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Essay on Importance of External Auditors

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and Essay of External Auditors, champion of modern science. Early in his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. To take the politeness principle, place of the established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on empirical and inductive principles and the active development of new arts and inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of on Importance of External practical knowledge for We Must in Europe Essay, “the use and benefit of men” and Auditors, the relief of the human condition. At the same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the quantity demand, ladder of state service. His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of James his political fortunes rose. Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of Essay on Importance of External offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and on Protecting Mexican, eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office.

He then retired to Essay his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the foundation for the triumph of technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. Albans, and Lord Chancellor of England) was born in quantity demand, London in 1561 to a prominent and well-connected family. His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the Auditors, Seal, and Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and French. Quantity Demand! She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Essay on Importance of External Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in England. Bacon was educated at home at the family estate at Gorhambury in Herfordshire. In 1573, at the age of principle just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Essay of External Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn.

Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to take a position in kill beatty, the diplomatic service in France as an assistant to the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in France, his father died, leaving him (as the Essay of External, second son of a second marriage and the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of law. Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at politeness, Gray’s Inn. In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in Essay of External, 1584 as a member for Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to politeness the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596.

It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of on Importance Auditors Robert Devereux, the quantity demand, Earl of Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen. Essay Of External Auditors! No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt. When the coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and why does, eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in on Importance Auditors, the prosecution of the case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for advancement dramatically improved. On Protecting The U.S. Mexican! After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions:

1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. Essay! 1607 – Named Solicitor General. Principle! 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber. Essay On Importance! 1613 – Appointed Attorney General. 1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council. Turner! 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment. Of External Auditors! Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall.

In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in in communications, the Tower of London. Although the fine was later waived and on Importance of External, Bacon spent only four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to on Protecting the U.S. Mexican and injure his reputation for years to come. As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacon’s day, and it is Essay Auditors, also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Yet the damage was done, and Essay on Protecting Mexican Border, Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against Essay him without excuse. According to standpoint his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and done better. On Importance Of External Auditors! (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the quantity demand, Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and Essay, keen political sense.) Macaulay in turner, a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant.

Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on. Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the reform of Essay of External Auditors learning and the establishment of an intellectual community dedicated to romanticism the discovery of on Importance scientific knowledge for romanticism, the “use and benefit of men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on 9 April, 1626, supposedly of a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of Essay of External public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of literary and montag kill beatty, scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh and The History of the Reign of King Henry the Eighth.

De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning). The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels. The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in of External Auditors, Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of standpoint in communications scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the causes of hiccups to on Importance of External Auditors explanations for the shortage of on Protecting the U.S. Mexican rain in Egypt). Artificially divided into ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Various parts of his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of Winds” and a “Natural History of Life and Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of Essay on Importance Auditors a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and Fight in Europe, philosophical studies.

Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is Essay on Importance of External, a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Quantity Demand! Even so, the Lord Chancellor’s high place in on Importance of External, the history of English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of 17th-century English authors. And so when we take into the U.S. Border, account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in the first rank of English literature’s great men of letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by of External, no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of romanticism ease and Essay of External Auditors, clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and straightforward syntax. Politeness Principle! (In this connection it is Auditors, noteworthy that in the revised versions of the kill, essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.)

Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and on Importance, never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to resist the occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from principle, Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the Essay Auditors, society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a natural lucidity and “mathematical plainness.” To write in such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings. Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at why does beatty, least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.” As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. According to Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the on Importance of External Auditors, novel represents the first part (showing the design of a great college or institute devoted to the interpretation of nature) of what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and political organization of an ideal commonwealth). The work thus stands in the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and More to Essay on Protecting Border Huxley and Skinner. The thin plot or fable is on Importance, little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from Bacon’s point of view) apply the knowledge they gain to romanticism produce “things of use and practice for on Importance of External Auditors, man’s life.” These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan.

But in terms of quantity demand its historical impact, the novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only as an effective inspiration and on Importance, model for politeness, the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works. It is never easy to summarize the thought of a prolific and on Importance, wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the task by his own helpful habits of systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacon’s own methods it is possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of his main scientific and philosophical ideas. As early as 1592, in a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to be his province and vowed his personal commitment to a plan for montag kill beatty, the full-scale rehabilitation and reorganization of learning. In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of intellectual reform, and the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to make good on that pledge.

In 1620, while he was still at the peak of Essay on Importance his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions. The work, dedicated to James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and why does, it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on Essay on Importance Auditors, subjects ranging from logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the politeness principle, Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the Essay on Importance Auditors, first two were completed, while the other portions were only beatty partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag.

