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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. One of the best ways to prepare for the DBQ (the “document-based question” on the AP European History, AP US History, and AP World History exams) is to look over sample questions and example essays. This will help you to get a sense of The Geneva Conventions War Essay what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response. That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. Definition! I’ll briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of example essays by course. Lastly, I’ve provided some tips as how to best use sample essays in your own preparation process. Without a doubt, the best sample resources come from the College Board. And Modern! This is because they are the ones who design and similes in the administer the AP exams. This means that: Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt. All samples are real student responses from previous years, so you know that they were written under the same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ.
In other words, they're authentic! They not only have scores, they have explanations of each essay's score according to the terms of the rubric. Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of scores. However, there are some examples outside those available from the College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. But in general, a superior example will: Include the prompt and documents. It will be much easier for you to and Modern Essay, see how the information from the documents is integrated into the essay if you can actually look at the documents. Have a score.
Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out there in pluralist theory, the uncharted internet don't have one. Without a real, official score, it's hard to gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is. With that in The Geneva Conventions War Essay, mind, I have below compiled lists by exam of high-quality example DBQs. Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil. Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by Exam. Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to AP European History, and finally wrap up with AP World History. AP US History: Official College Board Examples. Because of the recent test redesign, the College Board has only posted sample responses from 2016 and 2015.
This means there are only two official College Board set of sample essays that use the current rubric. Look here for Crime Investigations Essay, the free-response questions from 2015 and the ones from Conventions War Essay, 2016 with no analysis (so you can look at the question separately from the similes odyssey, scoring guidelines). The Geneva Conventions And Modern! When you're ready for the sample responses, here are the DBQ samples from of the of adopting, 2015 and the samples from 2016. The Geneva And Modern War! If you want to see additional sample sets, you can also look at older College Board US History DBQ example response sets , all the way back to nfl, 2003. To look at these questions, click “Free-Response Questions” for a given year. For the corresponding DBQ examples and scoring guidelines, click “Sample Responses Q1.” Note that these use the old rubric (which is integrated into and Modern Essay the Scoring Guidelines for a given free-response section). General comments about the quality of the essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the which of the following is not of adopting, score is on a nine-point scale instead of the new seven-point scale, and some of the particulars will be different. Conventions And Modern! Older DBQs had up to 12 documents, while the new format will have six-seven documents.
If you do look at which is not a benefit of adopting, older DBQ examples, I recommend using the new rubric to “re-grade” the essays in War Essay, the sample according to the new seven-scale score. I'll also give more advice on which is not how to use all of Conventions and Modern War Essay these samples in milton, your prep later on. The Geneva Conventions Essay! Mr. Which A Benefit Of Adopting! Bald Eagle is an The Geneva Essay, AP US History DBQ Grader in theory, his spare time. AP European History: Official College Board Examples. Unfortunately, sample resources for the AP Euro DBQ are a little sparse than for the other essays, because this past year (2016) was the first year the Conventions and Modern, test was administered in the new format. This means that there is only one set of official samples graded with the Crime Investigations, current seven-point rubric. The rest of the existing available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format implemented this past year.
In the old format there were six “core” points and then three additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the old and new formats: In the old format, you are given a brief “historical background” section before the documents. There are more documents—up to Conventions and Modern War, twelve. The new format will have 6-7. Of The Following Is Not A Benefit The Euro?! There is an Conventions and Modern War, emphasis on “grouping” the documents that is nfl not present in the new rubric. The Geneva Essay! There is similes also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in the new rubric. The Geneva War Essay! The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP European History samples.
You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. Samples by year: You can get samples in the old format all the way back to 2003 from the College Board . (Click “Free-Response Questions” for the questions and “Sample Responses Q1” for Computer Crime Essay, the samples.) If you want to The Geneva Conventions and Modern War Essay, check out some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by the College Board with the new rubric, look at the 2015 AP US History samples and the 2016 AP US history samples . The content will of course be different, but the structure and scoring are the same as they will be for the AP Euro 2016 test. AP European History: Unofficial Samples. Because of the rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in similes in the odyssey, the old format. This means there’s not much to be gained by and Modern War looking outside the College Board’s extensive archives.
However, the which of the a benefit of adopting the euro?, New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on The Geneva Essay it. The format is not identical and it is theory scored out of 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the documents are used versus where outside information is referenced. This will give you a good visual of how you might integrate outside information with the analysis of your documents. Consider how you might integrate this castle into the DBQ that is your life. The Geneva Conventions And Modern War Essay! AP World History: Official College Board Examples. The World History AP exam has just been transitioned to a new format to more resemble AP US History and AP European History for the 2017 test. This means that all currently available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the Crime, seven-point format to War Essay, be implemented this year. In the old format there were seven “core” points and then two additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the old and new formats: There are more documents—up to representational definition, ten. The new format will have 6-7.
There is an emphasis on “grouping” the documents on the old rubric that is The Geneva Conventions and Modern War not present in the new rubric. There is also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in the new rubric. In the old rubric, you need to identify one additional document that would aid in timeandmoneynow, your analysis. The new rubric does not have this requirement. The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP World History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. For whatever reason the questions and the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for World History, so you’ll need to click separate links to get the Conventions and Modern Essay, question and pluralist documents and then the responses. If you want to Conventions and Modern War Essay, take a look at some DBQs that have been graded with the new rubric, you could check out the 2015 and 2016 samples from AP US History and the 2016 samples from AP European History. The historical content is different, but this will give you an idea of how the pluralist theory, new rubric is implemented. Don't worry, the old format isn't as old as this guy right here. How Should I Use DBQ Examples to The Geneva and Modern War Essay, Prepare?
So, now that you have all of milton these examples, what should you do with them? I'll go over some tips as to how you can use example DBQs in your own studying, including when to start using them and how many you should plan to review. College Board sample essay sets are a great way to The Geneva Conventions, test how well you understand the rubric . This is Computer why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on in your study process—maybe even before you've written a practice DBQ. Then, when you compare the scores you gave to The Geneva and Modern War Essay, the scores and scoring notes for the samples, you'll have a good idea of what parts of the rubric you don't really understand . Which! If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the graders, you’ll know those are skills to work on. The Geneva Conventions Essay! Keep giving points for the thesis and similes in the then finding out the sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to work on your thesis skills. Not giving points for Conventions and Modern War Essay, historical context and then finding out the milton, AP Grader gave full credit? You need to The Geneva, work on recognizing what constitutes historical context according to the AP. You can check out my tips on building specific rubric-based skills in my article on timeandmoneynow nfl how to write a DBQ.
Once you've worked on some of The Geneva Conventions and Modern Essay those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. This way you can see how your ability to pluralist, grade the The Geneva Conventions and Modern Essay, essays like an AP grader improves over time! Obviously, grading sample exams is a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at examples in an old format (e.g. AP European History or AP World History samples). The old scores as awarded by the College Board will be helpful in establishing a ballpark—obviously a 9 is still going to be a good essay under the 7-point scale—but there may be some modest differences in grades between the representational, two scales. (Maybe that perfect 9 is Conventions Essay now a 6 out of 7 due to nfl, rubric changes.) For practice grading with old samples, you might want to pull out two copies of the new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and each re-grade the samples.
Then, you can discuss any major differences in The Geneva and Modern Essay, the grades you awarded. Having multiple sets of which of the of adopting eyes will help you see if the scores you are giving are reasonable, since you won’t have an official seven-point College Board score for comparison. How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using? The answer to this question depends on your study plans! If it's six months before the The Geneva Essay, exam and timeandmoneynow you plan on The Geneva and Modern Essay transforming yourself into a hard diamond of DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on a sample set every few weeks to a month to check in on your progress towards thinking like an representational, AP grader.
In this case you would probably use six to nine College Board sample sets. If, on the other hand, the exam is in a month and you are just trying to get in The Geneva Conventions and Modern War Essay, some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to 10 days. It makes sense to check in on definition your skills more often when you have less time to study, because you want to Essay, be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on the skills that need the most work. So for a short time frame, expect to timeandmoneynow, use somewhere in the range of three to four range College Board sample sets. Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and doing some practice DBQ writing of your own . Towards the The Geneva Conventions Essay, end of your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading.
Read and complete a timed prompt, then grade the sample set for that prompt, including yours! The other essays will help give you a sense of what score your essay might have gotten that year and any areas you may have overlooked. There's no one-size-fits-all approach to using sample sets, but in general they are a useful tool for making sure you have a good idea what the Crime Essay, DBQ graders will be looking for when you write your DBQ. Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here? Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in Essay, your arsenal of study strategies for Crime Essay, the AP History exams. Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of your own blind spots so you know what skills to focus on in your own prep.
That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the The Geneva Conventions War, same mistakes over and over again. Timeandmoneynow! And make sure you aren't using sample essays to avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to do at least a couple even if you only have a month to practice. There you have it, folks. The Geneva Conventions Essay! With this list of DBQ examples and tips on how to use them, you are all prepared to integrate samples into pluralist your study strategy! Still not sure what a DBQ is? Check out my explanation of the DBQ.
Want tips on how to really dig in and Modern, and study? I have a complete how-to guide on preparing and writing the DBQ (coming soon). If you're still studying for AP World History, check out definition, our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list. The Geneva And Modern War Essay! Want more material for timeandmoneynow nfl, AP US History? Look into this article on the best notes to Conventions and Modern Essay, use for studying from one of our experts. Also check out her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by milton blindness 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the Conventions and Modern War Essay, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at pluralist, improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life.
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rf antenna resume Resume keywords summary: Antenna,RF,Microwave,millimeter. Profile/Cover Letter: SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCE. Research Engieer, Microwave and The Geneva War, Antennas Group/Millimeter antennas team, Institute. of Electronics and Telecommunication of Rennes (IETR), France, (Since October. 2009). (Millimeter wave antenna array development for pluralist theory, 60GHz indoor communication. Research Engineer, Microwave and The Geneva and Modern Essay, Antennas Group/Millimeter antennas team, Institute of Electronics and blindness, Telecommunication of Rennes (IETR), France, (September 2008 to September 2009 ). (Millimeter wave antenna development for 60GHz. Postdoctoral Research Associate at the Electrical Engineering Department, University Arkansas, USA (2008) (Microwave and millimeter wave material. characterization for imaging, imaging of Radome samples from US Airforce and.
Senior Research Fellow at Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and. Technology, India (2005-2007). (Microwave dielectric resonator antennas and The Geneva and Modern War, microwave. Lecturer Department of Electronics, WMO, University of Calicut, India (1999 - 2005 ). ( Teaching and definition, Research - Electromagnetics, Basics of Electronics, Analog and digital. electronics, antennas, microwave engineering . ) 5 years of The Geneva, teaching experience at which following is not of adopting the euro? graduate level (Electromagnetic theory, RF Microwave theory, Antenna Engineering, Control systems, Digital analog systems, Digital signal processing, Microprocessors etc).
More than 6 years of research experience in Microwave and Millimeter wave antennas,Microwave communication, microwave and millimeter imaging, FDTD mathematicalmodeling, HFSS, CST simulation software's, Ansoft designer and and Modern Essay, Metamaterial, etc. Received CNRS ( Centre national de la recherch scientifique ) fellowship (France) twice for doing research at Institute Fresnel, and IETR University of Rennes1,France (2007, 2009). Biography included in pluralist, the 25th Silver Anniversary Edition of Who's Who in the World in the field of Engineering (2006-2007) Authored/co-authored 40 research papers in International Journals such as IEEE IEEElectronics Letters, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters etc. The Geneva War. and in conference proceedings. Jury member in PhD defence committe at university of timeandmoneynow, Marne la Valle, Paris , France.
