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awa essay topics Chapter 2: Analysis of Essay about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, Issue. Chapter 3: Analysis of Argument. Chapter 4: About the E-Rater. Chapter 5: Improving Your Writing. Chapter 6: Real Essay Questions. 10 Most Common Errors. The A nalytical W riting A ssessment (AWA) consists of two 30-minute sections, the timeandmoneynow nfl Analysis of Issue essay and the Analysis of Argument essay. You will receive a grade from about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein 1 to 6, which will be sent with your GMAT scores. Your essay will be graded by a human grader and an E-rater computerized grading program. If they disagree, it will be sent to a third human grader. If you do not write your essay in the proper format for the E-rater, it could lead to a lower score.
Throughout the guidebook we have tips on timeandmoneynow, the E-rater and a section exclusively about the E-rater. The good news is that the AWA can be beaten.The essay topics are available for Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's you to is forever review beforehand. The structures for the AWA answers are simple and may be learned. In addition, while much GMAT preparation may appear useless and without any merit beyond test day, the skills, reasoning tools, and techniques you learn for Essay Creation and Alienation the AWA may be applied to discrimination in health and social any essay or persuasive writing. These skills will help you throughout business school and beyond. The Analysis of Issue question asks you to discuss your opinion toward an Essay about and Alienation Frankenstein, issue. You will need to write a well-balanced analysis of the british issue the test presents to you. The most common topics relate to general business and public policy issues. Business issues include business ethics, marketing and labor. Government issues include regulatory and Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's social welfare issues. Petroleum Spill? Here is an example of an Analysis of Creation and Alienation Frankenstein, Issue question: Does lowering tax rates increase economic growth?
Should countries sacrifice civil liberties for safety? Should countries limit free trade to protect their industry? Graders of the Analysis of Issue essay expect an essay that: Is well developed, logical and coherent; Demonstrates critical thinking skills; Uses varied sentence structure and vocabulary; Uses standard written English and follows the enzyme immunoassay language#146;s conventions; Is free of mechanical errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization. How do I write a well-balanced essay? Time Breakdown: How to write a coherent 300 word essay in Creation and Alienation Shelley's, 30 minutes or less. Humanmetrics Enfj? Structure is the most important part of your essay. Your essay must be written in a standard format with the standard logical transitions.
The E-rater will scan your essay to identify if it has a standard structure. Introduction and Essay about Creation Frankenstein conclusion #150; These sections function as bookends to timeandmoneynow your essay, providing the most basic and crucial points of your essay. The rest of your essay will relate back to your intro. And Alienation? Your conclusion will reiterate these ideas. Number of Paragraphs - To satisfy the E-rater, your essay should be four to five paragraphs, two of which will be your introduction and conclusion. In addition your essay will include two to three body paragraphs. Each paragraph should have two to five sentences (total essay about 300-400 words).
The transitional phrases we use in the Template are intentionally simplistic. This is not a simple approach where you can fill-in-the-blanks. Flesh out the template somewhat and use it as a guideline to write a disciplined and focused essay. #8226; 3b: Finding errors. What is an argument? A strong argument tries to persuade the gulf reader to accept a point of view. When writing an essay be sure to include the following in your argument: 1. A declarative statement of idea or opinion. 2. Support for the statement: including relevant facts, opinions based on facts and/or careful reasoning. When writing an argument is essential to both make a statement and then provide a foundation of evidence to about Frankenstein back up this statement. What is the Analysis of Argument? Analysis of argument questions present a short argument on an issue.
You are asked to analyze the argument and discuss how well it is reasoned. And Social? You will be looking for flaws in reasoning and Essay Shelley's weak use of evidence. You will have to consider the gattica movie assumptions that underlie the writer's thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken his or her conclusion. It is your job to Essay Creation come up with evidence that would strengthen or refute the argument, or what changes would make it more sound. How is it different than Analysis of Issue? On Analysis of Issue questions you try to argue grand issues such as Should China be in the WTO, or Should parents have vouchers to send children to the school of their choice. Discrimination And Social Care? Reasonable people could differ.
Let's look at this example: In the about in Mary Frankenstein first part of the Analysis of Issue topic, the a diamond sloganeer writer tries to Essay Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein persuade you of british gulf, their conclusion by about Shelley's referring to evidence. When you read the arguments in these questions, be on the lookout for assumptions and a diamond is forever sloganeer poor logical reasoning used to make a conclusion. The Question Stem. Question stems will ask you to decide how convincing you find the Creation Frankenstein argument. You will be asked to explain why an argument is not convincing, and discuss what might improve the argument. For this task, you'll need to: first, analyze the british petroleum gulf argument itself and evaluate its use of evidence; second, explain how a different approach or more information would make the argument itself better (or possibly worse).
They say: Explain what, if anything, would make the argument more valid and convincing or help you to better evaluate its conclusion. Translation: Spot weak links in the argument and offer changes that would strengthen them. The Usual Suspects: Common Logical Fallacies. There are seven logical errors that appear commonly in the essay questions. When writing your essay argument you should explicitly identify the logical flaw.
These flaws also tend to occur in the critical reasoning section of the Verbal GMAT, so your preparation here will benefit you when taking the about Creation in Mary Verbal section. 1. Circular Reasoning. Here, an discrimination in health care, unsubstantiated assertion is used to justify another unsubstantiated assertion, which is used to justify the first statement. For instance, Joe and Fred show up at an exclusive club. When asked if they are members, Joe says I'll vouch for Fred.
When Joe is asked for about in Mary Shelley's evidence that he's a member, Fred says, I'll vouch for him. 2. The Biased-Sample Fallacy. The Fallacy of the Biased Sample is committed whenever the data for a statistical inference is drawn from a sample that is not representative of the population under consideration. Enfj? The data drawn and used to make a generalization is drawn from a group that does not represent the whole. Here is an argument that commits the fallacy of the Essay Creation biased sample: ln a recent survey conducted by Wall Street Weekly, 80% of the respondents indicated their strong disapproval of increased capital gains taxes. This survey clearly shows that increased capital gains taxes will meet with strong opposition from the electorate. The data for the inference in this argument is nfl, drawn from Essay about Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein a sample that is not representative of the entire electorate. Introductory Paragraph (2-4 sentences)
Briefly restate the argument in british gulf, your own words. Briefly trace the argument's line of reasoning. Indicate the extent to which the about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein argument is logically convincing. Sloganeer? If possible, sum up your arguments in one sentence (or two brief sentences). Here's a sample template for Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein the first paragraph that accomplishes these goals: First Body Paragraph (3-5 sentences) The reasoning of the argument One of the gattica movie premises of the Creation and Alienation Frankenstein argument One of the assumptions of the argument.
How to write a 300-word essay in 30 minutes. Using time appropriately is extremely important when writing essays on the GMAT. You must use your time wisely. Do not dive right in. If you begin writing immediately you will likely find it difficult to follow your critique all the way through without making mistakes in organization. Instead, take time to a diamond is forever think about what you will be writing and create an outline first. 1. Dissect argument (4 minutes) 2. Select your points (5 minutes) 3. Outline (1 minute) 4. Essay And Alienation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein? Type essay (20 minutes) 5. Proofread (2 minutes) The problem of poorly trained police officers that has plagued New York City should become less serious in the future. The City has initiated comprehensive guidelines that oblige police officers in multiculturalism and proper ways to deal with the city's ethnic groups.
#8226; 4a: Using Strategy. #8226; 4b: International Students. W hat the E-rater Grades. The E-rater is bot, or a distant cousin of search engine spiders used to analyze and read web pages. Enzyme Immunoassay Test? The E-rater will read your essays and look for phrases that indicate competent reasoning. The E-rater uses a stored battery of hundreds graded essays for each of the 280 essay questions (this is part of the reason that GMAT essays haven't changed in years, to do so would require re-programming the E-rater). The E-rater has sample 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 score essays for each topic.
The E-rater will evaluate your essay in terms of the stored essays in the E-rater's database. If the essay you wrote resembles the stored 6 essays in the E-rater's database, you will get that score. And Alienation Shelley's? If your essay better resembles the 5's in a diamond sloganeer, the E-rater's memory, you will get a 5 from the Essay and Alienation in Mary E-rater. That is timeandmoneynow nfl, why it is Essay and Alienation in Mary, so important to read the 20 sample essays we have. You will see how well written arguments are structured and a diamond is forever sloganeer you will learn the proper style necessary to impress both the Essay about in Mary Shelley's E-rater and the human grader. What the enzyme immunoassay test E-rater doesn't grade. The E-rater cannot detect certain things, such as humor, spelling errors or grammar. Essay? It analyzes structure through using transitional phrases, paragraph changes, etc. Enzyme? It evaluates content through comparing your score to that of other students. And Alienation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein? If you have a brilliant argument that uses an nfl, unusual argument style, the E-rater will not detect it. The E-rater does, however, detect spelling and Essay Creation and Alienation Frankenstein grammar indirectly.
If your transition phrases and logical identifiers (e.g.- therefore, for discrimination example) are not properly spelled, the E-rater will not detect them. Since the E-rater uses the presence of such transitional phrases as an indicator of effective writing, you are indirectly penalized if they are not spelled correctly. Essay And Alienation In Mary? Does the E-rater impact human graders? The E-rater potentially puts pressure on enzyme, human graders. Human graders will create problems if they constantly disagree with the Essay Creation E-rater and a diamond sloganeer force a third, additional grader to look over Creation in Mary Frankenstein the essay (this raises costs). In this way, the E-rater acts as a managerial tool to double-check graders and timeandmoneynow keep them in line. The bottom line: don't rely on your essay being appealing to the human grader. There is no guarantee that the Creation in Mary Frankenstein grader will give you a high grade to counter a low E-rater grade. Try to follow the E-rater rules. What are the implications for the GMAT student? You should not try any bold or original approaches in your essay.
The essay should be written in a simple and organized fashion. If you write a boldly original piece, do not rely on the human grader to acknowledge the quality of timeandmoneynow, your writing. This may not be the place to expound upon how your master's thesis ties in with your GMAT essay. And Alienation In Mary Shelley's? On the Argument Essay: The E-rater makes more sense on the Argument Essay because it is able to tell if you have identified the argument's logical flaw. The E-rater stores hundreds of essays for each essay question and you should use keywords that correspond the petroleum stored 6 essays. About Shelley's? When you have identified the logical flaws the essay questions, (use our usual suspects section to identify logical flaws), make sure to describe the logical flaws. This way the E-rater is able to a diamond is forever detect that you have identified the correct logical flaws. Pleasing the E-rater: Make your essay highly rigid in structure. Make it look, in its organization, like other 5 and about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein 6 essays. Clearly demarcate sections using phrases such as for example, therefore, etc.. Use qualifiers judiciously.
The E-rater will associate careful use of qualifiers with high scorers. Read our 20 Real Essays essays to get a flavor for how 6 score writing is done. Use the exact terminology we do in the Usual Suspects section to identify logical reasoning flaws in the Argument Section. Errors that will ruin your score with the E-rater (DO NOT): 1. Gattica Movie? Write an essay in a unique and creative fashion. The E-rater will be evaluating you relative to Essay about Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein other writers, so a unique argument structure will not appear standard and will always backfire. 2. And Social? Misspell key phrases, such as for example and therefore . The E-rater will not pick this up and assume that you did not use transition phrases.
3. Throw in jokes and other unnecessary commentary. The E-rater will not detect the about Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein meaning under your writing, only enfj, its structure, so making clever comments will not raise your score. 4. Essay Creation And Alienation In Mary? Use unusual references that no other business school student would use. In Health And Social? The E-rater uses other scorers as a template based on how well you resemble other scorers. On the Analysis of Creation Frankenstein, Issue question, if you do use unusual examples, try to use concept keywords and a tight structure. 6. Use a unique and clever rhetorical device that spices up your essay. The E-rater cannot detect cleverness and may find an essay like this confusing, redundant or disorganized.
7. Timeandmoneynow Nfl? Follow Steve Jobs' clever advertising campaign for Apple Think Different . For the AWA it is Think the Same. You want to write as 6 scorers write. And Alienation Shelley's? The Analysis of Issue section, in particular, is an exercise in conformity. Write opinions in the mainstream of intellectual thought. A Diamond Sloganeer? You may have compelling evidence about the Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein role of UFO's in our daily lives, but your GMAT essay is not the place to introduce this startling news to the world.
How international students should tackle the AWA and the E-rater. The conventions for is forever the AWA can be summarized in a single statement: written English requires that each paragraph be developed directly away from a topic (or thesis) sentence or directly towards a topic (or thesis) sentence. The former is known as deductive development; the Essay and Alienation latter is known as inductive development. Petroleum Gulf? Since this is the Essay about Creation case for all English written prose it should be obvious that writers in English have less freedom to wander from the main point of their discourse than writers in other languages. English expository prose style must be direct and to the point even though it is necessary to support each main idea with examples, explanations, and illustrations. Discrimination In Health Care? The thesis (or topic sentence) must contain the germ of the idea that permeates the Essay Creation and Alienation Shelley's entire paragraph. Each example or illustration must be connected to that idea with transitional markers such as for example , thus , or moreover . Your essays should be written in discrimination and social care, American, not English. Phrases that are more commonly spoken in English (indeed, hence, etc..) are less common in an American writing style.
Phrases that are commonly spoken in English are unlikely to be picked up by the E-rater, which picks up phrases used among high scorers (who are overwhelmingly American). Students from the U.K., Hong Kong, India and other Commonwealth nations should adjust their syntax, style and language to better suit the flavor of English used in America. That is the language of the E-rater. Avoid any local jargon or particularly any unusual transitional phrases (e.g. heretofore). Essay Shelley's? Got that mate? In addition, the human graders are overwhelmingly American and will have an easier time with arguments written in American. The best solution to writing in the appropriate style is to a diamond sloganeer read all of our sample essays. Essay About In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein? You should also familiarize yourself with American scholarly journals to see how American writers structure arguments. #8226; 5b(12): The Apostrophe.
Once you have mastered the material in humanmetrics, the previous chapters and have an Essay about Creation in Mary Frankenstein, overall idea of what you want to say in your essay, you can focus on the best way to express it. This part of the E-Rater Guide will develop the skills you need to nfl create well-developed and well-written essays. Creation In Mary Shelley's? We have divided the lessons for writing into two parts: Writing Style: learn to be clear, concise and compelling. Streamline your essay by avoiding unnecessary sentences. Enfj? Avoid sentences that do not advance your argument. Avoid asking a question only to answer it. Avoid sentences that announce that you are shifting the Creation Shelley's topic. Use transitional phrases instead of writing sentences to change your subject.
FILL: Who should be the next president? I think Mike Dukakis should give it another try. TO THE POINT: Mike Dukakis should make a second bid for the presidency. Exercise 1: Avoid fill sentences that do not serve a purpose. Condense the two-sentence groups into one, direct sentence. 1. Who was Abraham Lincoln? He was a President of the United States.
2. Patton was a famous general. He was renowned for his ability to surprise the enemy. Gattica Movie? 3. The twister destroyed three city blocks. Many buildings collapsed because of the and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein twister. 1. Abraham Lincoln was President of the United States. 2. General Patton was famous for his ability to surprise the enemy. 3. Gattica Movie? Many buildings were destroyed by the twister that destroyed three city blocks. Directness and clarity are valued over wordiness on the GMAT. Do not use several words when one will work just as well. Many writers tend to add excessive phrases like take into consideration in order to sound scholarly. Essay About Creation Frankenstein? This only makes the text sound inflated and gattica movie even sometimes pretentious.
WORDY: I am of the opinion that the Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein said managers should be admonished for their utilization of customer response services. CONCISE: We should tell the sloganeer managers to improve customer service. What is a qualifier? Why use qualifiers? WORDY : The Hess spy case was a rather serious breach of national security and about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein likely helped the Soviets. CONCISE: The Hess spy case breached national security and helped the Soviets. In Health And Social Care? Clear up the following sentences by eliminating excessive qualifiers. 1. You yourself are the very best person to decide what you should do for about in Mary Frankenstein a living.
2. It is possible that. Try not to begin a sentence with This, Here is , There is, There are , or It is enfj, . These roundabout expressions indicate distance from your position and make your statement less definitive. Weak openings usually result from writing before you think- hedging until you find out what you want to say. WEAK: There are many ways in which we can change our current monetary system. Essay Creation? ACTIVE: Joe completed the test assignment in record time. Essay About Creation And Alienation Shelley's? Active voice is the preferred essay writing style for the GMAT. If possible you should always use the active voice, since it is more direct and gattica movie shows action and intent.
Statements made in the passive voice are weak because it is difficult to tell who or what is responsible for an action. Essay writers should avoid unnecessary phrases as I believe, I feel, and in my opinion. The grader knows whose opinion is being expressed and he or she does not need to Essay about and Alienation Frankenstein be reminded. WEAK: I am of the opinion that excessive self-reference may add a level of pomposity to an otherwise effective essay. Redundancy is the unnecessary repetition of an indirect in health and social, idea. For example, it is redundant to say a beginner lacking experience. The word beginner implies lack of experience by itself.
You can eliminate redundant words or phrases without changing the meaning of the about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's sentence. Watch out for gattica movie words that add nothing to the sense of the sentence, because redundancy takes away from the about Shelley's clarity and conviction of a statement. Here are some common redundancies: Redundancy often results from carelessness, but you may easily eliminate redundant elements when proofreading. Is Forever Sloganeer? 1. Those who can follow directions are few in number. Choose specific, descriptive words when you are making any statement on the GMAT. Vague language weakens your writing because it forces the reader to guess what you mean instead of Frankenstein, concentrating fully on your ideas and style. WEAK: Mr. Brown is highly educated. FORCEFUL: Mr.
Brown has a master's degree in business administration. WEAK: She is a great communicator. FORCEFUL: She speaks persuasively. Notice that sometimes to be more specific and concrete you will have to use more words than you might with vague language (as in the first example). Is Forever? This principle is not in conflict with the general objective of writing concisely. Being concise may mean eliminating unnecessary words. Avoiding vagueness may mean adding necessary words to illustrate your point. Edit these sentences by cutting down on vague language: 3. Thousands of species of animals were destroyed when the last ice age occurred. 4. The secretary was unable to complete the in Mary Shelley's task that had been assigned. Timeandmoneynow? Cliches are overused expressions, expressions that may once have seemed colorful and powerful, but are now dull and Essay worn out. Time, pressure and anxiety may make you lose focus, and that is when cliches may slip into your writing.
A reliance on cliches will suggest you are a lazy thinker. Keep them out of your essay by thinking ahead and proofreading. WEAK: Performance in a crisis is the acid test for a leader. FORCEFUL: Performance in in health and social care, a crisis is the best indicator of a leader's abilities. Putting a cliche in and Alienation Frankenstein, quotation marks in order to indicate your distance from the cliche does not strengthen the timeandmoneynow nfl sentence. If anything, it just makes weak writing more noticeable. Take notice of whether or not you use cliches. If you do, ask yourself if you could substitute more specific language for the cliche. International Students: You should avoid any regional expressions. And Alienation In Mary Frankenstein? Students from Britain and the commonwealth nations should particularly beware of using local expressions that are not used in America.
Jargon includes two categories of words that you should avoid. First is the specialized vocabulary of a group, such as that used by british a group of people such as doctors, lawyers, or baseball coaches. Second is the overly inflated or complex language that burdens many student essays. You will not impress anyone with big words that do not fit the tone or context of your essay, especially if you misuse them. If you are not certain of a word's meaning or appropriateness, leave it out. An appropriate word, even a simple one, will add impact to your argument. Ask yourself Would a reader in and Alienation, a different field be able to understand exactly what I mean from the words I've chosen? Is there any way I can say the same thing more simply? MBA candidates are particularly prone to using MBA jargon.
When you go to business school, you will find that MBAs have a language of their own with words such as incentivize or M A. Indeed, you will find that a large part of the lasting benefit of business school is learning the proper MBA language so that you will better relate with the MBAs who dominate the business world. For now, however, the a diamond is forever GMAT is not the place for Essay about in Mary MBA jargon or any jargon for that matter. optimize time frame utilize ( use ) finalize (end, complete) conceptualize (imagine, think) maximize originate (start, begin) facilitate (help, speed up) bottom line parameter (boundary, limit) user-friendly (responsive, flexible, easy-to-understand) input/output blindside downside ongoing (continuing) Your essay graders may not be up to is forever date on the latest trendy abbreviations. Creation In Mary Frankenstein? Also, avoid lazy and sloppy statements like. Since you are asked to write an enzyme, explanatory essay, an Creation Frankenstein, occasional self-reference may be appropriate. Use them sparingly and only when there is no other way to explain what you mean. Gattica Movie? You may call yourself I as long as you keep the number of first-person pronouns to a minimum. Less egocentric ways of referring to the narrator include we and one. In my lifetime, I have seen many challenges to the principle of free speech. Conversational speech is filled with slang and colloquial expressions. About Creation? However, you should avoid slang on the GMAT analytical writing assessment.
Slang terms and colloquialisms can be confusing to the reader, Beware of two common sentence writing errors: Sentence fragment : a statement with no independent clause. Every sentence in formal writing must have an independent clause: a clause that expresses a complete thought and. British Gulf Spill? RULES FOR SEMICOLONS. 1. Use a semicolon to link two independent clauses. To give a good party, you must consider the lighting; no one feels comfortable under the Essay about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein bright glare of fluorescent lights.
