fact, the mass of this new object is speculated to be infinite. Such an entity is what we call a black hole. After a black hole is created, the gravitational force continues to pull in space debris and all other types of matter in. This continuous addition makes the hole stronger and more powerful and obviously more massive. The simplest three dimensional geometry for ideas 8, a black hole is a sphere. This type of black hole is i have a dream speech date called a Schwarzschild black hole. Kurt Schwarzschild was a German astrophysicist who figured out the critical radius for a given mass which would become a black hole. This calculation showed that at a specific point matter would collapse to an infinitely dense state. This is cross known as singularity.
Here too, the pull of gravity is infinitely strong, and space and time can no longer be thought of in conventional ways. At singularity, the laws defined by Newton and Einstein no longer hold true, and a myterious world of quantum gravity exists. I Have A Dream Speech! In the Schwarzschild black hole, the event horizon, or skin of the black hole, is the The Void Essays boundary beyond which nothing could escape the gravitational pull. Most black holes would tend to be in a consistent spinning motion, because of the a dream original spin of the star. This motion absorbs various matter and spins it within the ring that is formed around the black hole. This ring is the singularity. The matter keeps within the Event Horizon until it has spun into the center where it is concentrated within the core adding to the mass. Circe Odyssey! Such spinning black holes are known as Kerr Black Holes. Roy P. I Have A Dream Date! Kerr, an Australian mathematician happened upon the solution to the Einstein equations for black holes with angular momentums. Touching! This black hole is speech very similar to the previous one. There are, however, some differences which make it more viable for real, existing ones.
The singularity in the this hole is more time-like, while the other is more space-like. With this subtle difference, objects would be able to enter the black whole from regions away from the equator of the event horizon and if i an animal essay, not be destroyed. The reason it is i have speech called a black hole is because any light inside of the singularity would be pulled back by the infinite gravity so that none of it could escape. As a result anything passing beyond the event horizon would dissappear from sight forever, thus making the black hole impossible for humans to see without using technologicalyl advanced instruments for measuring such things like radiation. Touching The Void! The second part of the name referring to the hole is due to the fact that the actual hole, is where everything is absorbed and where the center core presides. This core is the main part of the black hole where the i have a dream mass is concentrated and appears purely black on all readings even through the use of radiation detection devices. The first scientists to circe odyssey, really take an in depth look at black holes and a dream, the collapsing of stars, were a professor, Robert Oppenheimer and his student Hartland Snyder, in One in Essay the early nineteen hundreds. They concluded on the basis of Einstein's theory of relativity that if the speed of light was the utmost speed over any massive object, then nothing could escape a black hole once in it's clutches.
It should be noted, all of this information is speculation. In theory, and on Super computers, these things do exist, but as scientists must admit, they’ve never found one. So the question arises, how can we see black holes? Well, there are several approaches to this question. Obviously, as realized from a previous paragraph, by seeing, it isn’t necessarily meant to speech, be a visual representation. Two! So we’re left with two approaches. The first deals with X-ray detection. I Have A Dream Speech Date! In this precision measuring system, scientists would look for areas that would create enormous shifts in energy levels. Such shifts would result from gases that are sucked into the black hole. The enormous jolt in circe odyssey gravitation would heat the gases by millions of degrees. Such a rise could be evidence of a dream date, a black hole.
The other means of detection lies in another theory altogether. The concept of gravitational waves could point to cross, black holes, and researchers are developing ways to read them. I Have Date! Gravitational Waves are predicted by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. They are perturbations in The Void Simpson Essays the curvature of spacetime. Sir Arthur Eddington was a strong supporter of Einstein, but was skeptical of gravity waves and is reported to have said, Graviatational waves propagate at the speed of speech date, thought. But what they are is important to a theory.
Gravitational waves are enormous ripples eminating from the core of the black hole and ideas, other large masses and are said to a dream, travel at the speed of light, but not through spacetime, but rather as the circe odyssey backbone of spacetime itself. These ripples pass straight through matter, and their strength weakens as it gets farther from the source. The ripples would be similar to a dream speech, a stone dropped in water, with larger ones toward the center and fainter ones along the outer circumference. The only problem is that these ripples are so minute that detecting them would require instrumentation way beyond our present capabilities. Because they’re unaffected by matter, they carry a pure signal, not like X-rays which are diffused and distorted. In simulations the black hole creates a unique frequency known as it natural mode of vibrations. This fingerprint will undoubtedly point to a black hole, if it’s ever seen. Just recently a major discovery was found with the help of The Hubble Space Telescope. This telescope has just recently found what many astronomers believe to be a black hole, after being focused on a star orbiting an empty space. Several picture were sent back to Earth from the speech ideas for grade telescope showing many computer enhanced pictures of various radiation fluctuations and other diverse types of readings that could be read from the area in which the a dream speech date black hole is suspected to be in.
Because a black hole floats wherever the star collapsed, the truth is, it can vastly effect the surrounding area, which might have other stars in it. It could also absorb a star and year, wipe it out of existance. When a black hole absorbs a star, the star is first pulled into the Ergosphere, this is the area between the event horizon and singularity, which sweeps all the matter into the event horizon, named for a dream speech date, it's flat horizontal appearance and critical properties where all transitions take place. The black hole doesn’t just pull the star in like a vaccuum, rather it creates what is known as an accretion disk which is Two is Better than One in a Home a vortex like phenomenom where the star’s material appears to go down the drain of the a dream speech date black hole. When the year star is passed on into the event horizon the light that the star ordinarily gives off builds inside the ergosphere of the date black hole but doesn’t escape. At this exact point in time, high amounts of radiation are given off, and with the proper equipment, this radiation can be detected and seen as an image of emptiness or as preferred, a black hole. Through this technique astronomers now believe that they have found a black hole known as Cygnus X1. This supposed black hole has a huge star orbiting around it, therefore we assume there must be a black hole that it is in orbit with. Science Fiction has used the black hole to come up with several movies and fantastical events related to the massive beast. Tales of time travel and of parallel universes lie beyond the hole.
Passing the event horizon could send you on that fantastical trip. Some think there would be enough gravitational force to Touching Simpson Essays, possible warp you to an end of the universe or possibly to a completely different one. The theories about i have speech date, what could lie beyond a black hole are endless. The real quest is to first find one. So the Touching The Void Simpson question remains, do they exist? Black holes exist, unfortunately for the scientific community, their life is restricted to formulas and super computers. But, and there is i have a dream speech a but, the scientific community is relentless in their quest to build a better means of tracking. Already the advances of hyper-sensitive equipment is showing some good signs, and the accuracy will only get better. Word Count: 2172. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints.
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literature proposal This is i have a dream date, a work in progress, intended to organize my thoughts on the process of formulating a proposal. If you have any thoughts on the contents, or on the notion of making this available to students, please share them with me. Thanks. This is a guide to writing M.A. research proposals. The same principles apply to dissertation proposals and to proposals to most funding agencies.
It includes a model outline, but advisor, committee and funding agency expectations vary and your proposal will be a variation on this basic theme. Use these guidelines as a point of departure for discussions with your advisor. They may serve as a straw-man against which to build your understanding both of your project and of proposal writing. Proposal writing is speech for grade, important to your pursuit of a graduate degree. The proposal is, in effect, an intellectual scholastic (not legal) contract between you and your committee. Date? It specifies what you will do, how you will do it, and how you will interpret the speech ideas, results. In specifying what will be done it also gives criteria for determining whether it is i have speech, done.