Awarded research fellowship through Faculty Improvement Programme (FIP) for undertaking doctoral research work by University Grants Commission (UGC), under the Ministry of Human resources development, Govt. of India, India.(2005-2007) Qualified UGC-NET test for lecturers conducted by University Grants Commission,Ministry of Human Recourses Development, Government of and Modern War, India. In India this test is of the is not a benefit the euro? mandatory for the post of Lecturer appointment in the Universities and Colleges (2001) First Rank Holder, M.Sc Electronics examination, Cochin University of Science and Technology ( CUSAT) Kochi, India (1999) Recipient of K.G Nair Endowment gold medal for The Geneva War Essay, securing first Rank in theory, Masters in Electronics, which was one of the honorable award given to the most talented student of the Department of Electronics, CUSAT, India (1999) M.E.S Merit Scholarship for studying Master of The Geneva Conventions War Essay, Science (1996-1998). Topper in B.Sc Degree examination (90.8%) at M.E.S College, Under University of of the following the euro?, Calicut, Kerala, India (1996) 1. Conventions War Essay. PhD Microwave Engineering from representational Cochin University of Science and Technology,Cochin, Kerala, India, defended on 5th January 2008. Thesis Title Hexagonal Dielectric Resonator Antenna- A novel DR antenna forwireless communication
2. M.Sc Elecronics (Electromagnetics) from Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala, India, 1996-1999 , First Rank with Gold Medal, 84.2%,CGPA -8.5/10 . 3. B.Sc Physics ( Electronics) from The Geneva Conventions Essay university of Calicut, Kerala, India, 1993-1996, First class with Distinction, 90.8%, Topper in the Institution. Development of millimeter antenna array development for 60 GHz communication (CANON -Currently going on) Development of 79GHz CAR Radar ( for in the odyssey, VALEO -Currently going on) Study and Conventions and Modern Essay, Development of millimeter wave antennas at 60GHz 2008-2009, Britany Region Fund (France) Developed 13.5GHz bipolar antenna array with 10 and 40 tilt, for Computer Essay, LATMOS, France (completed 2010) Development of 24GHz array antenna for The Geneva Conventions and Modern War, BOUYGUEST Telecom, France (2010 completed)
Measurement of Dielectric parameters of Radome sample from representational US Airforce in The Geneva Conventions War, 2008 using free space measurement technique.(University of Arkansas, USA) Microwave Imaging of theory, Biological Objects for The Geneva Conventions War Essay, Medical Applications using Free Space Complex Permittivity measurements 2004-2005 (India) Experience in working from 1 GHz to Crime Investigations Essay, 110GHz. Experience in The Geneva Conventions War, Microwave and Millimeter wave Antennas and array designing using Ansoft HFSS, Ansoft Designer, CST Microwave studio. Proficient in Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) electromagnetic modeling Experienced in using PNA 8362B Network Analyzer, Vector Network Analyzer HP 8510C and definition, 8714ET. Experience in War, carrying out antenna measurements in Computer Investigations Essay, Anechoic Chambers. Hands-on experience in building of antenna prototypes using photolithography and antenna experimental work. High-level languages C, C++, FORTRAN, BASIC, VHDL.
Operating systems Dos, Windows 2000/Xp, Vista. Design automation tools Xilinx FPGA. Algorithm development environments MATLAB. Assembly language 8085. General Applications MS office. 1. War Essay. Mohammed Sheik, Bandwidth Enhancement of 60 GHz antennas, 2010 October to 2011 February, Master thesis. Hexagonal Dielectric Resonator Antenna- A novel DR antenna for wireless communication. Developed a new geometry hexagonal shaped dielectric resonator antenna for multiple frequency operation. Milton. DRAs have been of research interest during the last two and a half decades due its low loss, high efficiency, small size compared to The Geneva War Essay, conventional antennas. Many shapes of DRAs are fabricated and studied. A newly shaped hexagonal geometry is timeandmoneynow used for producing multifrequency of operation with a single feed of excitation.
This antenna finds application in. PCS, WLAN applications. The electromagnetic modeling of HDRA is done using FDTD method. PhD Guide Prof. K.T Mathew, Cochin University of Conventions War Essay, Science and Technology, Cochin,Kerala, India. Reconfigurable Digital Hardware for Rapid Prototyping. Guide Smt. Ratnamani, Scientist - D, Naval Physical and pluralist, Oceanographic.
Laboratory(NPOL), Defense Research Development Organisation (DRDO), Cochin,India (6 months). AREAS OF INTEREST. Microwave and Conventions and Modern, Millimeter Wave Antennas, Electromagnetics. Mobile and Satellite Communication, Bluetooth and Broadband Mobile. Application Cavity Perturbation Technique for Material Characterisation, Computer Programming-C , C++ THz imaging. Design of similes odyssey, RF/Microwave Devices Digital Signal Processing. Microwave and millimeter Imaging Finite Difference Time Domain. Method Microwave and millimeter wave Dielectric characterization of. materials (free space method), Computational Electromagnetics. Visited Queens University, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK to present a paper on wearable antennas, during 3rd April 2007 to 7th April 2007 . Postdoc Research Associate at the Electrical Engineering Department, University of Arkansas, USA.
Postdoc at Institute of The Geneva Conventions, Electronics and Telecommunication of Rennes , University of following is not of adopting, Rennes1, France. Visited and Presented a paper at European Space Agency (ESTEC-ESA) center Netherland in The Geneva Conventions War, connection with millimeter wave conference in May. Presented a paper at European Conference on Antennas and Propagation. 2010 at Crime Investigations Essay Barcelona, Spain in April 2010. Visited Switzeland on August 2009 and Qatar on Jan 2010. Presented a paper at IEEE APS conference 2010 attoronto, canada during. o Reviewer, IEEE transactions on Antennas and Propagation since 2010. o Reviewer, International Journal Progress in Electromagnetic Research and. Electromagnetic Waves and Application (PIER JEMWA since 2006). o Chairman, board of Conventions, Studies, Electronics, University of Calicut, Kerala, India (2005-2006) o Member, Board of Studies, Electronics, University of Calicut, Kerala, India (Since 2007) o Subject expert for appointing lecturers in colleges, University of Calicut, India (2004-2007). 1. Milton Blindness. Prof. (Dr.) Mohamed Himdi.
Professor Head of Microwave and Millimeter Antennas Group. Institute of The Geneva Conventions and Modern Essay, Electronic and Telecommunication of definition, Rennes. University of Rennes1, Rennes, France. Ph. 33 2 23 23 67 15 Fax. 33 2 23 23 69 69. Relationship Present Advisor. 2. Asst.Prof. (Dr.) Olivier Lafond. Microwave and Millimeter Antennas Group.
Institute of Electronic and Telecommunication of Rennes. University of Rennes1, Rennes, France. Ph. 33 2 23 23 59 86 Fax. 33 2 23 23 69 69. Relationship Present Advisor. 3. Emeritus Prof. (DR.) K.T.
Mathew. Department of The Geneva, Electronics. Cochin University of milton blindness, Science and Technology, Kochi-22, India. Email firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.comPh. 91-484-2576418, Fax 91-484- Relationship Dissertation Guide.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS (19)/ CONFERENCES (21) 1. Hamsakutty Vettikalladi ,Laurent Le Coq, Olivier Lafond, Mohamed Himdi Effects of different sources. on Superstrate Antenna Performance for 60 GHz Communication Systems, JNM 2011, Brest, France. 2. The Geneva Conventions And Modern. Hamsakutty Vettikalladi ,Laurent Le Coq, Olivier Lafond, Mohamed Himdi, Efficient and High-Gain. Aperture Coupled Superstrate Antenna Arrays for 60 GHz Indoor Communication Systems, Microwave. and optical technology Letters, Vol 52, No.10, Oct. 2010 . 3. Hamsakutty Vettikalladi ,Olivier Lafond, Mohamed Himdi, High-Efficient and High-Gain Superstrate. Antenna for 60 GHz Indoor Communication, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters,vol.8, 4. Which Following A Benefit Of Adopting The Euro?. Hamsakutty Vettikalladi ,Laurent Le Coq, Olivier Lafond, Mohamed Himdi, Wideband and High.
Efficient Aperture Antenna with Superstrate for 60 GHz Indoor Communication systems, IEEE. PS/URSI conference will be held at The Geneva Conventions War Essay Canada 2010 . 5. Of The A Benefit Of Adopting The Euro?. Hamsakutty Vettikalladi ,Laurent Le Coq, Olivier Lafond, Mohamed Himdi, Broadband and High- Efficient Superstrate Aperture Antenna /Array for 60GHz Wireless Communication, European. microwave week will be held at Paris 2010 . 6. Hamsakutty Vettikalladi , Olivier Lafond, Mohamed Himdi, High-Efficient Slot-Coupled Superstrate. Antenna for 60GHz WLAN Applications, European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, 12-16. April 2010, Barcelona , Spain 2010. 7. Hamsakutty Vettikalladi, Olivier Lafond, Mohamed Himdi , High-Gain Broad-band Superstrate. Millimeter wave Antenna for 60GHz Indoor Communications, 5th ESA Workshop on Millimetre Wave. Technology and Applications and 31st ESA Antenna Workshop , 18 - 20 May 2009, ESTEC,
Noordwijk, The Netherlands. 8. A.V. Praveen Kumar, V. Hamsakutty, Jaimon Yohannan and K. T. Mathew, A Wideband Conical. Beam Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antennas, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.6, 2007, pp. 15-17. 9. V. Conventions Essay. Hamsakutty, Jaimon Yohannan, K. T. Of The Is Not Of Adopting The Euro?. Mathew, Effect of Aspects ratio on the performance of. Hexagonal dielectric resonator antenna, IEEE AP-S International Symposium and USNC / URSI. National Radio Science meeting, APS/URSI 2007, June, 2007, USA.
10. V. Hamsakutty, A.V. Praveen Kumar, Jaimon Yohannan, K. T. Mathew, Hexagonal Dielectric. Resonator Antenna for 2.4GHz WLAN Applications, Microwave and Essay, Optical Technology. Letters(USA), 20 Nov, 2006. 11. A.V. Praveen Kumar, V. Theory. Hamsakutty, Jaimon Yohannan and K. T. Mathew, A strip loaded dielectric.
resonator antenna for circular polarisation, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters(USA), Volume 48, Issue 7 , Pages 1354 1356, July 2006. 12. A.V.Praveen Kumar, V. Hamsakutty, Jaimon Yohannan, K. T. Conventions And Modern Essay. Mathew Microstripline Fed Cylindrical. Dielectric Rresonator Antenna With a Coplanar Parasitic Strip, Progress in definition, Electromagnetic. 13. V. Hamsakutty, A.V. Praveen Kumar, Jaimon Yohannan,G. Bindu and K. T. Mathew, Coaxial Fed.
Hexagonal Dielectric Resonator Antenna for multi- frequency operation, Microwave and Optical. Technology Letters(USA), Volume 48, Issue 5 , Pages 878 880, May 2006. 14. Conventions And Modern. A. V. Praveen Kumar, V. Hamsakutty, Jaimon Yohannan, K. T. Mathew*, Microstripline fed Half- Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna for 2.4 GHz WLAN application, Microwave and Optical.
Technology Letters(USA), Volume 48, Issue 4 , Pages 724 726, April 2006. 15. V. Hamsakutty, A.V. Timeandmoneynow. Praveen Kumar, Jaimon Yohannan, K. T. Mathew, Coaxial Fed Hexagonal. Dielectric Resonator Antenna for Circular Polarization, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters. (USA), Volume 48, Issue 3 , Pages 581 582, March 2006. 16. The Geneva Conventions War. V. Hamsakkutty and K. T. Mathew, Dual frequency hexagonal dielectric resonator antenna for in the, DCT. and WLAN applications, National Symposium on Antennas Propagation December 14-16, 2006,
Department of Electronics, Cochin University of The Geneva Conventions Essay, Science and Technology, Kochi-682 022, Kerala, India. 17. Theory. V. And Modern Essay. Hamsakkutty, A. V. Praveen Kumar, Jaimon Yohannan, K. T. Mathew, Hexagonal dielectric. resonator antenna for multifrequency operation, IEEE AP-S International Symposium and pluralist, USNC / URSI National Radio Science meeting, APS/URSI 2006, July, 2006, Alberque, 9-13,USA. 18.
Jaimon Yohannan,V. Hamsakkutty, A. V. Praveen Kumar, Vinu Thomas, G. Bindu and K. The Geneva Essay. T. Mathew, A rectangular dielectric resonator band stop filter, IEEE AP-S International Symposium and USNC. / URSI National Radio Science meeting, APS/URSI , 2006, July, 2006, Alberque, 9-13,USA. 19. A. V. Milton. Praveen Kumar, V. Hamsakkutty, Jaimon Yohannan, K. T. Mathew, Half split cylindrical. dielectric resonator antenna for The Geneva Conventions and Modern War Essay, 2.4GHz wireless application, IEEE AP-S International Symposium.
and USNC / URSI National Radio Science meeting, APS/URSI, 2006, July, 2006, Alberque, 9- 20. A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, G. Representational Definition. Bindu, V. Hamsakutty, and K. T. Mathew Analysis Of Human Breast Milk. At Microwave Frequencies, Progress in and Modern War, Electromagnetic Research (USA), 2005. 21. V. Hamsakutty, A.V. Timeandmoneynow Nfl. Praveen Kumar, G. Bindu, Vinu Thomas, Anil Lonappan, Jaimon Yohannan, K. T. Mathew A Multi- Frequency Coaxial Fed Metal Coated Dielectric Resonator Antenna, Microwave and.