Note that the two clauses are connected in thought, but are each independent grammatically. A comma with a conjunction can stand in british petroleum gulf, place of the semicolon, like this: To give a good party, you must consider the lighting , since no one feels comfortable under the bright glare of fluorescent lights. 2. Use a semicolon to Essay in Mary Frankenstein separate elements in is forever, a list if the elements are long - or if the elements themselves have commas in them. To get completely ready for Essay about Creation Frankenstein your party, you should clean your house; make sure your old, decrepit stereo works; prepare a lot of delicious, strange food; and expect odd, antisocial, and frivolous behavior on nfl, the part of your guests. 3. Unlike commas, semicolons belong outside quotation marks.
One man at the party sat in a corner and read The Adventures of about Creation in Mary, Bob; he may have been shy, or he may have found The Adventures of Bob too exciting to put down. Enfj? 1. Use a colon when making a list, when what precedes the list is an independent clause. CORRECT: There are four ingredients necessary for a good party: music, lighting, food, and about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's personality. A. Use the hyphen with the compound numbers twenty-one through ninety-nine, and with fractions used as adjectives. CORRECT: Sixty-five students constituted a majority. CORRECT: A two-thirds vote was necessary to nfl carry the measure. B. Use the hyphen with the prefixes ex , all , and self and with the suffix elect . CORRECT: The constitution protects against self-incrimination. CORRECT: The president-elect was invited to chair the Essay in Mary Frankenstein meeting.
The apostrophe is indirect in health and social, used to show ownership. Most of the Creation and Alienation Shelley's time, it presents no confusion: The woman's finger. RULES FOR APOSTROPHES. 1. If the plural noun doesn't end in in health, -s, add an apostrophe and -s, like above. (This is the easy part.) #8226; 6c. Additional Essays. Look at all the real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the competition, you will need to do some brainstorming for all 280 AWA questions. Any of them could appear on your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in advance. Essay Creation And Alienation In Mary Shelley's? While there are many questions possible, the british spill good news is there are no surprises. You will be able to review all of the potential questions beforehand. Essay Creation And Alienation In Mary Shelley's? 1. The questions are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). Enzyme Test? If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for free click here to download Adobe 5.0.
These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in a 30 minute time period to get a score of 5 or 6. Analysis of Argument # 1: Olympia Foods. About Creation? The author argues, using facts from the color-film processing industry's downward trend in cost over 24 years, that Olympic Foods will be able to cut costs and thus maximize profits in the future. The author bases his conclusion on enfj, the generalization that organizations learn to reduce costs over time and, since Olympic Foods has 25 years experience in the food processing industry, its costs should have declined considerably. There are two serious flaws in about and Alienation, the argument. First, the argument uses a faulty analogy between the sloganeer color-film processing industry and the food processing industry. Analogies drawn between the two fields are highly suspect because there are many serious differences. While the about Creation in Mary Shelley's film processing industry faces a relatively simply processing challenge, food producers must contend with contamination, transportation and farm production (much more serious challenges). Thus, it is likely much more difficult to wring efficiency improvements in the food industry. Second, the author uses a sweeping generalization. the author's prediction of margin improvements relies on the optimistic assumption that Olympic Foods' 25 years of experience will automatically result in operational efficiencies. The problem with this is that improvements in processes do not occur automatically over timeandmoneynow nfl time, they require tremendous effort at continuous improvement and they require potential room for improvement.
It is possible Olympic Food has limited room for improvement or lacks the managerial will to improve its operations. Thus, there is no guarantee of improved operational efficiency over time. Essay In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein? These essays are not perfect answers, but represent what could be done in a 30 minute time period to get a score of 5 or 6. I ssue #1: Radio and timeandmoneynow TV Censorship. The censorship and regulation of broadcast media for and Alienation in Mary offensive material involves a conflict between the freedom of enzyme immunoassay test, expression and the duty of Essay in Mary Frankenstein, government to protect its citizenry from potential harm. I believe that our societal interest in preventing the harm that exposure to obscenity produces takes precedence over the freedoms of individual broadcasters. Indirect In Health? Firstly, I believe exposure to obscene and offensive language and behavior causes people to Essay about Creation Frankenstein mimic such behavior. There is anecdotal and scientific evidence to support this contention. Look at all the real AWA questions beforehand: To beat the competition, you will need to do some brainstorming for all 280 AWA questions. Any of them could appear on a diamond sloganeer, your GMAT, so you should spend some time preparing in advance. While there are many questions possible, the good news is there are no surprises. You will be able to Essay Creation in Mary Shelley's review all of the potential questions beforehand.
1. The questions are in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf format). If you do not have Adobe Acrobat you can download it for free click here to download Adobe 5.0. We've graded thousands of essays and certain errors occur again and again and again. Immunoassay Test? This is a list of the top ten errors we see on essays. Read through each one carefully. Avoiding these errors will make your essay stronger. This argument throws in everything and discusses every topic of an issue in one paragraph. Paragraphs are discrete units meant for discussing a limited range of ideas. Narrow the scope of your paragraphs and arguments into manageable, topic-specific units. On a larger level, limit the Essay about and Alienation Frankenstein scope of your essays.
On issue questions, especially, it is not an opportunity to humanmetrics enfj expound on your entire worldview.
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Guide for the Preparation of Investment Analysis Reports. This Guide was originally developed at the request of the Investment Management Board members (now the Real Property Investment Board or RPIB ). About Creation In Mary! The Guide was subsequently revised in 2005 to incorporate recent developments such as the fit-up and space allocation standards, improved risk management and the analysis of sustainable development issues. The Guide was revised again in 2009 in order to incorporate enhancements in support of RPB 's new corporate Real Estate Model. More specifically, revisions were made to encourage the consideration of a wider range of gattica movie investment options, such as, public-private partnerships, to improve the qualitative and Creation quantitative consideration of risk and to a diamond sloganeer improve the overall quality of IAR submissions. This Guide is one of several measures that RPIB members are proposing in order to ensure consistent high quality and timeliness of Investment Analysis Reports (IAR s). Stated more formally, the Essay Creation and Alienation, purpose of this Guide is to strengthen the role of IAR s as information, approval, accountability and indirect discrimination and social performance measurement documents, for meeting client requirements and ensuring the integrity of real property assets. This Guide represents RPIB 's position on how IAR s should be written, both in Essay about in Mary terms of style and organization, and what information they should contain, in order for these executives to indirect discrimination care take an informed decision.
The Guide should be used in conjunction with other supporting documents (See Section 1.10 for Sources, Tools and References). This document provides a guide for Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein all persons who have responsibility whether it be in test the preparation of, contribution to, or in reviewing any type of Essay about Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein Investment Analysis Report. This Guide describes the IAR preparation process and the positioning of the IAR within the context of the overall National Project Management System (NPMS ). This Guide proposes a nationally consistent style for writing IAR s, which is described in detail, section by section. In addition it describes the purpose and suggested content for each section of an enfj, IAR . This Guide focuses on the preparation of Investment Analysis Reports for the national Real Property Investment Board and Regional Investment Management Boards (RIMB). It is about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein intended for the use in both asset-based and space-based IAR s for is forever sloganeer projects with a total estimated cost of about Creation in Mary Frankenstein more than $1.0 million. Gattica Movie! The depth and length of an IAR should be adjusted to fit the circumstances of each project.
A separate template is available for short-form IAR s for project costing less than $1.0 million. For writers and contributors to IAR s, this Guide offers the following benefits: facilitates the involvement of a wider group of persons in Essay about in Mary preparing and contributing to timeandmoneynow nfl the preparation of in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein IAR s eases the process of initiating an IAR for is forever sloganeer a project increases the efficiency in Essay about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein which IAR s are prepared, thereby, also decreasing the elapsed time in their preparation increases the probability of “doing it right the first time”fewer drafts and redrafts provides a handy reference for gattica movie reaching the desired standard of quality in the IAR s of the Real Property Program offers users a handy guide to relevant sources of information. 1.2 Principles for the Preparation of IAR s. This Guide for the Preparation of Investment Analysis Reports (IAR s), is supported by the RPIB and RIMB and Essay in Mary Frankenstein is designed to facilitate the process of timeandmoneynow nfl preparing IAR s. The IAR s that are responsive to the principles below provide an assurance that the required consultations have been made and relevant interests have been taken into account; they also achieve a high degree of quality and better support the decisions that have to and Alienation be made. Consistent in terms of organization (without being rigid or inflexible); this includes the gattica movie, use of headings and sub-headings, and the placement of appropriate information in appendices; see Section 3.5, Proposed Outline of an IAR ; Consistent in terms of style and tone; well-written IAR s are factual and objective; see Section 3.1 Key Guidelines and Essay in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein Criteria for a Well-Written IAR ; Concise ; the IAR presents only relevant information and data, and is forever does so in a manner that is brief and to the point; more extensive information is presented in the Appendices, if required; Compliant ; the IAR indicates if the proposed project complies with the national and community-based investment strategies, the Creation in Mary Shelley's, relevant Asset Management Plan(s), the ARLU and budget allocations; Reliable ; the IAR clearly documents the requirements, the time constraints, the enzyme immunoassay test, implementation strategy, the issues and risks associated with a given course of action; Valid ; the options presented to the RPIB and RIMB for consideration include all viable options, that are well described and about in Mary continue to be feasible; Precise ; the petroleum, scope, components, costs, impacts, implementation strategy, and issues surrounding the recommended option are precisely described; Timely ; the RPIB and RIMB receives the IAR for review at a point when due deliberation is Essay about and Alienation possible and severe time constraints are not dictating the agenda. In addition to the above attributes, it is important that the approach to investment analysis reflects the principle, which states that the overriding objective is always to indirect and social maximize the long-term benefits of the federal government as a whole. In this regard, the interests of the federal government must be paramount and the IAR should be written to reflect a total government perspective. 1.3 Purposes of Investment Analysis Reports. By definition, IAR s are future oriented and Essay Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein help to create RPB 's “contract with the future”. They create and support the asset base from which service will be provided to clients in the future.
IAR s therefore play a pivotal role in the system and serve several purposes simultaneously. They encompass information, approval, accountability and performance measurement documents all in one report. IAR s are information documents . They provide consistent, concise, reliable, precise and timely information on a specific real property context, and on timeandmoneynow a range of options facing the Real Property Branch for meeting client and Essay Shelley's Frankenstein asset integrity requirements. As information documents, they are read by a wide range of parties having management, planning and implementation roles for Real Property Branch. British Petroleum Spill! IAR s are approval documents . They enable the RPIB and RIMB to make recommendations and senior management to make decisions on future courses of Essay and Alienation Frankenstein action. IAR s facilitate and support decision-making and are used to gattica movie identify a preferred course of action to provide a relevant rationale and to fully inform the RPIB , the RIMB and RPB senior management of all relevant implications pertaining to the selected course of action. IAR s are accountability documents . They crystallize and confirm organizational accountabilities. Through the signature of the originating authorities, IAR s indicate the agreement of team members, particularly those that have to implement the project and Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein confirm the accountabilities of specific persons for the quality of the information provided in the IAR . Simultaneously, IAR s are the vehicle whereby accountability for projects and initiatives are assumed at all levels within the Real Property Program up to the level of the Assistant Deputy Minister of Real Property Branch. Discrimination! Finally, in identifying the key members of the implementation team, IAR s also confer suitable accountabilities for this implementation. IAR s are performance measurement documents . They are part of the critical audit trail that helps to measure whether the Real Property Branch and its specific regions and units, are achieving the desired results. More specifically, IAR s provide a critical reference point in assessing project and program performance after project completion, for example, in terms of timing, cost and Essay about and Alienation in Mary measuring actual results against british petroleum gulf spill, expected project financial and qualitative benefits (e.g. sustainability).
The mandate of about PSPC 's Real Property Branch is to provide office accommodation for federal government departments. Consequently, PSPC is humanmetrics responsible for seeking project approval associated with the provision of office accommodation. The following approval authorities apply to asset-based and Creation in Mary Shelley's space-based office accommodation projects: In the NCA , projects costing less than $1.0 million are typically approved by the Real Property Team Director, based on a short-form IAR . In the regions, smaller projects are approved by the Regional Director with the approval limits subject to regional delegations of authority. An IAR , is typically required for all projects costing more than $25,000, although, there is some variation found within different regions. Projects costing up to $10.0 million are approved at nfl the regional level by the Regional Director General and is based on an IAR as well as the recommendation of the Regional Investment Management Board (RIMB).
Projects costing up to $30.0 million are approved at the Headquarters level by the ADM of the Real Property Branch, and based on the IAR and the recommendations of the RIMB , RDG and the Real Property Investment Board (RPIB). Essay Creation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein! Currently, projects costing over $30.0 million must be approved by Treasury Board, based on a Treasury Board submission and the recommendation of the Minister. Before proceeding to humanmetrics Treasury Board, the project must be recommended by the ADM . The ADM 's recommendation is based on Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein an IAR and the recommendations of the RIMB , RDG and the Real Property Investment Board (RPIB). It should be noted that, under Treasury Board's new Policy on the Management of Projects , project approval limits would soon be based on the risk and complexity of petroleum spill individual projects and the capacity of the and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, department or agency to manage projects, rather than on a dollar value threshold. More complete information on delegations of authority can be found on the on the delegation of authorities site.
There are three types of project approval that can be sought through an gattica movie, IAR : preliminary project approval (PPA), effective project approval (EPA) and lease project approval (LPA). A Treasury Board submission is required if the project cost is greater than $30.0 million (for accommodation projects). Preliminary Project Approval (PPA): PPA is sought as part of the project identification phase, and is required to enable RPB to undertake detailed technical investigations and to disburse the funds necessary to get more precise cost estimates and to support the full definition of the project. An IAR seeking PPA must clearly demonstrate that a program requirement exists and that this requirement can be addressed through the implementation of the proposed project. The IAR analyses a range of about Shelley's Frankenstein options for meeting the identified requirement using indicative cost estimates for each of the indirect discrimination in health, options analyzed and Essay in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein recommend a course of action. An IAR seeking PPA should also include a request for petroleum gulf spending authority for the amount required to Essay about Frankenstein fund the work (i.e. Humanmetrics Enfj! engineering investigations and architectural planning) carried out in the project planning phase, with the amount requested being supported by about in Mary Shelley's substantive cost estimates. Effective Project Approval (EPA): EPA is sought once the project definition has been completed, substantive cost estimates have been developed, and the project is ready to be fully implemented. The granting of EPA provides the authority to humanmetrics proceed with the implementation of the project and establishes the critical objectives for the project in terms of cost, scope and timing. These objectives serve as the baseline for monitoring the implementation of the project.
An IAR seeking EPA must use substantive cost estimates for the project being recommended for approval. It should also re-examine all of the Essay and Alienation Frankenstein, available options previously identified in order to ensure that the recommended option is still the most beneficial approach for meeting the enzyme test, requirement. Essay Creation And Alienation Frankenstein! Lease Project Approval (LPA): Any project involving a lease solution must receive LPA prior to soliciting bids. A LPA is a one-stage approval authority for lease projects, with exception to those identified below. For the purpose of british petroleum spill determining the about Creation in Mary Shelley's, appropriate approval levels for lease projects, project cost is nfl defined as the present value of Essay about Shelley's net rental costs over the term of the lease (not including options), plus all one-time costs (such as fit-up) associated with bringing the property into inventory. Gattica Movie! An IAR seeking LPA must use substantive cost estimates that are based on market data provided in Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein a Market Analysis Report (MAR) or other reliable sources of market rental rates. Approvals for Lease Projects Involving a New Building: In the case of is forever a lease project that will result in the creation of about Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein a new building via a P3 delivery (example: build to lease and lease purchase), a PPA is required for spending authority to sloganeer run the procurement process, followed by an EPA once the procurement/solicitation of offers process is complete. The cost for the PPA is based on Essay and Alienation Frankenstein Lease Project Approval estimates and the cost for EPA is based on gulf spill lease contract authority (LCA).
The LCA amount is the Essay Creation in Mary Frankenstein, total amount that will be paid to the landlord over the term of the lease (not discounted to their present value), including fit-up, OM and taxes if these are passed through the landlord, expressed in budget year (year of disbursement) dollars. Classes of Estimates: Cost estimates must be of a sufficiently high degree of quality and reliability to support the consideration of the project by decision makers and allow the options analysis, included in the IAR , to be meaningful. There are two relevant classes of cost estimate for timeandmoneynow nfl project approval purposes, indicative and substantive. All requests for project approval (PPA , EPA and LPA ) must indicate the Essay about Creation Frankenstein, class of estimate. 1.6 The Role of Investment Boards (RPIB and RIMB ) The Real Property Investment Board (RPIB) functions as the project recommendation board at the national level, while Regional Investment Management Boards (RIMB) performs the gattica movie, same function at the regional level. The function of these boards, at both the regional and national levels, are to oversee the review of planned real property investments within PSPC , as well as the allocation of funds in the budget. And Alienation! They typically will convene to discuss a project after each of the enzyme immunoassay test, representative organizations has had an about Creation Shelley's Frankenstein, opportunity to review and provide comments on project documentation. At the regional (non-NCA ) level, the RIMB makes its recommendations to the Regional Director General. British Spill! In the National Capital Area, the NCAIMB (which is the NCA equivalent of a RIMB ) makes its recommendations pertaining to space-based projects to the DG , NCA Portfolio Management, and for asset-based projects, to the DG , NCA Operations Sector.
The national RPIB is about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein a committee composed of senior officials of PSPC 's Real Property Branch. Chaired by immunoassay test the Director General of Accommodation Portfolio Management, the RPIB is charged with, among other responsibilities, reviewing and making recommendations on all IAR s that are above the delegation of authority of PSPC regions. Essay About! The RPIB will make its recommendations to british the ADM responsible for the Real Property Program. If the Essay and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, RPIB or RIMB is prepared to nfl recommend a project, it is typically passed along the approval chain to the RDG in the region (or the NCA equivalent), the ADM , the DM, the Minister's Office and Treasury Board, as appropriate. The Board may also refuse to recommend a project or it may ask the project team to make changes in order to make the project acceptable when it comes back to the Board for review. In addition to Creation and Alienation its vetting, review and recommendation role, RPIB and RIMB also have an advisory and coaching role. Project proponents are encouraged to submit preliminary findings and conclusions about client requirements and possible options to be considered at any time they deem appropriate.
Such preliminary discussions may assist officials in evaluating the factors governing the context of a given client requirement and may help in focusing on appropriate options for consideration. 1.7 Regional Roles, Responsibilities and Accountabilities. For most IAR s, regions will generally be the originators of the investment proposal and will see the proposal through to its ultimate approval and implementation. Gattica Movie! Thus, the regions are responsible and accountable for the full development and about Shelley's Frankenstein management of all investment analysis documents, including all of the technical aspects of the investment decision-making process, options analyses, document preparation and information management. Within the regions, Regional Directors of Accommodation and Portfolio Management are responsible for IAR document development and have overall accountability for document review and sign off prior to gattica movie the IAR proceeding to RIMB and the Regional Director General. IAR s for projects that exceed regional delegated authority levels will go through RIMB for review and a recommendation for approval before going to RPIB . The Regional Director General should clearly indicate his/her support for IAR projects and related documents by formally signing off on recommendations to proceed to Essay and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein RPIB and, if necessary, Treasury Board. For IAR documents requiring RPIB recommendation, the involvement of Headquarters staff is primarily focused on reviewing the authorities requested, the financial analysis of options, risk analysis, corporate initiatives, and linkages to strategic/national portfolio planning direction.
RPB Headquarters staff is responsible for the finalization of documents that are submitted to the ADM , the Minister or Treasury Board, and a diamond sloganeer are the Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, main contact point for Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS) staff. 1.8 Project Responsibilities and is forever IAR Preparation. The preparation of an Essay about and Alienation Shelley's, IAR generally involves the efforts of a team of people. Each person contributes different skills and has responsibilities in different areas. People on the project team may be required to provide information in different technical areas, input data for a diamond is forever the analysis or general advice or they may have the responsibility of Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's drafting the IAR document. Timeandmoneynow Nfl! The following identifies the key responsibilities / accountabilities of the Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, project leader and the project manager:
Project leader - The project leader is responsible for identifying project requirements (scope) and for providing funding and gattica movie overall leadership for the project. The project leader is the principal contact between the client department and the project team. Essay Creation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein! The project leader consults the owner/investor for projects funded by PSPC . For projects not funded by PSPC (e.g., custodial departments), the client acts as the project leader. Project manager - The project manager is responsible for the management of gulf all activities related to the delivery of the project within established project requirements and budgets. Responsibility and accountability for IAR preparation rests with the project leader. About And Alienation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein! While this responsibility may at times be delegated to timeandmoneynow another member of the project team, ultimate accountability for the completeness and quality of the document still rests with the project leader.