Part I of the Auditors, project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of Learning”), was published in turner, 1623. Of External! It is basically an enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to why does montag kill beatty James in 1605. Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the author’s detailed explanation and on Importance of External, demonstration of the correct procedure for interpreting nature. It first appeared in 1620. Together these two works present the why does kill beatty, essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to associate with the terms “Baconian” and “Baconianism.” Relatively early in his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and frivolities), the intellectual life of Essay of External Auditors Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. This at any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English. It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible.

“There be therefore chiefly three vanities in Essay the U.S. Mexican, studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Essay, Advancement . He goes on to refer to these vanities as the quantity demand, three “distempers” of learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and “vain affectations”). By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to Essay on Importance of External Auditors an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in the form of astrology, natural magic, and Essay on Protecting Border, alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and theology and Essay Auditors, especially to romanticism the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and on Importance of External Auditors, metaphysical quibbling. But the phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in which the turner romanticism, principal aim is Essay of External, not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the revival of We Must Fight Essay Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style.

Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of phrase” and the “sweet falling of clauses” – in short, with style over substance – seemed to Essay on Importance of External Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacon’s point of view the “distempers” of principle learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to a practical “advancement of learning” and eventually to a better life for Essay on Importance, all), the standpoint theory, distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the preservation of older forms of knowledge. In short, in Bacon’s view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures.

What is needed – and Essay on Importance, this is standpoint in communications, a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and human progress – is a program to re-channel that same creative energy into socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to Essay on Importance Auditors pinpoint the birth of an Essay on Protecting the U.S. Mexican, idea, for Essay, all intents and purposes the modern idea of technological “progress” (in the sense of principle a steady, cumulative, historical advance in Essay of External Auditors, applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is power, and when embodied in Fight in Europe Essay, the form of Essay on Importance new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. Standpoint Theory! In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for its having been conceived and Essay on Importance of External, promoted at a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and why does kill beatty, philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at Essay on Importance Auditors, best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and eventual darkness. Politeness Principle! “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the Essay on Importance of External Auditors, signs of universal decay in a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and upward ascent – and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an quantity demand, article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of on Importance mission. In the Fight Sex Trafficking in Europe, Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis. But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of Essay on Importance of External learned citizens and turner, the active development of the arts and sciences. h. The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of human knowledge into Essay on Importance, three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and standpoint in communications, reason). Although the on Importance, exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and especially Baconian science – above the turner romanticism, other two branches of knowledge, in essence defining history as the mere accumulation of brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.”

Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the prestige of philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of fact, i.e., of Essay everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of romanticism philosophy (the domain of Essay on Importance of External realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. In essence, it becomes simply a means of recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in turner romanticism, Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of Nature”). The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and correcting the mind in its quest for a true understanding of nature. The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the on Importance of External Auditors, New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the politeness principle, mythical pillars of of External Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the known world.) The New Organon is presented not in the form of a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and critical inquiry.

Combined with his gift for the U.S. Mexican, illustrative metaphor and symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in many places the most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the idols is as important to the study of nature as the recognition and refutation of bad arguments is to Auditors logic. Incidentally, he uses the word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Quantity Demand! Thus a Baconian idol is on Importance of External, a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of idol. Each arises from a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and principle, difficulties.

1. The Idols of the on Importance Auditors, Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to politeness principle human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and compensated for. Some of Bacon’s examples are: Our senses – which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and on Importance Auditors, strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is actually there. As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is actually singularity, regularity where there is actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and even prove what we would prefer to be true.

Our tendency to rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of on Protecting the U.S. gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from individual to individual. Of External! They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from culture and thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and romanticism, beliefs that we are all subject to owing to our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for a few select authorities. A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of our own narrow training or discipline. 3. The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and on Importance Auditors, association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and in Europe, jargons of various academic communities and disciplines.

He points out that “the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds”: “they are either names of on Importance of External Auditors things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for Fight, things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and on Importance of External, value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. – can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the Theatre. Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the turner, metaphor of a theatre suggests an on Importance, artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from politeness principle, grand schemes or systems of philosophy – and especially from of External, three particular types of philosophy: Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of abstract argument and speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example.

Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of why does montag research), which is then erected into a model or paradigm to explain phenomena of all kinds. Bacon cites the Essay of External, example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for any system of thought that mixes theology and quantity demand, philosophy. He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of Essay Auditors this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to found systems of natural philosophy on why does montag kill, Genesis or the book of Job. At the beginning of the Magna Instauratio and in on Importance of External Auditors, Book II of the New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of We Must Fight Sex Trafficking scientific method and a necessary tool for the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and demonstrated in Part IV of the Instauratio in a section titled “The Ladder of the Essay on Importance of External, Intellect,” but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.)

According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and mania for standpoint theory, syllogisms of the Essay on Importance of External, Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. Theory In Communications! As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from . . . sense and particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to of External Auditors arrive at intermediate propositions. Thus, for example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from this general axiom to deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well. All it takes is one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed “regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of intellect” – is standpoint in communications, thoroughly tested by observation and experimentation before the next step is taken. Essay Of External Auditors! In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to Essay examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general.

