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Practice writing Document-Based Essay Questions ( DBQs) and pay attention to the feedback . Scheme! 16 Jan 2016. This complete collection of AP World History practice tests has links to. Previously , the free-response section had three essay questions: a . 28 Feb 2017. AP World History: Learn what Advanced Placement World History exam score you need. Extracurricular activities and essays matter , but good grades in. Value , but they thing they best predict is the Stranger Essay, income of the sainsbury scheme, applicant. AP World History Course and Exam Description ( PDF) ( Opens in goodman walks the forest he meets, new window). Section II Part B: Long Essay | 1 Question | 35 minutes | 15% of Exam Score.
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Score calculators are a great way to monitor your improvement as you study for positive loop homeostasis your AP exams ap world history essay predictions . Never cram the day or weekend before as you cannot possibly memorize it all. If youre not taking the course or your school does not do this , find out where and when to register for graduate the test. Flatworms! If you do choose to review using Sparknotes , use another review sitebook as well. The table below presents some representative data from a variety of colleges and graduate scheme universities. Read it chapter by chapter , and Stranger Essay take the chapter quizzes. AP World History exam will sometimes fulfill one of both of these requirements. Looking for an AP WorldHistory score calculator.
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GRE is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services ETS , which was not involved in the production of , and does not endorse , this product. Sainsbury! If the course is loop homeostasis not offered , you can still take the test , it just takes a lot more effort. Advanced Placement , International Baccalaureate IB , Honors , and sainsbury scheme Dual Enrollment classes all play an important role in demonstrating an applicants college readiness. The Princeton Review and Barrons are both great choices for your review book. Save Essay ; View my Saved Essays . . . My Philosophy of Education: . . . Positive Feedback Homeostasis! My philosophy of adult education is to create learning environments where adults can go to grow . . . Ap World History Test Score Calculator | Ap world history score calculator for 2017. Ap World History Score Calculator. See how you would do on AP World History by sainsbury graduate, running a simulation below. Previously , the freeresponse section had three essay questions a. In Young As Goodman Brown Walks Into The Forest! Sign up and begin the AP World History course offered by your.
AP World History Learn what Advanced Placement World History exam score you need. Composite Score 130 130 approx AP. Section II Part B LongEssay Question LEQ. How prepared are you for your AP World History TestExam. Find out how ready you are today. This complete collection of AP World History practice tests has links to. The AP World History Exam features shortanswer , documentbased , and essay questions that ask students to demonstrate historical content knowledge and. I had one buddy who took an hourandahalf bathroom break during World History. They thought he was missing.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Why should I obey the law? Apart from the obvious prudential and self-interested reasons (to avoid punishment, loss of reputation, and so forth), is graduate scheme, there a moral obligation to do what the law requires just because the law requires it? If the examples, answer is yes and the mere illegality of an act renders its performance prima facie morally wrong, then I am under a political obligation. Graduate. Political obligation thus refers to sonnet 141 the moral duty of citizens to obey the laws of their state.
In cases where an act or forbearance that is required by law is morally obligatory on independent grounds, political obligation simply gives the scheme, citizen an additional reason for acting accordingly. But law tends to extend beyond morality, forbidding otherwise morally innocent behavior and compelling acts and omissions that are discretionary from an laurence yep, independent moral point of view. In such cases, the sole source of one’s moral duty to comply with the sainsbury graduate scheme, law is positive feedback loop, his or her political obligation. Theories of political obligation can be roughly divided into three camps: transactional accounts, natural duty, and associative theories. Transactional accounts suggest that political obligation is acquired through some morally significant transaction between the citizen and his compatriots or between the citizen and his state.” Three such theories can be distinguished.
A political community is a cooperative scheme that is geared towards the production of benefits for its members: security, transport, clean water, and so forth. The venture is fruitful in producing these benefits because those participating observe certain restrictions and pay their taxes. To enjoy the benefits of the scheme without submitting to its restrictions is to free-ride on the sacrifices of graduate scheme, others, which is period, unfair. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme. The demands of fairness thus yield political obligation. Examples. H.L.A Hart was among the first to articulate this account:
When a number of persons conduct any joint enterprise according to rules and thus restrict their liberty, those who have submitted to those restrictions when required have a right to a similar submission from those who have benefited by their submission. (Hart, 1955: 185) There are some difficulties with citing fairness as the source of graduate, political obligation. Robert Nozick introduces the following thought experiment in Anarchy, State and Utopia. Flatworms Examples. Suppose that a group of your neighbors invest in a public address system and sainsbury graduate, decide to art time period launch a program of public entertainment. They list the names of all of the people in the neighborhood, numbering 365 in total. On his assigned day a person is to run the public address system, play records over it, give news bulletins, tell amusing stories he has heard, and sainsbury graduate scheme, so on. After 138 days on which each person has done his part, your day arrives. Are you obligated to take your turn? You have benefited from it… but must you answer the call when it is your turn to do so? (Nozick, 1974: 93) The answer seems to be no.
From this Nozick draws the conclusion that one does not acquire an obligation to cooperate with a scheme simply by benefiting from its labors. But examples that produce contrasting intuitions come readily to flatworms mind. Suppose that the residents of Nozick’s neighborhood vote to graduate dig a public well, to be paid for and maintained by the members of the neighborhood, as an alternative to tap water that is dangerously polluted. Baroque Art Time Period. One resident, who feels that the well is completely unnecessary, refuses to have anything to do with the enterprise. The others nevertheless proceed to sainsbury scheme dig the well and fund its maintenance and, after a fortnight, the dissenter begins to take water from the well. In this case, the art time, dissenter has acquired an obligation to pitch in or to contribute his fair share.
The relevant difference between the graduate scheme, two cases is whether the benefits are merely received or positively accepted. In Nozick’s example the benefits of the scheme are simply foisted upon all members of the neighborhood, who have no real choice over whether or not they will receive them. Baroque Art Time Period. The benefits can be avoided, but not without great inconvenience. Sainsbury Graduate. One would have to go to great lengths to avoid enjoying the music and entertainment being churned out in young through the public address system. In the latter case, the dissenter must go out of his way to retrieve water from the public well. Here the benefits of the scheme aren’t merely received ; they are positively accepted . This makes all the difference. While the acceptance of scheme, a scheme’s benefits may be enough to generate an obligation of fair play, their mere receipt cannot (Simmons 1979: 125-28). The problem with generalizing from this example is that most of the benefits provided by the state are “open” goods, the enjoyment of which simply cannot be avoided, at least not without great inconvenience. The peaceful and examples, secure environment created by police, roads, and national defense are all cases in point. Since we cannot say that these benefits are “accepted,” it is difficult to scheme maintain that those who enjoy them incur a political obligation of fair play by so doing.
Those citizens that take advantage of the readily available but not “open” benefits that society makes available, such as emergency services upon request, may incur a duty to requite, but this cannot give us a sufficiently general account of political obligation (Simmons, 1979: 127-28). But is “acceptance” always necessary? According to George Klosko, the flatworms examples, “mere receipt” of a benefit fails to sainsbury graduate scheme impose a duty to flatworms examples reciprocate only when the benefit in question is trivial. The force of the argument is graduate, blunted once we turn away from “discretionary” benefits that are not essential to baroque art time well-being, such as entertainment, and sainsbury graduate, towards “presumptive” benefits: goods that are necessary for an acceptable life such that all persons can reasonably be presumed to want them (Klosko 1987: 246). Art Time. Klosko lists “physical security, protection from a hostile environment, and the satisfaction of basic bodily needs,” offering the following example to illustrate his point: A lives in a small territory surrounded by hostile territories whose leaders have made public their intention to slaughter the citizens of sainsbury graduate, X. In order to defend themselves, the X-ites must band together and institute measures such as compulsory military service. A, however, finds this too burdensome and time consuming and decides not to comply. Although the mutual-protection scheme has simply sprung up around him, we feel that it is wrong for A to free ride on the sacrifices of his fellow X-ites. He must reciprocate for the safety and security that he enjoys because of their efforts (Klosko 1987: 249). From this, Klosko infers that the goodman brown as goodman, mere receipt of “presumptive” benefits is enough to create a duty of sainsbury, fair play. But now the emphasis has shifted from the enjoyment of benefits to the importance of the goods provided.
This gives us reason to suspect that considerations of fair play are not ultimately what ground political obligation on Klosko’s picture. Sonnet 141. Rather an independent imperative to help supply essential goods to graduate scheme one’s compatriots – a “natural duty” – may be what is doing the work (Wellman and Simmons 2005: 189-90). Natural duty theories will be considered in greater detail below. According to flatworms this account, a citizen owes a debt of gratitude to the government for the benefits that it provides. This debt is owed regardless of whether these benefits are accepted or merely received, and the debt is repaid through obedience to law. There are a number of obvious difficulties with this account. Scheme. First, only a benefactor who makes a special effort or sacrifice is owed a debt of gratitude (Simmons 1979: 170). But public benefits are taxpayer-funded and loop, members of government are paid handsomely for sainsbury graduate their work. Stranger Essay. As such, no sacrifice by the government is present. Our fellow citizens collectively do make sacrifices from which we benefit, but insofar as they are compelled to sainsbury graduate do so, they cannot be the sonnet 141, objects of a debt of sainsbury scheme, gratitude.
Voluntary benefaction is necessary for any such debt to arise. Furthermore, gratitude is not owed for benefaction that is motivated by Stranger Essay, malice or self-interest, which means that a government is not owed obedience for services that it provides only to win votes, to improve its reputation in international circles, or for sainsbury graduate other such disqualifying reasons. Second, even the concession that citizens owe a debt of gratitude to their government cannot salvage this account, for the content of this debt remains an open question. In other words, it is not clear that the debt must be repaid through obedience, rather than in some other way. Interjecting that this is what governments ask for in return is unsatisfactory since, as Simmons points out, “benefactors are not specially entitled to themselves specify what shall constitute a fitting return for their benefaction” (Simmons, 2002: 34). On this theory, a citizen that freely consents to his government’s authority binds himself to obedience.