Optical Technology Letters(USA), Volume 47, Issue 6 , Pages 573 - 575 Dec- 2005. 22. Conventions And Modern. Vinu Thomas, C. Gopakumar, Jaimon Yohannan, Anil Lonappan, G. Bindu, A.V. Praveen Kumar, V. Hamsakutty, K. T. Mathew A Novel Technique for milton blindness, Localizing the Scatterer in and Modern War, Inverse Profiling of Essay, Two. Dimensional Circularly Symmetric Dielectric Scatterers Using Degree of Symmetry and Neural Networks. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications(USA), Vol. Conventions Essay. 19, No. 15, 21132121, 2005. 23. G.Bindu , Anil Lonappan, Vinu Thomas, A. V. Praveen Kumar, V Hamsakutty, C.K.
Aanandan, K.T. Mathew Two Dimensional Microwave Tomographic Imaging of Computer, Low Water Content Tissues , Microwave and The Geneva Conventions and Modern War Essay, Optical Technology Letters (USA) Vol. 46, No.6, pp 599-601, 20th September 2005. 24. Pluralist Theory. Vinu Thomas, C. Gopakumar, A. V. And Modern Essay. Praveen Kumar, V. Hamsakutty, Anil Lonappan, G. Bindu, K. Theory. T. Mathew A novel technique for reducing the imaging domain in microwave imaging of The Geneva, two dimensional. circularly symmetric scatterers , Microwave and Optical Technology Letters (USA) Vol.
44, No. 5, pp. 423-427, 5th March 2005. 25. V. A Benefit Of Adopting The Euro?. Hamsakutty, A.V.Praveen Kumar, Jaimon Yohannan, Kattakkal Thomas Mathew, Coaxial Fed. Hexagonal Dielectric Resonator Antenna, Asia Pacific Microwave conference, Dec4-7 2005, china. 26. The Geneva Conventions And Modern. Praveen Kumar A.V., Hamsakutty V, Jaimon Yohannan, Mathew K.T. Microstripline Fed Cylindrical.
Sector Dielectric Resonator Antenna, Asia Pacific Microwave conference, Dec4-7 2005, china. 27. G.Bindu, Anil Lonappan, Vinu Thomas, Jaimon Yohannan, V. Hamsakutty, C.K.Aanandan and. K.T.Mathew, coplanar stripline fed wide band bowtie antenna for ground penetrating radar, URSI, New. 28.
Jaimon Yohannan, A. V. Praveen Kumar, V. Hamsakkutty, Vinu Thomas and K. T. Mathew, Synthesis. of dielectric resonator for in the odyssey, microwave filter designing, Electromagnetic Research Symposium, PIERS. 2005, August 22-26, 2005, Hangzhou, China. 29. Vinu Thomas, C. Gopakumar, Jaimon Yohannan, Anil Lonappan, G. Bindu, A.V.
Praveen Kumar, V. Hamsakutty, K. T. The Geneva And Modern War Essay. Mathew A Novel Technique for Localizing the Scatterer in Inverse Profiling of Two. Dimensional Circularly Symmetric Dielectric Scatterers Using Degree of Symmetry and Neural Networks. Electromagnetic Research Symposium, PIERS 2005, August 22-26, 2005, Hangzhou, China. 30. Jaimon Yohannan, Vinu Thomas, V. Blindness. Hamsakkutty, Praveen Kumar and and Modern War, K. T. Mathew, Microwave. ceramic resonator antenna for communication applications, IEEE AP-S International Symposium and. USNC / URSI National Radio Science meeting, APS/URSI 2005, July 3-8, 2005, Washington DC, 31. Timeandmoneynow. A. V. Praveen Kumar, Jaimon Yohannan, Anil Lonappan, G. Bindu, Vinu Thomas, V. Hamsakkutty, K. T. The Geneva. Mathew, Microstripline Fed Circular Sector Dielectric Resonator Antenna, IEEE AP-S International.
Symposium and USNC / URSI National Radio Science meeting, APS/URSI 2005, July 3-8, 2005, Washington DC, USA. 32. Jaimon Yohannan, A. V. Praveen Kumar, Vinu Thomas, V. Hamsakutty, Anil Lonappan, K. T. Mathew. Half- Split Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna Fifth International Conference on. Ferroelectrics, Ferroelectrics UK 2005, April 26- 27, 2005, University of Paisley, Scotland, UK. 33. G.Bindu , Anil Lonappan,V Hamsakutty, Vinu Thomas, C.K. Definition. Aanandan, K.T Mathew Microwave. Characterisation of Essay, Breast Phantom Materials , Microwave and Optical Technology Letters (USA) Vol.
43, No.6, pp 506-508, 20th December 2004. 34. Timeandmoneynow. Vinu Thomas, C. Gopakumar, Anil Lonappan, G.Bindu, V Hamsakutty, K.T Mathew Microwave. Imaging of Two-Dimensional Dielectric Cylinders with a Multiscaled Frequency Hopping Approach , Microwave and Optical Technology Letters (USA) Vol. Essay. 43, No. 4, pp 353-355, 20th November 2004. 35. Anil Lonappan, V Hamsakutty, G.Bindu, Joe Jacob, Vinu Thomas, K.T Mathew Dielectric properties. of human urine at microwave frequencies , Microwave and Optical Technology Letters (USA) Vol.
42, No.6, pp 500-503, 20th September 2004. 36. G.Bindu ,V Hamsakutty, Anil Lonappan, Joe Jacob, Vinu Thomas, C.K. Aanandan, K.T Mathew Wide. Band Bowtie Antenna with Coplannnar Stripline Feed , Microwave and Optical Technology Letters. (USA) Vol. 42, No. 3, pp 222-224, 5th August 2004. 37.
Vinu Thomas, C. Gopakumar, A.V. Praveen Kumar, V. Hamsakutty, Jaimon Yohannan, K. T. Mathew, Imaging Domain Reduction in Microwave Imaging of Two Dimensional Circularly Symmetric Dielectric. Scatters Using Degree Symmetry Vector International Conference on Photonics, Optoelectronics. and Fiber optics, SPIE 2004, December 9-11, 2004, Cochin, India. 38. V Hamsakutty, Anil Lonappan, Joe Jacob, G.Bindu , Vinu Thomas, A. V. Praveen Kumar, K.T Mathew. Biomedical Applications of Sodium Meta Silicate Gel as Coupling medium for similes in the odyssey, Microwave Medical. Imaging , IEEE AP-S International Symposium and Essay, USNC/URSI National Radio Science. Meeting, APS/URSI 2004, June 20-26, 2004, Monterey, California, USA.
39. Jaimon Yohannan, Vinu Thomas, V. Hamsakkutty, Praveen Kumar , K. T. Mathew, Sr(1-X/2)NaXNb2O6. ceramic dielectric resonator antennas, National Symposium on Antennas Propagation December. 21-23, 2004, Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-682 022, 40. V Hamsakutty, Anil Lonappan, Joe Jacob, Jaimon Yohannan, Vinu Thomas, G.Bindu, K.T Mathew A. Novel Coupling medium for Microwave Medical Imaging , IEE Electronic Letters (UK), Vol.
39, No. 21, pp 1498-1499, 16th October 2003. Date of birth 19th January 1976. Languages Known English (US), Hindi and Malayalam. Marital status Married. 1 BLD EMMANUEL MONIER.
Rennes France 35700. Development of millimeter antenna array development for 60 GHz communication (CANON -Currently going on) Development of 79GHz CAR Radar ( for VALEO -Currently going on) Study and Development of Investigations Essay, millimeter wave antennas at 60GHz 2008-2009, Britany Region Fund (France) Developed 13.5GHz bipolar antenna array with 10 and 40 tilt, for LATMOS, France (completed 2010) Development of 24GHz array antenna for The Geneva Conventions and Modern War, BOUYGUEST Telecom, France (2010 completed)
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Special Forces Combat Recon Manual. Republic of Vietnam. POI 7658, Patrolling FTX. Prepared by Conventions Essay, Project (B-52) Delta. Attached are Reconnaissance Tips of the Trade prepared by Detachment B-52.
Commanders of all units are encouraged to nfl, disseminate, widely, the The Geneva and Modern War Essay information contained therein. The information presented in milton blindness the attached Recon Tips is very appropriate for use in unit and individual training of US and indigenous personnel. Such information can be of The Geneva Conventions and Modern Essay, significant value to units engaged in conventional patrolling as well as special reconnaissance units. Theory? Detachment B-52, 5th Special Forces Group (Abn), 1st Special Forces assembled the original document. And Modern War? Was assisted by personnel of definition, B-52, MACV Recondo School and 5th SFGA Combat Orientation Course School, who contributed from their knowledge and experience. Special credit is The Geneva Conventions and Modern Essay given to milton blindness, MSG Norman A. And Modern Essay? Downey, 1 SG, CCC Recon Company for his assistance. Blindness? This document has been reviewed and annotated by Headquarters, 5th Special Forces Group (Abn), 1st Special Forces. For easy use and reference the document has been organized into Conventions and Modern Essay annexes. While on a mission, minimize fatigue because tired become careless. If you show confidence, your team will have confidence. If the team leader loses his temper it will effect his judgment.
Keep cool and milton blindness think ahead, always keeping an War Essay, alternate plan in blindness mind. Don't be afraid to and Modern War, take advice from your team member. Team work, the key to milton, success, only comes through constant practice and training. Realism must be injected into all phases of training such as zeroing of weapons at targets in Conventions and Modern War the jungle, use of live training aids for similes in the odyssey, PW snatch or ambush practice, etc. Teams that have a good physical training program hove fewer health problems. The Geneva Conventions? Make sure. Crime Essay? that personnel take salt tablets as a preventative measure rather than waiting until collapse is imminent. One tablet in a canteen of water is a good way to take salt, especially on very hot and humid days. Only when plenty of water is available. If your mission calls for emplacing a mine in a road, ensure that an extra fuse is taken along, in case one is Conventions War lost. All personnel should wear loose fitting and untailored clothing on field operations.
Tight fighting clothing often tears or rips allowing easy access to exposed parts of the body for mosquitoes and leeches. Each team leader should have a pre-mission and post-mission checklist to ensure that nothing is theory left behind. Use tact when reprimanding your personnel, especially indigenous team members. The Geneva Conventions And Modern War? If possible, take the man aside to criticize him. This enables him to reason positively to pluralist theory, the criticism, since he will not feel ridiculed and lose self confidence. Do not hang clothing or bandanas on Conventions and Modern Essay green bamboo if you plan on wearing it afterwards. The fuzz on the bamboo is just like itching powder. Conduct English classes for your indigenous personnel, especially interpreters.
Conduct classes for your U.S. Personnel on your indigenous team members dialect. Pre-set frequencies on the PBC-25 so that a quick turn of the dials will put you on the desired frequency. This is nfl especially helpful at night when you want to avoid a light. Carry CS powder in plastic insect repellent or lube oil bottles. It is difficult to put CS powder in them but it is definitely worth the effort.
Sprinkle CS powder in and on empty C ration cans and food containers. This will prevent animals from The Geneva War digging them up once you have buried them. Tape the muzzle of your weapon to keep out water and dirt. Leave lower portion of slits open for ventilation. Computer Crime Investigations? Use one magazine full of tracer during infiltration and exfiltration. If taken under fire during infiltration or exfiltration the tracers can be used to identify enemy positions to friendly air assets. The last three rounds in each magazine should be tracer.
This reminds the firer that he needs a loaded magazine. Replace the cartridge in the chamber of your weapon each morning quietly. Condensation may cause a malfunction. The Geneva Conventions And Modern War? Oil the selector switch on your weapon daily and work the switch back and forth, especially during rainy season. This will prevent the common occurrence of a stuck switch. Always carry a small vial/tube of lubricating oil for pluralist theory, your weapon. Always carry your weapon with the selector switch on safe. To improve noise discipline, tape all sling swivels or remove them from weapons.
During extraction do not fire weapons from helicopters after leaving the LZ because a gunship may be passing under you without your knowledge. Do not retrieve your first expended magazine during contact, because it will consume valuable time. Check all magazines before going on an operation, to ensure they are clean and properly loaded. Never assume that your weapon is clean enough on an operation. CLEAN YOUR WEAPON DAILY.
Place magazines upside down with bullets pointed away from your body in the ammo pouches. This will keep dirt and water out of them and if rounds go off due to enemy fire, you won't be injured by The Geneva Essay, your own ammo. Simple can be effective. Be sure that all snaps and buckles are taped. Do not use paper tape. Place triangular bandages (in original containers) in the ammo pouches.
This makes it easier to remove magazines, and increases the first-aid capability of your unit. Cut the front corners of ammo pouches 1/2-3/4 to Investigations, make it easier to remove magazines during the rainy season. Also, have 2 magazines with pull tabs in The Geneva Conventions each pouch. If they are available, use canteen covers to carry magazines rather than ammo pouches. In The Odyssey? They hold more magazines, are easier to open, and The Geneva Essay you won't need so many pouches hanging from your web gear.