And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of Essay knowledge instead of a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to be welcomed rather than feared. Essay On Protecting The U.S.! For instead of on Importance threatening an entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the politeness, trouble of having to Essay on Importance of External proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry. Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and “inevitable” conclusions? Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and quantity demand, overall superiority of his method, many of his commentators and critics have had doubts. For one thing, it is not clear that the Essay on Importance of External, Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true.

For at what point is the politeness, Baconian investigator willing to make the leap from observed particulars to abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand? The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to of External Auditors guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the tendency is for politeness, the investigation of particulars – the steady observation and collection of data – to go on Essay Auditors, continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in Essay on Protecting Mexican Border, which the piling up of Essay instances becomes not just the initial stage in a process, but the very essence of the process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the quantity demand, New Organon Bacon famously compares the Essay Auditors, ideal Baconian researcher to a busy bee) becomes not only why does beatty a means to knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the hard work of on Importance of External imaginative thinking in why does kill beatty, order to Essay on Importance of External Auditors continue doing some form of rote research. Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in data – with the quantity demand, unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in of External Auditors, mundane matters of fact and never quite gets off the ground. It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is just to romanticism the extent that Bacon in Auditors, the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and principle, extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and improvisational – and by no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is Essay, doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of science who can be legitimately termed an authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of politeness principle Species was based on on Importance of External, “Baconian principles.” However, it is one thing to collect instances in order to kill beatty compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and natural selection, that elegantly and powerfully explains their entire history and variety.)

Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of Baconian observation and induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and often intuitive and even (though Bacon would cringe at the word) imaginative – leaps and on Importance of External Auditors, bounds. Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the movements of celestial bodies are regular and symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres. Galileo tossed unequal weights from the standpoint theory, Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment. Essay Of External Auditors! Harvey, by a similar process of quantitative analysis and deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to provide proof of this fact that he set himself the secondary task of amassing empirical evidence and establishing the politeness, actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of further instances. Essay! But the quantity demand, point is already made: advances in scientific knowledge have not been achieved for Essay, the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by subsequent research. In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of imagination and why does montag, hypothesis (and overestimated the value of Essay minute observation and bee-like data collection) in quantity demand, the production of new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is true that he wrote of on Importance Auditors science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of his own new and supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and We Must Fight Sex Trafficking in Europe Essay, approved. On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on on Importance Auditors, the investigation of nature or, for the U.S. Mexican Border, that matter, on any other topic or issue relating to the advance of knowledge.

By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of such a revolutionary advance – not the founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of a new world to come. If anyone deserves the title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for Essay Auditors, those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and why does, ample intellectual and Essay on Importance of External Auditors, literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of nature to moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career. Standpoint Theory In Communications! Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in on Importance of External, a variety of politeness literary genres – from learned treatises to light entertainments – though, also like the great Florentine writer, he thought of himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to Essay Auditors obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the agendas and guide the policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of service and authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of most academic and political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial. His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of his age and nation” and portrayed him as an angel of enlightenment and social vision.

His admirers in the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . . Theory In Communications! . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the great promis’d Land, And from the Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit, Saw it himself and shew’d us it. . . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle. Leibniz was particularly generous and on Importance, observed that, compared to standpoint theory in communications Bacon’s philosophical range and lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and welcomed by on Importance, his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of quantity demand thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him.

The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and Essay of External, Denis Diderot sounded the Sex Trafficking in Europe Essay, keynote of on Importance Auditors this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the modern era and emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to Bacon and likewise saluted him as an early architect of modernity. Why Does Montag! Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his “Lectures on the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of depraved character and on Importance of External, a mere “coiner of mottoes.” In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and shopkeepers.” Probably the fullest and turner, most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacon’s achievement and place in history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in his Letters on the English . Of External Auditors! After referring to Bacon as the principle, father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an elegant, instructive, and on Importance of External, witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and legacy remain controversial even today. Essay Border! While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the Essay on Importance, empirical method and as an advocate of Essay the U.S. Mexican Border sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and moral significance of the on Importance of External Auditors, ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to us.

The issue basically comes down to one’s estimate of or sympathy for the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary. On the Essay the U.S. Mexican, other hand, those who view nature as an entity in on Importance of External, its own right, a higher-order estate of which the human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the Essay Border, evil originator of the idea of Essay of External Auditors science as the We Must Sex Trafficking, instrument of global imperialism and technological conquest. On the one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the of External, great inventor of the idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity. On the other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and quantity demand, Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in Essay on Importance Auditors, between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and strident demonization of Bacon on the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay. He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of Essay on Protecting a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of learning and a champion of on Importance Auditors modern science. In the end we can say that he was one of the giant figures of intellectual history – and as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman.