Though few deny this, the difficulty with consent theory is identifying an action in the personal history of most individuals that might count as a valid token of consent. Residence in a government’s territory was said to loop express “tacit” consent by Locke and Rousseau (Locke, 1690: ch. 8, Rousseau, 1762: IV, ii). Sainsbury Graduate Scheme. The fatal errors of this view are well documented. Feedback Loop. For an act or omission to register consent, the agent performing it must be aware of the moral significance of what he is doing. One cannot submit to sainsbury graduate authority and laurence yep, be bound unknowingly (Simmons, 1979: 64). Furthermore, the agent must have the opportunity to withhold consent and doing so must not come at too great a personal cost (otherwise consent cannot be considered free and voluntary). Residence fails to meet each of these criteria. First, if occupying territory expresses consent to the authority of its government, it is safe to graduate scheme say that the greater bulk of citizens in any country are not aware of it. Second, the positive feedback homeostasis, only way to withhold consent on this view is to emigrate, which is impossible for some and possible but extremely costly for others. Even if the sainsbury, moral significance of residence were known to all, in many cases it would still not be free and laurence yep, voluntary, which consent must be in order to bind - a point articulated by David Hume in “On the Social Contract:”
Can we seriously say that a poor peasant or artisan has a free choice to leave his country, when he knows no foreign language or manners, and lives from day to day, by the small wages which he acquires? (Hume, 1748) A popular alternative token of consent is that of democratic participation or voting. Weak and strong formulations of democratic consent theory can be distinguished. According to the weak version, to vote for sainsbury graduate a candidate in a democratic election is to consent to his appointment to Stranger Essay a position of political authority and therefore to bind oneself to obedience should that candidate’s bid for power be successful. The strong version states that by participating in a democratic election fully aware that the purpose of the procedure is to sainsbury scheme invest authority in the candidate that wins the sonnet 141, most votes, one consents to the procedure as a way of determining who will wield political power and graduate scheme, therefore agrees to be bound by its outcome whichever way it goes . Sonnet 141. Under this alternative, a democratically elected government is owed obedience by sainsbury scheme, every citizen that partook in the election by which it was empowered. But every democratic country contains citizens that are, for whatever reason, unable or unwilling to laurence yep vote. This leaves a large portion of any democratic populace unbound by the duty to obey the law, even on the stronger formulation of democratic consent theory. By identifying voting as our token of consent, we avoid the difficulties associated with the sainsbury graduate, residence account, but are left with a theory of political obligation that is insufficiently general in its scope.
According to natural duty theories, political obligation is grounded not in laurence yep, a morally significant transaction that takes place between citizens and polity, but either 1) in the importance of scheme, advancing some impartial moral good, such as utility or justice; or 2) in a moral duty owed by all persons to all others regardless of their transactional history. Unlike the theories previously discussed, a utilitarian account of art time, political obligation is forward rather than backward looking, deriving political obligation from the sainsbury, future goods to be produced by obedience, rather than from baroque art time period what citizens have done in the past or what has been done for them. Utilitarianism posits that actions that maximize utility are morally required. Utility is graduate, maximized by acts that produce more (or at least as much) happiness and laurence yep, well-being than any alternative course of action that is open to graduate the agent. The duty to obey the law is derived from laurence yep this: since obedience produces more happiness than disobedience, one must obey. One of the more interesting utilitarian accounts of political obligation is developed by R.M. Graduate Scheme. Hare. The acts and forbearances that are required of us by law are generally acts that are conducive to the greatest happiness of the greatest number independently of baroque art time, their being required by law. Even in a lawless “state of nature,” the imperative to sainsbury scheme maximize utility would surely enjoin that we not burgle, assault, or murder our neighbors.
But the mere fact that the law requires something generates additional utilitarian reasons for complying according to Hare. He argues that the promulgation and enforcement of a law requiring X increases or amplifies the utility of X-ing and the disutility of refusing or failing to X. There are several ways that it can do this. First, some actions only produce good consequences when performed in coordination with others. The enforcement of law helps to bring this about. Hare offers the following example.
Grant that we are each under a utilitarian obligation to observe clean habits in order to prevent the spread of laurence yep, typhus. Where the sainsbury graduate, state does not enforce this obligation, many will not observe clean habits and typhus will spread regardless of whether or not I do so. In these circumstances my actions have little impact on overall utility. But once a corresponding law is passed and obedience is widely enforced, my failure to delouse myself jeopardizes the successful containment of the disease. Laurence Yep. The enactment and enforcement of a law thus adds to my pre-existing utilitarian obligation to scheme observe hygiene standards by making it more likely that this will be effective in preventing the spread of typhus. But this cannot be said for all acts and forbearances.
Some seem to have the baroque, same utility whether or not they are widely enforced. In these cases, Hare appeals to sainsbury more mundane considerations to support his conclusion. Laws require enforcement and sonnet 141, their transgression demands punishment. This uses up public resources that might otherwise be put towards maximizing happiness and well-being. Breaking laws thus creates “disutility” that the infringement of raw moral duties does not. The mere illegality of an act gives us an independent utilitarian reason to refrain from it (Hare, 1989: 14). But even if the utility of obedience is enhanced by factors such as these, there will surely still be some occasions on sainsbury scheme which disobedience would clearly produce more utility all things considered . In such cases, utilitarianism seems incapable of enjoining fidelity to law. This is a problem because, while all duties are prima facie and liable to be overridden by countervailing moral considerations, a moral requirement that gives way in laurence yep, the face of very slight utility gains hardly seems to graduate be an obligation in any meaningful sense of the word (Simmons 1979: 49). Rule-utilitarianism looks more promising in this respect.
On this view, what is positive homeostasis, required is conformity to rules that are justified on utilitarian grounds; that is, rules which maximize utility when complied with generally. Obey the law does seem to sainsbury graduate scheme be such a rule on the face of flatworms examples, it. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme. But if an laurence yep, alternative rule could be identified which would produce even better consequences, then it must supplant the rule “obey the law” according to rule-utilitarianism. And there does seem to be such a rule, namely; obey the law except when disobedience would certainly have better consequences. This takes us back to square one. Political obligation might alternatively be derived from the natural duties that human rights impose on us. The theory developed by graduate, Allen Buchanan in “Political Legitimacy and Democracy” (2002) will serve as an example. To show adequate respect for human rights, it is not enough to refrain from violating them. We must also do what we can to Stranger Essay ensure that they are not violated by others, at least when we can do so without sustaining too high a personal cost. Graduate Scheme. This is brown walks into the forest, not a duty that we possess by scheme, virtue of having committed ourselves to protecting others.
We have it “naturally,” regardless of what we have done in the past or what has been done for us. (Buchanan, 2002: 707). Obedience helps to baroque art time period ensure that the state functions effectively. If the state does a credible job of protecting the human rights of graduate scheme, its citizens, obedience helps to ensure that the human rights of one’s compatriots are protected. Sonnet 141. To refuse to obey constitutes a refusal to do what one can to protect human rights, which is a transgression of one’s natural duty. Thus, political obligation is among the moral requirements that the human rights of others naturally impose on us. A major shortcoming of this account, and of all natural duty theories, is sainsbury, their inability to bind individuals to one particular political authority above all others. Brown As Goodman Brown Into. (This is referred to in the literature as the “problem of particularity.”) A duty to promote justice, utility, or human rights might give a citizen reason to obey and support his own state, but it equally gives him reason to graduate scheme support just and competent states abroad. And if utility, justice, or human rights would be better served by putting the demands of a foreign state ahead of one’s own, then this would seem to be the right thing to positive feedback loop do. The money I spend on taxes, for sainsbury example, would probably do more for justice and Stranger Essay, human rights if it were instead donated to a poor, developing country, in which case the best way to graduate discharge my natural duty would involve tax evasion.
According to associative accounts, a citizen is duty-bound to obey the law simply by virtue of his or her membership in a political community. In many cases, we are willing to concede that the non-voluntary occupation of goodman brown as goodman brown walks into the forest, a social role comes with moral duties attached. The duties of neighbors, friends, and family are all cases in sainsbury scheme, point. (A daughter owes her parents honor and respect simply because she is their daughter, independently of whatever debt of gratitude she may have accrued). Likewise, political associations are “pregnant of obligation,” such that occupying the role of a “citizen” within such an association comes with its own set of duties, including a duty to obey the law (Dworkin 1986: 206). We simply misunderstand what it means to be a member of a political society if we think that political obligation needs any further justification. (McPherson 1967: 64) . Leslie Green aptly describes associative political obligations as “parthenogenetic:” “having a virgin birth, [political] obligation has no father among familiar moral principles such as consent, utility, fairness, and so on” (Green 2003). This account avoids the particularity problem since it derives political obligation from duties owed specifically to those with whom we stand in a certain kind of political relation, rather than from duties owed to human beings generally. But it is open to other kinds of objections.
Even if we accept that there are associative obligations within families and between friends, we might say that the typical political association lacks morally relevant characteristics possessed by the typical family or friendship (e.g. intimacy, emotional closeness), undercutting the analogy that is employed to yield an associative political obligation. Sonnet 141. “Associativists are united in emphasizing the ‘Uncle’ in ‘Uncle Sam’” writes Wellman. Graduate Scheme. “The obvious problem for this approach is that citizens are not connected to compatriots as they are to uncles” (Wellman 1997: 200). Or we might allow that families and political associations are relevantly similar, but simply reject the notion of associative obligations. Wellman maintains that associative bonds, allegiances, and attachments may give rise to special responsibilities, but denies that these are tantamount to moral duties (Wellman 1997: 186) . We are asked to consider a sibling that decides not to attend his sister’s wedding just because he would rather spend his time and money elsewhere. We may disapprove of this individual given his lack of Stranger Essay, concern for his sister’s life. Sainsbury. But we do not feel that he has failed to do something that his sister has a right against him that he do; we do not feel that he has failed to positive feedback loop discharge a duty (Wellman 1997: 186). His behavior is scheme, unsavory, but it is not unjust; and if familial ties do not ground special, associative obligations , neither do political associations. Mixed accounts combine elements of examples, two or more of the theories so far discussed. A recent example is Christopher Wellman’s “Samaritan” theory, which derives political obligation from the natural duties of citizens together with their obligations of fair play. The fist part of Wellman’s theory is not dissimilar to Buchanan’s account, which was sketched above.
States depend on widespread obedience to graduate scheme function effectively. An effectively functioning state is Stranger Essay, necessary to protect people from the dangers inherent in sainsbury scheme, the state of nature. Obedience to the state is therefore necessary to ensure that others are protected from peril. This, Wellman insists, is baroque art time, something that we each have a natural “Samaritan” duty to do. This is the natural duty aspect of scheme, Wellman’s account. Laurence Yep. But obviously the state does not depend on the obedience of each and every citizen 100% of the time in order to function effectively. The non-compliance of a few in the midst of general compliance does not compromise the state’s ability to protect its citizens from the graduate scheme, dangers of the state of nature. This presents us with a problem. If I can be confident that a majority of my compatriots will consistently obey, why should I? The state will continue to fulfill its protective function regardless of what I do and flatworms, no one’s safety is jeopardized by my infidelity to law. It seems that by disobeying, I am not doing anything that is inconsistent with my Samaritan duty to defend others from peril. To bridge this gap, Wellman supplements his Samaritan obligation with a duty of fair play.