Tie a string or lanyard between M-79 and web belt so you won't lose it when firing the M-16. Keep your UPC-10 secured to your harness during use. If lost with the beeper on, it will negate all other signals on that frequency until the battery runs down. Always carry some type of knife on patrol. Snap links should be secured around the shoulder harness, NOT on the cloth loops.
For survival, each individual should carry, in a first aid pouch on the harness, one tube of bouillon cubes, one tube of salt tablets, and one bottle of purification tablets. One bouillon tube in in the one canteen of water, when dissolved will give energy for and Modern Essay, one or two days. All team members should carry a mixture of fragmentation, CS and WP grenades on their belts for the following reasons: Fragmentation grenades are good for inflicting casualties, CS grenades are ideal for stopping or slowing down enemy troops pursuing your team. In addition they will stop dogs from pursuing you in wet weather when CS powder will dissipate due to wetness. WP grenades have a great psychological effect against enemy troops and con be used for the same purpose as CS Grenades. The use of CS and WP at the some time will more than double their effectiveness.
Smoke grenades should be carried in or on the pack and not on the web gear or harness. You don't fight with smoke grenades and if you need one, 99 times out of similes in the odyssey, 100, you will have time to get it from your pack. Fold paper tape through the rings of grenades and tape the ring to The Geneva and Modern, the body of the grenade. The paper tape will tear for fast use, where plastic or cloth tape will not. Also it keeps the ring open for your finger, stops noise and prevent snagging. Camouflage grenades, using black or OD spray paint. Do not band the milton blindness pins on Conventions and Modern War the grenades flat.
The rings are too hard to pull when needed. Representational? Make continuous daily checks on all grenades, when on patrol, to ensure that the primer is not coming unscrewed. Each team should carry one thermite grenade for destruction of equipment, either friendly or enemy. Do not carry grenades on the upper portion of your harness because the The Geneva Conventions Essay enemy will shoot at representational definition them,trying to inflict several casualties with one shoot. Conventions And Modern War? Sew a long slim pocket on the side of your rucksack to accommodate the nfl long antenna.
Ensure that the Conventions War Essay snap link on your rucksack is snapped through the loop in the upper portion of representational, your rucksacks carrying straps so that you won't lose it during extraction if you have to snap it on a ladder or McGuire Rig. Insect repellent leaks and spills easily, therefore, isolate it from The Geneva Conventions and Modern War Essay your other equipment in the rucksack. Also squeeze air from repellent container and screw on cap firmly. An indigenous poncho and/or a round sheet along with a jungle sweater and a rain jacket are sufficient for sleeping. A claymore bag, sewn onto the top flap of the rucksack is extremely useful to carry binoculars, extra hand sets, camera or URC-10, prepared or any other special equipment. Timeandmoneynow? This gives easy access to The Geneva Conventions and Modern War Essay, those items while on patrol or when you have to ditch the rucksack.
Tie smoke grenades on rucksack between packets. Always use the water from canteens in or on your rucksack before using water in the canteens on your belt. Computer Crime Investigations? This will ensure a supply of water should you lose your rucksack. Test straps on and Modern the rucksack before packing for each patrol. Always carry some parachute cord to repair strops on patrol. Use waterproof bag in rucksack to protect equipment while on timeandmoneynow nfl patrol. This is extremely important during the rainy season. When making VRs always mark every LZ within your AO and near it, on your map. Plan the route of march so that you will always know how far and on what azimuth the nearest LZ is located.
Don't cut off too much of the map showing your recon zone (RZ). Always designate at least 5-10 kilometers surrounding your RZ as running room. Base the number of canteens per map upon the weather and availability of water in the AO. Select water points when planning your route of march. War? Check all team members pockets prior to milton blindness, departing homebase for passes, ID cards, lighters with insignias, rings with insignias, etc. Personnel should only carry dog tags while on patrol. Conventions? If the team uses a grenadier armed with rifle grenades, have him place a crimped cartridge as the first round in each magazine carried. After firing the grenade, he can use the milton rifle normally.
When the magazine is War empty and representational definition a new one inserted the grenadier con then quickly fire another grenade. Always carry maps and note books in waterproof containers. Use a pencil to The Geneva War, make notes during an operation. Ink smears when it becomes wet, whereas lead does not. Inspect each team member's uniform and equipment, especially radios and strobe lights, prior to departure on a mission. If you use the Hanson Rig, adjust your harness and webbing before leaving on patrol. During the milton blindness rainy season take extra cough medicine and codeine on patrol. The location and proper use of morphins should be known by all team members. The Geneva Essay? All survival equipment should be tied or secured to the uniform or harness to prevent loss if pockets become torn, etc. Each US or key team member should carry maps, notebooks, and SOI in the some pocket of each uniform, for hasty removal by other team members if one becomes a casualty.
Take paper matches to the field in waterproof container. Do not take cigarette lighters as they make too much noise when opening and milton blindness closing. Tie panel and mirror to pocket flap to prevent losing. Always carry rifle cleaning equipment on operation, i.e., brush, oil and at least one cleaning rod. And Modern War Essay? Each team should hove designated primary and timeandmoneynow alternate rally points at all times. The team leader is responsible for ensuring that each team member knows the azimuth and approximate distance to each rally point/LZ.
Never take pictures of team members while on patrol. If the enemy captures the camera, they will have gained invaluable intelligence. At least two pen lights should be taken by The Geneva Conventions and Modern, each team. Pluralist Theory? While on patrol, move 20 minutes and halt and listen for and Modern, 10 minutes. Listen half the blindness amount of time you move. Move and holt at irregular intervals.
Stay alert at all times. You are never 100% safe until you are bock home. Never break limbs or branches on trees, bushes, or palms, or you will leave a very clear trail for Conventions and Modern, the enemy to follow. Put insect/leech repellent around tops of boots, on of the pants fly, belt, and cuffs to stop leeches and insects. Do most of your moving during the morning hours to conserve water, however never be afraid to move at Conventions night, especially if you think your RON has been discovered. Continually check your point man to ensure that he is on the correct azimuth.
Do not run a compass course on patrol, change direction regularly. Pluralist? If followed by and Modern Essay, trackers, change direction of similes, movement often and attempt to evade or ambush your trackers, they make good PWs. Do not ask for The Geneva Conventions and Modern, a fix from FAC unless absolutely necessary. This will aid in the prevention of pluralist, compromise. Force yourself to cough whenever a high performance aircraft passes over. It will clear your throat, ease tension, and cannot be heard.
If you must cough, cough in your hat or neckerchief to smother the noise. The Geneva Conventions Essay? Never take your web gear off, day or night. In an area where it is necessary to put the jungle sweater on at night, no more than two patrol members at a time should do so. Take the sweaters off the which of the following next morning to prevent cold and overheating. If you change socks, especially in the rainy season, try to wait until RON and have no more than two patrol members change socks at one time. The Geneva And Modern War? Never take off both boots at the some time. When a team member starts to similes odyssey, come down with immersion foot, stop in a secure position, remove injured persons boot, dry off his feet, put foot powder on his feet and place a ground sheet or poncho over his feet so that they can dry out. Continued walking will make matters worse, ensuring that the Conventions and Modern Essay man will become a casualty, thereby halting the further progress of the following is not the euro? team. Desenex or vaseline rubbed on the feet during the rainy season or in wet weather will aid in the prevention of War Essay, immersion foot.
It will also help avoid chapping if put on similes in the the hands. Gloves will protect hands from The Geneva and Modern thorns and aid in of the a benefit of adopting holding a weapon when it heats up from firing. Conventions War? Place a plastic cover on your PRC-25 to keep it dry in the rainy season. Similes? When using a wire tap device, never place the Conventions Essay batteries in the set until needed. If the pluralist batteries are carried in the device they will lose power even though the switches are in the off position. If batteries go dead or weak do not throw them away while on patrol. Small batteries can be recharged by placing them in arm pits or between the legs of the body. A larger battery can gain added life by sleeping with the battery next to the body. Additional life can also be gained by placing batteries in the sun.
If possible, carry on extra hand set for the PRC-25 and The Geneva Conventions and Modern ensure that it is wrapped in a waterproof container. Always carry a spare PRC-25 battery, but do not remove the spare from its plastic container prior to use or it may lose power. Do not send same or no charge when reporting team location. Similes? Always send your coordinates. Keep radio traffic at Essay a minimum. Avoid over confidence, it leads to carelessness. Just because you have seen no sign of the enemy for 3 or 4 days does not mean that he isn't there or hasn't seen you. A large percentage of in the, patrols have been compromised due to poor noise discipline. Correct all team and/or individual errors as they occur or happen. All personnel should camouflage faces and backs of hands in the morning, at noon and at RON or ambush positions.
Never cook or build heating fires on patrol. No more than two persons should eat chow at any one time. The rest of the team should be on security. The Geneva Conventions And Modern War? When team stops, always check out 40-60 meters from the perimeter. Essay? All team members should take notes while on an operation and and Modern Essay compare them nightly. Each man should keep a list of tips and lessons learned and add to them after each operation. Each man on blindness a team must continually observe the man in front of him and the man behind him, in addition to watching for other team members' arm and hand signals. And Modern Essay? A recon team should never place more than one mine, AP, or AT, in one small section of a road or trail at pluralist theory a time. If more than one is set out the team is just resupplying the enemy, because when a mine goes off, a search will be made of the immediate area for others and they will surely be found.
During the dry season, do not urinate on The Geneva Conventions and Modern War rocks or leaves, but rather in a hole or small crevice. The wet spot may be seen, and the odor will carry further. When carrying the M-79 on Crime Investigations patrol, use a retainer band around the The Geneva Conventions and Modern War stock to hold the safety on safe while moving. When crossing streams, observe first for activity, then send a point man across to check the area. Then cross the rest of the patrol, with each taking water as he crosses. Representational Definition? If in a danger area, have all personnel cross prior to The Geneva and Modern Essay, getting water. Representational? Treat all trails (old and new), streams, and The Geneva Conventions Essay open areas as danger areas. Carry one extra pair of socks, plus foot powder, on patrol, especially during the rainy season. In addition, each team member should carry a large sized pair of socks to place over is not the euro?, his boots when walking or crossing a trail or stream.
During rest halts don't take your pack off or leave your weapon alone. The Geneva War Essay? During long breaks, such as for noon chow, don't take your pack off until your perimeter has been checked for at least 40 to 60 meters out for 360 degrees. During breaks throw nothing on the ground. Either put trash in your pocket or spray it with CS powder and Computer bury it. In most areas, the enemy will send patrols along roads and major trails between the hours of 0700-1000 and from 1500-1900.
Since most of the enemy's vehicular movement is at night, a team that has a road watch mission should stay no less than 200 meters from the road during the day and move up to the road just prior to last light. When the enemy makes a security sweep along a road, usually twice a week, he normally does not check further than 200 meters to each flank. If you hear people speaking, move close enough to hear what they are saying. The reason is The Geneva War obvious. The VN team leader should make notes. While on patrol, don't take the obvious course of action and don't set a pattern in your activities, such as, always fuming to the left when button hooking to ambush your own back trail. A dead enemy's shirt and contents in pockets, plus pack, if he has one, are normally more valuable than his weapon. Grenades not ready for combat (taped to web gear improperly)
rings not secured for safety. The FAC is second in importance to your weapon while on combat operation. Learn all you can about FAC procedures. Proper use of FAC support could mean the difference between whether or not you return from a patrol. When making a FAC VR take a map that covers the AO from the FOB to your RZ.
Never fly directly over similes odyssey, your RZ (down the middle). Conventions Essay? Fly along the side of your RZ so you can observe as much as possible in your RZ. Whenever you hear an aircraft, ensure that your radio is turned on, they may be trying to contact you. Representational? The FAC is severely limited in bad weather and The Geneva and Modern War Essay the rainy season, plan for this. The average time for reaction to an immediate request is 15-45 minutes. The tactical aircraft may have mixed ordinance or, if it's a diverted aircraft, the ordinance someone else has requested for a pre-planned target.
If a patrol, not in contact with the enemy, requests an air strike against a specific target, request appropriate ordinance to destroy the target. Don't use the PRC-25 as a homing station for the FAC because VC have homing equipment for FM radios. Instead, use the radio to direct FAC to milton, your position. The FAC must know your position on the ground before he will clear any strike craft on and Modern Essay your target. Odyssey? The Mirror is the way of best signaling the The Geneva and Modern War FAC to Computer Crime, mark your position. The Geneva War? If the sun is not out, use the clock system with your panels. If the sun is obscured by clouds you can still signal an aircraft by placing your strobe light against your signal mirror. The pilot can more readily see the flashes from the strobe light as they are reflected from the mirror. Do not cut your signal panel if it will make it difficult to see from the air. When using the transponder or beacon never point the antenna at the aircraft.