1.9 Role of the about Creation, Analyst Carrying Out the Investment Analysis. The analyst (the person carrying out the investment analysis and preparing the IAR ) works under the direction of the Project Leader. Gattica Movie! The main role of the analyst is to develop and convey information upon which decisions can be based regarding the merit of undertaking different investment options. And Alienation In Mary Frankenstein! In addition to discrimination in health considering a number of Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's key financial variables, the investment analyst must also take into consideration risk and discrimination in health a host of qualitative factors, which complicate the real property decision-making process. The relevant information must be presented in a clear, factual, well-written IAR , suitable for meeting the decision-making needs of RIMB and RPIB . Consistent with the Treasury Board Guide to the Management of Real Property , the analyst at PSPC must plan to make balanced investments that meet program needs while fulfilling other policy requirements. Investment decisions must consider all costs and aspects of the life cycle of the real property asset, from about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein acquisition and construction through maintenance, payments-in-lieu of taxes, renovation (capital reinvestment) and a diamond is forever disposal. The analyst is called upon to provide an objective and credible assessment of identified options. As such, the analyst is not expected to defend any particular point of view. Rather, he or she is expected to outline the Creation and Alienation Frankenstein, complete costs, benefits and disadvantages associated with any particular option in an objective fashion, including options and/or decisions, which may have been defined at the political level.
The process of preparing an timeandmoneynow, IAR is potentially complex and involves many steps. Essay Creation! Among the variety of considerations, there are numerous Treasury Board and PSPC policies, as well as departmental strategies, which can impact project planning, investment analysis and the preparation of the IAR . In a successful IAR , relevant policies, strategies and practices are taken into spill, account, all aspects of the analysis must be done correctly and Essay Creation in Mary Shelley's the required elements of the IAR must be systematically addressed. Fortunately, there are many aids and sources of advice available. The following sources, tools and references that can be used are identified as follows: The preparation of IAR s should involve the combined efforts of a team of people who represent different sectors and disciplines, and are assembled for the purpose of planning the enfj, project, considering all options, undertaking the investment analysis and about Creation and Alienation Shelley's preparing the IAR . In preparing an a diamond is forever sloganeer, IAR , the advice and contributions of about Creation in Mary Frankenstein all team members should be sought. Nfl! In particular, personnel from Professional and Technical Services can provide useful early input on cost and time considerations, as well as constructability, quality, life-cycle, environmental and heritage conservation considerations, procurement, disturbance, etc. Depending on the situation, input may also be sought from Leasing, Appraisals, Program Management, Property Facilities Management and Accommodation Portfolio Management.
In addition, the Project Leader can look beyond the project team to get advice from other colleagues, supervisors, and departmental experts. One such source of expertise are the about Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, Investment Analysts in british petroleum gulf spill the Accommodation and Portfolio Management Directorate. These individuals are responsible for introducing IAR s at the RPIB or RIMB meetings. National Project Management System (NPMS ) : The NPMS is a project management process with control points (approval stages), deliverables and a consistent structure of stages and activities. All real property projects must comply with the NPMS . The NPMS includes three important tools: knowledge areas (a description of PSPC expectations for specific subject areas), road maps (a description of inputs, activities and outputs by project type) and the Project Plan (a document that collects project information at each control point and provides a consistent tool for monitoring the project). Financial Analysis (REFIT ): An important tool for the preparation of the financial analysis in Essay about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein an IAR is the british petroleum, REFIT computerized spreadsheet software package. Essay In Mary Shelley's! REFIT (Real Estate Financial Investment Toolkit) sets up a standard discounted cash flow analysis, which is intended to timeandmoneynow nfl be used for the analysis of accommodation options.
REFIT 's pre-programmed input and output formats reduce the set-up time for an analysis and increase analysis efficiency. The use of REFIT for the financial analysis of investment options is required for accommodation projects. Financial analysis typically involves modeling many scenarios and conducting what if inquiries using different variables. REFIT facilitates this process and allows for a greater depth of Essay and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein analysis. A manual on REFIT and technical support are available to assist the gattica movie, analyst in becoming familiar with this program. Investment Analysis Policy. The Investment Analysis Policy of the Real Property Branch provides a basic framework for investment analysis and decision-making. Some of the provisions of this policy include: Investment analysis will be consistent with the objectives, principles and about Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein strategic direction of the National Investment Strategy. Discounted cash flow analysis will be used to indirect care evaluate each capital project.
Each capital project must meet or exceed a hurdle rate of return over its investment horizon, unless it can be justified on other than financial grounds. Investment analysis of each capital project will include an analysis of all reasonable options available to meet project requirements. Essay Creation Shelley's Frankenstein! The highest priority will be given to a diamond sloganeer the option, which demonstrates the greatest net financial benefit to the government, (in the absence of persuasive overriding non-financial factors). Capital projects will be ranked, using both financial and non-financial criteria, to establish priority under conditions of Creation Shelley's budgetary constraint. Enfj! [Note: priority ranking is carried out and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein as part of the preparation of Capital Project Briefing Notes.] Other Policies, Plans and Strategies: There are many other sources of information, which the analyst can turn to for guidance on a diamond is forever sloganeer investment analysis, or related policies, strategies and Essay Creation in Mary Shelley's practices. Later sections of gattica movie this Guide, which discuss the writing of particular sections of an IAR , identify relevant reference materials for each section. Key reference documents include the following: National Investment Strategy (NIS) : The NIS defines national investment priorities as well as the Branch's approach to managing its portfolio.
Understanding of the about Creation in Mary Frankenstein, strategic context for immunoassay investment analysis begins with knowledge of the NIS . Community Based Investment Strategies (CBIS) and Strategic Action Plans (SAP) : A CBIS identifies community-level priorities and Creation in Mary plans, and provides important strategic direction at the local portfolio level. A SAP is used to identify investment priorities and to “operationalize” the CBIS . National Portfolio Plan (NPP) : The NPP is an british gulf, action plan that lays out what will be done within the Essay and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, national portfolio in order to achieve the desired state of the portfolio. Framework for Office Accommodation and a diamond is forever sloganeer Accommodation Services : This policy framework assists in determining the Essay about and Alienation, quantity, quality and timeandmoneynow location of office accommodation. The most relevant materials are the Office Fit-Up and Space Allocation Standards. And Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein! Policy on Sole Source Renegotiation : This policy deals with requirements related to the direct renegotiation of existing leases. In particular, the policy identifies six principles that must be addressed when seeking approval for the direct renegotiation of an british, existing lease, including the negotiation schedule, which must demonstrate sufficient time for Essay about Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein the implementation of an alternative strategy if negotiations are not successful. Lease Project Approval Policy : This policy deals with the approval requirements related to leasing accommodation. Timeandmoneynow! Building Condition Reports (BCR) and Asset Management Plans (AMP): BCR s and Essay Creation Frankenstein AMP s provide important asset-specific information on the condition and performance of Crown-owned buildings.
The BCR is prepared by technical specialists and provides a comprehensive report on british deficiencies in the building and the cost of correcting them. The AMP identifies issues related to Creation the condition and gattica movie the operating, functional and financial performance of the building, makes recommendations on how performance could be improved and recommends a strategy for the future ownership of the building. Capital Project Briefing Note (CPBN): This is a short synopsis of the current state of a capital project. It is and Alienation Shelley's generally prepared once a project is contemplated and humanmetrics enfj must summarize the results of the priority ranking exercise. Essay Creation And Alienation In Mary Shelley's! A briefing note must be updated and submitted to Headquarters on a quarterly basis for each proposed capital project with a total estimated cost exceeding $1.0 million.
Capital Project Priority Ranking Policy : Requires that all capital projects with a total estimated cost exceeding $1.0 million, and which will be fully or partially funded from the capital vote of the Real Property Program, must be priority ranked according to enfj a set of criteria that embodies the objectives, commitments and policies of the Real Property Program. Priority ranking is carried out as part of preparing a Capital Project Briefing Note. Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS) : This strategy sets out the department's approach to sustainable development. With respect to real property, the Essay and Alienation in Mary, strategy is humanmetrics enfj intended to Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's make PSPC a leader in sustainable buildings for its entire portfolio, both owned and leased. Indirect Discrimination And Social! Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) Project Checklist : The CEAA and its regulations are the legislative basis for the federal practice of environmental assessment.
PSPC has established a CEAA Checklist process that ensures all projects are assessed for their applicability to the Act. The CEAA Checklist process is the mechanism by Essay Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein which PSPC Environmental Services determine if an environmental assessment is required and gattica movie ensure that the assessment is conducted in a timely and effective manner. By completing and sending in a CEAA Checklist, at the initiation of the Essay about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, project planning, project proponents will ensure that PSPC projects are evaluated for the applicability of CEAA . Enfj! Good Neighbour Policy : This policy requires PSPC to Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein consult with and to immunoassay test consider the Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, plans, priorities and objectives of local municipal governments as part of its decision-making process. Heritage Policy: It is government policy to humanmetrics enfj respect and conserve the heritage character of federal buildings. Under this policy, buildings forty (40) years old or older must be identified to the Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office (FHBRO) for Essay Creation in Mary evaluation. Any action, which may affect the heritage character of a classified heritage building, can only be undertaken after full consultation with the FHBRO , or in the case of a recognized heritage building, after an timeandmoneynow, internal review by appropriate conservation advice.
Accessibility Policy: It is a PSPC and government policy to ensure barrier-free access to and use of Shelley's real property, owned or leased. All projects must be planned and undertaken in nfl a manner that ensures that person with disabilities can gain access to and use federal real property. Government of Essay in Mary Frankenstein Canada Fit-up Standards: These standards strengthen the principles for delivery of fit-up projects and also confirm and clarify the british gulf, accountability for funding various fit-up components. In addition, the Essay about Creation Shelley's Frankenstein, set standards place emphasis on PSPC 's responsibility to apply rigour in the provision of a standardized quantity and quality of fit-up for british spill government departments and agencies. About Creation And Alienation In Mary Shelley's! Custodial Parking Policy: The objective of timeandmoneynow nfl this policy is to ensure an understanding of the custodial responsibilities for parking of the Real Property Branch of PSPC . Chapter 2.0: The IAR Preparation Process. 2.1 The National Project Management System and the Role of the IAR. The NPMS consists of three stages and nine phases with defined deliverables and control points. The three phases of the NPMS are as follows: The Project Inception Stage provides a go or a no go decision to proceed. The key deliverable of Essay Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein this stage is the approved Statement of Requirements. The Project Identification Stage provides a decision on humanmetrics enfj the optimum solution to Essay in Mary Shelley's the investment situation and the delivery mechanism for the project.
The key deliverables of this stage are the Preliminary Project Plan, the Feasibility Report, the Investment Analysis Report for Preliminary Project Approval and the Final Records Project Plan. The Project Delivery Stage involves the transfer of the approved project objectives and requirements into the full implementation of a final product. The key deliverables of this stage are the Revised Project Plan, the Approval Document (for Effective Project Approval or Lease Project Approval), Product Turnover and the Final Records Project Plan. As indicated above, the preparation of the gattica movie, IAR for preliminary project approval forms part of the Project Identification Stage of the NPMS . In this regard, it is important to emphasize that the in Mary Frankenstein, IAR preparation process is british spill but one element within the integrated NPMS process. As such, the preparation of the IAR must reflect and support the entire NPMS process. The implications of this for IAR preparation include: Prior to writing the IAR , there should be an approved Statement of Requirements, Preliminary Project Plan and Feasibility Report already completed.
The IAR should make reference to these documents and should provide the names and Essay about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein dates persons signing off the documents. Gattica Movie! The IAR should summarize the about Creation and Alienation in Mary, results of the other NPMS documents that have been completed, however, there is no need for duplication. The analysis carried out in previous NPMS reports, such as the Feasibility Report, need not be replicated in the IAR , but only the results of the analysis should be identified. All documents submitted to the Real Property Investment Board (RPIB) and Regional Investment Management Boards must demonstrate their compliance with NPMS requirements. Immunoassay Test! Checklists, found on the NPMS Web site, can be used to demonstrate compliance. The project schedule included in the IAR should identify and be linked to NPMS milestones. The NPMS process applies in full for the following RPB real property projects: Asset-based projects with a total value greater than $1.0 million, including GST or HST but excluding client costs; and Space-based projects involving a space requirement greater than 3,000 m 2 rentable (regions) or 5,000 m 2 rentable (NCA and Parliamentary Precinct Branch) Smaller projects that are below the thresholds identified above can make use of a reduced NPMS process known as NPMS Lite. The NPMS Lite procedure defines simplifications to the NPMS process and deliverables that ease the requirements while still respecting NPMS principles. More information on this procedure is available on the NPMS Web site.
2.2 The Strategic Context for IAR Preparation. The projects that an organization chooses to Essay Frankenstein implement are a clear manifestation of corporate strategy. Plans and humanmetrics strategies may indicate an organization's intentions, but it is the major projects that are undertaken that give those plans and strategies currency. Consequently, it is of critical importance that a clear linkage be established between major projects and the plans and strategies of the organization. PSPC 's program activities are expected to be aligned with the Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, key strategic objectives of the department, which are defined through the Program Activity Architecture (PAA). The PAA is part of the government's Management Resources and Results Structure that provides a horizontal management framework across the federal government and allows enhanced reporting on performance to Parliament and central agencies. In accordance with the PAA , the department's Program Activities are organized under two broad strategic outcomes: quality services and sound stewardship. Within this framework, a number of supporting strategies and performance indicators have been identified that will contribute to the achievement of the department's strategic objectives. The most relevant to real property investment decisions include the following: The achievement of petroleum gulf spill space volume reduction and fit-up efficiencies; The achievement of leasing optimization efficiencies; The achievement of an office space distribution ratio of 75:25 in the National Capital Area; Having all Occupancy Instruments comply with the Office Accommodation Framework; The achievement of return on investment targets for Crown-owned office buildings; The use of RPB risk management tools to manage the risks of real property services; The achievement of RPB 's Sustainable Development Strategy targets; The attainment of LEED Gold standard in new buildings, and satisfy the BOMA BEST (formerly BOMA Go Green Plus) assessment for existing buildings and leases; The reduction of energy consumption in Crown-owned buildings; The remediation of contaminated sites; and The implementation of projects included in the National Portfolio Plan (NPP). For RPB , the strategic context for IAR s incorporates all of the key plans and Creation in Mary Shelley's strategies that define the gattica movie, Branch's approach to managing its portfolio.
This begins with the National Investment Strategy, which defines national investment priorities as well as the Branch's approach to Essay Frankenstein managing its portfolio. Other key strategic documents include: Community-Based Investment Strategies (CBIS), which identify community-level issues, priorities and plans; Strategic Action Plans (SAP), which identifies local investment priorities; Regional Investment Strategies, which define regional investment priorities; Asset Management Plans (AMPs), which recommends a management strategy for an individual asset; Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS), which sets out the departmental approach to sustainable development. The Way Forward Initiative, which seeks cost reductions through more rigorous application of Office Accommodation Framework (OAF) space and fit-up standards and a more strategic approach to leasing; and The BMP Annual Call Letter, which provides instructions for the preparation of nfl Building Management Plans (BMPs), also provides vital information on national objectives and priorities, as well as information on how national programs should be reflected in the planning for individual buildings. A recent strategic initiative that reflects a revised approach to Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein portfolio management is the development of the National Portfolio Management Plan (NPMP) and the National Portfolio Plan (NPP).
The NPMP is a national portfolio-based approach to strategic planning that recognizes the issues and challenges of the current portfolio and gattica movie seeks to put in place the Essay about and Alienation, tools and methodologies to bring about change. The underlying theme is the migration of the portfolio from its current state to a desired state. The desired state of a portfolio reflects a vision of a flexible, responsive and synchronized portfolio that meets the short and long term needs of the government's program objectives in such a way as to provide best value and to allow program dollars to be used for timeandmoneynow their intended purpose. Essay About Creation And Alienation Shelley's! The NPMP provides the petroleum gulf spill, structure and guidance for achieving these objectives. Underlying the NPMP is the Essay and Alienation, recognition that the ultimate objective for humanmetrics enfj the portfolio is not necessarily to own buildings, but rather to provide good, efficient accommodation at an affordable cost to the federal government. This may require new ways of doing business and managing the portfolio. Of significance in this regard is the risk management based approach to portfolio management, which seeks to minimize the risk of asset ownership for the government. In effect, strategies that effectively mitigate, transfer or share risk, will receive increased attention.
The National Portfolio Plan (NPP) flows from the Essay Creation, NPMP . The NPP provides an action plan for discrimination in health what will be done within the portfolio to implement the NPMP . It includes an optimal set of priority projects, listed by asset category to and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein match supply to demand over the next 5 years. It also provides an improved means of managing the portfolio by measuring and monitoring performance and shifts the focus from expenditure management to investment management. In 2009, PSPC is preparing the gattica movie, department's first Investment Plan, which conforms to the requirements of the new TB Policy on Investment Planning - Assets and Acquired Services . The Investment Plan will replace the National Investment Strategy (NIS) and Essay and Alienation in Mary Shelley's demonstrate how PSPC intends to create and manage a portfolio of custodial, accessed assets and acquired services. The Investment Plan is aligned with departmental and government strategies and is essential and responsive to user requirements. Indirect And Social! Notably, information from the NPMP and the NPP will be incorporated into the Investment Plan. A key component of the NPP is its ability to triage, prioritize and measure the Essay about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein, portfolio. Gattica Movie! The methodology for doing so is known as the in Mary, Tiering Tool. Tiering is a method for prioritizing investments by categorizing the building as either a performing or a non-performing asset. It involves classifying the buildings in a portfolio of assets into 4 specific tiers as shown below. Each tier identifies the british petroleum spill, current financial and strategic performance, as well as the timing expectations, for major capital repairs for each asset in a particular tier. Detailed actions for each tier are applied to migrate those assets to specific future performance targets.
Tier 1 - A solid asset financially and about strategically that fills a long-term client need. There is immunoassay test no major intervention required for Essay and Alienation Shelley's the building over the next 5 years. Tier 2 - An asset with good financial and strategic performance. Test! Demand is relatively stable. Major intervention may be required, but can be delayed for 5 years. Tier 3 - An asset with weaker financial and strategic performance. Major intervention is required within 5 years.
Tier 4 - An asset with poor financial performance and Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary little or no strategic value. Requires major expenditure. The Tiering Tool methodology only applies to existing Crown-owned buildings, although at some future point it may be applied to leased buildings as well. The above section provides a brief overview of the strategic framework supporting RPB 's real property program. It is important for in health the investment analyst to fully understand the policies and strategies of the Branch in order to develop projects that reflect strategic priorities and are designed to conform with RPB policies. Essay Creation And Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein! Each project should have a logical link to the strategic priorities of the british gulf spill, Branch and it is the job of the analyst to understand and convey that linkage. As discussed at the beginning of the chapter, the preparation of an about in Mary Frankenstein, IAR is one element within the overall approach defined by the NPMS . Accordingly, the preparation of the IAR is preceded by several steps of the NPMS . For example, the Statement of Requirements and the Feasibility Report are amongst the NPMS steps and will yield useful information and understanding that will be incorporated into the IAR process. Preparing an IAR includes a data-gathering component, an analytical component and nfl a writing component.
The data-gathering component involves developing or generating reliable information and data from internal and Essay about Creation in Mary Frankenstein external sources. Good data is gattica movie a prerequisite for a meaningful and valid analysis and is gathered and facilitated by having the appropriate people with the necessary knowledge and skills as part of the IAR team. Obtaining the necessary information can be effectively done by Essay and Alienation in Mary Shelley's engaging external expertise early in the process, needed to generate design and cost information. The analytical component involves the evaluation of project requirements and the corresponding options and actions in humanmetrics order to meet those requirements. The writing component involves producing a document that clearly and logically explains all aspects of the investment proposal. The analytical component of the IAR , or the investment analysis, involves a series of techniques for Essay Creation in Mary analyzing relevant information concerning future costs and benefits related to a project. The investment analysis process can be considered as a series of logical steps that carries the analyst through the thought processes necessary to arrive at a fully supportable conclusion. This process, known as the eight steps of indirect in health investment analysis, is described in detail in Appendix A of this Guide, and is briefly summarized as follows: Define scope - identify and document project or client requirements.
Defining the scope is done as part of the NPMS Project Charter and Project Plan (PP). Generate options - involves brainstorming to and Alienation in Mary develop a complete list of all potentially viable options for meeting the project requirements. Narrow the options - involves screening out those options that are clearly not viable. This is done in order to generate a manageable list of key options for an in-depth analysis. Generating and humanmetrics enfj screening options is generally done as part of preparing the NPMS Feasibility Report. The Feasibility Report is intended to document relevant non-financial factors, identify feasible options and Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's provide indicative costs estimates and timeandmoneynow schedules for use in the analysis of options.
Undertake financial analysis - determine the financial viability of the main options through a discounted cash flow analysis using PSPC 's REFIT program and by conducting a sensitivity analysis. Analysis of non-financial factors - as developed in the Feasibility phase, identify and evaluate relevant non-financial factors that may impact the investment decision. Undertake risk assessment - involves an evaluation of the likelihood and severity of the risks associated with each option. Analysis phase - Evaluate options by combining the assessments of Essay about Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein financial factors, non-financial factors and risk to humanmetrics enfj draw overall conclusions concerning the investment decision and Frankenstein which option provides the best overall value to the federal government. Formulate recommendations - make a clear recommendation concerning the project that is being put forth for approval, and identify the issues and implications of proceeding with the project. The writing of the IAR should conform to british petroleum the template included in Chapter 4 of this Guide. This template identifies and describes the content of each section of an Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's, IAR . It is and social care applicable to Creation Frankenstein all projects requiring RIMB or RPIB approval, which are those projects with a total estimated cost greater than $1 million. It also applies to both asset-based and petroleum spill space-based projects. Smaller projects costing less than $1 million can be prepared using a short-form IAR format. The short-form IAR format is intended to provide for Essay Creation Frankenstein the complete analysis and justification of a project, but in a shorter document that is less onerous to prepare.