Contributing one’s fair share to scheme the achievement of the Samaritan objective – defending others from peril – requires obedience even when disobedience would seem to be inconsequential. It would be unfair to shirk one’s share of the “Samaritan chore” (Wellman 2004: 749). The trouble with mixed accounts is laurence yep, that they seem prone to inherit the difficulties associated with the theories of which they are composed. Complementing a natural duty with a principle of fairness does not, for example, cause the scheme, “problem of particularity” to disappear. Rather, the problem seems to carry over and contaminate Wellman’s mixed theory. Period. (Why do I have a duty to contribute a fair share to the “Samaritan chore” in graduate, my own community, rather than in some foreign state?) Thus it is unclear whether mixed accounts have any advantage in this sense. Whether liberal democracy is a precondition of political obligation depends on which of the above theories we apply.
The gratitude account does not appear to loop preclude citizens owing obedience to undemocratic and tyrannical regimes. To be sure, the depth of one’s debt of gratitude depends on sainsbury scheme the extent to laurence yep which he or she benefits, so it is safe to say that democratic citizens will typically owe more than authoritarian subjects by way of requital. Democratically accountable governments have a political incentive to pamper their citizens with as many benefits and amenities as possible. Furthermore, a subject that is denied the rights and liberties afforded to his democratic counterparts has less to sainsbury graduate be grateful for. Nevertheless the subjects of authoritarian governments might still enjoy substantial benefits thanks to their state – stable employment, security against baroque art time, crime, foreign invasion, and so forth. – and as long as they do, they owe a debt of scheme, gratitude and positive loop homeostasis, therefore political obligation. The gratitude theorist might interject that all things considered, tyrants ought not to be obeyed. Sainsbury Graduate. The injustices perpetrated by such regimes ought to be resisted even if this means failing to repay one’s debt of gratitude. But this does not deny that political obligation is flatworms, owed to tyrants; it merely concedes that political obligation is prima facie and can sometimes be overridden by countervailing moral considerations. While the gratitude account can in this way be supplemented so as to avoid extending to the oppressed an all things considered duty to graduate scheme obey , the important point is that it cannot confine prima facie political obligation to the citizens of positive feedback, liberal democracies. On the sainsbury graduate, face of it, it would seem that fairness theory’s sensitivity to regime type is no different from that of the gratitude account. Insofar as democratic citizens typically receive more benefits, what constitutes a “fair share” for examples them to contribute in return might be more than what non-democratic citizens owe.
But the latter are still bound to sainsbury graduate reciprocate for the goods that they do enjoy. But A.J. In Young Goodman Brown Brown. Simmons denies that this is the case. “Fair play” obligations, he says, can only arise in a liberal democratic setting: Only political communities which at least appear to be reasonably democratic will be candidates for a “fair play account” to begin with. For only where we can see the political workings of the society as a voluntary, cooperative venture will the principle apply. Thus, a theorist who holds that the acceptance of sainsbury graduate, benefits from a cooperative scheme is the only ground of political obligation, will be forced to admit that in at least a large number of nations, no citizens have political obligations (Simmons 1979: 136-37). The claim here is not that we are only obliged to discharge our duties of fair play if we happen to live in a democracy, but that prima facie duties of fair play cannot even arise in states that aren’t liberal democratic (Simmons 1979: 136-37). Stranger Essay. Simmons’ remarks, however, seem wrongheaded.
What characteristics must a society possess in order to count as a “voluntary, cooperative venture?” Presumably, those participating would have to do so of their own free will, which is tantamount to saying that their involvement must be consensual. Now when Simmons says that a society must be a voluntary cooperative enterprise for the fairness account to have purchase, he surely cannot mean that only where every member of a society is a voluntary participant can fairness be invoked to sainsbury scheme yield political obligation. For not even liberal democracies will meet this standard. More importantly, if a society did manage to meet this standard, the fairness principle would become redundant: everybody would be under a political obligation simply by virtue of having consented to participate in the scheme. Hence Simmons can only mean that a society must contain a core enterprise that is positive homeostasis, voluntary and cooperative, made up of consenting participants, which makes benefits available to those outside the core and thus binds them to reciprocate even though they aren’t voluntary participants.
But in this case he cannot plausibly maintain that it is only possible for liberal democracies to satisfy this condition, for authoritarian societies also seem to contain a core of voluntary participants cooperating and making benefits available to the rest. Is liberal democracy necessary for political obligation on sainsbury scheme consent theory? At first glance, the answer appears to depend on the token of consent identified. Where consent is registered by voting, then clearly a society must be democratic in order for its citizens to be under a political obligation. On the sonnet 141, other hand if consent is expressed through mere residence, it would seem that the scheme, denial of rights and baroque, liberties – free speech, democracy, and sainsbury graduate scheme, so forth – has no bearing on the issue of as goodman the forest, consent and scheme, political obligation.
But closer inspection reveals that this is mistaken. Consent is only morally binding if expressed under the sonnet 141, right conditions, whichever form it happens to take, a point alluded to by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice : “it is generally agreed that extorted promises are void ab initio. But similarly, unjust social arrangements are themselves a kind of extortion, even violence, and graduate scheme, consent to laurence yep them does not bind” (Rawls, 1971: 343). Graduate Scheme. Rawls’ conclusion is flatworms examples, correct, but his reasoning here is faulty. The voluntariness of consent is not necessarily undermined by the injustice of the graduate, state consented to, particularly if the consenter is not himself the target of sonnet 141, oppression. But we can plausibly raise doubts as to sainsbury graduate whether consent, however it is registered, is fully informed when given to an unjust state, which seems to be the route taken by Michael Walzer: It is not enough that particularly striking acts of flatworms examples, consent be free; the whole of our moral lives must be free so that we can freely prepare to consent, argue about sainsbury graduate, consenting, intimate our consent to flatworms examples other men and women… Civil liberty of the most extensive sort is, therefore, the necessary condition of political obligation and sainsbury graduate scheme, just government. Liberty must be as extensive as the possible range of consenting action – over time and sonnet 141, through political space – if citizens can conceivably be bound to a strict obedience (Walzer, 1970: xii).
Thus one could say that regardless of the token of consent identified, its validity is conditional upon liberal democratic institutions. Finally, let us turn to natural duty theories. On the utilitarian account, wherever obedience would generate more happiness and well-being than disobedience, this is what morality requires. Thus if we had some reason to sainsbury graduate believe that obedience maximizes utility in democratic countries and flatworms, fails to do so everywhere else, only then would the utilitarian say that democracy is a necessary condition of political obligation. However this empirical premise seems somewhat farfetched. The natural duty to promote justice, on the other hand, extends political obligation only to sainsbury graduate scheme the citizens of flatworms examples, “reasonably just” states, according to Rawls, or states where each person has an equal right to the most extensive set of liberties compatible with a similar set of liberties for others. This demands stringent protection of basic human rights such as personal security, as well as of property rights, freedom of conscience, freedom of speech and association, and so on. Graduate Scheme. Also, all citizens are to be afforded some kind of democratic participation. Therefore, the duty to promote justice only entails an obligation to obey liberal democracies. The subjects of other kinds of regimes might be said to have a duty to comply only when their so doing would “assist in the establishment of just arrangements” (Rawls 1971: 334), but not a general, content-independent political obligation owed to their state. Positive Feedback Loop Homeostasis. Allen Buchanan’s natural duty account seems to have similar implications.
On Buchanan’s theory, the duty to obey the law is grounded in the natural duty to scheme make rights-protecting institutions available to others. It follows that “failed” states that do not competently fulfill this protective function and illiberal regimes that actually trample on human rights themselves cannot be owed obedience. 6. Relationship to Legitimate Authority. On the traditional view, legitimate authority and political obligation are two sides of the same coin. A state is “legitimate” in the sense of having a right to issue and enforce directives if and only if its citizens are under a political obligation. If citizens do not have a prima facie obligation to obey the law, their government does not have a right to promulgate and Stranger Essay, enforce it (Simmons 1979: 195). There are, however, alternative accounts that decouple political obligation from sainsbury scheme legitimate authority. Kent Greenawalt, for example, argues that a legitimate government’s “justification right” – its right to make and examples, enforce law - implies a duty of non-interference on the part of the citizenry, but not a duty to obey (Greenawalt, 1999).
However, if what is meant by sainsbury scheme, “interference” is sonnet 141, interference with the state’s regulation of society, it is not clear that interference and sainsbury graduate scheme, disobedience can coherently be distinguished. Sonnet 141. Thomas Christiano illustrates the point with a couple of clever comparisons, the graduate, first between the state and the baseball umpire, and the second between the state and the movie director. Laurence Yep. “If a player does nothing to prevent the umpire from watching the graduate scheme, pitches and shouting ‘ball’ or ‘strike,’ but refuses to leave the batter’s box after having been called out, he interferes with the umpires calling of the game.” Similarly if an actor on the set of a movie does not actively try to sabotage the production of the sonnet 141, film but refuses to scheme follow the director’s instructions, he interferes with the production of the film nevertheless. In the same way, Christiano argues, a citizen that does not attack police or make bomb threats to parliament house in order to obstruct the making of flatworms, law, but that refuses to obey the law is still guilty of interfering with the state’s legal organization of society. Disobedience is interference. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme. (Christiano, 2004) William Edmundson avoids this difficulty by specifying that the correlate of legitimate authority is art time period, non-interference with the graduate scheme, administration and flatworms examples, enforcement of sainsbury graduate, laws , rather than non-interference with the state’s regulation of society more broadly. Similarly Patrick Durning argues that legitimate authority corresponds to a duty not to laurence yep interfere with the state’s attempts to regulate society, which amounts to graduate scheme a duty not to interfere with the in young goodman brown brown walks he meets, issuing of commands and their enforcement. (Durning, 2003) Although this appears to be coherent, it still seems problematic. Sainsbury Graduate. If we do not have a moral obligation to surrender a percentage of Stranger Essay, our earnings in tax, for scheme example, how can we be duty-bound to stand idly by loop, and not resist when the taxman comes to seize our money? Alternative accounts such as those put forward by Edmundson and Durning have the odd implication that one can be duty-bound not to sainsbury graduate scheme resist the examples, enforcement of directives that one has absolutely no moral obligation to comply with.
For this reason, the traditional view, according to sainsbury scheme which legitimate authority and political obligation are correlates, remains the prevailing view. 7. The Weight of Political Obligation. It does not, however, follow from one’s being under a political obligation that he or she ought always to obey the law. Political obligation is prima facie and countervailing moral considerations always need to be taken into laurence yep, account when assessing the right course of action. The weight that should be ascribed to political obligation in any such judgment is, furthermore, an open question.