In approving the proposal, your committee gives their best judgment that the approach to the research is reasonable and likely to yield the anticipated results. They are implicitly agreeing that they will accept the result as adequate for the purpose of granting a degree. Cross Price Elasticity? (Of course you will have to write the thesis in speech acceptable form, and you probably will discover things in the course of your research that were not anticipated but which should be addressed in year your thesis, but the minimum core intellectual contribution of your thesis will be set by the proposal.) Both parties benefit from an agreed upon plan. The objective in writing a proposal is to describe what you will do, why it should be done, how you will do it and what you expect will result. A Dream Speech? Being clear about these things from the beginning will help you complete your thesis in a timely fashion. A vague, weak or fuzzy proposal can lead to a long, painful, and often unsuccessful thesis writing exercise. A clean, well thought-out, proposal forms the backbone for the thesis itself. The structures are identical and through the miracle of word-processing, your proposal will probably become your thesis.
A good thesis proposal hinges on a good idea. Once you have a good idea, you can draft the proposal in an evening. Price Elasticity? Getting a good idea hinges on familiarity with the topic. I Have? This assumes a longer preparatory period of reading, observation, discussion, and incubation. Read everything that you can in your area of interest.
Figure out what are the important and missing parts of our understanding. Figure out how to build/discover those pieces. Live and if i an animal breathe the topic. I Have A Dream Date? Talk about it with anyone who is interested. Then just write the important parts as the proposal.
Filling in the things that we do not know and that will help us know more: that is what research is all about. Proposals help you estimate the for grade 8, size of a project. Don't make the project too big. Our MA program statement used to say that a thesis is equivalent to a published paper in scope. These days, sixty double spaced pages, with figures, tables and speech bibliography, would be a long paper. Your proposal will be shorter, perhaps five pages and certainly no more than fifteen pages. (For perspective, the NSF limits the length of proposal narratives to 15 pages, even when the Divorce: One in a Home, request might be for multiple hundreds of thousands of dollars.) The merit of the a dream, proposal counts, not the weight. Shoot for The Void by Joe Simpson, five pithy pages that indicate to a relatively well-informed audience that you know the topic and how its logic hangs together, rather than fifteen or twenty pages that indicate that you have read a lot of things but not yet boiled it down to a set of prioritized linked questions. Different Theses, Similar Proposals.
This guide includes an i have speech outline that looks like a fill-in the blanks model and, while in the abstract all proposals are similar, each proposal will have its own particular variation on the basic theme. Circe Odyssey? Each research project is different and each needs a specifically tailored proposal to bring it into focus. Different advisors, committees and agencies have different expectations and you should find out what these are as early as possible; ask your advisor for a dream, advice on this. Further, different types of thesis require slightly different proposals. What style of than a Home, work is published in your sub-discipline? Characterizing theses is difficult. Some theses are straight science. Some are essentially opinion pieces. Some are policy oriented. In the end, they may well all be interpretations of i have a dream speech, observations, and differentiated by the rules that constrain the interpretation. (Different advisors will have different preferences about the rules, the meta-discourse, in which we all work.) In the abstract all proposals are very similar.
They need to show a reasonably informed reader why a particular topic is important to address and how you will do it. To that end, a proposal needs to show how your work fits into what is already known about the topic and what new contribution your work will make. Specify the question that your research will answer, establish why it is a significant question, show how you are going to answer the question, and indicate what you expect we will learn. The proposal should situate the work in than a Home Essay the literature, it should show why this is an i have a dream date (if not the most) important question to columbian exchange year answer in the field, and convince your committee (the skeptical readers that they are) that your approach will in fact result in speech an answer to the question. Theses which address research questions that can be answered by making plan-able observations (and applying hypothesis testing or model selection techniques) are preferred and perhaps the speech for grade, easiest to write.
Because they address well-bounded topics, they can be very tight, but they do require more planning on the front end. Theses which are largely based on synthesis of observations, rumination, speculation, and opinion formation are harder to write, and usually not as convincing, often because they address questions which are not well-bounded and essentially unanswerable. A Dream Speech Date? (One 'old saw' about research in the social sciences is that the finding is always: some do and some don't. Try to avoid such insight-less findings; finding who do and who don't is if i turn into an animal, better.) One problem with this type of project is that it is often impossible to tell when you are done. Another problem is that the nature of argument for i have, a position rather than the exchange, reasoned rejection of alternatives to it encourages shepherding a favored notion rather than converging more directly toward a truth. (See Chamberlain's and Platt's articles). I Have A Dream Speech? A good proposal helps one see and avoid these problems. Literature review-based theses involve collection of circe odyssey, information from the literature, distillation of it, and coming up with new insight on an issue. A Dream Date? One problem with this type of research is that you might find the perfect succinct answer to your question on the night before (or after) you turn in the final draft --- in circe odyssey someone else's work. This certainly can knock the wind out of i have a dream, your sails. (But note that even a straight-ahead science thesis can have the problem of discovering, late in the game, that the work you have done or are doing has already been done; this is where familiarity with the relevant literature by both yourself and your committee members is columbian exchange, important.) A Two Page (Preliminary Proposal) Model.
Here is a model for a very brief (maybe five paragraph) proposal that you might use to interest faculty in sitting on your committee. People who are not yet hooked may especially appreciate its brevity. In the date, first paragraph, the first sentence identifies the general topic area. The second sentence gives the research question, and the third sentence establishes its significance. The next couple of paragraphs gives the larger historical perspective on Touching by Joe Essays, the topic. Essentially list the major schools of thought on the topic and i have speech date very briefly review the literature in the area with its major findings. Touching The Void By Joe Simpson Essays? Who has written on speech date, the topic and what have they found? Allocate about a sentence per price elasticity, important person or finding.
Include any preliminary findings you have, and i have speech indicate what open questions are left. Circe Odyssey? Restate your question in this context, showing how it fits into this larger picture. The next paragraph describes your methodology. I Have Speech? It tells how will you approach the question, what you will need to do it. The final paragraph outlines your expected results, how you will interpret them, and how they will fit into the our larger understanding i.e., 'the literature'. The two outlines below are intended to turn into essay show both what are the standard parts of a proposal and of a science paper. Notice that the a dream date, only real difference is circe odyssey, that you change expected results to results in the paper, and a dream speech date usually leave the budget out, of the paper. Another outline (maybe from Gary Fuller?). Each of these outlines is price, very similar. A Dream Speech Date? You probably see already that the proposal's organization lends itself to word-processing right into Divorce: Two One in a Home, the final thesis.
It also makes it easy for readers to a dream date find relevant parts more easily. Price Elasticity? The section below goes into slightly more detail on what each of the points in the outline is and does. A good title will clue the reader into the topic but it can not tell the whole story. Follow the title with a strong introduction. The introduction provides a brief overview that tells a fairly well informed (but perhaps non-specialist) reader what the proposal is about. It might be as short as a single page, but it should be very clearly written, and it should let one assess whether the research is relevant to their own. With luck it will hook the speech date, reader's interest. What is your proposal about? Setting the topical area is a start but you need more, and quickly. Get specific about what your research will address.
Once the topic is established, come right to the point. What are you doing? What specific issue or question will your work address? Very briefly (this is still the introduction) say how you will approach the work. What will we learn from your work? Why is turn into an animal essay, this work important? Show why this is it important to i have answer this question. What are the implications of Divorce: Two a Home, doing it? How does it link to other knowledge?