It covers most of the same elements of content as a long-form IAR , but is in an abbreviated format. The short-form IAR makes use of standardized information templates to petroleum gulf spill reduce the document length and to ease the task of writing. Essay About Shelley's Frankenstein! Writers are also encouraged to use short bullet points rather than long descriptive text. As a result, a short-form IAR may only be about 2 or 3 pages plus any appendices. A national template is available for preparing short-form IAR s. Please note, several regions have developed their own templates. Further information and suggestions concerning the preparation of IAR s, including quality assurance criteria and strategies for effective IAR preparation, are found in Chapter 3 of this Guide.
2.4 New Approaches to Investment Analysis. In undertaking an investment analysis it is a key requirement that all options for providing accommodation be explored. RPB has long encouraged investment analysts to be creative in identifying and pursuing opportunities to provide accommodation space through options such as, partnerships, sharing of indirect care space or other arrangements that look beyond the traditional lease or build options. More recently, there has been considerable attention given to various types of public-private partnership (P3) arrangements. A P3 arrangement can be defined as a co-operative venture between the public and private sectors that is built on the expertise of each partner and best meets clearly defined public needs through the appropriate allocation of resources, risks and rewards (source: the Canadian Council of Public Private Partnerships). The key benefits of Essay about and Alienation P3 arrangements are that they are seen as an opportunity for the transfer of enzyme risk from the government to the private sector. They capitalize on the perceived efficiencies of the private sector in developing and operating facilities and they equalize the flow of Essay about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein payments over the investment horizon instead of requiring major cash outlays at the front end. To encourage the consideration of this approach, there is now an expectation that IAR s for major projects include the evaluation of a P3 option as part of the analysis.
The P3 Centre of timeandmoneynow Expertise may be contacted to help resolve questions regarding whether or not the inclusion of a P3 option is appropriate for a specific project. RPB is also introducing a new approach to its investment analysis to better account for the different levels of Essay about and Alienation Frankenstein risk associated with various accommodation solutions. Traditional financial analysis tends to show building ownership solutions as being less expensive than solutions involving a private developer. This is timeandmoneynow largely due to the higher financing rates paid by a private developer relative to the government discount rate. However, the traditional analysis does not usually reflect the higher risks associated with asset ownership, which frequently leads to higher costs. To offset this bias in favour of ownership solutions and to better reflect relative risk levels between options, RPB is adopting an approach known as the risk-based investment analysis approach. This approach involves identifying, assessing and evaluating the probability and about in Mary impact of the risks that apply to gattica movie each of the options. A risk adjustment for each option is calculated and then by adding the risk adjustment to the “risk neutral” present value cost of accommodation (PVCOA) to about Creation and Alienation produce “risk-adjusted” results.
The risk adjustment is a dollar amount that is humanmetrics enfj intended to represent the likely costs associated with the risk characteristics of a particular option. Applying the risk-based investment analysis approach will result in the PVCOA increasing by Creation and Alienation in Mary a greater amount for options that have a higher level of is forever risk. For example, a Crown-owned option may have a lower initial PVCOA than a lease option or a P3 option. However, because Crown-owned options tend to carry a higher risk of increased costs, adding the risk adjustment to the initial risk-neutral PVCOA will produce a risk-adjusted PVCOA that could be as high or higher than that of about Creation Frankenstein other options where the a diamond is forever sloganeer, developer bears a greater portion of the project risk. It is expected that the use of this risk-based investment analysis approach will result in Creation Frankenstein a larger number of a diamond is forever projects being implemented through various partnership arrangements with the private sector. Over time, this will reduce the Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, government's overall risk of asset ownership and its financial exposure to major recapitalization requirements. 2.5 Preparation of Treasury Board Submissions. Accommodation projects with a total estimated cost greater than $30 million are above the delegated authority of PSPC or its Minister to approve thus, requiring Treasury Board approval.
A Treasury Board (TB) submission is an official document submitted to humanmetrics TB by a minister on behalf of his or her department seeking approval to carry out a proposal that is outside the department's delegated authorities and Essay and Alienation Frankenstein that the department would therefore not be able to undertake. Every year, RPB is required to prepare numerous TB submissions for project approvals and for sloganeer contract approvals that fall outside of the department's delegated authorities. The finalized IAR is the source document for the preparation of a TB submission. Analysts preparing an Creation in Mary, IAR for a project costing in excess of $30 million should contact the Headquarters Investment Analyst who will be involved with the TB submission early in the IAR process. The Analyst will then co-ordinate the timeandmoneynow, informational requirements and ensure that the quality and formatting of the information provided in about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein the IAR facilitates the preparation of the TB submission. 3.1 Key Guidelines and Criteria for a Well-Written IAR. The purpose of the IAR is to is forever convey the Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, relevant information required to make informed investment decisions. In order for the IAR to serve this function, it must contain the right information and it must be presented in a useful and logical fashion. Immunoassay! The quality of the IAR has a direct bearing on the effectiveness of the investment decision-making process. Quality in an IAR is Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's related to its objectivity, the precision of timeandmoneynow its information, the logic of its analysis and the compelling nature of its conclusions. Moreover, the information contained in the IAR must be presented in a logical, professional and easy to read style.
The following describes some guidelines on what constitutes a well-written IAR : The IAR should be an objective presentation of Essay Shelley's Frankenstein factual information. Reflect the point of view of the federal government as a whole, not just PSPC interests. Provide an objective, honest and credible assessment of identified options and do not expect to defend any particular point of view. Use a neutral tone; this is not a selling document. Address both the positive and negative aspects of the and social care, investment proposal in a forthright manner.
Be frank and honest about the downside potential of the project and its uncertainties. Put forward realistic expectations of future project benefits. Those who review IAR s are aware of the Essay, tendency to overstate downstream benefits. Overly optimistic projections should be questioned. Similarly, cost estimates should be realistic, including appropriate contingency amounts based on previous similar projects where possible.
The credibility of the IAR is based on the validity of the information, data and input values presented. Carefully develop all key information, data and a diamond is forever sloganeer input values required in order for the analysis and recommendations to be credible. Critically review each input value to ensure that it is realistic and is based on the best possible information. The IAR should reflect an in-depth, systematic and rigorous approach to investment analysis, which incorporates all relevant information. Structure the analysis to address clearly defined requirements. Explore all options for about Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein satisfying the identified requirements, quantifying the costs, benefits and drawbacks associated with every viable option. Use clear factual data in the analysis and provide enough information and detail for the results to be easily verifiable. All options must be evaluated on the basis of sloganeer a consistent set of assumptions (i.e., the same number of FTE s, the same investment period, consistent market information, etc.). Any deviations from about and Alienation Frankenstein this must be clearly documented and justified.
Ensure that there are no gaps in the information presented and that all the steps of a comprehensive investment analysis have been carried out. Include both financial and sloganeer non-financial factors. Address risk associated with various options and sensitivity of the analytical results. The usefulness of an IAR is based on its ability to about Creation draw valid conclusions. Make a strong business case for a recommended investment proposal. Support all observations and enfj conclusions with factual evidence. Essay About And Alienation In Mary Frankenstein! Establish a linkage between the recommended investment proposal and the broader strategic framework. British Petroleum Spill! Ensure that a realistic implementation strategy is Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's provided for the recommended option. The IAR should incorporate a logical, professional writing style The flow of petroleum logic is important in a well-written IAR . The IAR should take the reader through an ordered thought process with a logical flow of ideas. Creation And Alienation In Mary Shelley's! Write in a simple, direct style. Come quickly to the point, without using long narratives.
Concentrate on including all decision-relevant information, while avoiding unnecessary background. A Diamond Sloganeer! Some people find it easier to prepare documents using bullet format rather than full text format. Bullet format can be used in an IAR as long as all of the required information is provided and the content is Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's clear and easy to gattica movie read. If the document is prepared using bullet format, the bullet points (other than listed items) should be clearly expressed using complete sentences so that there is no ambiguity with respect to the meaning. Use charts, graphs and tables whenever possible to make the text shorter and Essay in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein more readable. Information can frequently be supplied more effectively in a table than in the text of the document. Put more information in charts and tables, and then draw conclusions in the text of the IAR . A Diamond Is Forever! Photographs and computer simulations can also be useful additions.
Use appendices to provide detailed or background information, but do not include unnecessary appendices. It is essential that IAR s be reviewed and recommended by about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein the investment board within a reasonable time frame. “A reasonable time frame” means that the options proposed in discrimination care the IAR are still valid and have not been stale-dated by the passage of time. While there are a variety of circumstances both controllable and uncontrollable leading to Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein this situation, the net result is that the decision-making process of the Real Property Branch is impaired and the client and discrimination and social taxpayers are poorly served. Managers are strongly advised to set, control and monitor the critical path necessary for the preparation and approval of IAR s, in both the Region and in Headquarters, to and Alienation in Mary ensure that they are reviewed and british petroleum gulf spill approved while options remain on the table. “A reasonable time frame” also means that a certain amount of elapsed time has been built in to allow the and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, investment boards to function, as it should as a vetting, review and recommendation committee. The critical path of timeandmoneynow project implementation should not become so pressing as to impair the role of the investment boards. And Alienation In Mary! Key information in the document should be dated so time sensitivity can be determined. For timeliness to occur, it is requested that Project Leaders consult with their respective Investment Analysts in enzyme immunoassay test Headquarters or the about and Alienation Shelley's, Regional office throughout the preparation of the IAR . IAR s should be submitted for RPIB or RIMB review to the Investment Analysts at least one month prior to the meeting at which a recommendation is sought.
This will enable Investment Analysts assigned to each region to review the document in a deliberate fashion and will permit those involved with the RPIB or RIMB meeting to be prepared with their input. If there are any time constraints being experienced by the Project Leader that will impact RPIB or RIMB deliberations, these should be made clear as early as possible to the appropriate officials in Headquarters or the Regional Office. 3.3 Strategy for Approaching the Preparation of an IAR. The preparation of an IAR must reflect a rigorous process involving the carrying out of investigations, developing and a diamond sloganeer questioning information, data and Creation and Alienation Frankenstein input values, performing quantitative and indirect in health care qualitative analyses and formulating recommendations. The recommendations that are put forth must be based on an economic and program assessment that considers least life-cycle cost and best-value options for delivering the Essay about Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, requirement. Finally, the IAR process must be effectively integrated into overall NPMS process in a manner that ensures all steps in the development of the project occur in their logical sequence, as prescribed by the NPMS . To successfully achieve this, the analyst must take a planned, systematic approach to the preparation of an IAR . Discrimination In Health And Social! The elements of such an approach are discussed below: Plan ahead. Develop a work plan with milestones for completing the IAR . Identify all tasks, and plan how they are to Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein be carried out, and by whom. Consult the road map applicable to gattica movie your project type as outlined in the National Project Management System. Recognize that the development and refinement of Essay Creation in Mary Shelley's options, the enzyme immunoassay, research of issues, client consultations, a contracted market survey and Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's the development of cost estimates and implementation strategies are especially time critical. Project specific Terms of british petroleum Reference may be useful to detail what is expected to be analyzed or considered (i.e. a preliminary set of options).
Identify team members. Ensure that they have sufficient expertise and experience and that they can speak for their particular organization. Ensure that all relevant groups are appropriately represented on the team. Seek input from team members and obtain team buy-in for Creation Frankenstein the timelines proposed in the workplan. The involvement of Professional Technical Services (particularly a senior project manager) is especially critical for drafting broad project targets in sustainable design and for is forever developing implementation strategies, cost estimates and schedules. Ensure that the team has adequate financial expertise or access to suitable financial advisors skilled in spreadsheet analysis. Consider what information is required. Gather and review all relevant documents, such as the CBIS , the Asset Management Plan, Building Management Plan, Building Environmental Performance Assessment (BEPA) and the Building Condition Report. Identify all information gaps and Creation and Alienation Shelley's determine how you will obtain missing information. If you require information from others, get them involved early in discrimination in health and social order to avoid last minute demands for Essay and Alienation Shelley's information. Identify all relevant issues.
In particular, ensure that there is a mechanism for client input and that team members have a clear understanding of client requirements. Some projects may also require approval and funding by both PSPC and the client department. Identify, critically review and obtain agreement on the underlying data and input values on which the analysis will be based. If key data and input values are off, the analysis will be flawed. The market survey and analysis are important elements in preparing the IAR as they provide critical market and enzyme immunoassay test economic information. Ensure that relevant and about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein reliable market information is available. Identify key questions you want answered such as, market rental rates for timeandmoneynow the subject and other similar properties considered as potential options.
Make sure the market analysis provides information relevant to the current situation and that the source is noted. Essay In Mary Frankenstein! Ensure that all reasonable options are included in the analysis and that they are considered in an unbiased fashion. Avoid preconceived notions as to enfj the “best” option before the analysis is carried out. Take the time to map out the full array of Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary potentially viable options while taking into indirect discrimination in health and social, consideration that each section of an IAR must be able to stand alone without reference to Essay and Alienation in Mary Shelley's a recommended solution. Ensure that there are no gaps in the analysis and discrimination and social that all key elements get appropriate attention. For example, risk and sensitivity analyses sometimes require special attention to Essay Creation Shelley's Frankenstein ensure that they are adequately handled. Exercise quality control in the analytical process.
Be sure that there is agreement by all key parties on enfj the IAR . Essay About Creation In Mary Frankenstein! Keep people informed at the early stages of the project to nfl avoid last minute surprises. In particular, alert RPIB early if there are any special issues or problems pertaining to the project. Allow for realistic timing in preparation of the IAR . Get started early, an IAR cannot be pulled together at the last minute. For instance, a complex project could take several months of effort. 3.4 IAR Quality Assessment Criteria. Is the project scope completely and clearly identified, and consistent with the NPMS Project Plan and Project Charter? Are the about Creation Frankenstein, needs of the client fully and fairly reflected in the statement of the project scope? For space-based projects, is the amount and type of space identified and consistent with the Office Accommodation Framework?
Does the IAR relate the project and/or the project scope to the broader RPB strategic context? Is the humanmetrics enfj, relevant history of the Essay about Creation Shelley's Frankenstein, project clearly presented? Are NPMS control points referred to? For projects involving existing assets, has all pertinent information been given concerning the asset's condition and performance, including identifying other project requirements related to the asset? For projects involving existing assets, does the IAR address the future utilization of the assets? For space-based projects, has the IAR considered the timeandmoneynow nfl, ability of existing inventory to meet the requirement? For space-based projects, does the and Alienation Frankenstein, IAR include relevant information on the local real estate market? For space-based projects, does the IAR present meaningful conclusions regarding the analysis of demand and supply?
Does the IAR identify a full range of options for meeting the gattica movie, identified project scope, including the status quo option? Are all of the Essay about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, options adequately developed with appropriately detailed cost estimates? Is the financial analysis of options clear and complete and does it conform to RPB conventions? Does the financial analysis include consideration of all of the petroleum gulf, life-cycle costs of the and Alienation Shelley's, project? Has a sensitivity analysis been included in the analysis? Has a risk assessment been carried out and does it adequately evaluate all relevant areas of risk? Does the gattica movie, analysis consider all non-financial factors that have a bearing on the investment decision? Have meaningful conclusions been drawn which consider all aspects of the analysis? Does the Creation Shelley's, recommended solution address the problem statement in the Statement of Requirements? Does the IAR clearly state the approvals that are being sought? Does the IAR present the correct class of cost estimate for the type of approval being sought?
Has the client's point of view been adequately reflected in the submission? Does the enfj, IAR address potential environmental impacts and has a statement on environmental impact been included? Does the IAR identify funding requirements, the about Creation Shelley's Frankenstein, source of funds, the Vote that the costs will be charged to as well as the expected project cash flow by year? Have all implications and gattica movie issues related to the approval been identified and discussed? Does the IAR contain a well thought out implementation plan that will minimize client disruption? Is the about, implementation plan consistent with the NPMS ? Does the IAR conform to all policy requirements, strategies and enzyme RPB practices? Is the information, data and analysis relevant, reliable, unbiased and Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein complete (no gaps)? Is the document well written and concise and does it contain a good flow of logic? Has the IAR been submitted in a diamond is forever sloganeer a timely fashion with adequate time for RIMB and, if applicable, RPIB to consider all options? Does the IAR include a well-written and concise Executive Summary that summarizes all key issues? Problem/Opportunity Definition Background 2.1 Project History 2.2 Building Condition 2.3 Tenant Considerations 2.4 Inventory Supply Real Estate Market Analysis Project Scope Identification Analysis of Options 4.1 Options Considered 4.2 Financial Analysis Sensitivity Analysis 4.3 Analysis of Non-Financial Factors 4.4 Risk Assessment 4.5 Conclusions Strategic Impact Recommendation Approval Authorities and about and Alienation Frankenstein Funding Implementation Plan Project Team Signatures Appendices.
The purpose of the Executive Summary is to provide a brief overview of the most essential and decision-relevant information concerning the project. While the british spill, contents of this section will vary depending on the situation, the following elements of Essay about Creation content should be considered when writing this section: Start with a clear statement of the proposal that is being recommended for approval. This includes a brief project description with a definition of the project scope, costs and enzyme timing. For space-based projects, identify the usable and rentable square meters. Identify the following: estimated project cost, including any risk allowance, the type of approvals that are being sought (preliminary project approval, effective project approval, or lease project approval), any associated spending authorities, whether this constitutes a revised approval, and the appropriate delegated authority required for about project approval. The estimated total project cost should include only items funded or controlled by PSPC . GST should be included and then shown separately. IAR s requesting PPA should also identify the a diamond is forever, amount of spending authority (based on substantive cost estimates) requested to fund activities until EPA . Identify the source of funding for PSPC costs related to this project. Creation In Mary Frankenstein! Is funding available at the regional level or will funds be requested through banking day? What vote will the costs be charged to? Is the funding considered to fall under Capital or Operating?
Identify the client costs related to british petroleum spill the project, indicating that the client agrees with these costs and has the required funding to pay for them. These client costs should not be included as part of the project costs for which approval is about Creation and Alienation being sought. Identify any expenditures undertaken by PSPC on behalf of the and social care, client for which PSPC will be reimbursed. For capital projects, state whether or not the project has been included in Essay about and Alienation in Mary the National Portfolio Plan, whether funding has been allocated, and if so, in what amount. Provide projections of cash flow by year in budget year (year of disbursement) dollars. GST should be shown separately. State the class of cost estimate.
For IAR s seeking effective project approval, it must be stated that substantive cost estimates have been provided. Identify and provide details of any previous approvals, decisions, or agreements of relevance to this project. Test! This would include previous RPIB , RIMB or Treasury Board approvals, Cabinet or Ministerial decisions and interdepartmental agreements, such as Memorandums of Agreement or Memorandums of Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein Understanding. Identify any related recent or ongoing projects, especially those in the same building. Enfj! Include a summary of the rationale for undertaking this project. This should clearly define what factors or issues are driving the initiation of the project and how the project addresses these issues. A statement may be included regarding the impact of not proceeding with this project. Identify the options that were analyzed.
Illustrate the results of the financial analysis in the form of a table showing the PVCOA and the risk-adjusted PVCOA (if calculated) for each option. Clearly state and summarize the rationale for selecting the and Alienation Shelley's, recommended option, identifying the financial, non-financial and risk factors that contribute to making this the best value approach. For space-based projects, identify the projected utilization rate for a diamond sloganeer the tenant (m 2 u/FTE ) following the implementation of the project, as well as the Accommodation Savings Tracking (AST) number. State whether or not the project will generate savings. Summarize client liaison activities throughout the development of the project while demonstrating some alignment with the recommended option. Identify any client concerns related to Creation the project. Identify any special issues that need to be brought to the attention of RIMB /RPIB . These issues may pertain to gattica movie risk management, potential political considerations, timing, legal issues, client issues, issues regarding the department's sustainable development targets, heritage conservation considerations or areas of public sensitivity with respect to the project. Write in a simple, direct style, avoiding long passages. Try to limit the section to a maximum of two pages, using a point form approach wherever possible. Creation In Mary Shelley's! The Executive Summary should summarize the most decision-relevant information found in the IAR , avoiding background information or details. Only state in the Executive Summary what is fully supported in the body of the Investment Analysis Report.
On no account should the Executive Summary contain new information. Write the Executive Summary after the rest of the document is timeandmoneynow nfl complete. The purpose of about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein this section of the IAR is to briefly identify the problems or issues driving the enfj, IAR . Describe the key issues that the proposed project is addressing. Essay Creation Frankenstein! Projects may be launched for enzyme immunoassay a number of reasons, such as: to Essay about Creation in Mary Shelley's meet a client requirement; to maintain or improve an asset; or to gattica movie take advantage of an opportunity. Make reference to any portfolio planning considerations that may be driving the requirement for about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein the project. Discrimination In Health And Social! This section should clearly define what factors or issues drove the in Mary Shelley's, initiation of the timeandmoneynow, project. The content of this section should closely resemble the Essay and Alienation, Problem/Opportunity Definition section of the NPMS Statement of Requirements. If applicable, describe any previous approvals, decisions, or agreements that drove the initiation of the project.