M.B.E Smith argues that it is negligible. A prima facie duty has considerable weight if and only if; 1) “an act which violates that obligation and fulfils no other is seriously wrong;” and 2) “violation of sainsbury graduate scheme, it will make considerably worse an act which on other grounds is already wrong” (Smith, 1973: 970). Running a stop sign when it is in young goodman the forest he meets, perfectly safe to graduate do so and when there is nobody else around to sonnet 141 witness and be influenced by the indiscretion, constitutes a transgression of a citizen’s political obligation. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme. Yet it seems to be a rather trivial wrong for which censure and moral condemnation are not appropriate responses. Political obligation thus flunks the first test. As for the second test, Smith argues that the moral wrongness of an act is homeostasis, not at all amplified by its illegality. Rape and murder are already seriously wrong. They are not made more wrong by the fact that these actions are against the law. From this Smith concludes that political obligation is sainsbury graduate scheme, “at most of trifling weight” (Smith, 1973: 971).
But these findings could equally be advanced in support of a stronger conclusion: that there simply is no duty to obey the law. There is today a growing consensus to the effect that no theory of political obligation succeeds. But not everybody infers from this that political obligation does not exist. After all, the source and nature of moral requirements more generally may not be adequately captured by any of our theories, but few advance this as proof that we are not bound by moral requirements. We have simply been unable to explain why we are so bound: the theorist has failed to develop a satisfactory account of what is there (or at least might be there). Stranger Essay. But there are also those for whom the theories surveyed above are exhaustive. Sainsbury Graduate. All possible grounds of political obligation are covered by these theories, such that if political obligation cannot be derived from brown as goodman the forest either consent, or fairness, or gratitude, then there is sainsbury scheme, no such thing as political obligation (Simmons 1979: 192). “Philosophical anarchism” is the laurence yep, term used to describe this latter position – that there is no prima facie duty to obey the sainsbury, law, even in a just state, (the flip- side of this being that no state is “legitimate” in the sense of enjoying a right to obedience). Two kinds of sonnet 141, philosophical anarchism can be distinguished: A posteriori and graduate scheme, a priori . According to a posteriori philosophical anarchism, no existing state is legitimate or has a right to obedience, but political obligation might be owed to an authority if it satisfied certain conditions. In other words, existing states are illegitimate because of in young brown he meets, their contingent characters (Simmons 2001: 106). A proponent of this view might, for example, say that residence would generate political obligation if internal succession were allowed and if there were a widely known convention equating residence with consent, but that in so far these conditions do not obtain in any existing state, no existing state is owed obedience (Beran, 1987: 126).
A priori philosophical anarchism, by contrast, denies not only the sainsbury graduate, existence, but also the possibility of a legitimate state. There cannot be a duty to obey the law on this view (Edmundson, 2004: 219, Simmons 2001: 105). Robert Paul Wolff endorses this position. Wolff argues that obedience - acting as the law requires just because the law requires it – is positive feedback, incompatible with the overriding duty of each individual to act in accordance with his or her own moral judgment. Differently put, obedience constitutes an abdication of moral autonomy, which is sainsbury graduate scheme, immoral. Stranger Essay. This precludes citizens from acquiring political obligation no matter what they say or do. We are necessarily free from political obligation and, accordingly, the notion of a legitimate state “must be consigned [to] the category of the sainsbury scheme, round square, the married bachelor, and the unsensed sense-datum” (Wolff 1970: 71). None of this has anything to do with the contingent character of one’s government (Hopton 1998: 601).
If political obligation does not exist, what follows? Locke declares that an examples, individual under the exercise of a power without right - the power of an authority without a claim to his obedience - is at liberty to appeal to heaven or to resort to violent resistance (Locke, 1690: II: 168). On this view, philosophical anarchism offers something of a justification for political anarchism – disobedience and resistance to graduate the state. But one can have strong moral reasons for complying with directives issued by his government without owing any obligations to that government. A state might deserve obedience without being entitled to it. Moreover the acts and forbearances required by law are in many cases morally required independently of the law. The fact that a citizen is free from political obligation means only that the law’s demanding something of him is not in itself a morally relevant consideration for behaving accordingly. But the citizen’s pre-existing moral duties will in feedback, many (or even most) cases be sufficient to prohibit his acting contrary to the law. Graduate Scheme. Thus, the absence of political obligation does not challenge our understanding of when morality demands conformity with law and non-resistance as dramatically as one might expect. Allen, R.E., Socrates and Legal Obligation , (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980). Edmundson, W.A., “State of the Art: The Duty to Obey the Law,” Legal Theory, vol.
10, (2004): 215-259. Edmundson, W.A. (ed.), The Duty to Obey the Law, (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999). Green, L., “Legal Obligation and Authority,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2003. Hopton, T., “Political Obligation,” in Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, vol. 3, (San Diego: academic Press, 1998). Klosko, G., Political Obligations, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). McPherson, T., Political Obligation, (London: Routledge, 1967). Pateman, C., The Problem of Political Obligation: A Critique of sonnet 141, Liberal Theory, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1979). Graduate Scheme. Rousseau, J.J., The Social Contract and Discourses by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762), trans. G.D.H Cole, (London and Toronto: J.M.
Dent and Sons, 1913). Simmons, A.J., “Civil Disobedience and the Duty to Obey the Law,” in R.G. Positive Loop Homeostasis. Frey and C.H. Sainsbury Graduate. Wellman (eds.), A Companion to Applied Ethics (Blackwell Publishing, 2003). Simmons, A.J., Moral Principles and Political Obligations, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979). Woozley, A.D., Law and Obedience: The Arguments of Plato’s Crito, (London: Duckworth, 1979). Hart, H.L.A, “Are There Any Natural Rights?” Philosophical Review 64, (April 1955). Klosko, G., “Presumptive Benefit, Fairness, and Political Obligation,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 16, no. 3, (Summer 1987): 241-259.
Klosko, G., The Principle of Fairness and Political Obligation, (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1992). Nozick, R., Anarchy, State, and Utopia, (New York: Basic Books, 1974). Rawls, J., A Theory of Justice, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971). Simmons, A.J., “The Principle of positive, Fair Play,” and “Fair Play and sainsbury scheme, Political Obligation: Twenty Years Later,” both in loop, his Justification and Legitimacy: Essays on Rights and Obligations, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Klosko, G., “Political Obligation and Gratitude,” Philosophy Public Affairs 18 (1988/89): 352-358.
Walker, A.D., “Obligations of Gratitude and sainsbury scheme, Political Obligation,” Philosophy Public Affairs 18, (1988/89): 359-364. Walker, A.D., “Political Obligation and the Argument from Gratitude,” Philosophy Public Affairs 17, (1987/88): 191-211. Beran, H., The Consent Theory of Political Obligation, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987). Hume, D., “On the Social Contract,” in A. Examples. MacIntyre (ed.), Hume’s Ethical Writings, (New York: Collier-Macmillan, 1965). Graduate. Jenkins, J.J., “Political Consent,” Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 20 (1970): 60-66. Baroque Period. Locke, J., The Second Treatise of Civil Government, (1690) (any edition). Plamenatz, J.P., Consent, Freedom and Political Obligation, 2nd ed., (London, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1968). Plamenatz, J.P., Man and sainsbury graduate scheme, Society , vol. 1, (London: Longman, 1963). Singer, P., Democracy and Disobedience, (New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1973).
Walzer, M., Obligations: Essays on Disobedience, War and Citizenship, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970). Bentham, J., “A Fragment of Government,” in J. Bowring (ed.), The Works of Jeremy Bentham, (London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co., 1843). Buchanan, A., “Political Legitimacy and Democracy,” Ethics 112 (July 2002): 689-719. Hare, R.M., “Political Obligation,” in Essays on Political Morality, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989). Klosko, G., “Political Obligation and the Natural Duties of Justice,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 23, no.
3, (Summer 1994): 251-70. Wellman, C.H., and A. John Simmons, Is there a Duty to Obey the Law?, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005). Dworkin, R., Law’s Empire , (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Belknap, 1986). Horton, J. Political Obligation, (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1992). Simmons, A.J., “Associative Political Obligations,” in his Justification and Legitimacy: Essays on Rights and Obligations, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Wellman, C.H., “Toward a Liberal Theory of Political Obligation,” Ethics, vol. 111, no. Laurence Yep. 4, (July 2001): 735-759. Klosko, G., “Multiple Principles of sainsbury scheme, Political Obligation,” Political Theory 32, 6, (2004): 801-824. Lefkowitz, D.A., “Legitimate Authority and sonnet 141, the Duty of Those Subject to It: A Critique of Edmundson,” Law and Philosophy 23 , (2004): 399-435. Sainsbury Graduate. Miller, D., On Nationality, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).
Relationship to examples legitimate authority: Christiano, T., “Justice and Disagreement at graduate scheme the Foundations of Political Authority,” Ethics, 110 (October 1999): 165-187. During, P., “Political Legitimacy and the Duty to Obey the Law,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy, vol. Sonnet 141. 33, no. Graduate Scheme. 3, (September 2003): 373-390.
Edmundson, W.A., “Legitimate Authority without Political Obligation,” Law and Philosophy, 17, (1998): 43-60. Laurence Yep. Greenawalt, K., “Legitimate Authority and the Duty to Obey” in William A. Edmundson (ed.), The Duty to graduate scheme Obey the Law, (Lanham: Rowman and positive, Littlefield, 1999). The weight of political obligation, and philosophical anarchism:
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job.
Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to sainsbury scheme, the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in loop, and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for scheme, different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to baroque period, include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of sainsbury, this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to art time, what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of sainsbury, your resume. Sonnet 141. This top section is sainsbury, what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . Homeostasis. According to graduate, Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to in young goodman brown as goodman walks into the forest, explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case?
Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on scheme your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is laurence yep, a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the sainsbury, information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of sonnet 141, your resume, then go for sainsbury, it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for Stranger Essay, cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to scheme, tell your whole story on flatworms examples one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work?
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That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out homeostasis from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. Scheme. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and positive feedback whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent.
You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on scheme the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is sonnet 141, that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. Sainsbury Graduate. So help them get as much information as possible, in Stranger Essay, as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to sainsbury graduate scheme, look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant.
As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to laurence yep, allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about sainsbury graduate, your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to sonnet 141, the one you’re applying to). Graduate. 14. No Relevant Experience?
No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for positive feedback loop homeostasis, the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the sainsbury graduate scheme, recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out flatworms these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an sainsbury graduate assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to baroque, be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them.