How does it stand to inform policy making? This should show how this project is significant to our body of knowledge. Why is it important to our understanding of the world? It should establish why I would want to read on. It should also tell me why I would want to support, or fund, the project. State of our knowledge. The purpose of the literature review is to situate your research in the context of what is already known about i have speech a topic. It need not be exhaustive, it needs to show how your work will benefit the whole. It should provide the theoretical basis for your work, show what has been done in the area by if i essay others, and set the stage for your work. In a literature review you should give the date, reader enough ties to the literature that they feel confident that you have found, read, and assimilated the literature in the field.
It might do well to year include a paragraph that summarizes each article's contribution, and a bit of 'mortar' to hold the edifice together, perhaps these come from your notes while reading the material. The flow should probably move from the i have a dream speech, more general to the more focused studies, or perhaps use historical progression to develop the Two is Better One in, story. It need not be exhaustive; relevance is 'key'. This is where you present the holes in the knowledge that need to be plugged, and by i have speech date doing so, situate your work. It is the place where you establish that your work will fit in and be significant to the discipline. This can be made easier if there is if i turn essay, literature that comes out and says Hey, this is a topic that needs to be treated!
What is the answer to this question? and you will sometimes see this type of piece in the literature. Perhaps there is a reason to read old AAG presidential addresses. Your work to date. Tell what you have done so far. It might report preliminary studies that you have conducted to establish the feasibility of your research. It should give a sense that you are in a position to add to the body of date, knowledge. Overview of approach.
This section should make clear to the reader the Divorce: is Better than a Home Essay, way that you intend to approach the research question and the techniques and logic that you will use to address it. This might include the field site description, a description of the instruments you will use, and particularly the data that you anticipate collecting. You may need to comment on site and resource accessibility in the time frame and budget that you have available, to demonstrate feasibility, but the emphasis in speech this section should be to fully describe specifically what data you will be using in your study. Part of the purpose of doing this is to detect flaws in the plan before they become problems in the research. This should explain in some detail how you will manipulate the data that you assembled to get at cross elasticity, the information that you will use to answer your question. It will include the statistical or other techniques and the tools that you will use in processing the i have a dream date, data. It probably should also include an cross indication of the range of outcomes that you could reasonably expect from date your observations. In this section you should indicate how the anticipated outcomes will be interpreted to answer the research question.
It is extremely beneficial to anticipate the Two One in a Home Essay, range of outcomes from your analysis, and for a dream speech date, each know what it will mean in terms of the answer to your question. This section should give a good indication of what you expect to get out The Void, of the i have a dream date, research. It should join the data analysis and Divorce: is Better than One in a Home possible outcomes to a dream date the theory and questions that you have raised. It will be a good place to summarize the significance of the work. It is often useful from the circe odyssey, very beginning of formulating your work to write one page for this section to focus your reasoning as you build the i have a dream date, rest of the speech for grade, proposal.
This is the list of the relevant works. I Have? Some advisors like exhaustive lists. I think that the Graduate Division specifies that you call it Bibliography. Others like to see only the literature which you actually cite. Most fall in between: there is no reason to cite irrelevant literature but it may be useful to keep track of circe odyssey, it even if only to i have a dream say that it was examined and found to be irrelevant. Use a standard format. Order the references alphabetically, and use flag paragraphs as per the University's Guidelines.
Read. Read everything you can find in your area of interest. Read. Read. Read. Take notes, and talk to your advisor about the topic. If your advisor won't talk to you, find another one or rely on 'the net' for into an animal essay, intellectual interaction. Email has the advantage of forcing you to a dream speech date get your thoughts into written words that can be refined, edited and improved. It also gets time stamped records of when you submitted what to your advisor and how long it took to get a response. Write about the topic a lot, and exchange year don't be afraid to tear up (delete) passages that just don't work. I Have A Dream Speech Date? Often you can re-think and re-type faster than than you can edit your way out of a hopeless mess.
The advantage is in the re-thinking. Very early on, generate the research question, critical observation, interpretations of the possible outcomes, and speech ideas for grade 8 the expected results. These are the core of the project and will help focus your reading and thinking. Modify them as needed as your understanding increases. Use some systematic way of recording notes and bibliographic information from the very beginning.
The classic approach is a deck of index cards. You can sort, regroup, layout spatial arrangements and work on the beach. Possibly a slight improvement is to use a word-processor file that contains bibliographic reference information and notes, quotes etc. that you take from the source. This can be sorted, searched, diced and sliced in i have a dream date your familiar word-processor. You may even print the exchange year, index cards from the word-processor if you like the ability to physically re-arrange things. Even better for speech date, some, is to use specialized bibliographic database software.
Papyrus, EndNote, and other packages are available for PCs and MacIntoshs. The bib-refer and bibTex software on UNIX computers are also very handy and have the advantage of turn into, working with plain ASCII text files (no need to worry about getting at your information when the wordprocessor is several generations along). All of these tools link to various word-processors to make constructing and formating your final bibliography easier, but you won't do that many times anyway. If they help you organize your notes and thinking, that is the a dream date, benefit. Another pointer is to keep in mind from the outset that this project is neither the last nor the greatest thing you will do in your life. It is just one step along the way. Get it done and get on with the next one. The length to shoot for is equivalent to cross a published paper, sixty pages of double spaced text, plus figures tables, table of contents, references, etc. is probably all you need.
In practice, most theses try to do too much and become too long. Cover your topic, but don't confuse it with too many loosely relevant side lines. This is i have, not complete and needs a little rearranging. The balance between Introduction and Literature Review needs to be thought out. The reader will want to be able to figure out whether to read the ideas, proposal. The literature review should be sufficiently inclusive that the i have a dream speech date, reader can tell where the by Joe Simpson Essays, bounds of knowledge lie. It should also show that the proposer knows what has been done in the field (and the methods used).
The balance may change between the proposal and the thesis. I Have A Dream Date? It is common, although not really desirable, for theses to make reference to every slightly related piece of work that can be found. This is Touching Essays, not necessary. Refer to the work that actually is linked to your study, don't go too far afield (unless your committee is adamant that you do ;-). Krathwohl, David R. I Have Date? 1988. How to columbian Prepare a Research Proposal: Guidelines for Funding and Dissertations in the Social and Behavioral Sciences . Syracuse University Press. Recent National Science Foundations Guidelines for a dream date, Research Proposals can be found on the NSF website, www.nsf.gov. Chamberlain, T.C. The Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses, reprinted in Science , Vol 148, pp754-759.
7 May 1965. Platt, J. Strong Inference in Science , Number 3642, pp. 347-353, 16 October 1964. Strunk and ideas for grade White The Elements of Style. Turabian, Kate. 1955 (or a more recent edition) A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations , University of Chicago Press. Mortimer J. Adler and Charles Van Doren. 1940 ('67, '72 etc). Date? How to circe odyssey Read a Book . Simon and Schuster Publishers.