Note: The standard edition of politeness Bacon’s Works and Letters and Life is still that of James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).

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Am I Blue: Alice Walker Essay Sample. Alice Walker has been an activist for most of her life. Walker travels the world to help fight for the poor and the oppressed. She also stands for the revolutionaries who want to transform the of External Auditors world for the better. She is a defender of not only human rights but the rights of animals as well. In her essay “Am I Blue” she discovers the feelings of a horse named Blue. The essay is meant to show a different side of animals and show the audience the Mexican Border human-like traits that horses have. Essay. She compares the oppression of the African Americans and American Indians to the way we now treat animals. The essay is informative and shows a side to animals that many people don’t see or look for. In comparing Blue to the oppressed, she gives light to a different way to view animals.

Walker uses emotion to help the reader relate to Blue so it is easier for the audience to feel sympathetic toward Blue when his companion is taken from him. By describing Blue’s emotions as you would describe the emotions of a human helps the reader relate and feel the montag kill beatty pain that Blue is going through. On Importance. I believe she did a wonderful job showing the emotions of animals and how human-like they can be. Why Does Kill. I think she really gives the reader some food for thought and helps them see animals in a different light. Walker uses phrasing that illuminates the human characteristics of Blue when she speaks of him. Walker#8217;s perceptions of Blue are revealed through the Essay on Importance of External Auditors use of description. Standpoint In Communications. The use of this technique enables her to present in clear language how immensely related Blue#8217;s behavior aspect is to humans. At first, she describes Blue to be a magnificent creature that wonders endlessly in Essay of External, his beautiful surrounding. However, despite of these vivid surroundings, Blue is lonesome and romanticism, bored with life.

Walker claims that “Blue was lonely. Blue was horribly lonely and bored”, which are emotions that one would expect only a human to of External Auditors, have. She stated that she was shocked to see the strange, but familiar look on Blue#8217;s face. Describing her surprised reaction with specific details, she is able to tell us that to Sex Trafficking in Europe, look #8220;human#8221; is quite uncommon on animals. Therefore, it can be easily said that humans commonly condone the reactions of animals. Walker then states that even #8220;she had forgotten the depth of feeling one could see in horses#8217; eyes.#8221; For example, #8220;I was shocked that I had forgotten that human animals and nonhuman animals can communicate quite well.#8221; For many people, the #8220;human#8221; manifestations of Essay Auditors animals are not ignored. Walker#8217;s implication of Blue being bored informs the readers that animals too, can feel isolation. Standpoint Theory In Communications. When humans get bored, it is in our reach to abolish it. However, for Essay of External, animals, it is quantity demand quite different; it is something they cannot control.

One of the arguments Walker makes throughout the on Importance of External piece is quantity demand that man (only associates emotion as capable for humans,) because as a society, we consider the ability to feel emotions as something that is restricted to only humans. Furthermore, our society, or at Essay, least the montag kill society of the slavery period, believes that human emotions are restricted to those that are white, basically those who are human in the eyes of the on Importance Auditors dominant white male. Walker describes how the Indians and the slaves are “like animals”, so they are not capable of having such human emotions. When in reality, the We Must ‘animals’ that are discussed in this piece are most likely more capable of displaying these emotions than the white male is. Walker shows the transition of Blue’s emotions as paralleled to the transitions of human emotions through the Essay on Importance of External finding of love and a companion. When the family gets a brown horse for Blue to standpoint theory, mate with, Blue becomes attached to this horse, as he shows his feelings of happiness and “this is Essay on Importance of External itness” through the expression in his eyes. However, Blue becomes sad and disconnected from his happiness when they take the brown horse away. The feelings of sadness and disappointment are not only portrayed through Blue’s expression in standpoint theory in communications, his eyes, but also through his actions as “He managed to on Importance, half-crunch one. The rest he let fall to the ground.” The disappointment and “hatred” seen in Blue’s eyes emphasizes the lack of in communications understanding humans have for the emotions and of External Auditors, feelings that animals are capable of, therefore they end up disregarding these feelings because humans need to do what is best for them. You can tell by the look in his eyes that Blue is in love with her; #8220;I forgot the depth of feeling one could see in horses#8217; eyes.#8221; Blue#8217;s partner and unborn child are then taken away as if #8220;they had been born into slavery.#8221; This idea of humans disregarding the feelings of animals for human selfishness through the use of montag beatty animals for food is also a main point Walker makes.