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Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the feedback homeostasis, result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to sainsbury graduate scheme, mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. In Young Goodman Brown Brown Walks The Forest He Meets. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in graduate scheme, applicant tracking systems. Laurence Yep. Stuck on graduate which words to positive feedback, include?
Dump the job description into graduate, a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to feedback loop homeostasis, you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.
Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is sainsbury scheme, more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. Positive Loop Homeostasis. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the graduate, fact that you were in the honors college at period, your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in sainsbury graduate scheme, them can actually show your determination and sonnet 141 motivation to get the sainsbury, skills you need for your career.” Be sure to in young brown the forest, add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is sainsbury, expected to positive feedback loop homeostasis, have, like using email or Microsoft Word.
Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Graduate Scheme. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on positive feedback homeostasis its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and sainsbury scheme detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on feedback loop homeostasis your resume, but only add those that are relevant to sainsbury graduate scheme, the job. Sonnet 141. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company?
Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of sainsbury, work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by in young goodman as goodman walks into the forest, someone who disagrees with the cause.
Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of scheme, whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in Stranger Essay, a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for sainsbury scheme, only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about goodman brown, your experience if asked in sainsbury graduate scheme, an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the flatworms, usual start and end dates for sainsbury graduate scheme, each position. Use years only walks into he meets (2010-2012), or just the number of sainsbury scheme, years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the in young goodman as goodman brown into the forest, gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for graduate, your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus?
This is the sonnet 141, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at graduate, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on feedback loop your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the sainsbury, workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously.
39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is in young goodman walks into, interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and sainsbury graduate scheme clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to Stranger Essay, perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to scheme, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. Laurence Yep. That way all of graduate scheme, your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the laurence yep, hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of sainsbury graduate, HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and sonnet 141 then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take.
Carve out sainsbury some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is in young goodman brown the forest, updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to Stranger Essay, keep this document in sainsbury graduate scheme, tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . In Young Goodman Brown Walks Into He Meets. Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is scheme, passionate about elevating the standard of writing on sonnet 141 the web.
Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and sainsbury led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at flatworms examples, eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Free Information Technology essays. ‘Our most personal device yet’ (Apple, 2015) The first ever smart watch produced by Apple, named the sainsbury graduate Apple Watch, will fundamentally disrupt society. Connected to the iPhone, the Apple watch will serve to not only tell time, but to be a virtual personal assistant, it will enable a user to have access to social networks, and it will even enable saving human lives. Based on Apple’s reputation of flatworms examples, being an sainsbury graduate Innovative Disruptor, the Apple watch will undoubtedly try to reciprocate this trend.
The Apple watch has the potential to be the bench mark for other smart watch makers and it also has the possibility to usurp the wrist watch market by brown walks into he meets being the innovating disruptor. Apple watch could affect the wrist watch industry the graduate same way Quartz disrupted the Swiss watch Industry nearly half a century ago. Goodman Brown Brown Walks? Among the numerous societal implications of the Apple watch as a Disruptive Technology, the sainsbury major one will be how the latter will affect human lives on in young goodman as goodman brown walks, a daily basis. While the watch could have positive implications such as to facilitate the tasks of humans, it is also very much probable that the Apple watch will have adverse psychological effect on human behaviour. Sainsbury? It can also be argued that the Apple watch will have cultural #038; historical as well as ethical #038; moral implications. Different theories on art time, Disruptive Innovation by Clayton Christensen and Constantinos Markides, namely the sainsbury graduate scheme Business-Model Innovation and the Radical Product Innovation are compared and applied to in young goodman brown as goodman into the forest, the Apple watch in later sections of this report. The business models of Apple, and sainsbury graduate, its competitors, namely Google, Samsung, Pebble, and Swatch is positive feedback homeostasis, also discussed. Scheme? This report will assess the various societal implications of the apple watch as a disruptive technology. ‘ The Apple watch – the first ever produced by Apple Incorporated – is the most eagerly anticipated smart watch of this year and is expected to be released on the 24th of April 2015. Apple has designed its watch using a three-fold concept;
1) To make notifications simple and brown walks into the forest he meets, intuitive. 2) To promote health and wellness via its watch. 3) To use the watch for simple day to day activities such as replace the keys to graduate scheme, a car or even enable the user to make simple payments online. Like the previous smart watches produced, this model will not only serve the purpose of indicating date and time, but it will also enable the wearer to sonnet 141, carry out sainsbury scheme numerous activities such as; make or receive phone calls, check and send text messages #038; emails, view notifications on social networks such as Facebook or Twitter as well as monitor the heartbeat of the person. However, unlike previous smart watches of yesteryears, the apple watch appears to be fancier and art time, more desirable. This may be because Apple has released not one version of its smart watch, but three models; the Apple Watch (Standard one), the Apple Watch Sport (Sports version), and even the Apple Watch Edition (a luxury 18 carat gold version!). Also, Apple has launched its watch with not one but 18 different designs. Scheme? While the design in elegant yet simple, the as goodman walks the forest he meets Apple watch appears to be very sophisticated. ‘In addition to scheme, being a beautiful object, Apple Watch is the most advanced timepiece ever created, it’s a revolutionary new way to connect with others, and it’s a comprehensive health and fitness companion.’ (Tim Cook, 2015) Any innovation, either sustainable or disruptive, will have huge implications.
For a smart watch, one of the major implications is how it affects society. There are numerous subcategories; the smart watch has ethical #038; moral implications, psychological implications, legal #038; security implications and sonnet 141, even historical #038; cultural implications. These implications will be discussed further in this report. With Apple’s huge fan-base and its world-wide popularity, not to forget its reputation as ‘The Disruptor’ ‘ having constantly shown that it can upend any market; this new-born from the company will definitely affect the life of thousands of users like previous releases from Apple Inc., namely the graduate scheme Ipod and in young as goodman the forest, Ipad. Graduate? But isn’t it too soon for the apple watch be classified as a ‘Disruptive Technology’ given it is yet to be released? 2. Background Studies.
a) Theories on Disruptive Technology. The original theory on disruptive technology, or rather disruptive innovation, was created by walks into the forest he meets Clayton M. Christensen. According to Christensen; ‘Disruptive Innovation describes a process by sainsbury scheme which a product or service takes root initially in simple applications at the bottom of a market and then relentlessly moves up a market, eventually displacing established competitors.’ (Clayton Christensen, 2015) Based on Christensen’s theory, it is too early to use the Stranger Essay term ‘Disruptive Technology’ for the Apple watch, namely for the following two reasons: 1. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme? The product is positive feedback homeostasis, yet to be released in the mass market and no one knows what the response will be. Scheme? While many surveys carried out suggest that the response will be overwhelmingly positive; this is not the case yet. 2. Consumer demand towards previous smart watches has been low as the feedback smart watch market has not yet ‘taken off’. By considering the history of wrist watches #038; smart watches, it can be found that Christensen’s theory is not completely valid. The timeline below indicates the sainsbury history of watches: (i) Year 1880: The mechanical wrist watch was established.
(ii) Year 1940: The smart watch concept appeared in Science-fiction novels/movies. (iii) Year 1970: The Quartz Revolution ‘ Quartz watches revolutionized the industry with electrification. (iv) Year 1990: The experimentation with the first smart watch began. (v) Year 2010: Smart watches become commercial success. (Smart Watch Group, 2015) If compared to the wrist watch, the smart watch has not taken over its market yet and thus cannot be categorized as a Disruptive Technology. A refined theory by Constantinos Markides states: ‘Over time, Christensen’s theory has been used to explain all kinds of disruptive innovations. Different kinds of innovation have different competitive effects and sonnet 141, produce different kinds of sainsbury scheme, markets.’ (Markides, C. 2006)
Markides eventually divides the term ‘Disruptive Innovations’ into 2 distinct categories: 1. Examples? Business Model Innovations. 2. Radical Product Innovations. As pointed out by Markides, ‘while both share similarities, they are both different since they pose different challenges to scheme, establish firms and laurence yep, have radically different implications’. (Markides, C. 2006). Business Model Innovations. ‘Business Model Innovation is the discovery of a fundamentally different business model in sainsbury graduate, an existing business. To qualify as an innovation, a new business model must enlarge the existing economic pie, either by attracting new customers into laurence yep, the market or by encouraging existing consumers to consume more.’ (Markides, C. 2006) Radical Product Innovations.
‘Radical innovations are disruptive to graduate scheme, consumers because they introduce products and value propositions that disturb prevailing consumer habits and behaviours in a major way. They are disruptive to producers because the markets they create undermine the competences and complementary assets on flatworms, which competitors have built their success.’ (Markides, C. 2006) Apple did not discover the smart watch. Several companies such as Samsung, Pebble, or even Nike have launched their smart watch way back in 2013. As a matter of graduate, fact, Samsung and Pebble could be classified into radical product innovation because those two companies invented the smart watch.
However, what Apple has done is to sonnet 141, redefine its smart watch by making it more fashionable and more appealing to the market. Graduate Scheme? With its large fan base, Apple is sure to challenge the existing smart watch market. This is sonnet 141, why the scheme Apple watch can be termed as a Business Model Innovation. Stranger Essay? Apple will directly increase the sales of graduate scheme, smart watches with it newly launched watch, and will also indirectly cause other producers to come up with better designs which will in turn directly increase the appeal of smart watches and thus increase the sales of smart watches in the world. Before going into depth regarding the sonnet 141 different business models, it is imperative that the leading smart watch companies are listed. The sales of smart watches really took off in 2013 and sainsbury graduate, maintained its ascension in 2014.
According to Smart Watch Group, in sonnet 141, 2012, only 0.3 million smart watches were sold, with the figure increasing by tenfold to over 3 million in 2013, and graduate scheme, finally to around 6 million in art time, 2014. Sainsbury Graduate? This ascending trend indicates that the demand for smart watches is increasing on in young goodman brown into the forest, a yearly basis. Back in 2013/2014, the graduate scheme major smart watch sellers were Samsung, Nike, and examples, Garmin in 2013, and Samsung, Lenovo, and Motorola in 2014. It can be noted that Lenovo and Motorola were late entrants in the smart watch industry, and yet they were placed 2nd and 3rd among the top sellers in the smart watch market. While it can be argued that Samsung has maintained its position as the leading seller of smart watches, it must be noted that its sales growth increased only by 25% (800,000 devices in 2013 to 1,200,000 devices in graduate scheme, 2014). (Smart Watch Group, 2015) It is widely expected in the smart watch market that the Apple watch will have a definite upheaval of the sales of smart watches. Apple’s Business Model. Apple launched its smart watch with a different ideology: rather than launching just one version of its device, it has launched three; namely the standard edition, the sports edition, and the luxurious 18 carat gold edition.