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The University of i have a dream speech Montana Foundation. Working at The University of Montana Foundation. A career at The University of Montana Foundation is more than a job - it is an price opportunity to be a part of i have a dream speech something that impacts students, the community and, through research, the world. At the UM Foundation we offer you not only the circe odyssey chance to a dream speech date, build a successful career - we offer you an turn into opportunity to make an impact. BASIC FUNCTION AND RESPONSIBILITY:
The Vice President helps set the strategic direction for the Foundation’s fundraising efforts and is responsible for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a comprehensive fundraising program. The Vice President leads and manages an Associate Vice President for Development and 14 full-time professional staff focused around annual giving, corporate and foundation relations, prospect research, and major and i have a dream principal giving for UM schools and colleges. The Foundation’s development team is highly productive, raising significantly more on average than national peers, and is highly regarded with internal and external constituents. The Vice President reports to the President and CEO, working in close collaboration with the Foundation’s executive leadership team which includes the Chief Financial Officer, the Vice President for Planned Gifts and Regional Development, and the Associate Vice President for Marketing and Communications. The Vice President serves as staff liaison to the Development Committee of the Board, participates in the work of the cross Executive Committee of the i have speech Board, and columbian exchange year also serves as a staff liaison to campaign volunteer committees. Duties and i have a dream speech date Responsibilities: Manage all phases of columbian a comprehensive development program and fundraising campaign. Develop strategies to consistently achieve aggressive fundraising goals. Manage a development team of 18 professionals to a dream date, ensure successful implementation of annual fundraising plans, donor strategies and year performance goals. Serve as the primary liaison to campus deans and program directors, coordinating college and school fundraising strategies. In collaboration with the Associate Vice President for Development, oversee the Director of Annual Giving, Director of Corporate and Foundation Relations, and the Director of Prospect Research to establish and track goals, priorities, and work plans for each program.
Work collaboratively with the Foundation’s marketing and communications team to develop and implement stewardship strategies. Maintain and strengthen relationships with key volunteers, enhance volunteer engagement, and speech ensure that volunteer resources and tools are robust and effective. Manage department budgets and circe odyssey assure appropriate resource allocation to key priorities. Develop and supervise professional development opportunities for the development team to achieve best practices and excellence. The successful candidate will be an experienced and passionate development professional who shares a commitment to the mission and values of the Foundation. We seek a candidate who excels in relationship building, possesses a high level of self-motivation and team is oriented. Other qualifications include: A minimum of five years of professional experience as a performance-driven senior development officer or higher within higher education or other nonprofit institution. A minimum of i have speech date three years management or supervisory experience over a development program focused on six- and seven-figures gifts driven by performance metrics and accountability. Proven ability to create and implement effective fundraising strategies.
Demonstrated ability as an if i turn essay effective team builder, on and off campus, with a diverse groups of individuals. Proven success in cultivating, soliciting and closing six- and seven-figure gifts with individuals, foundations and corporations. Demonstrated ability to implement and provide oversight of ongoing development efforts at the college level, manage performance metrics and engage in i have a dream data-driven decision making. Knowledge and understanding of higher education practices and collaborations with a variety of circe odyssey constituents and colleagues, while maintaining the highest standards of professional integrity, work ethics, and conduct. Excellent oral and written skills communicating with a variety of constituents, including high-profile leaders.
Demonstrated effective interpersonal skills, diplomacy, and integrity to build and maintain trusting relationships with staff, volunteers, donors, and others to achieve their maximum potential. Ability to manage multiple projects simultaneously and i have a dream speech date develop solutions to complex problems in a fast-paced environment with professionalism and creativity. Bachelor degree or higher from an accredited university. The position at certain times may not include all of the duties listed nor do the cross listed examples include all tasks which may be found in the position. BASIC FUNCTION AND RESPONSIBILITY: The Director of Development works in collaboration with the Dean of the a dream speech date College of Visual and Performing Arts to set the speech for grade 8 strategic direction for the college’s development program, executing on activities that ensure growing and sustainable private support. The ideal candidate will share an i have a dream appreciation and passion for the arts. The CVPA is comprised of columbian year four schools: Art, Media Arts, Music, and Theatre Dance. The Director reports to the Vice President for Development, working in close collaboration with the College of Visual and Performing Arts dean, faculty and i have a dream speech staff; other constituent development officers; and Simpson Essays several Foundation teams, including Prospect Research, Marketing and Communications, Stewardship, Gift Planning, and Gift and Fund Administration. The Director serves as a staff liaison to the college’s volunteer development committee.
The Director also manages a team of i have speech date two Development Coordinators who serve the cross price elasticity administrative needs of the campus constituent development officers. Duties and Responsibilities: Manage a portfolio of 100 major gift prospective donors ($25,000+) with a focus on individuals and entities with a giving potential of $100,000 or more. Develop a pool of individual, corporate and foundation prospects associated with each of the college fundraising priorities. Develop and implement a cultivation and solicitation strategy for each assigned major gift prospective donor. Complete approximately 10-12 strategic personal visits each month with prospective major gift donors to advance relationships toward major gift commitments. Develop and present approximately 20 major gift proposals each year with a goal of securing an i have date $1 million or more in new commitments.
Prepare written proposals, informational materials, endowment agreements, gift illustrations and other materials needed to secure major gifts. In collaboration with the essay stewardship team, develop appropriate stewardship activities for each major donor. Record and i have speech date track all activity using the Foundation’s prospect management system. Coordinate the participation of the dean, department chairs, faculty and cross price campus leaders in fundraising activities. As appropriate, identify, recruit, train, and develop leadership roles for volunteers who assist with major gift fundraising activities. Manage a team of Development Coordinators to ensure effective and efficient administrative service to a team of development officers. The successful candidate will be an experienced and passionate development professional who shares a commitment to the mission and i have a dream speech values of the Foundation. We seek a candidate who excels in relationship building, possesses a high level of self-motivation and team is by Joe, oriented. Other qualifications include: Ability to create and implement effective fundraising strategies that align with the college’s mission and priorities. Proven success in speech cultivating, soliciting and columbian exchange closing philanthropic gifts with individuals, foundations and/or corporations.
Strong interpersonal skills and a dream speech date customer service skills employed to Touching by Joe Simpson, build trust with colleagues, volunteers, donors and others. Poised, professional manner with the ability to a dream speech, express oneself clearly in all forms of communications. Intrinsically motivated; recognizes and seizes opportunities. Ability to year, make decisions in ambiguous situations, exercise good judgment based on information and analysis in a fast-pace, dynamic, deadline-driven environment in an organized and professional manner. Ability to work independently, problem solve, take initiative, set priorities and handle multiple projects efficiently and effectively. Demonstrated ability to maintain confidences and protect confidential information. Knowledge of Microsoft Suite of applications is preferred, as is familiarity with other applications, programs and databases, with a willingness to date, learn new technologies.
Three or more years development experience with a working knowledge of the principles and practices of major gift fundraising, preferably in higher education. Ability to accommodate a flexible work schedule and required travel. Supervisory experience preferred. Bachelor's degree from an Touching The Void by Joe accredited university. The position at certain times may not include all of the duties listed nor do the listed examples include all tasks which may be found in the position. BASIC FUNCTION AND RESPONSIBILITY: The Director of Development works in collaboration with the Dean of the Missoula College and the Office of the Provost to set the strategic direction for the college and speech date Student Success development programs, executing on if i turn into, activities that ensure growing and sustainable private support. The ideal candidate will share an appreciation for two-year education and student achievement. The Director reports to the Vice President for Development, working in close collaboration with the Missoula College dean, faculty and a dream speech date staff; Office of the Provost; other constituent development officers; and several Foundation teams, including Prospect Research, Marketing and Communications, Stewardship, Gift Planning, and Gift and Fund Administration. Duties and ideas 8 Responsibilities:
Manage a portfolio of 100 major gift prospective donors ($25,000+) with a focus on individuals and entities with a giving potential of $100,000 or more. Develop a pool of individual, corporate and foundation prospects associated with each of the college fundraising priorities. Develop and implement a cultivation and solicitation strategy for each assigned major gift prospective donor. Complete approximately 10-12 strategic personal visits each month with prospective major gift donors to advance relationships toward major gift commitments. Develop and present approximately 20 major gift proposals each year with a goal of i have a dream speech date securing an $1 million or more in new commitments. Prepare written proposals, informational materials, endowment agreements, gift illustrations and other materials needed to secure major gifts. In collaboration with the stewardship team, develop appropriate stewardship activities for each major donor.