The antenna should be parallel to the aircraft. Use smoke, flares, pen guns, and tracers as a last resort for marking your position. Pilots should identify the color of smoke used by teams on the ground after it has been thrown. The team does not identify the color to nfl, the pilots. Violet and red smoke are the best colors to use. If contact is made with enemy and you are in a dense jungle, use WP grenades to mark your location for the FAC.
Normally the regular red and violet smoke grenades are not sufficient. Conventions And Modern War Essay? There are several methods of Computer Investigations, marking your location at night. You can use a flashlight, strobe light, flares or WP grenades. The flashlight should be placed inside of a M-79 barrel and aimed directly at the aircraft. This shields the Conventions Essay light from observation by the enemy. Tape or paint the sides of the strobe light to of the following the euro?, make it more directional and to reduce illumination from the sides. Notify the The Geneva and Modern aircraft before firing a pen flare since a flare resemble a tracer. Pluralist? Never fire them directly at the aircraft. When directing a FAC to and Modern War, your position or target area use the clock system. NOTE: The nose of the definition aircraft is the twelve o'clock position. Don't use AZ readings to direct aircraft until the FAC has your position located.
Once located use AZ reading in degrees to your target and distance in meters. Always give the FAC a complete description of your target and target area. Make adjustments for The Geneva Conventions, the FAC after each round and after each aircraft makes a pass. Give the track that you request, always try to put strike across your front. Do not call air in with its strike track coming directly across your position, from the front or rear.
NOTE: A strike that is a fraction too soon or late could land in your position. IT HAS HAPPENED BEFORE. A combat sky-spot can be used as an immediate or pre-planned strike. Timeandmoneynow Nfl? You must give him an eight digit coordinate and a track for the aircraft. War Essay? NOTE: If possible, have the FAC determine the which a benefit of adopting patrol's location before the sky spot makes a strike. Whenever possible, try to give a BDA (bomb damage assessment) to and Modern, the FAC. A FAC can be used effectively to direct a team in contact to LZ's. A FAC can also provide an airstrike to prep an exfil LZ for a team before it reaches the LZ. This is a good technique to employ in dangerous areas. A FAC can be used to nfl, break off contact while a patrol is waiting for strike craft. A low pass or a pass firing a marking round may make the enemy think they are being attacked, thus causing them to Conventions and Modern War Essay, withdraw.
When directing Shadow over your target do not let him fly directly over the targets. Ask Shadow to drop a flare and direct him to the target from that flare. Make adjustments from his tracer impact area to nfl, insure that you get full target coverage. Poor Recon technique (stripes, no camo, and easily identified U-S American). Where is his weapon? Tent pegs are aluminum and The Geneva and Modern War painted orange. making them easy to representational definition, see during daylight hours and. remove at Conventions and Modern War night once you have marked there positions.
Practice proper RON procedures when your team is training, even if you are on rifle range. Take advantage of all training opportunities. Many training areas are not in similes in the odyssey what we would call safe zones. Select a tentative site for RON, from your map, at least two hours in advance. Deviate from The Geneva your route of march often. Never move in a straight line. After passing a suitable RON site fish hook and move into your selected position so that you can observe your own trail. When in position, personnel should keep their equipment on and remain alert until the perimeter has been checked for 360 degrees at a distance of definition, no less than 40 to 60 meters. Packs should not be taken off until it is dark.
Before dark each team member should memorize the azimuth and distance to the trees and The Geneva Conventions and Modern Essay bushes around his RON. When deploying the team for RON, place the point man in a position opposite the most likely avenue of Investigations Essay, approach to lead the The Geneva Conventions and Modern Essay team out in case of emergency. Representational Definition? If a team is within range of friendly artillery, and The Geneva Conventions War has preplanned concentrations, azimuths should be taken (OT line) to be concentrations, noting distances, prior to night fall. Nearby large trees or propositioned stakes will aid as hasty reference points for representational, calling in artillery at night. If it is necessary to send in nightly SITREP, do not send the message from your RON position. Send your present location but add that you will RON 100 meters east or 200 meters north, etc. This will confuse the enemy as to your exact location in the event he has monitored your transmission with DF equipment.
Use your SOI. The Geneva War? Keep transmissions to a minimum. It is better to theory, send the location of your RON position the next morning, after you have moved out. The enemy may monitor your traffic but he will not know in what direction you plan to move. Do not send radio transmissions from your RON site unless they are necessary. Be prepared to move if you do send radio transmissions. Prior to dark, the team leader should tell each man the primary and alternate rally points.
One half of the team should have their compasses set on the primary rally point and the other half on the alternate. The Geneva Conventions And Modern War? If the enemy comes from the direction of the primary rally point, the man with the azimuth of the alternate rally point set on his compass can lead the team out. A buddy system should be established in case casualties are taken at night. Each man will take care of another man and his equipment if one is wounded, injured, or killed. In The Odyssey? The pack or rucksack can be used as a pillow, however, ensure that the and Modern Essay carrying straps are in the up position for easy insertion of the arms in case of rapid withdrawal. It is permissible to unhook the web gear or harness but it should not be taken completely off, at night or at any time during the entire stay in the field. If a person coughs or talks in his sleep, make him sleep with a gag in his mouth. US team members should not bunch up or sleep next to each other.
One grenade or automatic burst from a weapon could get them all. Each team member should be able to touch each other without moving from position. Odyssey? Check your RON position to form a peak in the canopy for using the strobe light to direct Shadow at night. Know what your next day's plans are to be before settling down for the night. The Geneva Conventions War Essay? When placing claymores around your RON they should be placed one at a time by two men, one man emplacing the mine while the other stands guard. Never emplace claymores in a position that prevents you from having visual contact with it.
Claymores should be emplaced so that the blast parallels the odyssey team, ensuring that the The Geneva and Modern firing wire does not lead straight back to the team position from the mine. If the claymore are turned a round by the enemy they will not point at the team. Determine, in advance, who will fire each claymore and who will give the timeandmoneynow nfl command or signal. In most instances it is better not to put out claymores around RON positions but rather to rely on the use of CS grenades for the following reasons: When claymores have been put out, and the enemy is discovered to and Modern War Essay, be moving in on the team, the team will have a tendency to blindness, stay in place too long, waiting for the enemy to get within the The Geneva killing zone. If the team discovers the enemy moving in on them, the enemy will normally be on line, not knowing the exact position of the representational definition team. If no claymores are out, predesignated team members throw CS grenades in the direction of the enemy force. And Modern? After the gas begins to disperse the timeandmoneynow team can withdraw. When the enemy is hit with the CS he will normally panic.
If he has gas masks with him, and puts them on, he can no longer see clearly. If he does not have them he will run away and may even fire his weapon indiscriminately, causing overall confusion and panic. In either case, the team has a good chance to War, escape, unharmed and unseen. If a claymore is triggered, a grenade thrown, or a rifle fired, the enemy may flank the team and box it in. All team members should be awake, alert, and ready to timeandmoneynow, move, prior to the first light.
Another check of the perimeter, for 360 degrees, at a distance of at least 40 to 60 meters, should be made prior to moving out Conventions and Modern Essay, or prior to retrieving claymores. A thorough check should be made of the RON site to ensure that nothing is left behind and that the odyssey entire site is sterile. The team leader must make sure that each man takes his daily malaria tablet. Never eat chow or smoke cigarettes in your RON position. The odor of the food or tobacco gives your position away. Be alert when leaving your RON. If you have been seen, you will probably be attacked or ambushed within 300 meters. Team leaders should check themselves to ensure they are not forming the and Modern War common habit of constantly turning to the left, or right, when fish hooking.
Habits are easily formed, as mentioned previously around certain times of the day. Following A Benefit The Euro?? For example, some always move into an RON site at 1830 hours or into a noon break position at exactly 100 hours each day. If the enemy has been observing you, he will take note of this and and Modern Essay will plan an ambush for you. Breaking Out of Encirclement Tips. General: Too many times Recon Teams which have not planned for or practiced methods to blindness, break out from the encirclement have been encircled by the enemy. War? The following methods and theory suggestions have worked for others in and Modern Essay the past and it is hoped that this will be of nfl, assistance to you in the future if you find yourself and your team in such a situation. Team encircled, the sooner you attempt to break out the better chance you will have to do so effectively and with the least amount of and Modern War Essay, casualties. The longer you wait the pluralist stronger the enemy becomes. Preparations for breaking out of Conventions, encirclement: Plans must be mode prior to the break out attempt to Investigations, take care of the following: Rucksacks and equipment left behind must be destroyed by The Geneva Conventions War Essay, someone. Dead must be left behind. Someone must remove any classified documents such as SOIs, notebooks, maps, etc.
One or two persons, depending upon the size of the team must have the mission, during the following break out assault, of rear security. This will include assisting any personnel who may be wounded before or during the attempt. Additionally they should recover documents from personnel killed during the break out movement. No attempt should be mode to try to War, take KlAs with the team. Keep in mind that the successful completion of your mission depends on getting the information back to headquarters. All personnel must be reminded of the important information the team has observed. Formation to use: The most effective method a small element can use (5 to 12 man teams) is to form into a pyramid configuration, with the base of the pyramid leading. The following actions should take place: The teams forms into position. CS rounds from M-79s and/or CS grenades are fired or thrown to the flanks.
WP grenades are thrown to the rear. A claymore mine and/or grenades are fired or thrown in the direction the team will move. Representational? Immediately after the claymore and/or grenades go off to the front, the team moves out. The first element of line will fire on The Geneva Conventions and Modern War Essay full automatic. The others hold fire. When the first elements' magazines are empty, the second element moves through them and continues the representational definition fire. Conventions War? When the second element has emptied their magazines the first element will have reloaded and will pass through them, taking up the assault but will only fire on semi-automatic. Once the team starts to move it must move rapidly, but not run, and never stop until completely out of the encirclement.
Supporting fires: Artillery, helicopter gunships and TAG Air, if available, should be used to assist your break out which following a benefit, attempt. These are discussed below: Supporting artillery fire, within range, can be effectively employed to The Geneva Conventions and Modern War, pave your way out of an timeandmoneynow nfl, encirclement or near encirclement. The Geneva And Modern Essay? When foul or inclement weather prevents your use of helicopter or TAC air for support, you must use artillery if available. Artillery support, when available, should also be requested at the first sign of trouble for many times it can be firing in your direction before air support can arrive on station to milton, assist you. It is a common practice, as you learned in basic training, that when you are subjected to incoming mortar or artillery fire, you move out of the area as quickly as possible. Enemy forces follow this same doctrine. When you desire to Conventions, break out, with the aid of artillery, first have the fires placed completely around your position, then having selected your desired heading, walk the artillery in front of pluralist, you. This will effectively lead you out of the danger area and you may even pick up a shell shocked or wounded PW on The Geneva Conventions and Modern War Essay your way out. Helicopter gunships can assist you with almost continuous close in fire support, firing directly in front and to the rear during your break out attempt. The effect this fire will have is dependent upon the density of the vegetation, location of your team, and whether or not your supporting aircraft crews can see you or your signals. You may have to direct their fire by adjusting from the strike of the rounds and rockets.
Tactical airstrikes can assist you in similes your attempt to break out of an encirclement. The Geneva Conventions And Modern War? To do this, call for bombs in the direction you desire to move. Since the enemy will get as close to similes in the, the team as possible to avoid airstrikes, it is preferred to call in the bombs first and Conventions then hove the TAC Air fire his machine guns and 20mm in front of you as you move out. They can place machine gun fire much closer to you than bombs. General: Once your recon team has been selected for a PW snatch mission and of the following is not a benefit of adopting given a recon zone the following actions should be taken in addition to those normally taken for a recon mission. Study the The Geneva map to find a possible location to conduct your PW snatch within your RZ. Conduct a visual reconnaissance to familiarize yourself with the terrain, select LZ's, EE routes, reference points, record any new trails in RZ and pick tentative PW snatch positions. Finalize plans for timeandmoneynow nfl, primary and alternate LZ's and routes of march to and from PW snatch location you selected while on VR. If you have any photos or have taken some during your VR, study them carefully.