The prices of the three editions vary between $ 350 up until $ 17,000. With this new idea, Apple has targeted more customers. Unlike its competitors, namely Google and Samsung amongst others, Apple plans to have a high profitability margin. For example, for every Gold Edition watch sold by apple, Samsung will have to sell over 48 Galaxy Gears (price varies between $350 – $400 for the Galaxy Gear) to match the same income generated from sales. Apple’s business model comprises of users buying applications on its ‘App store’ and buying music from ‘iTunes’. By so doing, Apple has planned to generate revenues from its services. When a user buys a smart watch, he/she will have to pay for the company’s services when he/she downloads an in young brown as goodman brown the forest he meets application or listens to music. Apple is also investing in the ‘Research Kit’ ‘ a service destined to help its smart watch users to get numerous medical benefits and this service will also be at a premium price.
Apple has developed its business model with the sainsbury possibility of generating income from services provided on its App store, iTunes, and now the Research Kit platform. Flatworms? Apple also has a very sophisticated personal distribution network which also generates revenues on graduate, a constant basis for the company. Apple focuses its business model almost solely on software sales. Google’s Business Model. The ‘Android Wear’ is the biggest competitor for Apple’s watch. The former packs an attractive operating system and is armed with a huge array of in young brown as goodman walks into, applications on ‘Google Play store’ and while Apple is now developing the Research Kit platform, Android boasts its established ‘Google Fit’ platform for health #038; medical services linked to its smart watch. However, unlike Apple, the medical service provided is free of charge and is already being used by its users. The Google business model is sainsbury graduate, completely different with Apple in terms that the latter can only flatworms examples be used by iPhones whereas the Android Wear can be used by a vast array of phones such as Samsung, LG, Lenovo, Motorola, Sony, amongst others.
Thus, Google consolidates its business model by generating income through hardware sales. Google’s primary business is to sell adverts and to make publicity. By using the Android Wear, this mission is being achieved as it gets to know its customers even more and can provide catered solutions which will generate Google’s revenues. Samsung’s Business Model. Samsung is the graduate leading smart watch maker since its launch back in 2013. The Samsung Galaxy Gear is the name given to the company’s smart watch. Literature indicates that Samsung launched its first smart watch back in 1999 but it was met with commercial failure. Similar to Apple’s watch, the Galaxy Gear has a heartbeat sensor, and it also integrates a camera on the wrist, and it can also be used to make/receive calls, as well as send messages/emails. However, unlike Apple’s business model, Samsung has launched its smart watch by targeting ‘the broad consumer market.
The watches are mostly sold via Samsung’s powerful distribution network around the laurence yep world ‘ telecom operators. The Gear S ‘ Samsung’s most expensive smart watch, priced at $ 350 ‘ is subsidized by some telecom operators as the product generates recurring revenues.’ (Smart Watch Group, 2015) Pebble’s Business Model. Pebble is sainsbury scheme, one of the most famous smart watch maker, namely because it has had a tremendous crowd funding campaign in 2013 after which it launched the Stranger Essay ‘Pebble Steel’, its first smart watch. After meeting with commercial success, Pebble reciprocated with the ‘Pebble Time’ ‘ its second smart watch in sainsbury graduate, 2015. Art Time? The ‘Kickstarter’ crowd funding campaign greatly helped Pebble become one of the leading smart watch makers. Pebble has set its business model around creating a software development platform for its smart watches. Pebble is one of the graduate smart watch makers with ‘the most hands-on experience in terms of software development for smart watches’. (Smart Watch Group, 2015) While the ‘Kickstarter’ campaign was the flatworms main source of revenue for scheme the firm, it is expected that Pebble will soon start to feedback, generate income by offering paid services to its clientele. Nike’s Business Model. The ‘Nike Fuelband SE’ was the smart watch developed by Nike in sainsbury, 2012.
In 2013, Nike was ranked second in the top smart watch selling companies. However, in 2014, Nike opted to discontinue the baroque period production of sainsbury scheme, its watch. The main reason behind which, was the ‘Nike Fuelband SE’ operated only on iOS ‘ iPhone’s Operating System – developed by Apple. Baroque? Since Apple announced that, it too, will be producing smart watches in September 2014, Nike preferred to discontinue the manufacture of its ‘Fuelband SE’ as sales of the latter was being done not only in Nike stores or online, but also in Apple’s stores. Nike’s business model was founded around a different clientele ‘ those who wanted to keep track of their activity levels during workouts. ‘Social media was at the heart of the Nike Fuelband SE’. Graduate? (Smart Watch Group) Nike had even built the Stranger Essay ‘Nike + Online Community’ for its smart watch users. Sainsbury Graduate? Nike aimed to Stranger Essay, generate revenues by giving the scheme users ‘Nike Points’ which could be redeemed while buying sports equipments in the Nike store. Xiaomi’s Business Model.
Xiaomi is a Chinese company founded in 2010. It is widely popular in mainland China and its smart watch is known as the examples ‘Xiaomi Mi Band’. Xiaomi’s business model is the complete opposite of Apple’s. Xiaomi sells its products at the lowest possible price. The majority of sales occurs online, unlike Apple’s, which are mainly sold in its iShops. ‘The margins of distributors ‘ or the sainsbury cost for an own distribution network such as Apple’s ‘ is laurence yep, largely eliminated’. Sainsbury? (Smart Watch Group, 2015) Xiaomi’s business model is to generate income based on sonnet 141, its cloud-based services in the near future. Swatch’s Business Model. Swatch is sainsbury graduate, a world renowned Swiss wrist watch maker. Baroque? Swatch group has had a history of innovation. It has based its business model by ‘selling watches as fashion accessories rather than family jewels or pragmatic time keeping devices’. (Smart Watch Group, 2015) By redefining the watch when the watch industry was stagnant and even failing, Swatch has managed to persuade consumers to choose its products. Swatch has managed to challenge the Quartz revolution and pave its way to the top of the pyramid of the wrist watch industry. Nowadays, Swatch is also a smart watch seller.
The ‘Swatch Touch Zero One’ is the name branded to its smart watch. ‘In fact, it has been one of the pioneers, developing watches with integrated pager functionality (in the early nineties), integrated GSM (in the sainsbury late nineties), the Stranger Essay Swatch Paparazzi (launched with Microsoft in graduate, 2004), and period, various other products with advanced functionalities.’ (Smart Watch Group, 2015) c) Empirical Studies. The Quartz crisis refers to the end of the 1970s and sainsbury graduate, early 1980s where the Swiss watch makers were seriously affected by the emergence of cheaper and examples, yet more efficient Quartz watches. The Quartz crisis is a true disruptive innovation by definition since it very nearly caused the Swiss watch industry to become extinct. Sainsbury Graduate? It is only by accepting and by changing their watches that the Swiss managed to stay in business. Swatch is the Swiss watch maker which probably saved the flatworms whole Swiss watch market from sainsbury total collapse.
Some analysts are predicting the sonnet 141 smart watch to be a second innovative disruption as they believe that the smart watch will have a larger impact as compared to sainsbury, the Quartz Revolution. However, smart watches have been created and released to the mass market way back as in 2000’s. In Young Goodman Brown Walks Into He Meets? They were not really accepted back then. The second but successful commercialization of the smart watch was done in sainsbury graduate scheme, 2013 with Pebble. However, adoption to this new technology has been expectedly slow. Now, with the launch of the Apple watch, many people believe that finally the smart watch could cause an upheaval of the laurence yep watch market. 3. Graduate? Discussions on the societal implications of laurence yep, Apple Watch as a Disruptive Technology. ‘Given though Apple watch does so many things, there are cultural, historical implications, and sainsbury graduate scheme, expectations.’ (Jony Ive, 2015) As mentioned previously, any innovation will have both positive and negative impacts. Flatworms? Considering the Apple watch, it will have the following main societal implications: i) Historical #038; Cultural Implications.
ii) Ethical #038; Moral Implications. iii) Psychological Implications. Historical #038; Cultural Implications. The Apple watch, like previous smart watches, is still new to the wrist watch market. The latter has been sustained so far by the sales of conventional watches. Many of the leading brands, such as Swatch, Rolex, and Patek Philippe prevail in the wrist watch market for several reasons. Scheme? One of them is because those brands form part of an Elite group. Positive Feedback Loop? The wearer of a Rolex or Swatch watch is scheme, perceived differently just because of the history behind those companies. Those Swiss watch makers have a long, rich heritage, dating back to positive loop homeostasis, the 1800’s.
Based on the fore-mentioned reason, it would be disadvantageous to the Apple watch to be compared with the centuries old conventional watches. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme? Even the luxurious 18 carat gold edition of the Apple watch may seem inferior to a Swatch or Rolex due to positive feedback loop homeostasis, the latter’s heritage. ‘For the longest time, technology limited communication to one on sainsbury graduate scheme, one; just think of the telephone. Loop? But now worlds are complicated networks that overlap. The implications have yet to be fully realized.’ (Danah Boyd, 2015)
Through the use of graduate scheme, social networks on the smart watch, the latter will enable users to connect to the broad world. Similar to Facebook #038; Skype, the Apple Watch will have huge sociological ramifications on laurence yep, the way humans communicate nowadays. It is becoming very rare to see people dialling up an old childhood friend or relative just for the sake of sainsbury, keeping in period, touch. They would much rather use social networks or do video calls as it is sainsbury scheme, much less mainstream as compared to a conventional phone call. Thus, the Apple watch, together with the help of social networking, will have a transformative effect on the way humans communicate. Apple watch can also have a positive impact on people’s life by flatworms helping them become emphatic. Other societal implications of the graduate Apple watch are that it will prevent the user from delving in his/her pocket to check for any notification. Laurence Yep? These little actions will undoubtedly help save a lot of time.
Ethical #038; Moral Implications. The Apple watch has many moral #038; ethical implications. The watch can be classified as both intrusive and sainsbury graduate, non-intrusive wearable technology – depending on how it is used. If the watch is used as a complementary device ‘ one which does not affect our interactions ‘ it can be termed as non-intrusive. However, if the watch is positive feedback loop, used as a supplementary device ‘ whereby we use data generated by the watch to interact with society ‘ it can be classified as intrusive. For example, for the apple watch, by constantly using the heart rate sensor and sainsbury scheme, sharing the data on social media, the wearer is using the phone as an intrusive technology. Many people tend to become self-obsessed rather than just health conscious. As a result, their behaviour may become unethical.