Record and track all activity using the Foundation’s prospect management system. Coordinate the participation of the dean, department chairs, faculty and campus leaders in fundraising activities. As appropriate, identify, recruit, train, and develop leadership roles for volunteers who assist with major gift fundraising activities. The successful candidate will be an experienced and passionate development professional who shares a commitment to the mission and values of the Foundation. Ideas! We seek a candidate who excels in relationship building, possesses a high level of self-motivation and i have a dream speech date team is oriented. Other qualifications include: Ability to create and implement effective fundraising strategies that align with the University’s mission and priorities. Proven success in cultivating, soliciting and closing philanthropic gifts with individuals, foundations and/or corporations.
Strong interpersonal skills and customer service skills employed to year, build trust with colleagues, volunteers, donors and others. Poised, professional manner with the ability to express oneself clearly in all forms of communications. Intrinsically motivated; recognizes and seizes opportunities. Ability to make decisions in ambiguous situations, exercise good judgment based on information and analysis in a fast-pace, dynamic, deadline-driven environment in an organized and professional manner. Ability to work independently, problem solve, take initiative, set priorities and handle multiple projects efficiently and effectively. Demonstrated ability to maintain confidences and protect confidential information. Knowledge of Microsoft Suite of applications is i have speech date, preferred, as is familiarity with other applications, programs and databases, with a willingness to learn new technologies. Three or more years development experience with a working knowledge of the principles and practices of major gift fundraising, preferably in columbian year higher education.
Ability to speech date, accommodate a flexible work schedule and circe odyssey required travel. Bachelor's degree from an accredited university. The position at certain times may not include all of the duties listed nor do the listed examples include all tasks which may be found in the position. BASIC FUNCTION AND RESPONSIBILITY: The AVP sets the strategic direction for the Foundation’s communication and marketing efforts and i have a dream date is responsible for the development, implementation and evaluation of cross price elasticity a comprehensive program in support for a dream speech date the Foundation’s strategic and price elasticity annual operating plan. The Marketing and Communications Department encompasses print and digital marketing, media relations, donor stewardship, and special events. The AVP leads a team of six full-time, professional staff; a part-time videographer; and date three student employees. The Foundation’s Marketing and circe odyssey Communications team has won numerous professional awards including the i have date MarCom Platinum and Gold Awards and Two One in Essay the Higher Education Report’s Digital Marketing Gold Awards. The team is highly regarded across the University of Montana campus for their creativity, professionalism, execution and i have service.
The AVP reports to the President and CEO, working in close collaboration with the Foundation’s executive leadership team, which includes the Chief Financial Officer, the Vice President for Development, and the Vice President for Planned Gifts and Regional Development. The AVP serves as staff liaison to the Marketing and Communications Committee of the Board of Trustees and also participates in the work of the Executive Committee of the Board. Duties and Responsibilities: Execute and if i into direct comprehensive marketing, communications and i have a dream speech branding strategies, generating excitement around fundraising priorities, the impact of private support and special campaigns. Inspire, lead and manage a highly talented and dedicated team of full-time staff and students, providing frequent opportunities for professional learning, development and growth. Strengthen connections with strategic University partners to speech ideas for grade 8, enhance overall institutional communications strategies and ensure alignment and partnership in regard to key messaging platforms. Lead packaging of i have a dream date marketing and communications across numerous media platforms, including print publications, social media, video, mobile, website and cross elasticity new technologies in efforts to reach new and increasingly diverse audiences. Manage short- and i have a dream date long-term campaigns (online, social and print) and oversee editorial direction to ensure that messages are accurate, brand consistent, and One in utilize the i have speech date most current and effective technology to support strategic goals and fundraising objectives. Ensure a comprehensive and integrated stewardship and donor relations program that fosters a culture of for grade appreciation, recognition, accountability and i have speech date ongoing engagement of the Foundation’s donors. Provide leadership on the direction of all Foundation events, ensuring strategic messaging that properly cultivates and stewards UMF donors.
Proactively seek media opportunities to elevate the work of the cross elasticity University, the Foundation and recognize the generosity of donors; develop talking points for key leadership and occasionally serve as UMF spokesperson Manage department budgets and assure appropriate resource allocation to key priorities of the department. Advise on internal communication to ensure the Foundation team and University partners are informed of emerging strategies, key messaging and important events in a timely manner. The successful candidate will be an experienced and passionate communications professional who shares a commitment to i have speech date, the mission and values of the Foundation. We seek a candidate who excels in The Void Simpson relationship building, possesses a high level of self-motivation, is team oriented and highly creative. Other qualifications include: Proven ability to develop and i have a dream date implement dynamic integrated communications, media, public relations and marketing plans that align with the organization’s overall strategy and direction. A natural storyteller with exceptional written and oral communication skills, both at a strategic and detail-oriented level.
Demonstrated versatility across multiple platforms, including print, digital and visual. Ability to analyze and measure the effectiveness of communications and marketing efforts, including events, as related to columbian, specific objectives and date goals. Proven diplomacy and a willingness to invest considerable time and year energy building and maintaining respectful, trusting relationships across diverse constituencies, serving as an ambassador for the UM Foundation on campus and in the community. Demonstrate an ongoing commitment to a dream, seeking out and evaluating the latest communications trends, including leading-edge tactics for cross creative use of i have date social media and other digital platforms. A high degree of professional discretion, integrity and good judgment, along with a desire to circe odyssey, work in a mission-driven organization within a higher education environment. Effective one-on-one and group communicator. A minimum of i have a dream date 10 years marketing, communications and/or media relations experience, with at least five years of Divorce: a Home progressive senior management experience in marketing. Bachelor’s degree, with an advanced degree in a related field preferred. Preferred communications management experience in higher education or related nonprofit organizations. The position at certain times may not include all of the duties listed nor do the a dream speech date listed examples include all tasks which may be found in the position.
BASIC FUNCTION AND RESPONSIBILITY: The Director leads the strategic design, execution, management, and for grade 8 ongoing evaluation of a data-driven annual giving program. The annual giving program grows the University’s base of private support both by acquiring and retaining donors and by creating a pipeline for i have date major giving through compelling engagement and stewardship opportunities within the President’s Club. The ideal candidate will be a self-starter, innovating thinker and effective collaborator with demonstrated experience leading a successful annual giving program, preferably in a higher education setting. The Director reports to the Vice President for Development, working in close collaboration with external vendors, the Marketing and Communications and Information Services departments, constituent development officers, and Alumni Relations staff.
The Director participates in the work of the Development Committee of the Board. Duties and Responsibilities: Design an annual giving program that employs data-drive strategies to grow the donor base and recurring annual support using multiple channels including phonation, direct mail, e-solicitations, social media, giving days and special campaigns. Lead special campaigns including the faculty and staff giving campaign, a parents program, student philanthropy and others as assigned. Solicit key constituencies including alumni, students, parents of traditionally-aged undergraduates, faculty, staff and other loyal supporters. Partner with schools, colleges, and circe odyssey campuses to design and execute creative strategies for the solicitation of alumni and donors in support of each area’s vision and priorities. Develop a coordinated matrix of i have a dream communication in partnership with Marketing and price Communications and the Stewardship office, focused on shaping a sustainable tradition of annual giving. Develop a strategic communication and engagement plan to build awareness and membership in a dream speech the President’s Club leadership annual giving society and develop a cadre of regional volunteers to assist with that effort. Ability to develop and implement integrated development programs that align with the organization’s overall strategy and circe odyssey direction. Experience with complex market segmentation strategies and i have execution across a variety of channels.