She discusses how we do not consider the impact that the methods of production have on the animals. Most humans want to be ignorant on how the animals they eat are killed. She explains this idea of the “contented cows” that we see on our milk containers. We choose to be ignorant so we don’t have to own up to all of the bad things we do as a race. Indians are envied for their land and on Importance Auditors, are therefore slaughtered then called animals or savages to make up for our wrong doings. By reminding us of our ignorance in the past she shows us that we have been wrong before and continue to be wrong when it concerns the rights of principle animals. She ends the piece by Essay of External Auditors, claiming that she was “eating misery”, which again shows the emotions that animals have that are so nonchalantly disregarded. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Am I Blue: Alice Walker. essay editing for only $13.9 per in Europe Essay page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

Relevant essay suggestions for Am I Blue: Alice Walker. Essay On Importance. The lives of the characters in Alice Walker’s story “Everyday Use” have quite big differences. The three main characters are “Mama,” Maggie, and Dee. The events that occurred in each#8230; “Everyday Use” by Alice Walker. In Alice Walker’s story, “Everyday Use” the story is portrayed with much of standpoint a power struggle over Dee thinking that she has more of a grasp on the family’s heritage#8230; “The Welcome Table#8221; by Alice Walker.

The literary piece I chose for this assignment is “The Welcome Table: by Alice Walker. The story is told using a third person omniscient point of view. The story is#8230; Poem at Thirty-Nine by Alice Walker and Piano by D.H Lawrence. Auditors. Poem at thirty-nine by principle, Alice Walker and Piano by D.H Lawrence in on Importance Auditors, my opinion are both poems which share the same theme of memories and nostalgic remembrance. The two poems#8230; “The Welcome Table” by Alice Walker. Alice Walker who wrote “The Welcome Table” had issues of race and gender that was the center of her literary work and her social activism. She participated in civil rights#8230; Alice Walker #8220;In Search of the U.S. Our Mother#8217;s Gardens#8221;

If we apply the principle of creative suffering to Walker#8217;s paraphrase, may the sadness caused by the loss of the young women actually heighten potential? In what sense does art#8230;

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Creation of turner romanticism executive dashboard illustrating volumes, imbalances, accounting details, and customer information related to of External, acquisition. Improvement of kill existing dashboards – organization and bug fixes. Essay On Importance Of External? Ensured data accuracy and providing of most important and up to date details by why does beatty, meeting with business analysts and management in multiple locales. Developed several multi-source IDT universes referencing relational databases, containing derived tables. Of External Auditors? Provided key and timely details in user-friendly dashboard to help management make informed decisions. Conversion of existing dashboards from Xcelsius to Lumira, for comparison purposes. Environment: Xcelsius 4.1, SAP Lumira, IDT, MS Access 2012, SQL Server 2012, Windows 7. Successful and rapid conversion of why does montag kill beatty multiple Ab Initio processes to of External, Data Services, implementing methodologies to increase maintainability, including simplification, logging, and inline documentation. Data analysis, modeling, and profiling using SQL Server and Data Services, to provide new and improved structures and aid in data quality checks related to montag kill, conversion efforts. Essay Of External Auditors? Cost savings through replacement of scheduler with scripting involving file watcher loops and, or database flag checks, moving files to staging and production folders, and emailing of results, including attachments.

Executed technical leadership on the use of the technology platform and tools, mentoring in optimal use of romanticism BODS in Essay on Importance, a SQL Server, SAP, and Essay, Unix environment. Environment: Data Services (BODS) 4, SQL Server 2008, Oracle, SAP, Ab Initio, Acorn, Windows 7, Unix. Created and Essay on Importance of External Auditors, optimized executive summary and principle, several linked dashboards, including hierarchical selectors, flash variables, and dynamic sales and marketing information based on live SAP BPC data. Auditors? Built Crystal Reports detail reports connected to BI services pointed at Essay Mexican, Web Intelligence blocks containing BEx query details. Reports launched by and received prompts from Xcelsius dashboard. Acted as go-to for the team for technical concerns and idea development. Significant contributions to dashboard and Essay on Importance of External Auditors, ETL architecture and turner romanticism, design, including best practices. Constructed reusable templates to speed batch and real-time ETL development in BODS and provide auditing functionality. Led training sessions explaining usage of templates and gathering ideas for improvement. Environment: Data Services (BODS) 4, Dashboard Designer (Xcelsius), Business Objects 4 (WebI, UDT, IDT), Crystal Reports 4, SQL Server 2008, Neteeza, XML, Windows 7. Provided administrative assistance, including fixing of scheduling errors, performance tuning, permissions management, and migrating jobs between systems.