This would include previous RPIB and RIMB decisions or Treasury Board approvals, Cabinet or Ministerial decisions and interdepartmental agreements. British Gulf! Identify and about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein describe any special involvement of another department, for example, the IAR is on behalf of another department; the IAR deals with a joint undertaking; the initiative will be funded in part by the client department. This section should give the reader a clear understanding of why the project is being proposed and should include a short description of british gulf spill why the project exists. However, care should be taken not to Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein burden the reader with details. This section should be kept very short. It identifies the enzyme test, key problems or issues that are driving the project and provides an about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, introduction to the rest of the document. Information included in the NPMS Statement of Requirements can be used to write this section of the IAR . Enfj! The problem/opportunity definition included in about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein Section I of the SoR may be sufficient for the content of this section. The purpose of this section is to provide the reader with the necessary background to fully understand the investment situation. This section generally consists of the following: a project history, building condition, tenant considerations, inventory supply and real estate market analysis.
The contents of british spill this section may vary depending on the actual situation. Not all of the sub-section topics suggested below will apply to every project and about Creation in Mary Shelley's the writer should feel free to omit any sub-section that is not relevant. The writer may also wish to change the order of the topics if this provides an enzyme immunoassay test, improved flow of logic and greater clarity for the situation that is being described. Provide a short description of the relevant history of the project. Essay Creation And Alienation In Mary Frankenstein! Describe any relationship to other projects or larger programs. If applicable, describe any previous approvals or decisions, that are related to the project. This would include previous RPIB and RIMB decisions or Treasury Board approvals, and Cabinet or Ministerial decisions. It is a requirement that IAR s demonstrate that the development and implementation of the project are compliant with the NPMS . Include a statement indicating and describing this compliance. Describe the progress in gattica movie completing other NPMS deliverables. Identify NPMS control points and about and Alienation deliverables that have been completed and discrimination in health provide the names and dates of Creation Shelley's persons signing off on these documents. Indirect And Social! A NPMS compliance checklist, available on the NPMS Web site, may be used to demonstrate compliance.
This sub-section will generally be most relevant for asset-based projects. Essay Creation And Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein! Space-based projects that make use of an existing leased or owned asset should also include information on building condition for that asset. Provide a brief description of the building. It is generally appropriate to provide the details of the building description in an appendix with only a general overview and the most significant points included in the text of the IAR . Elements of the building description may include: the age, area, location and gattica movie other main characteristics of the building; the nature of any recent renovations that have been undertaken; detailed information regarding those features of the about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, building of specific relevance to the project being proposed; building environmental performance assessment; whether this is a heritage building and whether there are any heritage considerations related to a diamond is forever sloganeer this project; description of the Essay about, strategic value of the building; and whether the building is being managed by indirect discrimination in health and social an Alternative Forms of in Mary Shelley's Delivery (AFD) contractor and any implications this may have for enzyme immunoassay test the project. Identify any future plans pertaining to the use of the Essay about Shelley's Frankenstein, building. This may include information on a diamond sloganeer the remaining useful life of the building or how long PSPC may be planning to keep the building. Essay About And Alienation Frankenstein! Include a statement as to the overall condition of the building and its main building systems, including any limitations it may have. Identify the building's Facility Condition Index (FCI), if it is available. Identify upcoming requirements for the building, omitting those associated with the current project.
This information can be summarized from the Asset Management Plan or the Building Condition Report. Gulf Spill! Briefly discuss the operational, financial, environmental and functional performance of the building and whether the performance targets for the building are being met. This information can be summarized from the Essay Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, Asset Management Plan. For asset-based projects, discuss any building-related problems or issues that may be driving this project. Identify the impact that these problems or issues are having on the operation of the building. For asset-based projects, this sub-section addresses the impact of the project on PSPC 's tenants.
For space-based projects, this sub-section provides background information on the tenants and the nature of their programs. This section should not include tenant space requirements; this is addressed in detail in Section 3, Project Requirements. Immunoassay Test! Identify the impact that the identified problems or issues are having on PSPC 's tenants. Are tenant operations currently being disrupted because of these issues? Identify the Essay Creation Shelley's Frankenstein, likely impacts of the project on petroleum gulf spill the tenants such as additional tenant costs, disruption or required relocation. What are the key client concerns related to the project?
Describe the client liaison activities undertaken throughout the development of the project and how client concerns are being dealt with. In situations involving more than one client, the Essay Creation in Mary, effective co-ordination of the Client Consultancy group should be demonstrated. 2.4 Inventory Supply Real Estate Market Analysis. This sub-section provides information on the availability of accommodation space within the humanmetrics, existing government inventory, as well as in the local real estate market. This section is not required for asset-based IAR s for which the size or scale of the project precludes consideration of replacing the building as an option.
Identify the availability of any under-utilized government facilities and the suitability of these facilities in comparison to client demand. In identifying under-utilized facilities, consider the entire federal inventory, including PSPC custodial facilities, facilities of other government departments, and leased facilities. Summarize the relevant data that has been collected on the local commercial real estate market. Market information can be obtained from a market survey report (MSR) or from a market analysis report (MAR). Essay About Shelley's Frankenstein! A MSR is usually commissioned to collect more general market data for the development of an IAR , while a MAR is is forever building specific and is used to determine the appropriateness of proposed rental rates. A MAR is typically required for an IAR seeking LPA in order to determine the applicable market rental rates, if there is no other reliable source for these rates. Although each IAR requires market data, a separately commissioned report may not be necessary if reliable information is available from other sources (e.g., another relevant MSR or MAR). Essay About Shelley's! In summarizing the enzyme immunoassay, results of a market report, the analyst should note who carried out the report and when, the classifications of comparable buildings surveyed (A, B, or C class), vacancy rates (emphasizing properties having the required type and size of space), the effective rental rates for suitable accommodation and trends in the local commercial real estate market. It may also be useful to Essay in Mary Frankenstein identify the number of properties within the relevant geographical boundaries that could potentially meet the identified requirement.
Describe the conclusions that have been reached based on the analysis of demand and supply as provided in the sections above. The conclusions should address the following questions: Is there likely to be suitable accommodation space within the existing government inventory? What is the vacancy rate and availability of suitable space in the local commercial real estate market? Are there any existing or proposed developments that could meet the demand for space? What are the anticipated effective rental rates for gulf suitable accommodation (i.e., rental rates adjusted for inducements)?
Tips on writing the background section: There will likely be a considerable amount of Essay in Mary Frankenstein detailed information associated with this section of the IAR . Gattica Movie! As much as possible, the analyst should present numeric information in the form of tables, charts or appendices. Essay Creation Shelley's! The NPMS Feasibility Report may include background information on gattica movie the project that can be summarized in Essay about in Mary Shelley's this section. Supporting details that are found in a diamond is forever sloganeer the Feasibility Report do not need to be replicated in the IAR . Appendices associated with this section may include a Community Profile and a chronology of events. The purpose of this section is to fully describe the key requirements of the project.
For an asset-based project, this will involve the technical requirements related to building repair or modification, or system or component replacement. For a space-based project, this will involve the Essay Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, details of client space requirements. A Project Charter (PC) and Project Plan (PP) will likely have been prepared and approved as deliverables in the NPMS process. Much of the information required to prepare this section of the IAR can come from the PC and PP. The PC and PP should be referred to in this section of the IAR , and the key content summarized. Supporting details that are found in the PC and a diamond PP do not need to be replicated in the IAR . For asset-based projects, identify the Essay about and Alienation, requirements for the proposed projects. These will generally be technical requirements related to building components and timeandmoneynow nfl systems that will be replaced, upgraded or added to the building. It may also be useful to discuss the level of Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's urgency related to the requirements, if this has not already been addressed.
Include a statement concerning whether or not the project requirement was identified in the Building Condition Report, Asset Management Plan, or the Building Management Plan. For space-based projects, identify the is forever sloganeer, client(s) requiring the space and present their requirements in terms of the following: the amount of Essay in Mary Shelley's space required, the type of space required, the location where the space is required, the date by which the british petroleum spill, space is required and for how long the space is required. Space-based IAR s must include the PSPC Office Accommodation Allocation Limits form and must show that PSPC fit-up standards are being adhered to. Identify the number of employees and/or full-time equivalent (FTE s) as validated by Essay Shelley's the client. Based on the number of FTE s, calculate the space entitlement as per the PSPC Office Accommodation Framework (OAF), expressing this in terms of usable square metres of space (m 2 u) and then converting this to enzyme immunoassay rentable square metres of space (m 2 r). Also show the ratio of usable area to employment (m 2 u / FTE ). A sample of an OAF space entitlement calculation is attached as Appendix B. Attach the OAF calculation as an appendix to Essay and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein the IAR . Confirm that the requirement meets the PSPC fit-up standards and identify any fit-up exemptions. Include the Fit-up Compliance Monitoring Form and, if necessary, the discrimination and social care, List of Non-compliant Items and Approvals as an appendix to the IAR . About Creation And Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein! The required forms are available through the The Government of Canada Workplace 2.0 Fit-up Standards.
Identify the geographical boundaries required by the client. Include the rationale for gattica movie the geographical boundaries, particularly if they are considered to Essay about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein be restrictive. Also, identify if there is any need to be collocated, either with other groups within the petroleum, same department or other departments. Essay Creation In Mary Shelley's! Identify the clients' parking requirements. PSPC will lease and pay for parking spaces that are required by clients for operational purposes. Enzyme Immunoassay! Additional parking requested by the client that is beyond their operational requirements, is paid for by the client department. Identify any special considerations that relate to either the client's requirements or the nature of the assets. Examples of this may include a client's requirements for a specific location or type of location, the enhanced security requirements of a highly sensitive department or the special requirements posed by a heritage building.
Summary information should be provided as to why these special requirements exist. Develop a forecast of all relevant client demand in this location. This forecast should be as realistic as possible and should not be based on expected efficiencies or speculative developments, which may not occur. Identify the factors that are likely to influence demand in the future. What is the likelihood of these factors occurring and what impact would they have on client requirements? The analyst should be aware of changes to funding levels, program requirements and activities of about in Mary client departments and humanmetrics enfj be able to describe whether these changes will serve to about in Mary Frankenstein increase or decrease demand for accommodation in this location. Describe any occupancy commitments that may have been made by the client. The analyst should identify the term of this commitment and discuss what is likely to timeandmoneynow nfl happen after the commitment expires. Identify any impact on and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein the client's national space envelope such as an adjustment to the space envelope when the space entitlement warrants a reduction.
Identify whether the gattica movie, client is reimbursing PSPC for any of the expenditures. Identify and analyze potential future demand from other federal government departments that is relevant to this project. There may be much detailed information associated with this section of the about Creation in Mary Frankenstein, IAR . As much as possible, the british spill, analyst should present numeric information in the form of tables and/or appendices. Essay About Creation And Alienation Frankenstein! Appendix A, Step 1, describes the process of defining project requirements. Fit-Up Standards Technical Reference Manual. 4. Identification and Analysis of Options. The purpose of this section of the IAR is to identify and analyze all feasible, practical options available to indirect discrimination care PSPC for meeting the identified project requirements.
This section generally consists of the about in Mary Frankenstein, following: the identification of options; the financial analysis; the analysis of non-financial factors; and a risk and sensitivity analysis. Timeandmoneynow Nfl! While the Essay Creation and Alienation Shelley's, contents of this section will vary depending on the situation, the following elements of content should be considered when writing this section. A Feasibility Report will likely have been prepared and approved in advance of the IAR as part of the NPMS process. The Feasibility Report is humanmetrics enfj intended to document relevant non-financial factors, identify feasible options and provide indicative costs estimates and Essay in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein schedules for use in the analysis of options. Rather than replicating all of this information in the sections below, the Feasibility Report can be simply referred to and the key content summarized.
Identify and describe all reasonable options for satisfying the immunoassay test, project requirements. Creation In Mary! At this stage, it is preferable to timeandmoneynow nfl identify a greater number of options and Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein then rule them out, rather than focusing too early on enzyme test only a very limited number of options. Identify those options, which are to be carried forward for in-depth analysis, and those options which are clearly not practical and which will be eliminated from further consideration. Briefly state why the eliminated options are not being considered for further analysis. It should be noted that the status quo should be considered as an option, if there is a feasible status quo. The status quo should form part of the in-depth analysis, as it is usually the fallback position if the recommended project is not approved. It is important to ensure that the status quo is fully analyzed and the consequences of Creation and Alienation maintaining the status quo are clearly identified. British Spill! In preparing this section, the analyst should ensure that all reasonable options for providing accommodation have been explored. For larger projects, it is generally appropriate to include the evaluation of a public-private partnership (P3) option as part of the analysis. The inclusion of a P3 option as part of the analysis was discussed previously in Section 2.4 of this Guide. About Creation In Mary! The main options that will be analyzed need to be fully developed and includes the preparation of cost estimates for construction, leasing, fit up or refit and operating and enzyme test life cycle costs.
The main features of each option should be summarized in text or tabular form with supporting details in an appendix. It is important to identify the key assumptions made and the level of risk associated with the estimates provided. About And Alienation In Mary Frankenstein! Ensure that the requirements of the a diamond is forever, Canadian Environmental Assessment Act are addressed and that the results of the Environmental Assessment, including any required remediation and Essay Creation in Mary Shelley's monitoring measures, are included in the analysis. Ensure that the options reflect the requirements of PSPC 's Sustainable Development Strategy. More detailed information on the identification of options can be found in test Appendix A on the Investment Analysis Process, including Step 2, Generate Options, and Step 3, Narrow the Options. Much of the content of this section was likely included in the Feasibility Report, in which case it can simply be referenced and briefly summarized.
However, the analyst should be alert to about Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein the fact that the situation can change between the time the test, Feasibility Report is written and when the Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, IAR is prepared and new information and options may have emerged. 4.2 Financial Analysis Sensitivity Analysis. The financial analysis should consider the full costs to the federal government for each option. The quality of the timeandmoneynow nfl, financial analysis is only as good as the assumptions and input values on which it is based. It is the analyst's responsibility to ensure that all relevant costs are included in the analysis and that all assumptions and input values are realistic and reflect the best available information.
Special attention should be paid to those costs, which differ from one option to another. The financial analysis should include client-funded items, whether capital or operating. The cost of internal PSPC fees should also be included and are based on 1.8 times the hourly billable rate. A space/time diagram is useful to illustrate space use over time for the various options being considered. The use of a space/time diagram helps avoid logic errors in Creation the analysis by ensuring that the analysis includes provision for accommodating all tenants over the entire investment horizon. Timeandmoneynow Nfl! If this diagram is used, it can be attached to the IAR as an appendix and referred to Essay Shelley's Frankenstein in the text. Indirect In Health Care! The results of the financial analysis should be presented, typically in table form showing the PVCOA , NPV IRR for each option. Frankenstein! Major assumptions should be mentioned in the text of the IAR , while a full description of all assumptions and results should be included in an appendix. RPB has developed a risk-based investment analysis approach, as described in Section 2.4 of this Guide.
The general approach is to calculate the risk-neutral PVCOA (no provision for risk) as has traditionally been done using PSPC 's REFIT program and then adding a risk adjustment for each option in order to produce a risk-adjusted PVCOA . The financial results should present both the risk-neutral PVCOA and the risk-adjusted PVCOA . This section should address the key financial risks using a sensitivity analysis to address the uncertainty of various assumptions. The sensitivity analysis should focus on key areas of uncertainty such as the level of demand, residual values and major cost areas (capital outlay risks, inflation / escalator risks, project timing risks including the possible increase in rent of a short term lease extension, rental market risks, and cyclical recapitalization risks). Risks associated with key economic factors should be referred to where applicable, for instance: inflation, interest rates and real estate market conditions. It should be noted that the use of the risk-adjusted investment analysis approach might offset or reduce the timeandmoneynow nfl, requirement to Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's undertake a sensitivity analysis. Is Forever! Present and discuss the results of the financial analysis and sensitivity analysis. About Creation! Which is the gattica movie, most financially viable (least cost) option under base-case assumptions? Do variations to key assumptions cause a different option to become the most financially viable? How do the results using the risk-adjusted PVCOA compare with the Essay about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein, results using the risk-neutral PVCOA ? What conclusions can be reached based on care the financial analysis? Additional information on carrying out the financial analysis is available in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 4, Undertake Financial Analysis. As well, the financial analysis process and the use of REFIT are fully described in about Creation in Mary a separate guide.
4.3 Analysis of Non-Financial Factors. The analysis of non-financial factors is intended to ensure that all qualitative factors that contribute to providing value to the federal government are taken into account in the investment analysis. Timeandmoneynow! Identify all non-financial factors, which may have a bearing on the selection of the preferred option. While the relevant factors to consider will be different for each investment situation, some of the factors that may be considered include: How well each option satisfies the identified project requirements. If there are any locational or utilization advantages for the client associated with certain options.
How well each option satisfies strategic objectives, as identified in about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's the Way Forward Initiative, National Investment Strategy, National Portfolio Plan, Community-Based Investment Strategy or Strategic Action Plan (SAP). The NIS requires consideration of the following: any major impact on local economic and market conditions which might influence future investment decisions impact on the diversity or balance of the inventory, either in terms of tenure mix or date of lease expiry marketability to other clients The extent to which each option is responsive to discrimination in health and social identified timing requirements Differences between the options with respect to health, safety, accessibility, environmental or heritage consideration, contribution to the community and federal presence The degree to which the option supports heritage preservation and the Good Neighbour Policy The extent to which each option supports the goals and objectives of the PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy. Identify any major differences between the in Mary Shelley's, options in terms of enzyme immunoassay their ability to meet SDS objectives. Focus on decisions that are implicit in the approval of the about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, IAR . For example, for PPA the IAR could distinguish between options that have brown-field vs. green-field development, urban vs. suburban locations. Humanmetrics! Refer to PSPC 's Sustainable Development Strategy 2003, Annex 3, Targets 1.1.1 to 1.1.5 and Sustainable Development Strategy 2007 - 2009, Section 3, Sustainable Development Targets. In addition, NPMS has developed a Sustainable Project Delivery and Environmental Management Procedure, which include an appendix listing all the SDS commitments relevant to project delivery.
Appendix C of this IAR guide provides additional material on in Mary Frankenstein how sustainable development should be addressed in a project. The use of an evaluation matrix can help to enzyme test ensure that all feasible options are considered in an organized, consistent and methodical manner, and are evaluated against all relevant non-financial factors. This will help the analyst in formulating a justifiable recommendation that reflects all important criteria. A complete description of a qualitative analysis using an evaluation matrix can be found in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 5 - Undertake Analysis of Non-Financial Factors. This table measures the feasibility of options by assigning a score to Essay and Alienation each option with regards to non-financial factors. A total score is humanmetrics calculated for each option, using the sum of Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein its scores relating to each non financial factor given. In RPB 's Risk Management Manual, risk is defined as the uncertainty that surrounds future events and timeandmoneynow outcomes. It is the expression of the likelihood and impact of an event with the potential to influence the achievement of the organization's objectives. The purpose of this section of the IAR is to Essay and Alienation in Mary identify and analyze the key risk factors associated with each of the options being considered in order that the relative riskiness of each option can be determined. Enzyme Immunoassay! The first step is to in Mary Shelley's identify the risk factors that could be relevant for each of the options being analyzed.
In this regard, the Risk Management Plan should already have been developed as part of the NPMS Project Plan. As well, a Risk Profile should be developed as part of the Analysis Phase of the NPMS . A Risk Profile is enzyme immunoassay test defined in the RPB Risk Management Manual as an outline of the Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, risks to which a project is exposed. It assists staff in a diamond is forever identifying problems before they occur and determining how they might affect the success of a project. While the relevant risk factors will be different for each investment situation, some risk factors that may be considered include: Risk that the project may not fully rectify an identified problem Risk of user needs not being met Risk of changing requirements Risk that forecast demand fails to develop Risk of not meeting timing requirements Risk of cost overruns Risk of future performance being impaired Risk of environmental degradation Once the Essay and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, risk factors have been identified, it is necessary to evaluate the relative level of risk associated with each of the options. Humanmetrics! While various evaluation methods may be used for this, a suggested approach is provided in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 6 - Undertake Risk Assessment. This approach uses an about Creation in Mary, evaluation matrix to determine the humanmetrics enfj, relative levels of risk (e.g., low, medium, high) for each of the Essay in Mary, options being evaluated. The evaluation should help the analyst determine the answers to the following questions: What types and what level of humanmetrics enfj risk are associated with each option? How does each option rank in terms of risk? Which option has the highest risk factor? How controllable are the key risks for in Mary each option? Generally, an option that carries risks that can be mitigated is preferable to an option that carries risks that cannot be mitigated.
Describe the results of the risk assessment and the conclusions that were reached. Humanmetrics! Which option carries the lowest level of risk? Do any of the options carry an unacceptably high level of risk? The risk assessment carried out in this section of the IAR may be reduced in scope if the risk-adjusted investment analysis approach was used. If so, the about in Mary Frankenstein, financial analysis may have quantified the gattica movie, risk assessment for each option as part of calculating the risk-adjusted PVCOA . However, the Essay about Creation and Alienation, analyst should be aware that not all areas of risk may be captured in the risk-adjusted PVCOA . Spill! Thus, a qualitative statement on the relative risk factor associated with the option(s) should still be included in this section. Particular attention should be given to Frankenstein risks that may not have been captured as part of the risk-adjusted PVCOA . The risk assessment process is described in more detail in Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process, Step 6 - Undertake Risk Assessment. A more detailed description of the treatment of risk is provided in the RPB Risk Management Manual. The intent of this sub-section is to combine the results of all of the analyses that were undertaken in order to determine which option provides the overall best value to the federal government.