Proven competency working in a complex data environment. Knowledge of alumni relations and than development principles. Ability to work both independently and as a member of teams, problem solve, take initiative, set priorities, manage multiple projects, and exercise good judgment in a dynamic, deadline driven environment. Proven experience working effectively with multiple stakeholders to achieve organizational objectives. Outstanding verbal skills, professional manner, and the ability to write persuasively. Demonstrated computer skills, including proficiency with Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint for correspondence, special reports, spreadsheets, databases, etc. Ongoing commitment to seeking out and evaluating the latest annual giving trends, including leading-edge tactics for creative use of social media and other digital communication.
Bachelor degree or higher from an accredited university. Three to five years’ experience in fundraising or a related field. Strong working knowledge of annual giving fundraising within a higher education environment preferred. The position at certain times may not include all of the duties listed nor do the listed examples include all tasks which may be found in the position. BASIC FUNCTION AND RESPONSIBILITY: The Director leads and coordinates the Foundation’s efforts to grow support from corporations and a dream speech date private foundations. The director will partner with faculty, staff and senior administrators to understand, interpret and promote University of Montana programs and initiatives. The ideal candidate will have a strong working knowledge of corporate and if i turn foundation fundraising within a higher education environment.
The Director reports to the Vice President for Development, working in close collaboration with the Foundation’s development team, campus deans and faculty, and the Office of Research and Creative Scholarship. Duties and Responsibilities: Develop an annual plan including goals, objectives, and strategies for the Corporate and Foundation Relations program that maximizes opportunities for support locally and nationally. Manage a portfolio of prospects to speech date, identify, assess, cultivate, solicit and steward corporations and private foundations. Provide leadership in designing and implementing strategies to sustain and increase organizational support, including the speech ideas development of cross- campus initiatives that can benefit multiple programs. Build and nurture effective working relationships with development staff, academic leaders, faculty and administrators; coordinate the participation of those partners in engagement, solicitation, and stewardship activities. Work with faculty, administrators and development staff to identify and prioritize funding needs, identify new prospects, create engagement strategies, produce letters of i have a dream date inquiry and by Joe Simpson Essays proposals, and prepare reports and other materials that garner support from corporate and foundation donors. Provide responsive and speech well-informed advice and direction regarding organizational funding sources and solicitation strategies to faculty, colleagues, and volunteers.
As needed, travel to corporate and columbian exchange year foundation offices to a dream, qualify new prospects, present proposals, and cultivate and cross elasticity steward relationships. Work collaboratively with the Office of Research and Creative Scholarship to offer education around external funding opportunities and processes; ensure corporate and i have a dream foundation relationships and requests for proposals are handled effectively and efficiently; and funding opportunities are promoted effectively throughout the University. When appropriate, identify, recruit, and for grade work with volunteers who can assist with the i have a dream speech date cultivation and solicitation of turn organizational donors. Develop and manage a cultivation and i have stewardship plan for corporate and organizational donors, designed to strengthen institutional relationships as well as ensure adherence to gift and grant guidelines and reporting requirements. The successful candidate will be a passionate development professional who shares a commitment to the mission and values of the Foundation. We seek a candidate who excels in speech ideas 8 relationship building, possesses a high level of self-motivation and is team oriented. Other qualifications include: A minimum of three to five years development experience with an emphasis on securing major gifts and grants of $25,000 or more from corporations or private foundations, preferably in a college or university setting. Demonstrated success in identifying and personally securing foundation gifts and grants. Ability to understand and articulate academic values and institutional priorities. Strong project management experience.
Ability to work both independently and as a member of teams, problem solve, take initiative, set priorities, manage multiple projects, and exercise good judgment in a dynamic, deadline driven environment. Superior writing and editing ability, poised and professional manner, outstanding verbal skills, and the ability to i have a dream, write concisely and persuasively. Ability to build and maintain positive relationships and work collaboratively with campus deans, faculty, administration, and foundation partners. Ability to travel periodically, including some overnight travel and evening and weekend hours, as necessary. Experience developing strategic and comprehensive fundraising plans, executing against those plans to achieve goals and objectives, and Divorce: Two is Better One in a Home Essay developing fundraising strategies. Bachelor degree or higher from an accredited university.
The position at certain times may not include all of the duties listed nor do the listed examples include all tasks which may be found in the position.
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Adult Education and Training Essay. This paper work presents the summary of the most well known adult learning theory – Andragogy, explains how it accounts for the characteristics, patterns of learning, and motivation adopted by adult learners. Moreover, reflects on my own qualities and circumstance as an adult learner; critique the strengths and i have, weaknesses of Andragogy. Andragogy, pedagogy, adult learning, education, training, adult learner, characteristics, motivation. All these years, the specialized field of education has generated a number of elasticity, models and theories of adult learning, included transformation learning theory, experiential learning theory, informal learning theory…etc. And the most important one with which to be familiar is Malcolm Knowles’ Andragogy. Andragogy was described as the “art and science to teaching adults to i have a dream learn” (Knowles, Holton, Swanson, 2005). It also interpreted the foundation and structure of cross elasticity, adult learning, the a dream speech date, concept of andragogy has been worldwide used in different times with different connotations and seem as a bible of columbian, adult education.
The notion of andragogy has been around for date nearby two centuries. It originally formulated by a German teacher, Alexander Kapp, in 1833 (Nottingham Andragogy Group 1983). He used “andragogy” to describe education theory. Andragogy literally means “man leading”, which contrasted with pedagogy (Since andr- is Latin for “man”, peda is Latin for Two than One in a Home Essay “child” and date, agogus is Latin for “leading”). And later on, couple educators had used the term of if i turn essay, “andragogy” in their article. It included Rosenstock in 1921; Lindeman wrote “The Meaning of Adult Education” in 1926. The notion of “Andragogy” was well developed, widely discussed and used in 1980 by Malcolm Shepherd Knowles, a champion of andragogy. Knowles first introduced the i have a dream date, concept of in the US in 1968. With his previous work on informal adult education, Knowles used those elements of process and setting to construct the shape and direction of adult education.
The concept he used to explain the theory of adult education was the notion of andragogy. “Malcolm Knowles, Informal adult education, self-direction and andragogy” (Jay-D Man, 2009). Knowles applied the idea of andragogy as the foundation of adult learning, he marked it as a new born technology which moderates the circe odyssey, development and performance of adult learning. He posited six assumptions related to the adult learners: 1) Need to know, 2) self-concept, 3) experience, 4) readiness to learn, 5) orientation to learning , and 6) motivation to learn (Knowles, 1980) “Adults want to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it” (Knowles, 2005). Adults are realist, they want to find out what is the i have a dream date, advantage and is Better a Home Essay, the loss before they make decision to do something. The “why”, “what”, “how”, “when”, “where” will first came to their mind before they making choices. For example: A man find he needs to improve his academy standard to get a promotion at i have speech, work, which is cross price elasticity “why” he wants to continue learning; he will choices a subject related to his present career to learn, he knows “what” he needs to learn and “what” is expected of him; in order to achieve his goal, he knows “how” he going to do and plan; beside works and i have a dream, take care his family, he needs to know “when” he studies; after conducts research, he knows “where” is a best place for his continuing learning. “Adults have a self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions, for their own lives” (Knowles, 1998). Divorce: Two Is Better Than A Home Essay! Adult learners are autonomous, they expect and enjoy independence, like to take control in everything and see themselves as self-directed.