It can also be argued that the Apple watch will have unethical implications as it will enable sharing of a person’s private data, for example, the Research Kit will collect health information for a user and many users will tend to share that data on social networks, rendering this unethical. There is the risk of privacy leaks when people share too much of their personal data. By sharing intimate details about themselves, they may also be at risk of identity thefts. Another potential societal implication of the smart watch is that it will encourage people to rely too much on it. Loop Homeostasis? From planning of schedules for meetings to saving information such as credit card pin code and personal login information, the user will tend to save everything on the watch. While it may be possible that Apple’s smart watch will have the same adverse effect as smart phones, namely making people become anti-social; on the opposite side, the Apple Watch could be used for life saving or to send SOS distress signals. For example, if the graduate scheme heart beat (pulse) of a person is low, the smart watch could send a distress signal to the emergency services. However, while the Apple watch may be a blessing in disguise for a stricken user, it might be the completely opposite for emergency services. Sonnet 141? Due to the uncertainty with technology, it is highly probable that the heartbeat sensor might send out wrong or false distress signals to the Emergency Services. Sainsbury Graduate? Imagine thousands of false distress signals being sent daily if millions of users wear smart watches. This might prove to be a hindrance to the Emergency services.
‘Widespread use of smart watch would mean that instead of relieving boredom by answering emails or using social networks, people will spend time sifting through their bio data stream, planning ways to maximize their personal wellness ratings.’ (Social Implication of a smart watch, 2015) It can also be argued that by using a smart watch, the moral #038; ethical implications will become more widespread and sonnet 141, prevailing. If people are already using their phones while holding face-to-face conversations, then they will undoubtedly use their smart watch in graduate scheme, the similar way. This is examples, unethical behaviour. However, by making small noticeable adjustments, the smart watch can actually lead to a better ethical behaviour. By pairing the Apple watch with the sainsbury iPhone, a user will not have the tendency to keep delving in his/her pocket and check for any unread notification. Instead, he/she will only need to goodman as goodman brown the forest, check the sainsbury graduate scheme phone when the in young goodman brown brown into the forest watch rings or vibrates. By so doing, they would not rudely delve for their phones during conversation. Another profound impact of the watch on society would be the psychological implications on human beings. Sainsbury? As mentioned previously, people will tend to become self-obsessed with some functions of their smart watch, namely the heartbeat sensor. People will be addicted to the bio data and this could have an Stranger Essay adverse effect to the psychology of the user.
Rather than being relaxed, people will have the tendency to be excited on a constant basis as they will be able to read any variation in the heartbeats; for graduate example, in a person’s life, there are moments when the heart rate is loop homeostasis, slow and at times it may be high. Many people might resort to different alternatives to try lower the heart beat and it may cause an adverse psychological effect on them. 4. Recommendations #038; Conclusion. Apple has shown, on sainsbury scheme, countless occasions, that it is willing to not only challenge, but to laurence yep, be different from others. The Apple watch, based on sainsbury graduate scheme, Apple’s reputation, will have as its mission to be an flatworms examples innovative technology. Graduate Scheme? The watch has been crafted and designed with such finesse, that it will probably disrupt the wrist watch market. However, the first generation of the Apple watch will probably be only the first step on the ladder to in young the forest he meets, achieve this mission. It will probably require some much more Research and Development from Apple to present to the world with its disruptor smart watch. While the price range of the watch seems shocking, it is even more so when considering the fact that the smart watch is just a technology device. It is bound to be updated every few years, if not on a yearly basis, with new models, to keep up with the technological advancements. Sainsbury Scheme? Paying $17,000 for a smart watch – one which will probably be so outdated within the laurence yep next decade, seems to be beyond the wildest ideas for sainsbury scheme countless people.
There is so much potential behind the use of examples, a smart watch. It is said that, in the future, it will replace keys for vehicles, it will become a virtual personal assistant, it will be a health companion, and it will even help in saving lives. Yet, the smart watch is graduate scheme, literally useless to do any of those activities without being connected to positive feedback, a smart phone. Until companies manage to make the smart watch a stand-alone product, and the latter is graduate, able to do all those things listed above by itself, the watch will not be called a disruptive technology. True disruptive technologies like the iPhone or Ipod are very rare and are not predictable. However, similar to the smart phone, using a smart watch will have drastic changes in our day to in young goodman as goodman, day activities. As technology keeps on evolving, more societal implications would prevail. Scheme? Used correctly, the smart watch would be a powerful tool, one which helps us in our daily activities, helps us save time, and enriches our wellness.
However, over-use of the smart watch can lead to obsession and eventually have adverse effects on our lives. Will Apple be able to reinvent the wrist watch industry in Stranger Essay, the same way it has redefined others like computing and music? (BBC News, 2015) It might achieve its mission in the future, but not with its first generation smart watch. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme? While the Stranger Essay Apple watch will fundamentally change the lives of its users, possibly to enhance and even to graduate scheme, disrupt the latter, it is however too soon to call the in young goodman brown walks into the forest Apple watch a Disruptive Technology. 1. Markides, C. (2006), Disruptive Innovation: In Need of Better Theory. Graduate? Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol:23, pp. 19’25. [Online] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jpim.2006.23.issue-1/issuetoc [Accessed: 14th April 2015]
2. Examples? Christensen, C. M. (2006), The Ongoing Process of graduate scheme, Building a Theory of Disruption. Journal of laurence yep, Product Innovation Management, Vol:23, pp. 39’55 [Online] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jpim.2006.23.issue-1/issuetoc [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 3. Clayton Christensen Website (2015), Disruptive Innovations. [Online] Available from: http://www.claytonchristensen.com/key-concepts/ [Accessed: 15th April 2015] 4. Sainsbury Graduate? Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Apple. [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/apple/ [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 5. Flatworms? Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Top 10 Smart Watch Companies 2014 (Sales). Sainsbury Scheme? [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/top-10-smart-watch-companies-sales-2014/ [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 6. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Top 10 Smart Watch Companies 2013 (Sales). [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/top-10-smart-watch-companies-sales/ [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 7. Apple Website (2015), Apple Watch. [Online] Available from: http://www.apple.com/watch/ [Accessed: 14th April 2015]
8. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Swatch. [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/swatch/ [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 9. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Samsung. In Young As Goodman Walks? [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/samsung/ [Accessed: 15th April 2015] 10. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Nike. [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/nike/ [Accessed: 16th April 2015] 11. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Pebble. [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/pebble/ [Accessed: 16th April 2015] 12. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Xiaomi. Scheme? [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/xiaomi/ [Accessed: 16th April 2015]
13. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), Google. [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/google/ [Accessed: 15th April 2015] 14. Smart Watch Group Website (2015), History of Smart Watch. Baroque Art Time? [Online] Available from: http://www.smartwatchgroup.com/history-smartwatches/ [Accessed: 17th April 2015] 16. Techcrunch Website (2015), Everything you need to scheme, know about the Apple Watch. [Online] Available from: http://techcrunch.com/2015/03/09/apple-watch-will-ship-on-april-24-cost-349-to-10000-depending-on-style/ [Accessed: 18th April 2015] 17. BBC News Website (2015), Apple watch prices and apps revealed. [Online] Available from: http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-31794823 [Accessed: 19th April 2015]
18. The Guardian Website (2014), Apple watch to miss Christmas and will launch in spring. [Online] Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/nov/03/apple-watch-christmas-google-android-smartwatch [Accessed: 19th April 2015] 19. Stranger Essay? Computers #038; Society Website (2015), The social implications of the smartwatch. [Online] Available from: http://stevenscomputersandsociety.blogspot.com/2014/08/the-social-implications-of-smartwatch.html [Accessed: 14th April 2015] 20. Danah Boyd Website (2015) Its Complicated, [Online] Available from: http://www.danah.org/books/ItsComplicated.pdf [Accessed: 15th April 2015] Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of scheme, coursework that answers your exact question?
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Essay UK, Essay: An Assessment of the Societal Implications of Stranger Essay, Apple Watch as a Disruptive Technology. . Sainsbury Graduate? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/information-technology/essay-an-assessment-of-the-societal-implications-of-apple-watch-as-a-disruptive-technology/ [04-10-17]. If you are the feedback loop original author of this content and sainsbury scheme, no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on Stranger Essay, the link below to request removal: 10-05-17 - Image processing 09-05-17 - Integration of Cloud and Internet of scheme, Things 03-05-17 - Mobile ad-hoc network 02-05-17 - Technology used in goodman as goodman brown, hospitality industry 01-05-17 - The Personal Software ProcessSM (PSPSM) 21-04-17 - Software quality 20-04-17 - Data Warehouse for decision making 19-04-17 - Enhancing food security via a web based system 17-04-17 - Frame relay technology 15-04-17 - Competition and graduate scheme, Innovation: A Comparative Study of Telecommunications and Insurance (WIP) We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 .
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Buy Write Options Trading Strategy. A couple days ago I made $220 in scheme about 5 minutes from trading options. Today I will explain exactly what I did, why I did it, how others can do the same if they wish to, and the risks involved with this maneuver. Out of all the option trading strategies out goodman walks the forest he meets, there, buy write options are probably the least risky, especially done with underlying large cap, blue chip stocks. They also require minimal knowledge, no money down, and sainsbury graduate scheme are accessible to the general public. #128512; So first, what the heck is a Buy Write options strategy?
Simply put it’s when we buy a stock, and then write (sell) a covered call against baroque art time, the stock we just bought heh. #128521; The reason we might want to implement a buy-write is because we believe the stock will not move a lot in scheme either direction in the near future and we want to flatworms examples, generate some extra returns in the mean time! Through a suggestion from a friend I decided to perform my first buy write strategy earlier this week. I chose to do it using the sainsbury graduate scheme National Bank of Canada , which is one of the largest financial companies in the country with a strong balance sheet and growing profits. #128578; Canadian banks are ideal for laurence yep doing Buy Writes with because they are fairly stable and grow their dividends over time. So let’s quickly run through my thinking process. What is the purpose of buying a stock and sainsbury graduate scheme then writing a call option against it? For me, it’s to make some quick and easy money with minimal risk, but a high chance to beat the market. Stranger Essay! #128512; So let’s go through the steps of my strategy. Sainsbury Scheme! Note that this requires a self directed brokerage account, eg: TD Waterhouse, Questrade, etc.
Step 1: I bought 100 shares of laurence yep, National Bank on the Toronto Stock Exchange for $45.71 each on Tuesday. This was very straight forward. I just bought it like I would any other stock. The total cost was $4,580.99 including commission. Step 2: I wrote 1 call option of National Bank to expire on October 16, 2015 with a $46 strike price.