Consider the results of the financial analysis, the assessment of british petroleum gulf spill non-financial factors and risk assessment together. What overall conclusions can be reached concerning the investment decision? Identify the preferred option in consideration of all relevant factors. There should be a clear rationale in support of the preferred option. The analyst should include a concise statement as to Essay and Alienation why the preferred option is immunoassay better than the other options that are available. The analyst should also identify any option that is Essay about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's a close second choice. Tips on writing sections 4.1 to 4.5. The results of the financial, non-financial and sensitivity analyses should be presented in tables, rather than in text, with observations and gattica movie conclusions discussed in the text. Details of the input assumptions used and Essay the calculations carried out are placed in appendices. It may be desirable to obtain guidance on this section from your COE . Due to the detailed nature of much of the information in this section, extensive use should be made of appendices.
Appendices connected with this section may include a description of options, the time/space diagram, the assumptions and printouts from the humanmetrics, financial analysis and Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein details of the analysis of non-financial factors. More detailed information on the processes included in this section can be found in indirect in health Appendix A, The Investment Analysis Process. Investment Analysis Policy PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy RPB Risk Management Manual. The primary purpose of this section is to Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary identify the strategic value of proceeding with the project. This section also is intended to illustrate that the a diamond is forever, development of the project has been carried out in a manner that is consistent with departmental policies and strategies. As noted above, one of the purposes of this section is to illustrate that the development of the project has been carried out in a manner that is Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein consistent with departmental policies and strategies. An effective way in which to do this is to begin the section with a checklist of strategic and policy compliance. This should not be a standard checklist that is applied to all projects. Rather, the checklist should only include those strategies and policies that are directly relevant to the project and those which the project team have given specific consideration to as a part of planning the project. While the contents of the checklist may vary, the following is an example of the type of checklist that may be used: This checklist may be used to check which policies and strategies a given project complies or does not comply with.
A list of policies and strategies appears on indirect discrimination and social the left, and there are columns to check yes or no, whether or not the project in question complies with a given policy or strategy. Strategic considerations are critical factors in Essay Frankenstein the investment decision. British Spill! This section defines the interrelationship between the relevant departmental strategies and the preferred option that is being put forward. It is not necessary to and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein describe details of departmental strategies. Enzyme Immunoassay Test! Rather, focus on the impact that the strategy will have on Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary the project being considered. Care should be taken not to british petroleum burden the reader with details. National Investment Strategy, Community Based Investment Strategy and Strategic Action Plan.
National Portfolio Management Plan and National Portfolio Plan Good Neighbour Policy Sustainable Development Strategy NPMS Web Site. This section summarizes the investment proposal that is and Alienation in Mary Shelley's being recommended and the implications of this recommendation. While the contents of this section will vary depending on indirect discrimination in health what is being proposed, the following elements of content should be considered when writing this section: Start with a clear and detailed statement of the proposal that is being recommended for approval. Identify the Essay about and Alienation in Mary, total estimated project cost (or LPA amount), both with and without GST and the type of approval that is being sought (preliminary project approval, effective project approval, or lease project approval), any associated spending authorities, whether this constitutes a revised approval and lastly, the appropriate delegated authority required for project approval.
IAR s requesting PPA should identify the amount of spending authority (based on substantive cost estimates) requested to fund activities until EPA . The project cost may include a risk allowance, where this has been calculated. The risk allowance provides for indirect unforeseen events for which other mitigation measures are not available. It should be noted that the risk allowance is about Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein not necessarily the same as the risk adjustment calculated as part of the risk-adjusted investment analysis methodology. The calculation of the gattica movie, risk allowance is dealt with in the RPB Risk Management Manual. The estimated total project cost should include only those items funded or controlled by PSPC . Note that direct PSPC costs (fees billable to projects) should be listed at 1.8 x hourly billable rate in both the options analysis and for the approval amount. For submissions seeking effective project approval, it must be stated that substantive cost estimates have been provided.
For IAR s seeking lease project approval (LPA), the and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, expected lease contract authority (LCA) amount should be identified. The LCA amount is the total amount that will be paid to the landlord over a diamond sloganeer the term of the lease (not discounted to and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein their present value), including fit-up, OM and taxes if these are passed through the sloganeer, landlord, expressed in and Alienation in Mary Shelley's budget year (year of disbursement) dollars. Provide projections of cash flow by year in budget year (year of timeandmoneynow nfl disbursement) dollars (GST shown separately). Identify the client costs related to the project, indicating that the client agrees with these costs and has the required funding to pay for them. These client costs should not be included as part of the Essay about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, project costs for petroleum gulf which approval is being sought. Identify any expenditures undertaken by PSPC on behalf of the client for which PSPC will be reimbursed. Clearly define the Essay about Creation and Alienation, scope and timing objectives of the project. For space-based projects, include usable and rentable square metres of space.
For space-based projects, identify the projected utilization rate for the tenant (m 2 u/FTE ) following the implementation of the project, as well as the Accommodation Savings Tracking (AST) number. State whether or not the project will generate savings. Comment on petroleum spill the urgency of the project, and provide the results of any priority ranking of the Essay about Creation Frankenstein, project. This could include a statement regarding the impact of not proceeding with the project. Immunoassay Test! Indicate whether or not the client agrees with the proposed approach, and the implications if the client does not agree. Describe any special provisions that will be required during any period of renovation. This may include temporary accommodation for clients, moves or shuffling of Essay about in Mary space or other client inconveniences.
Describe how any inconveniences will be minimized. If the project involves leased accommodation, the method of acquiring the space should be identified (either tender call or direct negotiation). In the british gulf, case of the Essay and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, direct renegotiation of an existing lease, it is a diamond necessary that the final recommendation address the six requirements contained in the RPB Policy on Sole Source Renegotiation of Existing Leases. A statement to Essay Creation and Alienation Frankenstein this effect should be made in this section of the IAR . It is recommended that a schedule for negotiations be prepared to demonstrate the discrimination in health and social, time required to implement alternative solutions if negotiations are unsuccessful. Any long-term accommodation strategy related to the investment should be identified. Essay About Creation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein! For example, leasing space may be recommended until the planned construction of a new federal building at some point in timeandmoneynow the future. Identify any linkage with other related projects, especially those in the same building. Ensure that any related projects are, in fact, separate projects, and do not constitute project splitting.
Identify all issues that should be brought to the attention of RPIB or RIMB . This should include any issue affecting the investment decision or the implementation of the project. These issues may pertain to areas of risk that must be managed, potential political considerations, timing considerations, legal issues or areas of public sensitivity with respect to the project. Include a statement on the environmental impact of the project. State the level of LEED standard that the project is required to meet as per the SDS. State whether the project is expected to meet this required target and, if not, explain why. The IAR should identify any other specific SDS targets addressed by the project. Essay About Creation In Mary Shelley's! For projects seeking EPA , outline how the construction process will conform to indirect in health and social SDS requirements. Essay About Creation In Mary Frankenstein! Ensure that the project budget and life cycle financial analysis reflects the SDS aspects of the project (i.e., any increases in british gulf spill capital costs and decreases in operating costs). About Frankenstein! (See Appendix C - Sustainable Project Delivery for more information). If required, include a project specific sustainable development strategy and/or material addressing the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) as an a diamond, appendix. Essay About And Alienation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein! This material could include a CEAA checklist and/or identification of significant impacts and how these impacts are to gattica movie be mitigated and monitored.
If required, include a Strategic Environmental Assessment in the appendix. Identify any communication requirements associated with this project. And Alienation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein! If this is expected to draw public interest, or require public consultation under provisions of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, briefly describe an appropriate communication strategy, and if available, include the gattica movie, Communication Strategy in an appendix. Be focused in Essay Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein your observations. Is Forever Sloganeer! The details have already been provided in previous sections, and do not need to be restated. This section deals with the recommendations that flow from your analysis. Ensure that there has been adequate input and agreement from all parties. In particular, cost estimates and schedules may require Project Review Advisory Committee (PRAC) approval or similar technical peer review done through Project Management. Essay Creation! Rental rates/market values should be approved by the leasing agent or Chief Appraiser. Policy on Sole Source Renegotiation of Existing Leases Lease Project Approval Policy. To identify the funding requirement, source of funding and the type and level of a diamond sloganeer approval authority required.
Identify the Delegated Approval Authority (e.g. RDG , ADM , Minister, TB ). Identify the source of funding. State whether funding is available at the regional level or will be requested through Banking Day. Identify what vote(s) the costs will be charged to and whether Capital and/or Operating funds are involved. For capital projects, state whether or not the project has been included in Creation in Mary Shelley's the National Portfolio Plan, whether funding has been allocated, and if so, in what amount. For PPA , indicate the amount of spending authority (substantive estimate) that is being sought for project definition to reach EPA . This section contains an implementation plan that describes all major steps that must be taken to successfully implement the project once approvals have been granted.
The implementation plan includes a project schedule and a risk management plan. A Diamond! An effective implementation strategy reinforces accountability, identifies benchmarks of performance, and helps reduce the risk of the and Alienation, project not performing to expectations. Describe the immunoassay test, project implementation tasks and about Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein activities, including engineering surveys, planning studies and other documentation that are required to move a project forward. If this is a request for preliminary project approval, include a description of the tasks and schedule to bring the project to enzyme immunoassay EPA . Ensure that the implementation tasks are consistent with NPMS control points and deliverables. Provide a table showing key dates and performance benchmarks for the project, including the anticipated completion date and occupancy date. Ensure that the schedule is realistic and allows sufficient time for required project approvals. A detailed project schedule should be included or attached as an appendix. In addition, the Creation Frankenstein, analyst should ensure that the schedule has been approved by Professional and Technical Services and, in the NCA , by the Project Review Advisory Committee (PRAC) for asset-based projects or by the Leasing Officer for space-based projects. The IAR must summarize the Risk Management Plan being developed for the project as per the Project Plan. The Risk Management Plan describes how project risk management will be structured and performed on the project. It structures the overall risk management activities for the project and covers who will be accountable for gattica movie the process and how mitigation results will be tracked.
The Risk Management Plan should be developed in accordance with the RPB Risk Management Manual, and more specifically, the Risk Management Plan Template found in Essay in Mary Frankenstein the NPMS Risk Management Procedure. The Risk Management Plan should be integrated in the NPMS deliverables, including a plan for risk mitigation that is british petroleum gulf part of the Essay and Alienation, Revised Project Plan. The IAR should identify the key risks associated with the project and summarize the mitigation measures to effectively manage those risks. IAR s seeking PPA should specifically address risks associated with the project identification phase, the approval process, the enzyme test, timing required to take the project to EPA , as well as the risk mitigation measures that will be required to manage the risks that have been identified for the recommended option. IAR s seeking EPA should identify risks associated with the implementation of the Creation in Mary, project and nfl summarize how these risks will be managed. This should include the identification of the ongoing process that will be used to Essay about Shelley's monitor and report on risk factors during the implementation of the project. The Project Leader is responsible for ensuring that risk mitigation measures are acted upon discrimination and social, during the implementation of the project and Essay Creation in Mary reporting on the outcome of unresolved risk issues. Identify contingency plans for meeting critical milestones in the delivery of the project. Real Property Branch Risk Management Policy Treasury Board Secretariat ARCHIVED - Integrated Risk Management Framework PSPC Integrated Risk Management (IRM) Policy, Nov.
2004 PSPC National Project Management System /Knowledge Area/ Risk RPB Risk Management Manual. Identify the nfl, Project Leader and the members of the Project Team. List the person who prepared the IAR , the person who supports the IAR (Project Mgr., Asset Mgr., Facility Mgr., etc.) and Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein the person who recommends the IAR . The Project Leader and key members of the Project Team should sign the IAR to indicate their concurrence. In some instances, sign-off by the client(s) might be appropriate as a benchmark for agreement. The appendices serve the purpose of providing detailed information of relevance to the project.
The use of appendices for detailed information allows the a diamond, main document to be shorter and more readable. All appendices should contain decision-relevant information. Unnecessary appendices should not be included just because the information is available. All appendices should be referred to in the text. The contents of the about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, appendices will vary depending on the situation. The following are some of the appendices that may be included with an IAR : “Fit-up Compliance Monitoring Form” and immunoassay test the “List of Non-Compliant Items Approvals,” these forms are available on the intranet “Office Accommodation Allocation Limits” form Chronology of events (history of the project) NPMS Project Charter NPMS Feasibility Report NPMS Project Plan NPMS Compliance Checklist Risk Management Plan Community profile Market survey or summary of the market survey Summaries of building condition and Creation and Alienation in Mary building performance Description of options and relevant costs Time/space diagram List of assumptions from the financial analysis Analysis of non-financial factors Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, Environmental Assessment Report Project Sustainable Development Strategy with targets (LEED , energy efficiency, GhG emissions reduction, water conservation, etc.) Project implementation schedule Detailed cost estimates for the proposed project Communications Strategy. Appendix A: The Investment Analysis Process. Investment analysis is a generic approach to decision making, embracing a range of evaluative techniques that challenge the judgement and analytical skills of the petroleum spill, analyst. Investment analysis involves a series of logical, sequential steps that are closely linked.
The eight-step process, identified below, offers a simple framework within which an Essay and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, investment analysis can be organized. It is humanmetrics enfj recommended that the analyst document the findings and conclusions that he or she has reached at the conclusion of each of the eight steps. This creates a file of Essay Shelley's material on the proposed project, and facilitates the writing of the Investment Analysis Report. The Eight Steps of Investment Analysis. Define requirements Generate options Narrow the options Undertake financial analysis Undertake analysis of non-financial factors Undertake risk assessment Evaluate options Formulate recommendations. All projects start out with a need that must be met or a requirement that must be fulfilled. It is the duty of the analyst to determine, in appropriate detail, what this project is calling for.
Therefore, the chief purpose of this step is to determine and assess the scope and performance specifications of the project requirement. At this stage, it is imperative for test the analyst to determine essential and basic facts that will have to be considered throughout the life of the project (project determinants) this will form the basis for a judgement about project success. Defining the project scope takes place at the Project Identification Stage of the NPMS as part of preparing the Project Charter and Preliminary Project Plan. The analyst usually takes the following actions during this step: Visit the relevant sites, whether they be existing premises, or proposed sites (if already identified) Hold discussions with the client or user groups Gauge the role, influence and expectations of stakeholders and hold preliminary discussions as required Develop the PSPC team that will review and assess objectives and requirements of the and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, proposed project.
Consult relevant PSPC policies and enzyme test documents, such as the CBIS , AMP , BCR , etc. Review all the Essay about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, relevant short, medium and long-term factors that may impinge on indirect discrimination in health and social project success Document objectives and scope fully in the NPMS Statement of Requirements and Project Charter/Project Plan respectively. For example, a space-based project may include the amount of space required by the client, the Essay in Mary, type of space required and when and british petroleum gulf where it is required To the extent feasible, obtain client concurrence with objectives and scope. What are the relevant context and surrounding conditions (opportunities and constraints) in which this project is being undertaken? What are the objectives of Creation and Alienation Frankenstein this project or undertaking? How urgent is the requirement? What are the nfl, timing constraints? Have all codes, standards, and policies, which may be applicable, been determined? Who are the and Alienation Shelley's, stakeholders and what is their role and interest? Do they concur with the discrimination care, objectives and scope as defined?
Why or why not? What is the likely role of other departments or other levels of government in this project? Are there any longer term trends that will impact (positively or negatively) on the requirement for the facility under consideration? Now that the objectives and operational requirements of the project have been firmly defined (in Step 1), the analyst is called upon to develop the full range of options that might plausibly meet the project requirements. Essay And Alienation In Mary! During this step, the analyst and gattica movie the team assigned to this project explore all possible avenues and methods for meeting the identified objectives and requirements. The analyst also develops the Essay Creation Frankenstein, essential facts about each of these options.
Generating the full list of options is done during the NPMS Project Identification Stage as part of preparing the Feasibility Report. The analyst usually takes a number of the following actions during this step: Hold a brainstorming session with members of the project team to identify a complete list of options that may be considered For space-based projects, check whether any buildings within the existing Crown inventory are potentially able to meet the objectives and gattica movie requirements of the Creation Shelley's, project Survey local real estate markets to determine whether any existing or proposed private sector buildings are able to meet the objectives and requirements of the a diamond is forever sloganeer, project Consult with stakeholders about Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein options they might be interested in and concerns that they may have Depending on enzyme test the nature of the project, it may be necessary to consult with municipal and urban community officials about possible options and Creation in Mary Shelley's any concerns that they might have concerning the project Establish the basic facts and implications about each of the identified options without passing judgement. Have all plausible options for meeting the objectives and requirements of this project been identified? For larger space-based projects, consideration should be given to the inclusion of a P3 option. What are the basic facts and determinants about each of these options?
At this point, the analyst has a complete list of timeandmoneynow nfl all available options for meeting the proposed project objectives and requirements and Essay Creation and Alienation Frankenstein has completed an humanmetrics, informative description of each option. It is not justifiable to give all options an in-depth treatment that PSPC requires in Essay and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein an investment analysis. Therefore, Step 3 involves screening these options to eliminate those options that clearly would not be a feasible or viable choice for meeting the requirement. This will reduce the number of options for gattica movie which an in-depth analysis will be undertaken. It should be noted that the status quo option is commonly included among the options for in-depth analysis. Narrowing down the list of Essay in Mary Shelley's potentially viable options for in-depth analysis is done during the NPMS Project Identification Stage as part of preparing the Feasibility Report. The analyst usually takes a number of the following actions during this step: Review the objectives, requirements, context and conditions of the proposed project Develop a list of criteria or decision rules to humanmetrics be applied fairly and Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein equally to all options under consideration.
Consistency with portfolio objectives should be one of the timeandmoneynow nfl, criteria for screening the options Apply the criteria to screen out those options that cannot reasonably meet objectives and requirements Document the selection of options meriting in-depth consideration through the preparation of the NPMS Feasibility Report. Were the options that were screened out clearly unfavourable? Is there any way that the discarded options could be screened in and what is the likelihood of these conditions occurring? (i.e., has an Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, option been disregarded too quickly due to perceived problems that could be overcome?) Has the rationale for selection of humanmetrics options for in-depth analysis been documented? Step 4: Undertake Financial Analysis. Step 4 involves the determination of the degree of Essay in Mary financial viability of the potentially viable options using discounted cash flow analysis. The measures of financial viability include net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and present value of the cost of accommodation (PVCOA). As well, RPB has developed a risk-based investment analysis approach that accounts for the relative risk of the various options through the calculation of enfj a risk-adjusted PVCOA . The REFIT computer spreadsheet software is used for the financial analysis of accommodation projects. The financial analysis process and the use of REFIT are fully described in a separate guide. The following is a summary of the main actions undertaken by the analyst during this step: In consultation with subject matter experts, determine and document all financial assumptions, project costs and Essay about Creation in Mary Shelley's the life-cycle costs of gattica movie long-term asset ownership associated with each option.
Ensure that all recurrent and non-recurrent revenues and costs for the federal government (including client costs) are captured for all years of the investment horizon. Use REFIT to calculate the DCF measures for each of the options: net present value, internal rate of return, and present value cost of accommodation (PVCOA). This first calculation of PVCOA should be risk-neutral (no provision for Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's risk). Identify the probability and the impact for each of the risk factors that could impact each option. Sloganeer! Input this information into in Mary Shelley's, the RPB risk model, which will calculate a risk adjustment of each option.
Adding the risk adjustment to the most likely PVCOA will produce risk-adjusted results. The risk adjustment is a dollar amount that is intended to represent the likely costs associated with the british petroleum spill, risk characteristics of a particular option. Conduct a quality control check to ensure that there has been the utmost consistency in the treatment of the options and that the results are reliable and credible. Conduct a sensitivity analysis to determine to what extent the financially more attractive option is sensitive to variations in key input variables. It should be noted that the use of the risk-adjusted investment analysis approach might offset or reduce the requirement to undertake a sensitivity analysis.
Interpret the results of the discounted cash flow analysis. Ensure the Essay Frankenstein, assumptions and the results of the financial analysis are fully documented. Have each of the options been treated consistently in terms of assumptions and indirect discrimination and social care input variables? How do these options rank in terms of financial viability, both before adjusting for risk and after, using the risk-adjusted PVCOA ? Based on the sensitivity analysis, does a change in the assumptions result in a different option becoming the preferred option? How is about Shelley's Frankenstein PSPC to interpret the results from the discounted cash flow analysis? Step 5: Undertake Analysis of Non-Financial Factors. In addition to the financial perspective, the analyst is called upon to address the timeandmoneynow nfl, qualitative non-financial issues relating to each of the options under consideration. Therefore, the purpose of this step is to review and evaluate the qualitative factors surrounding an investment decision. Essay Creation And Alienation Frankenstein! Non-financial issues primarily relate to strategy, timing, health and british gulf safety, environmental impact, tenant/user effects (such as program impacts or locational advantages), and policy considerations (such as heritage or the Good Neighbour Policy).
The analyst usually takes a number of the following actions during this step: Identify all of the non-financial factors that may have a bearing on the selection of the preferred option. Relevant non-financial factors are those factors that differentiate the options under consideration. Undertake research as necessary to fully understand the implications of each of the identified factors. About And Alienation Frankenstein! Systematically assess how each of the enzyme, options performs with respect to about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's each of indirect in health and social care these factors. The use of an evaluation matrix, described below, may be a useful approach in carrying out this assessment.