They don’t want adult educators use a pedagogical model to teach them. They think learning is i have date a process of sharing with the teacher and exchange year, one another, for example, they prefer interaction rather than formal subject issue. So teacher has responsibility to encourage and promote the process of self-direction. That is why Knowles emphasizes that adult educators must “make efforts to create learning experiences in which adults are helped to make the transition from dependent to i have self-directing learners” (Knowles, 1998). For those adult learners, they are individual differences in their background, occupation, education standard, learning style, interests, goals and Touching The Void by Joe Simpson, motivation will cause different experiences than youth when come into an educational activity (Knowles, 2005). Upon the adult learners’ prior experience, Knowles (1998) point out four paths that adult experience learning: A wider range of i have date, individual differences will be established. Offer a richest resource for learning.
Create deviation that can restrain, or sculpt new learning. Provide area for The Void Essays adults’ self-identity. Since the adult learners have many experiences, teacher must draw on learner experiences. I Have Speech Date! Everyone in class could share their experiences through experiential techniques (simulations, group discussions, or problem-solving activities, etc). Divorce: Is Better Than One In A Home Essay! Moreover, sometime the adult learners may have more experience than the educator in some area. The communication and knowledge sharing will not only limit between instructor and student, also lead to 2 and 3 way interactions: between instructor and learner, learner and learner as well.
Readiness to Learn. Adults learn in order to cope effectively with real-life tasks. They normally come to class motivated, and ready to learn things they need to know. Knowles observes that “adults generally become ready to i have speech date learn when their life situation creates a need to Touching by Joe know” (Knowles, 2005). Anticipate the adults’ readiness to learn is very important in adult education, it determine how to proceed the training, and what strategies and speech date, activities should apply to meet a learner’s readiness.
Surveys of learners prior to beginning a course, or some introduction course before the ideas for grade 8, advanced courses are the ways to a dream retrieve the material and aware the learner’s readiness. Orientation to learning. Learning is a process of increasing competence to achieve full potential in life. According to Knowles, adults are problem-centered in their orientation to learning (Knowles, 2005). They prefer a problem solving orientation to learning (problem centered), rather than content-oriented. This orientation relates to their experience, task or problems in everyday situations. Ideas! The sense of adults is that learning will allow them to execute task or deal with problems faced in life.
When they confront real-life situation, they want to learn what will help them to contribute their effectiveness, and they learn best in this status. Motivation is the i have date, last core of Andragogy assumption, but not the least. Knowles emphasizes the adult learner’s motivation can be blocked by into an animal training and education if neglect of adult learning principles (Knowles, 2005). “Adults tend to be more motivated toward learning that helps them solve problems in a dream date, their livers or results in internal payoffs” (Knowles, 1998). Adult learners are responsive to some motivators. And normally those motivators can be divided into external (e.g., better job, higher salaries) and internal (e.g., desire of job satisfaction, self-esteem).
And the andragogical model assumes adult learners tend to be more motived by circe odyssey the internal motivators than the external one. I Have A Dream Speech! Base on the six assumptions of Andragogy, let’s see how adult learners and educators began to circe odyssey implement the practical applications: Have a need to know what they expect to learn before investing time in a learning event Make sure that the learners know the a dream date, aim, goal and purpose of training as early as they can. Ideas 8! Self-concept. Must uphold the concept of self-directing, responsible their own growing. Speech! Coach learners to find their needs and guide their own learning experience. Come to a learning occasion with richest of experience and circe odyssey, trade-off to contribute. Create and maintain a learning environment to build on and make use of learner’s experience.
Readiness to i have speech learn. Uphold a strong readiness to learn those things that they undertaking to learn. Ensure training relates directly to situations adult face in real-life task. Dedicate their energy to learning things that help them cope with daily life or solve a problem. Identify learner’s needs and interests, develop content based on the their needs. More responsive to internal motivators than external motivators. Create a safe learning environment and make sure the internal motivation will not blocked. Characteristics of Adult learners. According to exchange the Andragogy, Malcolm Knowles practiced a characterization of the defining features for adult learners, and shown as following: Adults have identifiable goal – they clearly understand what they need and know how to a dream date achieve their goal; Adults are independent – they are expect and enjoy independence, like to take control, and should allowed to express themselves freely; Adults have wealth of experience – need others to recognize their previous experience, including both positive and ideas, negative; Adults want immediate usefulness of their learning – they want to apply what they learn to solve and handle problems faced in their daily life; Adults fear to the educational process – normally graduated from i have school years and do not familiar with those process; Adults are hard to change – with their prior experience, their conducts become a habit, and some even though became their character already. Andragogy vs Pedagogy.
Since the Andragogy is a learning theory for adult learners, and which is contrast to Pedagogy. The following table summarizes the assumptions and processes of andragogy and pedagogy: Clearly understand why they need to know before choose to learn. Only need to know what the teacher teaches. Raise of by Joe Simpson Essays, self-directedness. Learners are a wealth resource for learning. Readiness to learn. Developed from life’s experience. Directly related to i have a dream speech date age level and curriculum.
Motivated by internal payoffs and curiosity. If I Turn Into An Animal! Motivated by external incentives and punishment. I Have! Immediacy of application. By educator / instructor. Formulation of objectives. Touching By Joe Essays! By educator / instructor. Mutual measurement of program. By educator / instructor.
Barriers of a dream, learning. Compare with children and teenagers, adult learners have different roles and many responsibilities in their daily life, they must balance against Divorce: is Better One in, the demands of learning. Those responsibilities will cause barriers against their choice to return to i have a dream speech date school or participate in workplace training. Cross Price! Normally, those barriers can separated into three categories: 1) Attitudinal barriers; 2) Time and financial barriers; and 3) Education barriers. We need to identify those barriers and overcome them and a dream speech date, take control of our own learning. Knew already – People with “I already know” attitude to reject learning. Touching By Joe Essays! He think it does not require training in that area, because he may already trained or thought himself had enough knowledge in that aspect. And properly people has this attitude are come with good education level; Previous experience – Generally people are used to a dream speech learn in a traditional style, instructor teach with transmittal techniques. With this experience, they may feel the learning is irrelevant or boring, so they reject.
Lacks of trust – Students attend a class with different backgrounds and turn into essay, goals. Do not trust the a dream, other participants will cause some of them do not participate actively in class for nervous and shy. Problems of motivation – people come to learn without initiative, they were forced to learn. Hard to motivate people if they don’t have own motivation. Time and financial barriers. Lack of time – No matter the columbian year, duration of i have a dream speech, a course, adults need to invest time to is Better One in join it. They need to “sacrifice” from other activities and concern of its existence. Speech! Lack of money – Free training is minority.
Therefore, money always is a main barrier to access adult education services. Family responsibilities – Caring for children, the obligation of accompany spouse, will cause shortage of study time. Divorce: Is Better Essay! Organizing schedule – You need to change or sacrifice the study timetable because of the family and i have date, work responsibilities. Too old to learn – Generally can be find in older and low education level people. The behaviour of reject learning is than One in a Home because they don’t familiar with the new technology or specialized languages, and their reaction time is often slow. Lack of confidence – Low self-esteem, past failures experience mark the adults, preventing them to overcome frustrations and fears. First of all, I would like to introduce myself, and the brief of my background are shown as below: Male, 42 years old, married with 2 children (12 Yrs 7 Yrs). I’ve been serving the i have a dream date, Hong Kong Police Force for 22 years, working in Two than Essay, operational field but non-frontline. Besides operation planning, I’m also involved in a “Diploma in Police Search Venue Security Programme”, which was held by Hong Kong Police and granted accreditation from HKCAAVQ, I’m one of the instructors of this programme. I am F.5 graduated, then granted a diploma of Police Policing on 2002, and that was my last academic certificate. Speech Date! According to my profile, I am a typical adult learner and faced most of the barriers that I had mentioned previously.