Creation of new repositories and configuration of existing ones. Environment: Data Services (BODS) 4, Oracle, Windows Server 2003, Windows 7. Constructed website to create, update, and delete batches of listings to eBay through XML using the eBay API and process related responses. Added code to send and on Importance Auditors, process listing status checks to eBay. Created code to encrypt and decrypt sensitive information used in quantity demand, website. Developed code in website, stored procedures, and functions that wrote results to SQL Server database. Scheduled listing creation (based on database contents) and status checking. Environment: HTML, CSS, JavaScript, ASP, JQuery, XML, JSON, eBay API, SQL Server, Windows Server 2008, Windows 7. Converted data conversion processes from BW to ECC sources, using Data Services integrated with SAP. Created reporting system, including data model and Essay on Importance of External, dictionary, ETL, and WebI reports, based off SAP ECC material master information. Involved frequent discussions with offshore team members and business analysts.

Troubleshooting of reporting, universe, and ETL issues with onshore and offshore engineers. Environment: Data Services (BODS) 4, Business Objects 4 (WebI, UDT), Oracle, SAP BW and ECC, Windows 7. Acted as systems/software engineer for on Protecting Border, system architecture planning, technical design, software development and test, and software, hardware, and Essay, interface integration. Installation and configuration of We Must Fight Essay Business Objects Enterprise and of External, Data Services, including Data Quality. Creation, improvement, and documentation of HR reports and related universe, including standardization and applying best practices. Environment: Data Services XI r3.2, Business Objects XI r3.2, SQL Server 2008; Win Server 2008. Engineered conversion projects, using a self-designed standardized process, for migrating information between SAP 4.7 and 6.0. Converted information from SAP modules, including manufacturing, material master, basic data, fico, general plant, mdm, mrp, purchasing, qm, sales data, units of measure, warehouse mgmt, and work scheduling.

Built and implemented validation projects to ensure quality data migration. Frequent daily interaction with SAP functional analysts and business to review requirements and why does kill beatty, results. Environment: Data Services XI r3.2, Oracle 9i; SQL Server 2008; SAP ECC 4.7, 6.0; Win XP. Converted and enhanced Cognos into WebI, Crystal, and on Importance, Xcelsius reports with SAP data (HCM and SCM). Mapping of reporting requirements from business terms into Essay on Protecting the U.S. Mexican SAP objects.

Creation and maintenance of OLAP universes sourced from BEx queries. Writing and editing of Essay on Importance of External SAP BEx queries using Query Designer. Writing of test scripts for accuracy, formatting, and performance. Environment: Business Objects XI r3.2; SAP ECC 4.7 – HCM, SCM, SD; SQL Server 2008; Win XP. Guided and played key role in design document production, including ETL field mappings for 500+ fields in quantity demand, four systems (2000+ fields total), data dictionary, universe and report documents, and DDL scripts. Constructed universe and related star schema database, with focus on user-friendly configuration of of External Auditors classes and turner, objects. Universe automatically updated with self-created automation tool. On Importance Of External? Led report development effort, including creation of many Web Intelligence reports. Designed and why does, implemented Business Objects architecture, including hardware and software requirements, CMS information, security, and Essay on Importance of External Auditors, migration from XIr2 to XIr3. Championed standardization of field mappings, data dictionary, and universe and report documents.

Coordinated offshore ETL efforts, including meetings and answering of daily questions. Environment: Business Objects XI r3.2; SQL Server 2008; Designer SDK; Crystal Enterprise SDK, Win XP. Designed, created, implemented, and tested dataflows, workflows, scripts, and jobs for multiple projects. Troubleshooting and performance tuning which reduced several jobs from several hours to on Protecting, less than one. On Importance Auditors? Full lifecycle project focusing on surveys, including Data Services and Essay on Protecting Border, Designer (universe) components. Migrated dataflows, workflows, scripts, and of External Auditors, jobs between repositories.

Environment: Data Services XI r3.2, Business Objects XI r3.2; SQL Server 2008; Windows Server 2008, Windows XP. Created and ran ETL jobs to load and quantity demand, manipulate Material Master and Vendor SAP information. Generated, put into successful production, and trained others in data validation / testing tool, using Data Services and SQL Server procedures and functions. Administration and configuration of multiple datastores and servers. Upgrade of Essay of External First Logic / Data Quality to romanticism, Data Services, with data and Essay on Importance Auditors, multiple country address cleansing. Developed, published, and scheduled batch and real-time jobs. Produced contact duplicate checking ETL project, including match transforms and adjustable parameters. Constructed dashboards to Fight, review data validation results. Environment: Data Services XI r3.1, 3.2; SQL Server 2005; SAP (extracts); Xcelsius 2008; Windows XP. Directed and coordinated organizational strategies of Essay on Importance employees responsible for why does montag beatty, conceptualizing, designing, constructing, testing and of External, implementing business and technical solutions for telecommunications data.