Assign duties for each patrol member and War draw equipment needed both for training and for actual preparation. AWPRT-r and AMPRR-9 or HT1 radios should be taken for Computer Crime Investigations Essay, in-position transmission and signaling. Flight time to and from the target area considering the time recovery aircraft will have on target should be remembered by the team leader when he selects the number of personnel and helicopters it will take for insertion and The Geneva War extraction. Plan the altitude of the insertion and extraction LZ's with the load carrying capacity of the aircraft in mind. Training: Practice rehearsals and put as much realism into your training as possible. Milton Blindness? If you are going to handcuff, gag and and Modern Essay blindfold your prisoner then do it during your training. If you plan to carry your prison, don't carry him just 20 or 30 meters as is representational definition commonly done but as far as your proposed extraction LZ.
Designate men to accomplish the following missions: Handcuff, blindfold, search and gag prisoner. Treat and bandage prisoner's wounds. Carry or assist him. Carry his equipment and weapon. Cover the The Geneva Essay tell tale signs at similes in the odyssey the ambush site. Take care of friendly WIA's or MIA's to include their weapon and equipment. Take point, rear security and who will be alternates in each class. Make security check of extraction LZ. Stand guard over prisoner at The Geneva War LZ. to in the, get on board exfil aircraft first.
Lift prisoner into aircraft. Conventions And Modern Essay? Secure prisoner to blindness, floor of aircraft. Ride out with prisoner. Bring out Conventions and Modern, prisoner's equipment. Other actions that need to be practiced, explained and rehearsed are: Action taken by timeandmoneynow, each team member if discovered in snatch position.
Movement into position. Signals to be used. Concealment of personnel and The Geneva Conventions and Modern Essay equipment. Computer? Employment of claymores. Action to be taken if the team's preparations are not completed in time. Action to be taken if inclement weather moves in preventing any possible extraction attempt. Considerations for selecting the location of the Conventions and Modern PW SNATCH SITE. Nfl? Generally speaking there are three different locations, a road, a trail and a village or living complex.
The advantages and disadvantages are as follows: Location on a Road: Advantages: Vehicles and/or troops will pass by thus ensuring a possible target. A lone messenger on foot or riding a bicycle is very possible. Personnel moving on a road are not, normally, very familiar with the surrounding terrain or area. hampering their pursuit of the team in case of compromise. Sites can normally be found which offer long stretches of clear visibility. Disadvantages: Large formations of troops use roads and normally sweep possible ambush sites with security elements. Rapid reinforcement is The Geneva War Essay easily effected. Nfl? Security elements normally check roads for The Geneva Conventions and Modern Essay, mines and ambushes each morning and evening.
Stationary security elements are normally positioned every two to five kilometers along all roads. Troops and convoys traveling on roads are constantly on the alert for Computer Investigations Essay, possible ambushes and carry heavy caliber weapons to break them up if they occur. Location on a Trail: Advantages: Not so apt to encounter large numbers of enemy troops. The Geneva Conventions And Modern? Advantageous snatch sites are more easily located which will permit good concealment, good vision, hamper the effectiveness of enemy counter fire, and still be close enough to the trail to perform the mission in the least time possible. Enemy personnel are not normally as cautious or alert to possible ambushes when moving down a trail. The ambushing element can more readily and easily cover up signs that anything happened. Rapid and effective enemy pursuit is representational definition not as likely as on a road. Disadvantages: More likely to encounter personnel who are familiar with the local area. Dogs, women and children are more likely to be encountered.
Pre-planned sites/locations for PW snatches are more difficult to locate. The Geneva War Essay? The enemy can jump off a trail and disappear easily. Normally you are right on a trail before being aware of it's presence which could allow for discovery of the team by passing enemy personnel. Never attempt a PW snatch from a village or complex unless you have extraction aircraft available which guarantee immediate extraction. The reasons for this are many. Timeandmoneynow? First, the individual will soon be missed; second, village dogs will more likely give away your presence; third, if discovered, pursuit will be immediate and the locals know the surrounding terrain much better than you to include any nearby LZ's; fourth, most villages of any importance will have security elements surrounding them and they will normally have established preventative measures to preclude such snatch. Other considerations: Have at least two extraction LZ's and two rally points selected and ensure that each man knows the azimuth and approximate distance to each before moving into position. Select a good ambush site. Do not place an ambush at the spot where you first come up to a road or trail. This can only get you into trouble.
Always search at least 200 meters along a road or trail and on each flank of your ambush site. The Geneva War? Look for major road or trail crossings, bunkers, complexes, outposts, and any other signs of the enemy which might prevent the successful execution of your mission. Upon final selection of the actual snatch site, the team leader, should trace a diagram, in the dirt, of the site and point out Computer Crime Investigations, each team member's position, pertinent terrain features, and ask for questions. Prior to moving into the snatch position, be sure your RTO has notified your base station of your intentions. Cache your rucksacks prior to moving into the ambush positions.
Be sure that the carrying straps are in the up position for The Geneva Conventions War, faster and easier recovery. Double check all weapons and essential equipment prior to nfl, moving into your final position. Try to attempt your PW capture within the first three to four days. The Geneva Conventions? The team members will still be in good physical condition, their morale and theory spirits will be up, thus giving you a much better chance for success. The Geneva And Modern Essay? Types of PW ambushes: Normally, there are four planned and two unplanned PW ambusher. Normally on a PW snatch mission the team leader will select one of the planned types after considering the variables of his own personnel and equipment, knowledge of the enemy, weather and terrain. Similes Odyssey? The team will practice this type of ambush prior to departing on the mission.
In addition they should rehearse their actions for the two types of unplanned PW ambushes. The planned and The Geneva and Modern Essay unplanned types are as follows: Gas (Planned): The advantages and disadvantages of using CS Powder or gas are as follows: Advantages: Quickly incapacitates the individual, preventing him from using his weapon accurately. Will prevent the use of which is not a benefit of adopting the euro?, dogs being used in the pursuit of the friendly element. Enemy personnel will have to The Geneva Essay, put on masks to enter the area, which will hamper their vision and which of the following is not the euro? therefore their effectiveness. Disadvantages: The team cannot hide the and Modern War fact that they were there and that an incident took place. The CS powder will cling to the PW's and similes odyssey friendly clothing which may effect the efficiency of the extraction helicopter's crew members if they do not have masks. Team members cannot see clearly because of the necessity to wear masks. The prospective PW will probably panic when exposed to the gas causing him to run and have to be chased down. CS powder is normally dispersed by using explosives which will alert any nearby enemy elements of the team's presence and location. Other: When your team is set up for a gas ambush have all personnel place their gas masks on top of their heads. It will only take a couple of seconds to Conventions and Modern Essay, pull the masks over their faces just prior to initiating the ambush.
Claymore and Explosives (Planned): This is set up with C4 explosive placed between claymores. Personnel in the zone of the C4 will be stunned and/or incapacitated while the claymores will kill and wound the is not a benefit of adopting the euro? personnel in their zone. Advantages: As normally set up, with C4 spaced between the claymores, the corrosion will incapacitate an Conventions and Modern War, individual but not kill him. The team can hit a large element. Will ensure that the timeandmoneynow enemy is stopped. Will thoroughly disorganize and confuse the element hit, preventing them from reacting effectively. Disadvantages. The noise of the explosive going off will alert enemy forces of the team's presence and location.
C4 takes a long time to emplace properly. The disturbed soil and vegetation will mark the The Geneva War Essay team's location. This will aid the enemy in his attempts to pick up the timeandmoneynow nfl team's departure tail. The additional weight of the demolitions may hamper swift movement. The resulting smoke, rising above the trees and vegetation, could result in enemy mortar fire on the site, if any are located in the general area. Silent Weapon (Planned): Use of a silenced or muffled rifle or pistol. Advantages: The noise from the weapon being discharged is minimal. The Geneva Conventions And Modern War Essay? A well executed and placed round will stop an enemy and prevent his returning fire or using his weapon. Care should be taken to hit the intended PW's right arm or shoulder. This should prevent him from returning fire, but will enable him to walk.
Disadvantages: A wounded PW may die of shock or loss of blood before proper treatment can be given. A wounded PW will have to be assisted and possibly carried, thus slowing down the definition team during it's withdrawal from the site. Care must be taken not to The Geneva Conventions and Modern War Essay, leave a blood trail. A silenced weapon is not normally as reliable as an unsilenced one and in the case of a silenced pistol it would necessitate carrying another weapon, both of which must be available, within easy reach when springing the nfl ambush. Fire/Silent Capture (Planned): Advantages: There is little noise to give the Conventions and Modern War team's presence or location away.
A live and healthy PW is the best kind. Disadvantages: There are no significant disadvantages to which of the following the euro?, a no fire/silent capture. Chance Contacts (Unplanned): Both the friendly and enemy elements may see each other at the same time. Conventions And Modern Essay? A team must always be prepared to take a PW during a chance contact, especially with a small enemy element. Theory? If contact is made with a small local or regional force element, they will normally break and run. This is because they seldom carry more than three magazines each for an AK-47. Those who carry the Conventions and Modern War Essay SKS rifle/carbine may have extra rounds in one pouch, making it difficult to representational definition, reload and of negligible influence upon the outcome of The Geneva and Modern War Essay, a firefight. The team, after firing the initial rounds, should deploy into a defensive posture and look for enemy wounded. If one is located, don't move directly up to him. You may be fired upon or set a grenade thrown at you, forcing you to kill him in self defense. Instead, throw a CS grenade at him.
After a few moments in the CS most of the will to resist should be out of his mind and you will have a PW. If there are between two to five enemy, attempt to deploy around them asking them to representational, surrender. If, after a few minutes, you have not received desired results, it is better to break contact and move away before reinforcements arrive, remembering that you are in the enemy's territory. Hasty ambush (Unplanned): Where the friendly elements may observe the and Modern enemy before being seen and take up a hasty position to capture them. There can be no set or prescribed way to set up for a hasty ambush. Each team leader should establish his own SOP. A hasty ambush can result in a capture of a PW only it it is practiced and rehearsed to perfection.
Ambush positions and Executing the pluralist Ambush: Positioning of Personnel: No attempt will be made here to tell you exactly how to emplace your personnel into ambush positions. Whether you have five or twelve team members it is possible to succeed if you have the desire and training. By constant practice and Conventions training, using live ammo and training aids, you will come up with the best disposition for similes in the odyssey, your personnel to suit you, your plans, and your team. The Geneva Conventions And Modern War Essay? One of the which a benefit of adopting the euro? best references you will have is your own and The Geneva the teams experiences. Theory? Ask other team leaders of The Geneva Conventions War Essay, their attempts, both successful and pluralist theory unsuccessful, solicite their advice. The final decision is yours.
A good point to The Geneva and Modern War Essay, remember, when selecting personnel for key positions, is that an which is not of adopting, indigenous team member firing his weapon normally keeps his finger depressed on the trigger until all the rounds are expended. If you have an 8 to 12 man team give strong consideration to The Geneva Essay, placing three men on each flank for security and nfl early warning. They will psychologically feel more secure and will normally retain their position if one is The Geneva War wounded, thus better ensuring the successful accomplishment of the mission. During a PW snatch, place the M-79 on the flank of the ambush. Timeandmoneynow? Claymore should be set on each flank of a PW snatch if possible. Be patient and wait for the right moment and opportunity when one or two individuals come along the road or trail. Without patience your mission will most likely fail. Once you have committed yourself and sprung the Essay ambush, you must be aggressive. By that I mean that you must immediately react. If you have wounded or otherwise halted your prospective PW, you must immediately move to physically secure him. Do not give him a chance to think or react.
If you do not do this he will more than likely run or attempt to fire his weapon, forcing you to timeandmoneynow, kill him. If an attempted PW snatch fails, in that the individual dies, his body should be completely stripped and his belongings taken back to Conventions and Modern, the S2. Of The Is Not Of Adopting? The body should then be taken a great distance away and hidden, if at War all possible. When the individual turns up missing, the enemy may assume that he has been captured and following is not a benefit of adopting the euro? has talked. This will necessitate the enemy changing his plans and Conventions War Essay moving his headquarters; when he could have been doing something else. Don't be conspicuously identified as American. It is better to be mistakenly identified as another friendly patrol. Watch your interval!
Movement Technique: There are five basic techniques of movement that can be employed by small recon teams to avoid being detected or encircled by milton, enemy forces. Each of these are explained and discussed below: The Box Technique: This is a simple and effective method to use and The Geneva and Modern Essay takes very little practice to employ. From a given point the definition team moves out on a set azimuth for specific set number of meters or paces, for example let's say 35 meters. The Geneva Conventions Essay? The team then makes a 90 degree turn and timeandmoneynow nfl moves 75 meters, then another 90 degree turns for 30 meters, another 90 degrees turn for 30 meters, another for 30 meters. You will have formed a box. At this point you can do any one of several things. You can wait in ambush for and Modern Essay, your trackers, or pursuers, walk backwards across your old trail, if the vegetation and soil is such that it is milton blindness impossible to hide your tracks, or continue on. When you move out, after having formed your first box, move for another 50 to 75 meters and form another box. By forming these boxes, it will enable you to The Geneva Conventions Essay, ambush your pursuers and will definitely confuse any trackers as to your direction of movement. Computer Crime? It will also discourage the enemy if you occasionally booby-trap your back trail. The Geneva Conventions And Modern Essay? You can maintain a general heading that you desire to go without the of the following the euro? enemy force becoming aware of it until you are out of the danger area or until he loses you completely.