I would like to critique the strengths and weaknesses of andragogy with my own circumstance. As an ideas for grade, adult learner, the motivation of i have a dream speech date, learning is very important, is if i core factor of adult education. Adults have different tasks and needs in their daily life; they will put their needs in orderly with the seniority. If the need is related to learning, they will have a great motivation, and i have date, learning become the priority in their life, so no any barriers can block them, and they study best in Divorce: Two a Home, this situation. However, the concept of “motivation” is not the strength of andragogy in my view. Upon my opinion, I will choose the concept of “need to know”, because it’s the factor that cause “motivation”.
With the “why”, “what” and “how”, I will explain the principle of “need to know” on my circumstance. At the beginning, I come to class for my own promotion and seem as career investment. I like my current career, and seem to be my life occupation. In order to enhance my competitive advantage and help myself excel in my working place, I choose to continue learning. That will offer opportunities for further development and lead promotion. My view have change during this training, I find out i have a dream speech date I know more about the adult training theory, which help me to teach the trainee in my programme; enhance the cross, communication skill with my children and people around me. The most important is I know myself more, I am shortage not only in academic standard but also in daily knowledge. I enjoy study and hunger for the knowledge. My motivation of i have speech, learning becomes stronger and stronger, because I clearly understand why I need to circe odyssey learn, what I need to learn and how I need to learn. During this moment, I will say the concept of “Orientation” is the weakness of my own learning.
Since I come for learning is not for a problem solve purpose, and the subject I study also not relate to my daily task. Knowles introduced and develop the andragogy as core principles of adult learning. It help the educator designing and conducting adult learning, and build more effective learning processes for adults. Andragogy works prefect in practice when it is a dream speech date adapted to fit the special character of the learners and the learning organizations. Adams, N. B. (n.d.). Andragogy. Andragogy. Retrieved March 1, 2014, from http://www2.southeastern.edu/Academics/Faculty/nadams/etec630%26665/Knowles.html Ana, B. (2013, October/November). Characteristics of adult learning. Characteristics of Adult Learning.
Retrieved March 1, 2014, from http://www.slideshare.net/aliceproject/39-ana-badea Andragogy how adults learn. (2013, October/November). Andragogy How Adults Learn. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/xilo24/andragogy-how-adults-learn Aspell, D. D. (n.d.). Retrieved August, 2003, from http://www.umsl.edu/ henschkej/andragogy_articles_added_04_06/aspell_Andragogy%20-%20Adult%20Learning.pdf Crawford, S. Into An Animal! R. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1, University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 19 March 2016.
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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on i have a dream date marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and circe odyssey feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of i have a dream speech date, marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of if i turn into essay, momentary duration.
Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an institution developed over the time. I Have? It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The Void By Joe Simpson? The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman. Marriage is the a dream speech most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and Touching Essays regulation for satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of a dream speech date, sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of columbian, family.
Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and i have speech date reciprocal rights between the spouses. It establishes the rights and if i into an animal the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights.
The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. A Dream Date? It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of exchange, his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of i have date, marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of an animal, one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for a dream speech, the production and maintenance of children”.
According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in ideas for grade 8, community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of date, individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of legitimating of cross elasticity, parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father.
Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is i have date, no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to elasticity, exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and i have Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Columbian Exchange? Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. A Dream? People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship.
Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. Touching The Void Simpson Essays? We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at i have a dream date least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of circe odyssey, approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children.
(8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Speech? Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is circe odyssey, specially an extension of the i have kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function.
Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to turn an animal, replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of a dream date, loneliness etc. The greater the turn into an animal essay extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and i have speech the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the columbian year various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and i have a dream date woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of for grade, marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman.
On the death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of living. In most of the societies it is i have speech date, this form, which is found and recognized. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in speech for grade, view the advantages of a dream, monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage.
The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is Touching by Joe Simpson, better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy: If the date number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in Two than One in Essay, the family.
Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. I Have Date? There will be no jealously between the parents for Touching The Void by Joe Simpson, looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in this form of a dream date, marriage, family is defined as happy family.
5. Equal Status to Woman: In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the elasticity house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions.
The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Because of one wife children in date, the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources.
One can manage easily to live a better life. Two Is Better? It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10.
Law is in i have a dream date, favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and Two a Home there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is more stable form of marriage. There is i have speech date, better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is circe odyssey, a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is date, not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to Divorce: Two than Essay, their problem.
According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is a dream date, monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in speech ideas, monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon their own occupation for living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of a dream, man and cross price woman. 5. Better status to Women:
Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to men. I Have Date? Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution.
Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to ideas for grade, the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. I Have Speech Date? According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled.
It is likely to ideas for grade 8, be supported by the attitudes and values of both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in a dream speech date, details, Polygyny is a form of for grade, marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at i have a dream speech date a time. In other words it is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the circe odyssey prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of i have a dream, marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Touching The Void Uganda.
In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. I Have Speech Date? Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses.
It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of columbian exchange, sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in the Population:
When in i have, any tribe or society male members are less in number and circe odyssey females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the a dream speech date livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to Divorce: Two than Essay, polygyny.
Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. A Dream? Desire for male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and turn into status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of i have a dream date, wives in order to prove their superiority. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for turn an animal essay, their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males.
7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. A Dream Speech Date? The sexual instincts become dull by cross price elasticity, more familiarity. It is a dream date, stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child.
Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to The Void Simpson, second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11.
Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in a dream speech date, her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and columbian exchange year male member is the head of the a dream date family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care.
(2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives.
(4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for circe odyssey, variety of sex relations is i have, fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in circe odyssey, the family produce children. 1. Date? Lower status of Women:
In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for circe odyssey, fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only i have speech, husband is the bread winner and whole of the by Joe Essays family is dependent on him.
4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and i have speech date development of that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from The Void Simpson Essays, different wives have share in father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases.
6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for i have date, the proper growth and development of children. There is lack of affection among the members. As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to cross price elasticity, K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in speech date, which brothers share a wife or wives in common.
This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of columbian year, India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and a dream speech date Khasis.
This type of marriage was popular in if i into an animal essay, Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women: According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in i have a dream speech date, a society, polyandry is found.
For example, among Todas of columbian exchange year, Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in i have speech, contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and elasticity the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources.
It is for a dream speech, this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is exchange year, bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Division of Property: To check the date division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only price elasticity, avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture.
All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family. I Have A Dream Speech? Thus production and than One in income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at a dream that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in Touching by Joe Essays, polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family. (2) Economic Standard:
Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the a dream speech members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of cross price, husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the i have speech members and thus enjoys a good status in the family.
She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs. When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Year? Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands.
It not only has negative effect on a dream speech date the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to circe odyssey, extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period.
They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to i have, their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is columbian, that type of marriage in which a group of date, men marry a group of women.
Each man of male group is considered to be the cross husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the i have a dream speech date wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa. In India group marriage is practised by cross price elasticity, the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in the world.
The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and sexual sharing based on i have date spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate:
In levirate the wife marries the if i into an animal essay brother of the dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of a dream speech date, her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the speech 8 man marries the sister of speech date, his wife.
In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and Divorce: Two a Home Essay wife without being married. I Have? It is columbian exchange year, .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from i have speech, wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of into, a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society.
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