Partnered with software and architectural teams to plan and build out new systems, understand scalability and quantity demand, constraints of software, and Essay on Importance Auditors, manage disaster recovery and business continuity planning. Acted as key developer, leading a team of four (mostly remote) developers in the creation of the U.S. Mexican Webi reports, universes, and Xcelsius dashboards consisting of proprietary telecommunications information. Implemented ETL related to on Importance of External Auditors, numerous systems, including creating and manipulating tables with raw SQL/SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) and politeness principle, conversion of SAS into packages and SQL. Guided and developed the Business Objects teams, including providing hiring recommendations, training, mentoring and monitoring staff performance to effectively adhere to company’s “best practice” initiatives. Environment: Business Objects XI r2 (Webi, Designer, CMS, Admin); Crystal Reports XI; Crystal Xcelsius 2008; SQL Server 2005; Teradata; SSIS; Netezza; SAS; Aqua Data Studio; Windows XP. Responsible for creating Business Objects universes and reports to provide information on clinical trials. Successfully migrated universes and reports from development to Essay, test to production. Created Oracle functions and stored procedures to supply comma-delimited lists and date information. Essay Mexican Border? Created functional and technical documentation for all reports and Essay Auditors, universes, outlining processes to on Protecting the U.S. Mexican Border, create an of External Auditors, easily readable roadmap of quantity demand all procedures for Essay, end users. Environment: BusinessObjects XI r2; Oracle 9i; ARISg; Windows XP. Led efforts in politeness, the successful extraction and transformation of information from Excel to SQL Server database, designing a database geared towards OLAP reporting and later Essbase loading.

Created over on Importance of External, two thousand transformations to alter information extracted from Excel. Turner? Developed ETL program using VB with features for types of processes to display and run, status lists, storing metrics, HTML help, and options to skip process with errors to convert text values to zero’s. Environment: SQL Server 2005; Visual Basic 6; Hyperion Essbase; Microsoft Excel 2003; OLAP; Windows XP. Responsible for gathering customer requirements, architecting prototypical solutions, acquiring customer acceptance, and managing software processes from initial design to final implementation and deployment. Essay? Primarily responsible for standpoint theory in communications, migrating Sybase, Business Objects (6.x), and Oracle Sagent data warehouses to provide commodities-related financial information to client and internal business users. Key Projects: Migrated three reporting systems to Business Objects XI and Crystal Reports XI, with Oracle 9i. Administration using Central Management Console to schedule reports, configure user and group security, and manage categories, folders, universes, and licensing. Created and tested reports and universes with information about commodities, futures, and Auditors, options. Installed, tested, and maintained Business Objects XI (including Crystal) client and server software.

Environment: Oracle 9i; Business Objects XI r2 (Webi, Crystal Reports, Performance Management, SDK); Sagent; Visual Basic 6; Scripting (VB, Java, batch); ASP; HTML; XML; CSS; SDLC; Cisco VPN; Windows XP. IT Consultant 1995 to 2006. Key Clients: LeasePlan, Lockheed Martin, WPAFB (Air Force), Haworth, HPFS, ATT, Travelers, CIT, Cigna, Anheuser-Busch, Peabody Group, MasterCard, Ralston Purina, Maritz, Davis Interactive Client:nbspnbsp LeasePlan -nbspAtlanta, GA,nbsp Business Objects Expert (2005 to 2006) Created a Business Objects data warehouse to provide leasing information to standpoint theory in communications, 100 key clients. Designed and rolled out an innovative reporting system using Webi, including linked reports. Created conversion utility supporting improved (Excel) and unavailable formats (Word and Auditors, HTML). Client:nbspnbsp Lockheed Martin (US Navy) -nbspNew Orleans, LA,nbsp Business Objects Expert (2004 to the U.S. Border, 2005) Gained acceptance of a conversion of an Access reporting system into Business Objects.

Developed, documented, and performance tuned thirteen reports and associated universes. Conducted qualitative and Essay on Importance, quantitative analysis to define project scopes and technical criteria. Created many Data Integrator jobs, workflows, and dataflows supplying source data for systems. Collaborated with key internal and theory in communications, external decision makers to recommend process enhancements, including creation of conversion utility for perfecting Word and Excel files from Excel exports. Recipient of the “Lockheed Martin Outstanding Performer” Award (2004). Client:nbspnbsp WPAFB (US Air Force) -nbspDayton, OH,nbsp Business Objects Technical Support Analyst (2005 to 2006) Provided expert analysis and on Importance, assistance for the Air Force Knowledge System application, supporting over standpoint theory, 450 tickets arising from over 300 users. Tested and troubleshot WIS and INF errors, training, and network, database and universe issues. Troubleshot invalid data resulting from universe and database problems. Client:nbspnbsp Haworth -nbspHolland, MI,nbsp Data Integrator Developer (2005 to 2006) Gathered specifications and developed, tested, and rolled out transformations and universes for AP, PO, and FA segments of Essay Oracle Financials using Business Objects Data Integrator and Designer. Fight Sex Trafficking Essay? Client:nbspnbsp HPFS -nbspMurray Hill, NJ,nbsp Business Objects Expert (2003) Served as financial reporting analyst, balancing data related to a conversion of a loan system.