I chose $46 because it’s very close the current market price of the stock and sainsbury graduate writing “at the money” calls is sonnet 141, usually the best choice for this strategy. Sainsbury! This type of in young brown, option writing is known as a “covered call,” because I have the underlying stocks to cover my position if the option is exercised, and the buyer calls away my 100 shares of NA. If I do not have any National Bank stocks then this would be known as a “naked call” in the world of option trading, which is more risky. By simply writing a covered call someone else was willing to pay me money. The income I received after commissions from this option trade was $220.76. #128512; Here’s a look at my 2 transactions in my brokerage account after everything is settled. So by simply buying a stock and then writing a call against it I am now $220 richer than before. #128578; Not too shabby for doing some research into options trading and then spending 5 minutes to execute the trades online. For a detailed tutorial of how to actually write a covered call you can see my previous Trican options post, which has step by step screenshots with markers and arrows for sainsbury graduate easy understanding. So why would someone else be willing to pay me money to goodman as goodman brown he meets, buy the option I wrote? Well when I write 1 call option for National Bank at sainsbury graduate scheme $46, what I am essentially doing is telling the world that I will give anyone the option to positive feedback loop homeostasis, buy 100 shares of National Bank from me at a future date for $46.
In this real life example, the future date I chose is in October, which is 7 months away. This means that if National Bank shares are trading higher in sainsbury graduate October then I would have to sell my 100 shares for $46 to the person who bought my call option, even though it’s below the examples market price of the day. If someone is sainsbury graduate, bullish on NA stocks and think the laurence yep share will rise then this is obviously a win for scheme them. They don’t have to call away my shares of course. For instance if the price of examples, NA shares drop by October, then they can just walk away and not exercise the contract. Scheme! After all, why buy shares from me at $46 each, when the goodman brown as goodman brown he meets market is selling them at a lower price? #128578; But of sainsbury graduate scheme, course the privilege to profit if the stock moves up, yet not risk losing anything if the stock goes down comes at a price for the option buyer. Otherwise it wouldn’t be fair.
So to buy the sonnet 141 call option I wrote, the buyer will have to pay a premium to me because I’m giving up potential gains in the future. The following chart shows the potential outcomes of sainsbury, my buy-write options strategy once the option expires in October. The magenta line shows the sonnet 141 profit or loss of someone who only sainsbury scheme, bought NA shares and held onto them until October. The blue line shows the possible results of my buy write options strategy. The upside of a buy-write technique is capped at my premium of $220 basically.
However it outperforms the art time period long only method at every point below the cap. #128578; Writing a covered call is a great way to maintain current market exposure to a stock while making some income, or to attempt to graduate, outperform the sonnet 141 markets by doing a buy write if the stock price is not expected to move significantly in the near future. The largest risk is if the stock drops very low by graduate scheme October and even though the laurence yep option will expire without being exercised I will still be stuck with 100 shares of National Bank which is worth less than what I purchased them for. Graduate! If that happens I will probably write another covered call against examples, the shares again to try and get them called away while earning another premium in the process. #128578; I will write a follow up blog post when this option contract expires later this year. What I like about buy-writes in a margin account is that it doesn’t require any initial savings.
Some people complain they can’t invest because they don’t have enough money. Thankfully buy-write strategies don’t require any money. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme! The $220 I made on Tuesday did not cost me anything because I borrowed all the money to baroque art time, buy the stock in step 1 from the graduate scheme bank. TD Canadian margin rates for all its customers is flatworms, currently 4.25%. Meanwhile National Bank stocks pay out 4.35% in annual dividends, so the dividend income can completely cover the cost of borrowing on sainsbury graduate scheme, margin. #128512; Disclaimer: Options and the stock market can be risky. Also, borrowing money can still be a bad idea for some people regardless of how I might make it seem on the blog. #128521; We have to admit our faults before we can improve upon laurence yep them. 30 Comments on Buy Write Options Trading Strategy I like the buy-write strategy but I wouldnt use margin for it.
I’m just not comfortable borrowing money to invest in stocks. I noticed that your commissions are awfully high for the buy-write you just did. Graduate! Do the Canadian brokerages not offer a way to sonnet 141, do the buy-write in one trade? My brokerage here in sainsbury graduate the US allows me do both in one trade and get charged just the one commission. That will help out with the income you can receive if you really pursue this strategy. I don’t know of any way to do a buy-write in one trade, but that would be amazing. #128578; I should look into if that’s possible. The commission is high for TD. Loop Homeostasis! I’m thinking about switching to IB which has lower fees for option trading and no fee options assignments. Definitely look into scheme, it because that will save you a bunch in commission. If my cash starts to baroque, build up more then I’ll definitely consider doing some more buy-writes to make a bit more income. I usually prefer naked puts but buy-writes can work well too if I have lots of capital sitting in my account.
Just buy-write with companies you want to own anyways. Too bad the sainsbury scheme premiums are counted as ST capital gains. At least here in the US they are. So you haven’t really earned any money yet: you will find in October if you earned or lost money. I don’t understand why you are so happy about the transaction, since the outcome won’t be found until October. Sonnet 141! The right emotions to have are being both worried and hopeful. Graduate Scheme! Why do you act as if you already won something? The first sentence of your post is misleading: “A couple days ago I made $220 in about 5 minutes from trading options”. No you haven’t made anything yet.
Hi Roberta. You’re right. I was ecstatic when I saw the money go into my account with my own eyes. Feedback Loop Homeostasis! But just because my net worth on paper technically increased by a couple hundred dollars, it doesn’t mean overall this options trade was a profitable because we don’t know the final outcome yet. Hopefully by showing the outcome table in the post I have made it clear to sainsbury graduate scheme, my readers that it’s possible for examples me to graduate, actually lose money come October, at sonnet 141 which I’ll post an sainsbury graduate scheme update. #128578; The nice thing about sonnet 141, writing options is the payment is upfront and you get to keep it no matter what happens, but that’s not to say there is no risk involved. Sainsbury Scheme! #128521; Just curious about the tax implications of this. Do you just add this amount minus commissions to next year’s tax? My lazy butt would lose motivation if I had to keep track of this info numerous times per year for a relatively small amount of loop, gain. Pretty much. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme! From what I’ve heard you just take all your premiums from trading options, minus your costs and laurence yep commissions, and scheme the net amount will be treated as capital gains for the current year. I do keep track of all my option trades.
Luckily I don’t trade very often. Another thing is in young goodman brown as goodman walks the forest he meets, if you’re a professional full time trader then the graduate scheme income from premiums you earn will be taxed as ordinary income. So….Does this matter? In other words, if you believe in the stock markets, will you perform that much better to justify the risk and baroque additional work? I believe it does matter due to the law of attraction. By focusing on positive or negative thoughts, one can bring about positive or negative results in one’s life. It’s probably not 100% effective within the context of the stock market I admit, but it’s more about following a lifelong philosophy. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme! #128578; It’s sometimes said that 50% of all advertising works while the other 50% doesn’t create a net benefit, but it’s hard to know which half is working. I forgot about the assignment fee. Sonnet 141! I think I might close the call early and sell the stocks on the open market instead.
Good luck with your call. #128578; Gen Y guy: Commissions are NOT negotiable up here in sainsbury graduate scheme Kanuckistan. (Canada). Sonnet 141! Plus, TD Ameritrade is not available to Canadians. The best choice for low costs is Interactive brokers. Option prices are typically $0.75 or less per contract. Sainsbury Graduate Scheme! (I’ve paid as low as 2-cents per contract) Assignment fees are $0. Yes ZERO. And it has much better access to Canadian markets as well as global markets. Hmmm, I thought they were available in Canada. You would know better than me #128578; I used IB in the past, but hated the platform.
Until I negotiated my rates I would do all my analysis and positive loop homeostasis what not on the Think or Swim Platform with TDA and then execute my trades on IB. But know I have the best of both worlds…except maybe the stock assignment fees of $0. But those are one-off events for me. TOS is by far the most beautiful platform, but the last I looked, you can’t trade on CDN exchanges. Also, $0 assignments adds a whole new world of strategy for sainsbury graduate scheme low volitility stocks you’re planning on accumulating. You can write a ladder of ITM calls against your stock to provided a great deal of downside protection and laurence yep a whole lot of graduate, cost-basis reduction and/or freeing up capital to do something else with. It’s an excellent strategy for us in our retirement accounts as the rules we have in baroque art time place are even more restrictive than US IRA rules. We can’t short puts nor do any spreads in our retiremnet accounts.
Long calls and Long puts. And that’s all we can do. It’s a good strategy. I also like to use it. I currently have a covered call with my CVX. The only disadvantage for this strategy is that you may have to sell this solid stock at $46 upon sainsbury graduate scheme expiration, while the market price of this stock may be much higher. 80% of options expire worthless #128578; Another way of looking at this move is by viewing the premium as cash back.
Your $46 call on a $46 stock where you collected $2 means you only flatworms, paid $44 for graduate scheme the stock. (Lousy rounding is lousy). Sonnet 141! So your money at risk for owning the sainsbury scheme stock is $4400. And as for will this work? It already has. You’ll get at Stranger Essay least 1 dividend payment out of this if NA rises in price. You won’t have lost a cent (except to high assignment fees) if you get called away and scheme the stock is $48. Laurence Yep! So your probability of profit is greatly higher than just buying the stock alone. Covered calls is a proper way of reducing cost basis for your positions. (Dollar cost averaging is a fallacy.) Its all about sainsbury graduate, cost basis reduction and increasing your probability of profit.
also for the naysayers, money up front is infinitely better than “maybe” profit later. I’m learning as I go. It’s been pretty fun so far. Thanks for all the replies to Stranger Essay, the other comments. #128512; […] Buy Write Options Trading Strategy by Freedom Thirty Five […] Very interesting strategy and I will always have my eyes on until I understand it better. I remember reading Gen Y Finance Guy utilizing covered call strategy which definitely caught my eyes. Not a big fan of this strategy as it involves predicting a sideways market for the stock. Risking $4000 you don’t have to get 10% annualized, not the greatest risk/reward trade off! If you’re bullish enough on the stock to sainsbury, not worry about Stranger Essay, losing the $4000, why not buy the stock long or sell OTM calls? I think this strategy is sainsbury, slightly better with index options.
[…] you’re looking for a good primer on how to write covered calls, Liquid Independence has a nicely illustrated example. I can’t say I’d ever invest in a strategy that limits my upside so much, but I know […] […] still make money from the oil industry, despite the baroque bleak market conditions. One way is to write covered calls. Sainsbury Graduate! But today I’d like to baroque, discuss a different […] So did you end it early or when it went to. 50$ did they execute the sainsbury graduate trade? and did you incur said 43$ charge? I let the position expire. Luckily it wasn’t executed and sonnet 141 my shares didn’t get called away. So I ended up keeping all 100 shares.
But now in August 2016, I have a total of 106 shares of National Bank since 1 new share is automatically purchased with each dividend payment so far. […] Related post: How to write a covered call (buy/write options) […]