A word of Conventions War, caution though, and that is not to milton blindness, continually make your boxes the same size or to continually turn to the right or left. Never set a definite pattern of movement. Examples follow: Explosives can be used for many field expedient uses. When loading the aircraft for infiltration, insure the The Geneva Conventions War team is seated so that they can exit the proper door. Lead the Computer team in reverse team order with the tail gunner being the The Geneva Conventions and Modern first one in the aircraft. The senior advisor position inside the aircraft is between the pilot and similes odyssey co-pilot's seats.
The remainder of the team sits against the firewall of the A/C. Sudden shifts of Conventions War, weight in representational flight will cause temporary loss of Conventions and Modern War, aircraft control. The team leader and pilot will determine direction of approach to the infil LZ for nfl, loading of team. The team leader will follow the flight with his map from The Geneva Conventions their FOB to his infil LZ. Team members will unload one at of the is not of adopting a time to enable the pilot to Conventions and Modern, stabilize his A/C. Representational? On a ladder LZ the team leader insures the ladder is down. Note: If A/C is more than 6-8 foot off ground use ladder to The Geneva Conventions, avoid injury to team members. If pointman exits the A/C under fire, the which a benefit of adopting entire team will exit the A/C.
If the A/C is shot down the team leader is in command on the ground. He will do the following: Account for his team and A/C crew. Secure an The Geneva Conventions and Modern, area 40-50 meters in front of the nfl A/C. Care for The Geneva Conventions and Modern War, the wounded/dead. With the pilot return to the A/C to nfl, ensure the radios are zeroed of freq, gas is off, destroy! the battery, remove maps, SOI, notebooks of the pilots and M60s and ammo. C 11 for pick up A/C.
Evac A/C crew and wounded/dead on first recovery A/C. Rest of his team on the last recovery A/C. Inform your personnel in what order they will be extracted prior to the arrival of the Conventions and Modern extraction A/C. Milton? The LZ should be secured prior to the arrival of the A/C. Team leader should give pilot a track to fly, and describe his LZ. Conventions And Modern War? Team members should approach the exfil A/C from the front.
Note; Doing this the door gunner can support the team easier. Team could use both doors if exfil LZ is a sit-down but should notify pilot first. The team leader is the last to enter aircraft and will give the pilot an UP. In selection of LZs avoid likely LZs or large LZ. Sniper who is the officer!
Members of Special Forces Detachment A-14. supervise construction of definition, defenses at the. hamlet of Chau-Lang during December of 1962. (US Army) Booby traps indicate the presence of. the enemy or something to Hide. ie caches or enemy fortifications. If you'd like to use any of this content on your website, please notify me via email prior to posting the content.
Also, please credit the source as Hardscrabble Farm and The Geneva War if an author or contributor is noted, please credit them too. Basically, if you want to swipe my stuff, I know I can't stop you. or it would be costly, time consuming, and definitely NOT fun to try.
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Employers prefer this resume template so try to use it even if it means you have to iron out a few problems such as unemployment in Conventions War, your work history. Word Resume Templates from Microsoft. Pluralist Theory? These are resume templates designed by none other than Microsoft itself. These are resume templates made by Microsoft itself. You can download these .dotx files and The Geneva Conventions and Modern use them as templates in Microsoft word. Nfl? You can open this file like any other routine .doc file in Word. Set of 3 pages for The Geneva Conventions and Modern War, a free word resume template for blindness, the entry level. This is a resume designed for newcomers. The Geneva Essay? The entry level guys who are starting their career. Another set of 3 pages for which of the following, a free word resume template . This resume is designed for The Geneva Conventions and Modern War, intermediate level professionals, containing three different aspects of pages.
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Essay on War Essay, Ozone Layer Depletion: Top 6 Essays | Atmosphere | Environment. Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and which of the following is not, 12. The Geneva Conventions And Modern Essay? Find paragraphs, long and short essays on Essay, ‘Ozone Layer Depletion’ especially written for school and The Geneva Conventions and Modern, college students. Essay on the Introduction to Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Causes of pluralist theory, Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Mechanism of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on and Modern, the Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Hole Formation Essay on the Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion Essay on the Solution to Ozone Layer Depletion. Essay # 1. Theory? Introduction to Ozone Layer Depletion : The ozone layer protects the Earth from the ultraviolet rays sent down by the sun. If the ozone layer is depleted by human action, the effects on the planet could be catastrophic. Ozone is present in the stratosphere.
The stratosphere reaches 30 miles above the Earth, and at The Geneva Conventions War, the very top it contains ozone. The suns rays are absorbed by the ozone in the stratosphere and thus do not reach the Earth. Ozone is a bluish gas that is formed by three atoms of oxygen. The form of oxygen that humans breathe in consists of two oxygen atoms, O 2 . When found on the surface of the planet, ozone is timeandmoneynow, considered a dangerous pollutant and is one substance responsible for producing the greenhouse effect. The highest regions of the Conventions and Modern War, stratosphere contain about 90% of all ozone.
In recent years, the ozone layer has been the subject of much discussion. And rightly so, because the ozone layer protects both plant and animal life on the planet. The fact that the ozone layer was being depleted was discovered in the mid-1980s. The main cause of this is the release of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons. Antarctica was an early victim of ozone destruction. A massive hole in the ozone layer right above Antarctica now threatens not only that continent, but many others that could be the victims of Antarctica’s melting icecaps. Crime Investigations Essay? In the Conventions and Modern War, future, the ozone problem will have to milton blindness, be solved so that the protective layer can be conserved. Essay # 2. Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion: Only a few factors combine to create the problem of ozone layer depletion. The production and emission of CFCs, chlorofluorocarbons, is by far the leading cause. Many countries have called for the end of CFC production because only a few produce the Conventions Essay, chemical.
However, those industries that do use CFCs do not want to discontinue usage of this highly valuable industrial chemical. CFCs are used in definition industry in and Modern Essay a variety of ways and have been amazingly useful in Computer Crime Investigations many products. Discovered in the 1930s by Conventions War Essay American chemist Thomas Midgley, CFCs came to be used in which of the is not of adopting the euro? refrigerators, home insulation, plastic foam, and throwaway food containers. Only later did people realize the disaster CFCs caused in the stratosphere. There, the chlorine atom is removed from the CFC and attracts one of the three oxygen atoms in the ozone molecule. The process continues, and a single chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 molecules of ozone. In 1974, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina followed the path of CFCs. Their research proved that CFCs were entering the atmosphere, and they concluded that 99% of all CFC molecules would end up in the stratosphere.
Only in 1984, when the ozone layer hole was discovered over Antarctica, was the proof truly conclusive. At that point, it was hard to question the destructive capabilities of CFCs. Even if CFCs were banned, problems would remain. There would still be no way to remove the CFCs that are now present in the environment. Clearly though, something must be done to limit this international problem in the future. Essay # 3. Mechanism of Ozone Layer Depletion: It includes, 1. The natural process. 2. The anthropogenic process. Atmospheric oxygen absorbs ultraviolet radiation shorter than 240 nm and photo-dissociates into and Modern War Essay two oxygen atoms. These unite with other O 2 molecules to form ozone.
During the process surplus energy of nascent O 3 is often transferred to Computer Crime Investigations Essay, the nearby molecules as kinetic energy which slightly raises the Conventions War Essay, surrounding atmospheric temperature. Ozone too is effective in absorbing particular short wavelength UV radiation in the range 230-320 nm, releasing atomic oxygen. This natural mechanism, however, does not necessarily upset the ozone equilibrium because the loss of ozone caused by natural process is compensated by the creation of ozone through atmospheric circulation. Thus a dynamic equilibrium existing between the production and decomposition of ozone molecules constitutes one of the most important mechanism. The heat generated during the reaction causes a rise in temperature of the stratosphere. Timeandmoneynow Nfl? Secondly, the The Geneva, photochemical process absorbs most of the harmful solar ultraviolet radiations of representational, wavelength from 2000 A to 3500 A. Hence the atmosphere is heated because of this absorption and the earth’s biosphere is shielded from these radiations. The Geneva And Modern Essay? Without it, life on the earth would be completely destroyed. The atmospheric layer of ozone surrounding us acts like a blanket, protecting or shielding us from the harmful UV radiations from the Essay, sun. So the Essay, ozone screen acts as our protective cover in cutting of the fatal UV radiations from the solar system. Ozone acts as a powerful oxidant because of its ability to remove electrons from Computer Crime Investigations other molecules.
It occurs as a natural component of air. Conventions Essay? It is also formed in ambient air by photochemical reactions of primary pollutants. Its higher concentration is generally found in large urban areas of the Computer Crime Essay, world, which are characterized by War Essay automobile—dependent transportation and petroleum dependent energy production etc. Surface ozone is produced as a result of Computer Investigations, chemical reactions in the atmosphere driven by the action of Essay, UV radiation in the sunlight, involving both nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and volatile organic matter (VOM). While both NO x and VOMs are emitted in large amount by vehicles, other important sources of VOMs are solvents used in industrial and chemical processes. According to British scientists, this surface ozone is responsible for the substantial reduction in blindness the yields of major crops like wheat and rice. The surface ozone, a secondary pollutant, can spread in high concentrations over rural areas. There are the The Geneva Conventions and Modern War, other sources of ozone in the environment, such as gamma radiation used in food preservation plants, commercial UV lamps used for sterilization, high voltage electric equipments, dermatological phototherapy equipments and even in definition photocopying machines. Ozone also occurs in air and water purification plants and oil wax, textiles and inorganic synthetic industries. We know that there are natural chemical and photochemical processes which lead to the continuous formation and The Geneva and Modern Essay, destruction of ozone in timeandmoneynow the stratosphere.
The balance between these processes would result in a steady condition with a well-defined and Conventions War Essay, stable ozone layer. However only oxygen chemistry cannot adequately explain the present situations. Other chemical species also play a role in determining the actual concentrations and can lead to enhanced ozone destruction. Some of these species occur naturally, while others are of recent industrial origin. The amount of in the, some of the natural species moving into the stratosphere has been augmented in recent years by a number of human activities. Many of the processes, which are responsible for the depletion of ozone layer, share a general mechanism of the type, Here X is the and Modern Essay, reacting species. The most common of these species have been identified to be free radicals, such as HO x (• H, • OH, HOO •), NO x (• NO, • NO 2 ) and ClO x (• CI, • CIO). Each of representational definition, these species is capable of destroying the ozone layer in varying degrees, depending on altitude and the mixing ratio. For example, near the stratosphere the HO x radicals are responsible for The Geneva Essay, about 70% of the total mechanism of theory, ozone destruction, including the Conventions War, oxygen only process. Lower in the atmosphere around 30 km, the NO x catalytic decomposition process dominates the ozone destruction mechanism.
The NO x cycle in the region just above the troposphere has been found to be responsible for about 70% of the ozone destruction, but recent studies show that this figure may be even more. The HO x radicals are generated by either of the following two photochemical reactions: where O is theory, excited state oxygen. These reactive free radical species (• H or • OH) decompose ozone in the following manner: Production of • OH radical is largely due to the natural processes and their relative importance increases with increasing altitude. The hydrogen radical decomposes the ozone in the following way: The nitric oxide cycle contributes in a significant way in the natural destruction of stratospheric ozone in the lower region of the stratosphere: In the upper atmosphere, NO is produced by reactions involving atomic and ionic species of nitrogen and Conventions and Modern, oxygen. These species are produced by the highly energetic radiation that penetrates that part of the atmosphere. Photodecomposition of N 2 is possible at of the the euro?, altitude much greater than 30 km, producing both an and Modern War, electronically excited N( 2 D) and a ground state N( 4 S) atom.
The ground state nitrogen subsequently reacts with O 2 , producing another natural source of NO: At altitudes of representational, less than 30 km, additional NO is also generated via a reaction: Where O( 1 D) is excited state oxygen. The principal source of The Geneva Conventions War Essay, nitrous oxide is the process of denitrification in soils having high concentration of nitrate ion: The increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2 O) mixing rations is due (to some extent) to enhanced rates of denitrification resulting from greater use of nitrogenous fertilizers worldwide.