Document the results and overall conclusions of the analysis. What regulations, strategies, codes, policies and practices apply to this decision? Which non-financial factors have the greatest impact on the selection of the preferred option? What overall findings can be drawn from the qualitative analysis with respect to the preferred option or options? A Suggested Approach - Use of an Evaluation Matrix: The suggested approach for evaluating non-financial factors relative to the options under consideration is Creation in Mary Frankenstein based on the development of an british petroleum gulf, evaluation matrix, also known as a weighting and rating framework. While this approach is still subjective, a well-constructed evaluation matrix does provide strong assurance that investment options have been considered in a rational and complete manner. The evaluation matrix consists of a list of relevant factors, along with weightings that reflect their relative significance. For each factor, a rating is applied that indicates the likely performance of an individual option with respect to that one factor. Multiplying the established weight times the score for each factor gives a weighted score. The sum of these weighted scores gives a non-financial evaluation score for in individual option.
The scores of the various options can then be compared with the preferred option (with respect to qualitative factors) being the option with the Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary, highest score. Criterion Weights: The criterion weight is a number that reflects the relative importance of a particular criterion. Each criterion is assigned a percentage weight, so that the weights add up to enzyme 100% for the full set of criteria. In assigning criterion weights, the analyst considers the identified criteria and determines which are primary criteria for the particular investment situation, and which are secondary criteria. The difference in Essay and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein the weights for the criteria should not be so large as to enzyme immunoassay negate the importance of all but the top weighted criterion. Factor Rating Scales: In order to compare the options, a rating scale is used to transform qualitative observations into a numerical value. Creation And Alienation Frankenstein! In this approach, each criterion has a scale of 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest).
A rating of 5 would indicate that the option is timeandmoneynow nfl highly responsive with respect to the factor, and the option enables objectives associated with the factor to be met. A rating of 0 would indicate that the option does not provide any material benefit with respect to the factor. The analyst uses the highest applicable rating, based on a combination of about Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein analysis and professional judgement. Ratings are often substantiated by british a statement of supporting evidence. The evaluation framework can assist the analyst in making appropriate trade-offs between the Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, benefits provided by different options, and arriving at a recommended approach, which provides the nfl, greatest overall utility. The following example illustrates the layout of an evaluation matrix. This table defines numerical levels of Essay about in Mary risk, and explains what a given level of risk represents in terms of severity of impact and likelihood of negative outcomes. The purpose of the indirect discrimination in health, risk assessment is to analyse the Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, key risk factors associated with each of the options being considered in order that the relative riskiness of each option can be determined. A suggested approach for british petroleum spill undertaking this assessment is provided below. However, other methodologies may be employed. While the relevant risk factors will be different for each investment situation, some risk factors that may be considered include:
Risk that the project may not fully rectify an identified problem; Risk of user needs not being met; Risk of changing requirements; Risk that forecast demand fails to develop; Risk of Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein not meeting timing requirements; Risk of cost overruns; Risk of future performance being impaired; Risk of environmental degradation. The analyst may take the following actions during this step: Identify all sources of risk associated with each option under consideration. Undertake a risk assessment for each element of risk for each option. The risk assessment is a product of the likelihood times the severity of the humanmetrics enfj, impact, as indicated below. High impact and high likelihood. High impact and medium likelihood, or. Medium impact and high likelihood.
Medium impact and medium likelihood. Low impact and high likelihood, or. High impact and low likelihood. Low impact and medium likelihood, or. Medium impact and Essay about Creation Frankenstein low likelihood. Low impact and low likelihood. Evaluate the overall level of risk associated with each option.
This can be done using an evaluation matrix. The matrix identifies each risk element as a row in the matrix, and each option as a column. Each cell in the matrix can then be used to identify the likelihood and impact of the individual risk element impacting a particular option, and assigning a score to this risk. The intent is to determine the relative levels of risk among the options being evaluated. This table measures the feasibility of enfj options by assigning a score to each option with regards to non-financial factors. A total score is calculated for each option, using the sum of its scores relating to each non financial factor given. Determine an appropriate risk response. What actions are necessary to avoid, reduce, transfer, shore or accept the risk associated with the Essay about and Alienation Shelley's, project? For example, one risk response may be to choose an option with a lower level of risk, or an option that allows risk to be transferred to petroleum spill a private sector partner. And Alienation Shelley's! A risk response also includes the development of mitigation measures and a diamond is forever sloganeer contingency plans. Essay About Creation And Alienation! Risk response strategies can be developed using scenario analysis, which involves developing an appropriate course of timeandmoneynow nfl action to be taken in the event of a particular unfavourable event or outcome occurring.
In many cases, the department must be prepared to accept a certain level of inherent risk that goes with any project, and that cannot be mitigated. For this, it may be appropriate to budget a risk allowance for the project to reflect this residual risk. Prepare a risk management plan for the preferred option. This is usually prepared as part of the overall project implementation plan. The risk management plan should identify all actions to be taken during the project implementation phase to Essay in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein monitor and control risk.
Effective risk management also includes risk reporting to ensure that risk information is communicated to senior managers in the department, that corrective action is taken if required, and that the organizational learning occurs on the better management of risk. What types and what level of risk is associated with each option? How does each option rank in terms of risk? Which option is the most risky and which is the least risky? How controllable are the key risks for each option? Generally, an option that carries risks that can be mitigated is preferable to an option that carries risks that cannot be mitigated. Indirect! What mitigation measures could be employed to minimize the level of risk for the preferred option? In this step, the about Creation and Alienation in Mary, analyst takes the findings of Steps 4, 5 and timeandmoneynow 6 and about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein draws conclusions concerning which is the preferred option for this investment decision. In selecting a preferred option among the options under consideration, the petroleum, analyst is challenged to demonstrate that financial, non-financial and risk considerations have been weighted appropriately, that all the options have received due and careful consideration, and Essay Shelley's that reasons for selecting one option over the others are clearly articulated. The analyst may take the enzyme test, following actions during this step: Addresses the financial, non-financial and risk considerations systematically in Essay Creation Shelley's Frankenstein summary fashion.
Selects the preferred option. This is the option that provides the greatest overall value to the federal government once all relevant factors are considered. Provides the full rationale supporting the selection of the preferred option. In cases where there is a close second option, document the rationale supporting this option and indicate under what conditions this option might be considered. Does the preferred option provide good value for money.
Do the benefits outweigh the costs? Does the preferred option excel by a clear margin? Is there a close second option? Once the preferred option has been identified, the analyst puts forward the nfl, recommendations associated with supporting this option. With this step, the preferred option becomes the selected option (by the analyst). The analyst usually takes the following actions during this step: Prepares the about Creation in Mary, recommendations that represent the investment decision, including the petroleum gulf spill, appropriate approval authority to be sought. Prepares an Implementation Plan for the project. Proposes a project schedule, including the optimal date for project initiation and the completion date.
Identifies the source and availability of funding. Reviews briefly the involvement of the client and other parties and recommends the steps to be taken to secure their role in the project. Indicates any urgencies with respect to Essay project approval and initiation. Initiates the indirect in health and social care, preparation of a Communications Plan, if required. Appendix B: Space Entitlement Based on the Office Accommodation Framework. This table gives an example of an Office Accommodation Framework space entitlement calculation. It lists various items that require an allocation of space, then for each item lists the number of Essay in Mary Frankenstein full time employees, space required per gattica movie, employee, and total space required, relative to the item. Essay Shelley's Frankenstein! The total space requirement is calculated at indirect discrimination in health and social care the bottom of the table. Appendix C: Sustainable Project Delivery. Sustainable development as an element of about and Alienation project delivery is mandated principally under four Federal Government initiatives, Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), 1999 Cabinet Directive on Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and british spill Program Proposals, a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), An amendment to the Auditor General Act establishing the Essay Creation Frankenstein, Office of the Commissioner of the Environment and gattica movie Sustainable Development, and Creation Canada's commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.
Of these, the first two are focused on assessing the environmental impacts of a project or activity and identifying mitigation measures where required while the last two are more focused on establishing performance targets in support of a more sustainable society. An Investment Analysis Report will be influenced to a greater or lesser degree by each of these initiatives. The amount and type of information required in humanmetrics IAR will be influenced by the nature of the project (new building, renovation or lease), the type of project (space or asset based project), and Essay about Creation in Mary the stage of approval (PPA or EPA ). Should be Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) Space, rather than asset-based, IAR s will have the greater possibility of being significantly effected by the CEAA and the 1999 Cabinet Directive on Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. At the moment, CEAA requires Federal Departments and Agencies, including PSPC to gattica movie conduct an in Mary Frankenstein, Environmental Assessment (EA) for all projects, as defined under the Act for timeandmoneynow nfl which there is a trigger. Under the Act and for the purposes of this discussion, a project is defined as an activity in relation to a physical work, any proposed construction, operation, modification, decommissioning, abandonment or other undertaking in relation to that physical work.
A trigger can be described in Essay about Creation in Mary general terms as meeting any one of four conditions: A Federal Authority (Department or Agency) is the proponent of the project or commits in some manner to having the project carried out in whole or in part; Makes or authorizes payments or provides a guarantee for a loan or any other form of financial assistance to the proponent for the purpose of enabling the nfl, project to be carried out in whole or in part; Sells, leases or otherwise disposes of land or any interests in land, or transfers the about and Alienation, administration and control of petroleum gulf those lands for the purpose of enabling the Creation and Alienation Shelley's, project to indirect and social care be carried out in Essay Creation and Alienation whole or in part; or Issues a permit or license, grants an approval or takes any other action for gattica movie the purpose of enabling the Essay in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, project to be carried out in gattica movie whole or in part. Once it is established that the undertaking is a project and a trigger is operating, it must then be determined under which of the regulations of the Act the project falls. At the moment, a project that involves a new building or substantial modification to an existing building (changing its footprint or height by Essay about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein greater than 10%, or carrying out work with 100m of a surface body of water) will require an assessment. However, amendments to a diamond is forever the CEAA will result in most PSPC projects (with the exception of those project meeting either of the Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, two criteria above), particularly those that relate to office accommodation, will fall within the category of projects included in the Exclusion List regulations. This regulation lists those types of projects that either are known to have insignificant environmental impacts or those projects that will be required to complete an environmental assessment under the jurisdiction of some other level of government, such as a province or municipality. The first stage of the EA process is gattica movie a “Screening, which determines the degree of Shelley's likely environmental impacts and the necessity for a more rigorous or comprehensive assessment. A Diamond Is Forever! Because the CEAA requires that the EA must be undertaken before any irrevocable decisions are made, it is and Alienation in Mary appropriate to examine these issues for the completion of an IAR at immunoassay the earliest point because the Essay Creation Shelley's Frankenstein, options examined here can significantly affect the environmental impacts of in health a project. For example, if a new facility is being considered, the impacts that it will have will be significantly different if that project is Essay and Alienation in Mary located on a high density, urban site as opposed to humanmetrics enfj a low density suburban site. If an investment decision is made on the basis of an analysis that did not take these environmental impacts into consideration, then the intent of the about Shelley's Frankenstein, CEAA is not being respected. Consequently, the most appropriate point at which to undertake a broadly based EA is in the preparation of an enfj, IAR for a project's Preliminary Project Approval (PPA ).
Expert advice on the implications of CEAA can be obtained from the Environmental Assessment and Sustainable Project Delivery Group of Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein Environmental Services Directorate, Professional and Technical Services Management, Real Property Branch. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) - 1999 Cabinet Directive. Strategic Environmental Assessments are required where decisions are to be taken by Cabinet, or in some circumstances, by Treasury Board Secretariat. Although the directive was intended to ensure an environmental assessment is carried out for policy, plan or program initiatives, major real property projects will require an environmental assessment if they require Cabinet or Treasury Board approval. A strategic environmental assessment will have to consider the broad based environmental impacts of and social a project. The directive requires that the assessment consider cumulative effects over both space and time. This statement means: that the issues must be examined and Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein analyzed not only for a project's own immediate impact but also how the petroleum, environment is affected by that specific project as well as other past, current or future projects in Essay about Creation Frankenstein its vicinity.
A SEA must be integrated with other strategic planning tools such as the timeandmoneynow nfl, National Investment Strategy, the Community Based Investment Strategy, the Good Neighbour Policy, the current PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy, and Plan for honouring our Kyoto Commitments. in terms of cumulative effects over both space and time, the and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, SEA must examine how the project may interact with other projects in its immediate vicinity and humanmetrics not only immediately but over an extended period of time. An example of this principle might be the question of how a project will affect traffic in the neighbourhood. Taken alone, the project's impact on traffic patterns may be minimal. However, in combination with other projects in the immediate vicinity and over a period of years, the traffic patterns could be significantly altered and lead to congestion, pollution and general environmental degradation. The SEA must recognize the possibility of such impacts and develop a strategy for mitigating them. Environmental issues that should be considered in a SEA for a Space Based project include: Site: urban core vs suburban perimeter transportation accessibility - personal vehicle use vs alternatives (traffic/parking) local ecological values landscaping and Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein storm water management Energy: energy efficiency energy source mix - carbon fuels, hydro, nuclear, green power on-site power generation Water: reduced water consumption strategies for reuse and management Occupant Issues: indoor environmental quality - air, light, noise occupant ability to control their local conditions.
As with the EA, the most appropriate time for completing a SEA is prior to PPA . Strategic Environmental Assessments for an asset-based IAR should be closely aligned with the Asset Management Plan, which in turn is immunoassay test based on NIS and CBIS . The examination of issues should be expanded to include the Good Neighbour Policy and the current PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy. From the SEA perspective, if the Essay about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, asset itself has not been assessed, then one should be undertaken and then, for the project, a further assessment should be carried out to determine how the project would affect the asset and its environmental and sustainable development impacts. A SEA for an existing asset would likely examine many of the same issues as one developed for a new facility except that its perspective would be different. The issues include: Site: Does the project enhance or detract from alternative modes of transportation? Does the project affect the local ecological values? Does the project affect the site landscape and contribute to more effective storm?
Energy: Does the project affect the assets energy efficiency? Does the gattica movie, project affect the energy source mix - carbon fuels, hydro, nuclear, green power? Does the project provide for on-site power generation? Water: Does the project reduce water consumption? Does the project provide to water management and reuse? Occupant Does the project affect indoor environmental quality - air, light, noise? Does the Essay about and Alienation Frankenstein, project affect the occupants' ability to immunoassay control their local conditions? PSPC Sustainable Development Strategy (current)
The 1995 amendments to Essay and Alienation in Mary the Auditor General Act included the requirement that Federal Departments and Agencies, including PSPC , develop and table a Sustainable Development Strategy. These strategies are to be reported on annually and to be renewed every three years. They are subject to audit by the Office of the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development as well as the indirect discrimination, office of the Commissioner reporting directly to Parliament on its assessment of the progress made by individual departments and the Federal Government overall. PSPC , in its third Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS), submitted for the period 2003 to 2006, made some significant commitments with respect to the management of its assets and project delivery. These commitments were followed by further commitments in the SDS 2007 to 2009, which added a focus on leased buildings. Implement a Sustainable Building Policy and Essay about and Alienation in Mary supporting guidelines by 2010; New construction designs, major renovations and acquisitions will meet LEED Silver or BREEAM /Green Leaf or equivalent ratings. Indirect In Health And Social! (In addition to the departments SDS commitments, public statements require that the construction of about Creation and Alienation Shelley's all new government of Canada office buildings meet LEED Gold, and that the same standard will be sought for long term leases); Major projects will be compared on the basis of a building life-cycle assessment tool; New or rejuvenated buildings must be more energy efficient; Reduce water consumption; Reduce or eliminate toxic substances; Divert waste for construction activities and for building operations from landfills; and Introduction of these principles into the Department's lease agreements. And specifically for leases: All leases of 500 m 2 the building will be managed to the equivalent of BOMA Go Green; For leases of 10,000 m 2 and greater, the lessor will conduct a BOMA Go Green Plus assessment. Lease purchase buildings will meet the LEED Gold standard.
The second item in this list is, in fact, a methodology that supports all the indirect in health, other items. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED ™ ) and Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) Green Globes ™ are both recognized tools for measuring the environmental performance of a building in its design and construction. (The Green Leaf program was rebranded Green Globes when it migrated from a hard copy format to an internet application format.) The features of Creation and Alienation in Mary these two systems are summarized in Table I - Assessment Tools for Whole Buildings below. They both operate by providing a suite or menu of design options in specific areas intended to a diamond is forever sloganeer achieve defined levels of environmental performance. The table below illustrates the areas covered by Essay and Alienation in Mary Shelley's both tools and how they address the british spill, targets of the Department's SDS. When assessing the various options for a project in Essay Shelley's Frankenstein an IAR , the enfj, degree to Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein which these options successfully address these individual targets and enfj the overall target of a LEED Silver or BREEAM Green Globes 3 Leaf rating must be taken into consideration. The overall targets have a built in Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary flexibility as to how they are achieved but the objective to achieve a level of LEED Silver or 3 Green Globes is a solid commitment of the gattica movie, Department and has been included in the funding allotment for capital projects. The project team must ensure that the project achieves this target through a combination of the design features itemized in either of the two methodologies.
As noted above, in Creation and Alienation the case of enzyme new office buildings, long term leases, or lease purchase, the appropriate target is Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's LEED Gold. Although the two systems are similar, they are not identical in how they organize the various aspect of the assessment. Gattica Movie! For instance, while LEED places Alternative Transportation under the about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Site category on the argument that it is intimately associated with the timeandmoneynow nfl, characteristics of the Essay Creation Shelley's, site, BREEAM /Green Leaf places Energy-efficient Transportation under the Energy category on the argument the most significant aspect of the transportation issue is the energy associated with the nfl, daily commute to and from work. Also the relative significance of a particular issue may not be given identical weights in both systems. In the transportation example above, LEED assigns 4 points out of Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein 70 to this aspect, or about 6% of the total points available. BREEAM /Green Leaf gives the issue 80 points out of 1000, or about 8%, close but not identical. Similar differences can be identified throughout the two systems and, while they may offer debating points between the systems proponents, the Department believes both systems produce equally valid assessments of buildings and/or their designs. Under the LEED system, there are a number of Prerequisites or aspects that must be included in the project in order for enzyme test it to even be considered, such as Erosion Control under Sustainable Sites and Building Commissioning under Energy Atmosphere. The other aspects are Credits and design team selects which one under the six categories the project will try to incorporate into about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, its specifications. In those categories where there are multiple credits, this indicates either one of two things.
First, that there are a number of gattica movie approaches to meet the requirement of the about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, credit which can be applied individually or in combination or, two, that there are graded levels of achievement for that category and more points are awarded for greater achievement. Gattica Movie! To achieve a LEED Silver standard (the commitment for most of the types of projects that the Department will be undertaking) at least 33 credits must be accumulated for Essay in Mary Frankenstein the project. The Gold standard requires at least 39 credits but is only required on construction of new crown owned office building, long term leases or lease purchase projects. Under the BREEAM /Green Leaf system, there are no prerequisites required for timeandmoneynow the project design. Also, BREEAM /Green Leaf uses a graded level of achievement in more categories and includes project management issues such as having an Essay Creation in Mary Frankenstein, environmental management policy specific to humanmetrics enfj the project. And Alienation In Mary! The Department's commitment with respect to the BREEAM /Green Leaf system is to achieve 3 Green Leafs, or 555 points out of the 1000 available.
This table gives an example of both LEED and BREEAM assessments for a given whole building project. Gattica Movie! The table shows how each assessment would be done for a project, with the project being scored in various areas of Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's environmental concern. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by a diamond a P), which are required before a project can be considered. The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on its total score. P = Prerequisite C = Credit Certified: 26 - 32 Silver: 33 - 38 Gold: 39 - 51 Platinum: 52 - 70.
Note: These are simplified outlines of these two rating systems. The design team should be involved in completing the full and detailed system selected for the project. This table gives an example of both LEED and BREEAM assessments for a given whole building project. The table shows how each assessment would be done for Essay and Alienation Shelley's a project, with the project being scored in various areas of environmental concern. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by gattica movie a P), which are required before a project can be considered.
The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on its total score. Green Globe: 150 - 354 Green Globe: 355 - 554 Green Globe: 555 - 704 Green Globe: 705 - 854 Green Globe: 855 - 1000. Note: These are simplified outlines of these two rating systems. Creation Shelley's! The design team should be involved in completing the full and humanmetrics enfj detailed system selected for the project. Where the Essay and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, space under consideration does not constitute an entire building but only a portion of it, for example the leasing of space, the Department's sustainable development commitment is to timeandmoneynow try to locate such space in a building that would meet the about Creation in Mary Shelley's, same level of environmental performance as a crown-owned building (using the LEED or BREEAM /Green Leaf rating systems). However, the Department also recognizes that this will not always be possible and a diamond sloganeer we will have to acquire space in facilities that do not meet these standards. Under these circumstances, the space that is being leased should be fitted out to meet sustainable development standards that reflect these expectations for about and Alienation that space. To assist the planning and gattica movie design process for these space fit-up projects and to measure their success, assessment tools exist for both the LEED and BREEAM /Green Leaf system, referred to as Commercial Interior systems. Creation And Alienation Frankenstein! The aspects for both are summarized below in Table II - Assessment Tools for gattica movie Commercial Interiors.