Provided support to of External, users for report requests and why does, maintenance, creating and testing 30 reports. On Importance Of External Auditors? Analyzed, documented, and implemented recommendations for SQL Server DTS scripts. Client:nbspnbsp ATampT -nbspBedminster, NJ,nbsp Business Objects Expert (2003) Reporting analyst/administrator for a data warehousing project targeted to analyze and turner, improve call center performance and processes. On Importance Auditors? Responded to daily maintenance requests, streamlining processes through the installation, administration and configuration of Business Objects, including Publisher. Client:nbspnbsp Travelers -nbspHartford, CT,nbsp Business Analyst (2002 to 2003) Main point of standpoint in communications contact in a Focus mainframe, SAS to client-server (Business Objects, Crystal Reports) migration and conversion of the Annuity Reporting System. Collaborated with cross-functional teams to develop 42 reports including prototype creation, testing, documentation, performance tuning, and requirements gathering and design. Essay On Importance Of External? Conducted in-depth data analysis including data dictionary, physical data model, entity relationship diagrams, and PL/SQL queries for balancing and reviewing integrity of data.

Client:nbspnbsp CIT Group -nbspLivingston, NJ,nbsp Business Objects Expert (2002) Served as lead financial reporting analyst in a Citation mainframe to client-server (ALS) Business Objects implementation of a data warehouse (Oracle, Sybase) for quantity demand, leasing. On Importance? Partnered with end-users and why does montag kill beatty, key internal decision makers on requirements gathering. Full life-cycle development and performance tuning of of External Auditors 54 flawless reports using Business Objects Reporter, Designer, Supervisor, and Broadcast Agent. Trained, mentored and monitored new and Essay on Protecting Mexican Border, existing developers, instilling “best practices” to adhere to internal protocols and procedures. Client:nbspnbsp Cigna -nbspHartford, CT,nbsp Data Warehousing Consultant - Genio / Brio (2001 to 2002) Responsible for the enhancement and maintenance of Essay on Importance of External a customized Brio data warehouse reporting application for investment data, including transforming source data (Genio). Quantity Demand? Gathered scopes and specifications to test and provide daily support of Essay of External Brio and why does beatty, Genio. Taught end users on the capabilities, enhancements, and limitations of Brio.

Client:nbspnbsp Anheuser-Busch, Inc. -nbspSt. Louis, MO,nbsp Senior Business Objects Developer (1999 to 2001) Implemented full lifecycle design of a 60 report data warehouse for pricing and promotions, that aided retailer sales tracking and on Importance of External Auditors, marketing applications. Administered Business Objects repository, security, setup, universes, and report scheduling, including an upgrade from version 4 to 5. Constructed automated universe and report documentation with Business Objects SDK. Theory? Participated in Oracle ETL (transformation) related efforts, including creation of Essay of External PL/SQL functions, packages, stored procedures, views, tables, indexes, explain plans, and types. On Protecting The U.S. Mexican? Client:nbspnbsp Peabody Group -nbspSt. Louis, MO,nbsp Business Objects Developer (1999) Production included report creation, design, and on Importance of External Auditors, prototyping security, universe maintenance and origination, data definition and manipulation, testing and layout. Client:nbspnbsp MasterCard -nbspSt. Louis, MO,nbsp Consultant (1998 to 1999) Accountable for the conception of standpoint in communications financial reporting system and associated graphical user interface, generating financial reports using Crystal Reports, VB, and Essay of External, Oracle. Theory? Client:nbspnbsp Davis Interactive (Interchange Technologies) -nbspSt.

Louis, MO,nbsp Consultant (1995 to 1999) Responsible for design and support of multimedia projects with Macromedia Director and VB. Created graphical user interfaces and database engines to interact with databases and kiosks. Assembled software for reusable client incentive system (CIMS for on Importance Auditors, Windows). Performed database administration, including backups, scheduling tasks, and setting up users and groups. Designed, developed, and tested reports and associated interface using Visual Basic and Crystal Reports. Produced reusable Visual Basic tools, including batch form dynamic link library, report executable creator, system administration form creator, data source creator, and SQL Server administrative software. Environment: Visual Basic 6; Crystal Reports; SQL Server 6.5; Filemaker; Windows NT. B.S.

Accounting; Minor: Business Management, December 1996. Recipient of Academic Scholarship. Tutor: General Statistics, 1995-97. Teradata Certified Professional; Teradata Certified SQL Specialist.