Although the mixing ratio of nitrous oxide in the troposphere is steadily increasing, the nfl, production of stratospheric nitric oxide through various processes can, in a large part, be attributed to natural causes. Nitrogenous fertilizers are also responsible for much of the increase. The nitric oxide that has been generated by combustion near ground level, or even at The Geneva and Modern Essay, altitudes where subsonic aircrafts fly, is Computer Crime Investigations, not considered to be major contributor to the stratosphere, because it has a very short (about 4 days) tropospheric residence time. The CFCs and halons are entirely manmade with wide applications in air conditioning, refrigeration, aerosols, electric and metal clearing, foam blowing and modern firefighting. They act as a catalyst in the destruction of ozone layer in the stratosphere.
The rate of destruction of ozone is further enhanced by the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) released from the exhausts of large fleet of supersonic aircrafts (SST). A wide range of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are known, but widely used are CFCl 3 and CF 2 Cl 2 , which are in The Geneva and Modern use since 1930. CFCs and halons remain inactive in the troposphere and it takes about theory 20-40 years for these chemicals to Essay, travel and reach the stratosphere, but after that their intermediate product (chlorine radical) retrains active for more than 100 years. The travelling time for CFCs and halons to reach to similes, stratosphere may range from 20 to 40 years, that is, CFCs generated in the troposphere today may take 20 to 40 years to reach the stratosphere. Once these CFCs and halons reach to stratosphere, the chlorine and bromine atoms present in The Geneva Conventions Essay these chemicals are released as a result of interaction with UV radiations in the stratosphere. In spite of the fact that CFC molecules are much heavier than those of air, they tend to be well mixed and homogeneously distributed throughout the troposphere in the gas phase because of theory, strong convective mixing. We know that CFCs are almost completely inert both biologically as well as chemically in the earth’s environment, including in the troposphere. The Geneva And Modern? Because they do not react, they circulate through the troposphere until they leak or escape into blindness the stratosphere. At higher altitudes they are capable of undergoing UV photolytic decomposition, as a result of being exposed to and Modern War Essay, the intense flux of energetic UV radiation— CFCI3 + hv (? 290 nm) > • CFCl 2 + • CI.
The released chlorine radical is capable of taking part in the catalytic decomposition of similes in the, ozone as follows: A second and perhaps third chlorine radical could also be produced by further decomposition of • CFCl 2 radical, generating additional • CI radical responsible for ozone depletion— Chlorine atoms catalyse the destruction of ozone. At 30 km, the natural contributions to ozone destruction by chlorine accounts for about 10% of the total. A significant natural precursor of The Geneva Conventions and Modern War, atomic chlorine is CH 3 Cl, which is produced biogenically from the oceans, from the burning of vegetation and theory, from volcanic emissions. Once in the atmosphere, CH 3 Cl undergoes photochemical reaction, Other natural sources of chlorine are various forms of The Geneva Conventions, chlorine. Milton Blindness? Such sources as HCl released by volcanoes or CI – ions released from The Geneva Conventions War Essay sea-salt spray are short-lived in the troposphere and most of them are washed out timeandmoneynow nfl through the The Geneva and Modern Essay, rainfall before they reach the stratosphere. Representational? There are other catalytic cycles also involving chlorine. For example,
Bromine (from, say halons) can also replace chlorine in the cycle and together these reactions account for and Modern War, about 60% of the routes by which ozone is destroyed by halogens. It should be noted that natural sources produce small amounts of atomic chlorine in the stratosphere, but there is a significant destruction of ozone by chlorine derived from the anthropogenically produced CFCs. Taking into consideration the ozone depleting CFCs and halons, scientists are trying to modify the which following is not a benefit, relative amounts of fluorine, chlorine and hydrogen in new compounds. Thus a common approach is to incorporate hydrogen in the structure, as in hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) or replace chlorine and The Geneva and Modern War, produce hydrofluorocarbons(HFCs). Increasing the content of hydrogen reduces the inertness of the compound and in this way the lifetime of the nfl, compound in troposphere may be made short. The presence of hydrogen means that the compounds are more reactive and flammable. But the higher reactivity is a disadvantage in many applications. If the proportion of fluorine is increased at the expense of Conventions and Modern War, chlorine, then a highly stable compound will be formed because the bond energy of C-F bond is larger than C-Cl bond. This will reduce stratospheric photolysis to a very significant extent. Moreover, such compounds are excellent and persistent greenhouse gases. For compounds containing no chlorine, obviously no CI atoms can be released, so there is blindness, no potential to deplete ozone.
Increasing the The Geneva and Modern War Essay, chlorine content is undesirable, because the ability to destroy ozone will be higher and because compounds containing chlorine and hydrogen tend to be more toxic. From a combined industrial and environmental point of view, HFC-134a (CF 3 CH 2 F) is more promising. This HFC has intermediate stability and it is oxidised by the • OH radical in the troposphere and theory, has residence time of 18 years. It is The Geneva and Modern, neither very flammable nor have chlorine. Theory? So it is War, not expected to have ozone depleting potential. HCFC-123 (CF 3 CHCl 2 ) is another replacement for similes odyssey, CFC. Conventions And Modern? It contains chlorine, but has only about one tenth ozone depleting potential of CFC—11 (CFCl 3 ), largely due to its relatively short tropospheric life time. Halons, the bromine analogues of CFCs have widely been used in fire extinguishers because of the blindness, following important reasons: (a) Their high density, due to which they settle over and smother a fire at ground level.
(b) Bromine atom terminates the radical chain reactions which propagate the combustion process. Methyl bromide, used as soil fumigant, is also a potent ozone depleting substance. In fact, chemicals containing bromine are much more reactive than the chlorine analogues in Conventions and Modern War terms of depletion of ozone. Because of this, ODP values for bromine compounds are very high. For example, ODP values of the halons bromochlorodifluoromethane, CF 2 ClBr (H-1211), bromotrifluoromethane, CF 3 Br (H-1301) and dibromotetrafluoroethane, CBrF 2 CBrF 2 (H-2402) are 3.0, 10.0 and 6.0 respectively. Essay # 4. Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Hole Formation: The ozone hole is in the, actually an area of thinner normal ozone. Temperature is The Geneva War, a key factor in which following is not the euro? ozone loss, along with chlorine and bromine chemicals. In 2001, the Antarctic ozone hole reached a maximum size of more than 26.5 million sq.km – larger than the entire area of North America, including the US, Canada and Mexico combined. In the year 2000, it briefly approached 11.30 million sq. The Geneva And Modern War Essay? km.
In 2002, ozone hole over Computer Investigations Antarctica was not only much smaller than what it was in The Geneva and Modern 2000 and 2001, but it has split into two. It was measured at 15.6 million sq. km. In September 2002, a figure well below the more than 24 million sq. km spread seen consecutively during the last six years. The hole’s total column ozone was measured below 220 dobson units. Ozone depletion is an milton, annual phenomenon over the South Pole during August and September when coldest temperatures are prevalent.
Thin clouds form in these cold conditions and chemical reactions on The Geneva Conventions and Modern Essay, cloud particles help chlorine and bromine gases to rapidly destroy ozone. By early October, temperatures typically start to warm and the ozone layer starts to recover. The size and the duration of the hole depend on definition, natural year to year variability of atmospheric conditions. In the Antarctic (and Arctic) conditions exist where spring time ozone depleting events may occur, resulting in a major loss of ozone over a relatively short time. The conditions include a complex combination of climate factors as well as accumulation of and Modern War, reservoir species which react vigorously to bring about pluralist theory a major loss of ozone, especially at the onset of the first day light of the polar spring. During the Conventions Essay, long dark winter in the Antarctic, a stream of air is drawn towards the Computer Crime Investigations, South Pole, creating a giant vortex because of intense cold and the Earth’s rotation.
The area within the vortex acts like a self-contained chemical reactor in which unique chemical processes take place. For one thing, inside the reactor, stratospheric clouds form because of exceptionally low temperatures which exist in and Modern War Essay the absence of similes odyssey, light. The clouds are classified into two types: (a) The polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) are formed at about 193 K and consist of about 1 µm diameter particles of HNO 3 and H 2 O in the ratio of 1: 3. (b) The polar stratospheric clouds, which are formed when the temperature decreases to 187 K. These clouds are made up of relatively pure particles of water-ice upto 10 µm in size. The accumulated gases— reservoir chlorine and and Modern War, nitrogen containing species (mainly hydrochloric acid, hypochlorous acid and chlorine nitrate) are also present in the vortex. During the winter, these species take part in heterogeneous reaction on Crime Investigations, the surface of PSCs and Conventions, consequently release chlorine molecules and Computer Crime Investigations, HOCl: The relatively stable situation remains until after the onset of sunlight. The Geneva Conventions? At that time solar radiation provides energy for the photolysis of chlorine and HOCl to produce the chlorine radical species.
The chlorine radicals so formed are then available for blindness, ozone depletion by catalytic cycles or according to following reactions: Depletion of ozone occurs rapidly so that even in some days, ozone levels decrease dramatically to half or even less of The Geneva and Modern War, their winter value. This situation persists until the air temperature rises, causing the vortex to break up and the PSCs to disappear. Investigations Essay? This occurs in mid to late spring, when chlorine radicals again become tied up by the formation of hydrochloric acid and chlorine nitrate, and The Geneva Conventions War Essay, the ozone begins to recover to pre-hole levels. In the representational definition, Arctic atmosphere, as a result of the eruption of The Geneva Conventions Essay, Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines during 1991, sulphate was found to be present at higher concentrations than usual. Stratospheric sulphate is usually in the form of an aerosol and milton blindness, acts as a catalyst for the removal of N 2 O 5 by forming nitric acid. This reaction is a means by which NO x species are removed from the polar stratosphere, thus eliminating one of the species which is associated with holding cycles that tie up chlorine monoxide radicals (• CIO + • NO 2 + M > ClONO 2 + M). As a result, higher concentrations of reactive chlorine species are present, thus leading to more rapid ozone depletion. In addition, this reaction could occur to a large extent throughout the stratosphere (not just at the poles), decrease of the worldwide ozone concentration.
Essay # 5. Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion: Even minor problems of ozone depletion can have major effects. Every time even a small amount of the ozone layer is lost, more ultraviolet light from the sun can reach the Earth. Every time 1% of the ozone layer is depleted, 2% more UV-B is able to reach the The Geneva Conventions and Modern War Essay, surface of the planet. UV-B increase is one of the Computer Essay, most harmful consequences of ozone depletion because it can cause skin cancer. The increased cancer levels caused by exposure to this ultraviolet light could be enormous. The EPA estimates that 60 million Americans born by the year 2075 will get skin cancer because of The Geneva Conventions War Essay, ozone depletion. About one million of these people will die. In addition to cancer, some research shows that a decreased ozone layer will increase rates of following the euro?, malaria and other infectious diseases. Essay? According to the EPA, 17 million more cases of cataracts can also be expected.
The environment will also be negatively affected by ozone depletion. The life cycles of plants will change, disrupting the food chain. Effects on animals will also be severe, and are very difficult to foresee. Oceans will be hit hard as well. The most basic microscopic organisms such as plankton may not be able to survive. If that happened, it would mean that all of the other animals that are above plankton in the food chain would also die out. Other ecosystems such as forests and deserts will also be harmed. The planet’s climate could also be affected by depletion of the ozone layer. Computer Crime Essay? Wind patterns could change, resulting in climatic changes throughout the world. Essay # 6. Solution to Ozone Layer Depletion : The discovery of the ozone depletion problem came as a great surprise. Now, action must be taken to ensure that the ozone layer is not destroyed.
Because CFCs are so widespread and used in such a great variety of products, limiting their use is hard. The Geneva Essay? Also, since many products already contain components that use CFCs, it would be difficult if not impossible to pluralist theory, eliminate those CFCs already in existence. The CFC problem may be hard to solve because there are already great quantities of CFCs in the environment. CFCs would remain in The Geneva War the stratosphere for another 100 years even if none were ever produced again. Despite the similes in the, difficulties, international action has been taken to limit CFCs.
In the Montreal Protocol, 30 nations worldwide agreed to reduce usage of CFCs and The Geneva and Modern War, encouraged other countries to do so as well. However, many environmentalists felt the pluralist, treaty did “too little, too late”, as the Natural Resources Defense Council put it. The treaty asked for CFC makers to The Geneva War, only eliminate half of their CFC production, making some people feel it was inadequate. By the year 2000, the US and twelve nations in Europe have agreed to ban all use and production of CFCs. Representational? This will be highly significant, because these countries produce three quarters of the CFCs in the world. Many other countries have signed treaties and written laws restricting the The Geneva Conventions and Modern Essay, use of CFCs.
Companies are finding substitutes for CFCs, and people in general are becoming more aware of the dangers of timeandmoneynow nfl, ozone depletion.