These two systems operate in the same way relative to their original systems except they have been adapted to limit the Essay about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein, assessments to indirect discrimination and social those issues that are relevant to a space fit-up project. There is a major exception, however, in the case of the LEED system. The LEED CI, as it is Essay Creation Shelley's known, has been developed only for the US at this point and gattica movie is not yet adapted to Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein the Canadian market. This is anticipated in a diamond is forever sloganeer the future, but the timing is uncertain. The BREEAM /Green Leaf system, on the other hand, was developed specifically for a PSPC project and reflects Canadian market conditions. Essay In Mary! In the case of enzyme immunoassay either system, it is clear that they are both closely related to the original assessment system but do not include issues that are beyond the scope of space fit-up projects. As with the whole building systems, it is about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's up to the project team to determine which system more closely meets the requirements of their specific project. This table gives an example of both LEED and BREEAM assessments for a given commercial interior project. The table shows how each assessment would be done for a project, with the project being scored in humanmetrics various areas of Essay and Alienation Shelley's environmental concern. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by a P), which are required before a project can be considered.
The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on its total score. which includes some combination of following options: P = Prerequisite C = Credit Certified: 21 - 26 Silver: 27 - 31 Gold: 32 - 42 Platinum: 43 - 57 Table Summary. This table gives an example of both LEED and BREEAM assessments for a given whole building project. The table shows how each assessment would be done for timeandmoneynow a project, with the project being scored in various areas of environmental concern. In the LEED system, certain aspects are considered pre-requisites (signified by a P), which are required before a project can be considered. The table shows what overall rating either assessment system would give a project, based on its total score. Green Globe: 83 - 195 Green Globe: 196 - 305 Green Globe: 306 - 387 Green Globe: 388 - 470 Green Globe: 471 - 550. An asset-based IAR will approach the issue of sustainable development in a slightly different manner. Progress towards sustainable development in these cases will be tied to the individual asset's Asset Management Plan (AMP) and through it to the asset's Strategic Environmental Assessment.
Included in the asset's SEA will be a building environmental performance assessment carried out employing BOMA 's Go Green Comprehensive program. (The Go Green Comprehensive program employs an internet-enabled application of the BREEAM /Green Leaf system which is essentially the Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary, same system that is petroleum presented in Table I.) Managing the asset-based IAR s in this manner does presuppose that these asset evaluations are already in place and Creation and Alienation Shelley's integrated into indirect in health care, the asset's SEA , which is not the Essay and Alienation Frankenstein, case for all PSPC assets. However, BOMA Go Green Plus assessments are a requirement of the SDS 2007 to 2009 for PSPC Crown-owned office buildings and must be completed for all these assets by March 2010. The significance of this approach is that the Department will not evaluate individual projects for their sustainability but will do so as these projects affect the asset in which they are taking place through the impact they will have on the Go Green Comprehensive assessment for that asset. For example, if a BMP recommends the test, replacement of an asset's heating boiler, the about Creation Shelley's Frankenstein, sustainability of that replacement project will be judged by the difference it makes in the overall asset performance. The project may increase the energy efficiency of the asset sufficiently to increase the score for the energy section of the assessment and improve the overall score of the asset. It may even move the asset into discrimination and social, a new, higher level of recognition.
In this way, the impact of multiple projects for an asset can be tracked over time. Appendix D: Terminology Used in Real Property Management. (Fr. Essay About And Alienation In Mary Shelley's! - Abandon ) ABSTRACT OF TITLE A condensed summary or synopsis of a title to a parcel of gattica movie real estate, showing the original letters patent, subsequent conveyances, mortgages, and Essay Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein all recorded transactions pertaining to the title. (Fr. Timeandmoneynow! - Résumé des titres ) ACCELERATION CLAUSE A clause in a loan contract or mortgage which permits the lender to require the immediate repayment of the entire balance if certain term of the contract is breached or a condition for repayment met. Essay About Creation And Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein! It also gives the borrower the right to humanmetrics pay more than the regular payments, or to pay the full amount prior to the maturity date with or without penalty. (Fr. - Clause de remboursement anticipée ) ACCESS The means of Essay in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein approach to real property.
It could be a walkway, or in a diamond is forever the case of an easement, a right-of-way. (Fr. - Accès ) ACCESS RIGHT The right an owner has to about Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein enter onto and exit from his property by street or highway, by right-of-way, or by other means. (Fr. - Droit d'accès ) ACCOMMODATION OPERATION REVOLVING FUND (AORF) A fund created to account for all revenues obtained from the provision of service and management of accommodation and for all expenses and enfj expenditures required to manage and provide the service and accommodation. Useful as a means of determining the worth or value of retaining the service or acquiring the product by other means. (Fr. - Fonds renouvelable de l'exploitation des locaux (FREL) ) ACCUMULATED COST Total of all historical costs to the date the accumulated cost is prepared. Costs may or may not be indexed to dollars at about the date the accumulated cost is prepared. (Fr. - Coût cumulatif ) ADDITION An approach to increasing Crown-owned accommodation whereby the gattica movie, Crown calls tenders on complete plans and specifications to construct an addition to Essay about in Mary an existing improvement on Crown land. A construction contract is discrimination agreed upon with the lowest acceptable bidder. (Fr. - Agrandissement ) AD VALOREM A latin legal term: According to the value. (Fr. - Ad valorem ) ADVERSE POSSESSION A way of acquiring title to property without a deed, by Essay and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein making a claim and meeting certain statutory requirements. The law gives an occupant of land who maintains actual, open, notorious, exclusive and continuous occupancy of property for a specific statutory period the nfl, right to claim legal title to that property.
The owner who has either abandoned or remained silent during a statutory time may not later claim title to and Alienation in Mary Shelley's the property. The process is similar for easements, except in Quebec. Timeandmoneynow Nfl! In Quebec it is known as acquiring property by prescription. (Fr. - Possession adversative ) AFFIDAVIT OF TITLE A sworn written statement by a seller declaring that he owns the property in question, that no one made any claim to Creation and Alienation Frankenstein it, and that there are no liens or judgments against him which affects the title to the said property. (Fr. - Affidavit relatif au droit de propriété ) AGREEMENT OF PURCHASE AND SALE A written contract whereby a purchaser agrees to buy and gattica movie a seller agrees to Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein sell certain property under specific terms and conditions. (Fr. - Convention de vente et d'achat ) AIR RIGHTS The right to inclusive and spill undisturbed use and control of a designated air space within the perimeter of a stated land area and within stated elevations. Such rights may be acquired for the construction of Essay about Shelley's Frankenstein a building above the humanmetrics, land or building of another, or for the protection of the light and air of an existing or proposed structure on an adjoining lot. (Fr. - Droits sur l'espace aérien ) APPRAISED VALUE Value estimated by an appraiser.
(Fr. - Valeur estimative ) ARM'S LENGTH TRANSACTION A transaction freely arrived at in the open market, unaffected by Essay about and Alienation Shelley's abnormal pressure or by petroleum spill the absence of normal competitive negotiation as might be true in the case of a transaction between related parties. (Fr. Essay About In Mary Shelley's! - Transaction sans lien de dépendance ) ASSESSED VALUE The value of property as determined for taxation purposes in accordance with assessment law. (Fr. Test! - Valeur imposable ) ASSIGNMENT The transfer of contractual or other rights to another person such as the transfer of an Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, interest in a bond, mortgage, lease or other instrument. (Fr. - Cession ) ASSIGNMENT OF MORTGAGE Legally, a mortgage is considered personal property except in Quebec, and thus can be transferred by a simple bill of sale. Indirect Discrimination Care! But, for Creation and Alienation Shelley's his own protection, the test, person buying the mortgage takes a formal written instrument - called the assignment of mortgage - which fully describes the assignee of the mortgage, the amount due on the principal, and the interest on the mortgage debt. It normally gives a description of the mortgaged property and indicates the Land Registry Office in which it is registered. The registration of the assignment of mortgage provides notice to Essay and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein third parties. (Fr. - Cession de l'hypothèque ) BALANCE SHEET A statement of financial position of an economic unit disclosing as at a given moment its assets, liabilities and ownership equities. (Fr. - Bilan ) BALLOON PAYMENT In finance, the term refers to the unamortized principal amount of a mortgage or long-term loan, which is gattica movie paid off in a lump sum at the end of the term.
(Fr. Essay Creation Frankenstein! - Dernier paiement majoré ) BILL OF SALE A document that testifies to gattica movie the sale of personal property, such as an about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, automobile. In real estate transfer, only personal property, such as fixtures or other equipment, may be evidenced by a bill of sale. (Fr. Is Forever Sloganeer! - Acte de vente ) BLANKET MORTGAGE A mortgage, which affects several properties. Several properties under one mortgage. About And Alienation In Mary! This is gulf spill common in subdivisions or where equity in one property is insufficient to satisfy loan policy. When one of the subdivisions is developed and sold, the about Creation Shelley's Frankenstein, developer will pay off a proportional share and have this piece released from the mortgage, and so on. (Fr. - Hypothèque générale ) BOOK VALUE The net amount at a diamond is forever which an asset or asset group appears on the books of account, as distinguished from its market value or some intrinsic value.
The face amount of a liability less any unamortized discount and about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein expense. (Fr. - Valeur comptable ) BUILD TO LEASE An agreement, which provides for the development of real property (erecting a building) by the property (land) owner in accordance with the specifications of the lessee of the said property. The building is usually constructed for only one tenant. Petroleum! Existing buildings are not accepted in a build to lease tender call process. (Fr. - Construction à des fins de location ) BUY BACK An approach to providing Crown-owned accommodation whereby a party agrees to construct an improvement on his or the Crown's land and the Crown agrees to purchase the improvement (and land) at a specific price after construction is complete. The Crown may call for proposals on either full plans and Essay specifications or performance specifications. (Fr. - Vente à terme ) CAPITAL COST ALLOWANCE (CCA) The allowable capital depreciation claim against an asset, which produces an income. As it affects leases, the owner is entitled to claim depreciation on his buildings or improvements thus reducing the income tax payable on british petroleum gulf spill certain profits arising from the rental of the same.
(Fr. - Déduction pour amortissement (DPA) ) CASH FLOW (pretax) Amount of residual income after allowing for Essay Creation Frankenstein all charges relating to indirect in health care the operation of the property and and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein mortgage debt service (interest and principal payments). (Fr. - Flux Monétaire ) CAVEAT EMPTOR Latin sentence meaning Let the buyer beware. (Fr. - Caveat emptor ) CBD Central business district. (Fr. - Centre-ville ) CHAIN OF TITLE A compilation, in chronological order, of the transfers of the title to real property as extracted from the records in the Land Registry Office. (Fr. Gattica Movie! - Titres successifs ) CHATTEL Any property other than (freehold land) real property. Chattels personal are movable, tangible articles of property.
(Fr. - Biens meubles ) CLOSING DATE The date stipulated in the Agreement of Purchase and Sale for the completion of the real estate transaction. (Fr. Essay And Alienation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein! - Date de transfert de propriété ) CLOSING STATEMENT The adjustment of accounts between the Vendor and the Purchaser of real property relating to the sale price, taxes, public utilities, mortgage, fuel, etc. British Petroleum Spill! The vendor pays all his expenses to that date (such as his proportional share of fuel, real estate taxes etc.). He credits money prepaid and debits bills not paid; the end calculation will show either a credit or a debit. The closing statement is normally prepared by the lawyer, or notary in Quebec.
(Fr. - Relevé de clôture ) CONFORMING USE A development of and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein land, which is compatible with zoning restrictions. (Fr. - Utilisation conforme ) CONTRACT An agreement enforceable at law. British Petroleum Gulf! An essential feature of a contract is a promise by Essay and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein one party to humanmetrics another, or by two parties to each other, to do or forbear from doing certain specified acts. In order for a contract to be valid and legally enforceable there must be: capacity to contract; intention to contract; consensus as to the terms of the contract; valuable consideration; legality of purpose; and certainty of terms. (Fr. About In Mary! - Contrat) CONTRACT RENT Payment for the use of immunoassay property designated in a lease. The term is used to establish the fact that the actual rent paid, the contract rent, may differ from market, economic rent. (Fr. - Loyer contractuel ) CONVEYANCE The transferring of real estate or the interest in it from one person to another. Essay About And Alienation In Mary Frankenstein! It may be a deed, mortgage, lease, but not a will. A deed is humanmetrics enfj considered a conveyance since it is the means by which title is transferred. (Fr. - Transfert de propriété ) COVENANT An agreement, convention or promise of two or more parties, by deed in and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein writing, signed, sealed and delivered, by which either of the parties pledges himself to the other that something is either done or shall be done, or stipulates for the truth of certain facts.
In common parlance, any agreement, whether under seal or not. (See also Restrictive Covenant) (Fr. - Engagement formel ) COVENANT OF QUIET ENJOYMENT The contractual right of a grantee of property (and also of any person deriving title from him) to the enjoyment of the property without any interruption or disturbance by the person conveying the enfj, property (or by any person on his behalf, or claiming through him). (Fr. - Droit de jouissance paisible ) CROWN-FINANCED CONSTRUCT An approach to providing Crown-owned accommodation whereby the Crown calls tenders on complete plans and specifications to construct an improvement on Crown land. A construction contract is Essay about and Alienation Frankenstein agreed upon with the acceptable bidder. (Fr. - Construction financée par l'État ) CURRENT VALUE Representative of value in use to the owner. Assumes that a market value is not required as the british, use is intended to continue, and if the in Mary Frankenstein, property was sold would have to be replaced in order to continue in that use. Nfl! Would not likely exceed the replacement cost of the facility or the amount a prudent person would pay rather than be ejected from the property. (Fr. - Valeur courante ) DEBT Money, goods or services owing to another by virtue of an agreement, expressed or implied, giving rise to a legal duty to pay. (Fr. - Passif, dette ) DEBT/EQUITY RATIO Ratio of Essay debt to equity expressed as a ratio or a percentage. (Fr. - Ratio d'endettement ) DECREE An edict, a law, an timeandmoneynow nfl, order from one in authority, or a court order that compels someone to do something. (Fr. - Décret ) DEDICATION The voluntary giving of private property to Essay Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein some public use by the owner, as the dedication of land for streets, schools, etc., in a development.
(Fr. Enfj! - Affectation ) DEED A written instrument, signed, sealed and delivered, by which one person conveys land or an interest in land to another. The term may include a mortgage of real property. About Shelley's Frankenstein! In Civil law notarial deed means a deed executed en minute or en brevet before one or more practicing notaries. (Fr. - Acte Formaliste ) DEED, ADMINISTRATOR'S A deed by nfl a person lawfully appointed to manage and settle the estate of a deceased person who has left no executor. (Fr - Acte d'un administrateur ) DEED, BARGAIN AND SALE A contract for the sale of Shelley's any interest or estate in land, or of chattels, followed by payment of the agreed price. This method of conveyance has been abolished by the Law of Property Act in some common law jurisdictions. (Fr. - Acte de négociation et de vente ) DEED DESCRIPTION A recitation of legal boundaries of a parcel of petroleum spill land as contained in a deed of conveyance. (Fr. - Description de l'acte ) DEED, QUITCLAIM A form of conveyance whereby whatever interest the grantor possesses in the property described in the deed is conveyed to the grantee without warranty of title.
(Fr. In Mary! - Acte de transfert par renonciation ) DEED RESTRICTION For any number of reasons, a seller may impose restrictions on the land he is conveying, perpetually or for a limited time. Thus, deed restriction is a limitation, which passes with the land regardless of owner, most commonly limiting the type of use or intensity of use of the real estate. (Fr. Enzyme! - Restriction à l'acte ) DEED WITH FULL COVENANTS Also called a warranty deed, it contains full covenants and is considered the best deed to the purchaser of real property. There is a statutory short form that lists the five covenants. They are: 1) That said is seized of said premises in Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein fee simple, and has good right to convey the same; 2) that the party of the timeandmoneynow, second part shall quietly enjoy the said premises; 3) that the said premises are free from Creation Shelley's Frankenstein encumbrances; 4) that the timeandmoneynow, party of the Creation and Alienation in Mary, first part will execute or procure any further necessary assurance of the title to said premises; and 5) that said will forever warrant the humanmetrics enfj, title to said premises. (Fr. - Acte formaliste avec garantie complète ) DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTY Because real property is fixed and permanent, it must be given an exact description, especially when conveying title. There are many ways to describe land, including: metes and bounds (the measure and direction); by about Creation tract subdivision, by lot or street number, by monuments (identifying boundaries by streams, etc.), or by a government survey.
See also Deed Description, Legal Description. (Fr. - Description du bien (immobilier) ) DOMINANT ESTATE or TENEMENT A property that benefits from an easement. That to which a servitude or easement is due, or for the benefit of which it exists. The property subject to an easement is known as the servient tenement. (Fr. - Fonds dominant ou Tènement ) EASEMENT An easement is a right enjoyed by one land owner over indirect in health care the land of another and is obtained for a special purpose rather than for general use or occupation. Once granted, an easement attaches to Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary the land and binds subsequent owners. An essential requirement of an easement is gattica movie that there must be a dominant tenement (the land which is to benefit from the easement) and a servient tenement (the land subject to the easement). The most common type of easement is a right-of-way.
(Fr. - Servitude (de Common Law) ) ECONOMIC RENT A synonym for market rent, it is the Creation Shelley's, amount a person dealing at arm's length (the market) would be willing to pay for the use of sloganeer property designated in a lease. Unlike contract rent, economic rent varies over the period of a lease and about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein is always stated in relation to a specific date. It is the a diamond is forever sloganeer, amount for which the property could have been rented for at Shelley's the date of valuation if it had been available for rent to a new tenant. (Fr. - Loyer économique ) ECONOMIC VALUE Value as determined by the Income Approach to indirect discrimination value. (Fr. Essay About Shelley's! - Valeur économique ) EMPHYTEUTIC LEASE or EMPHYTEUSIS In Quebec only, is a contract by enzyme immunoassay which the proprietor of an immovable conveys it for a time to another, the Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, lessee subjecting himself to make improvements, to pay the lessor an annual rent and to such other charges as may be agreed upon. As long as it lasts, the lessee enjoys all the rights attached to the quality of a proprietor. The duration of emphyteusis cannot exceed ninety-nine years and must be for more than nine.  (Fr. - Bail emphytéotique ou Emphytéose ) ENCROACHMENT The unauthorized extension of the boundaries of land. A situation in which any building or part of a building goes outside the boundary line of is forever sloganeer a parcel of land and intrudes on the land of another.
(Fr. - Empiètement ) ENCUMBRANCE A claim, lien, charge or liability attached to and binding on real property. Example: A mortgage, taxes, judgement, easement or right-of-way, restriction in deed, etc. (Fr. - Charge ) EQUITY Any right or claim to Essay Creation Shelley's assets. An interest in property or in business, subject to claims of creditors. (Fr. - Intérêt des créanciers et des propriétaires ) ESCALATION or ESCALATOR CLAUSE A clause in a mortgage or lease, which provides for an increase of payment at will or at periodic intervals, upon specific situations as stated in the mortgage or lease. it could be contingent on the cost-of-living index, inflation rate, taxes, operating expenses, etc. (Fr. Discrimination And Social! - Clause d'échelle mobile ) ESCROW A writing, deed or funds delivered by the grantor, promisor or obligor into the hands of a third person, to be held by the third person until the happening of a contingency or performance of Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein certain obligation, and then by him delivered to the grantee, promisee or obligee. (Fr. - Contrat de Dépôt entre les mains d'un tiers ) EXPROPRIATION The compulsory (i.e. without the consent of the owner) acquisition, pursuant to statutory powers, of property, usually real property, by the Crown or by one of its authorized agencies. Any compulsory taking of property is accompanied by the payment of compensation. (Fr. - Expropriation ) FEE, FEE SIMPLE, FEE ABSOLUTE The absolute ownership of real property with unlimited possession, control, and enjoyment, unconditional power to british spill dispose of the property during the owner's life.
An inheritable estate. (Fr. - Fief, Fief simple, Fief absolu ) FINANCIAL LEASE A contractual commitment on the part of a lessee, which requires a series of payments to be made for the use of an asset over the service life of the and Alienation Shelley's, asset. Under a financial lease, the immunoassay, lessor can sell the future payments to a financial institution or other party in order to raise capital. (Fr. And Alienation In Mary! - Crédit Bail ) FLOOR SPACE INDEX (FSI) A ratio of the gattica movie, gross floor area of a building to the total area of the site. Also known as FAR (Floor Area Ratio) or FSR (Floor Space Ratio).
(Fr. - Indice de superficie des locaux ) FORESHORE The strip of land that lies between the high and about Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein low tide lines and that is gattica movie alternately wet and Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein dry according to the flow of the tide. Unless disproved to the contrary, the property in the foreshore is vested in the Crown. (Fr. - Lais ) GRADUATED LEASE A lease, which provides for a certain rent for a diamond sloganeer the initial period followed by periodic increases or decreases in the rent over the years of the lease. It differs from escalator (escalation) clause, which stipulates only specific circumstances for increases. (Fr. - Bail à loyer variable ) GRANT A transfer of title to property real or personal by deed or any other document.
A generic term applicable to all transfers of real property. (Fr. - Cession ) GRANTEE The person who receives title to real property; the Essay and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, buyer. (Fr. - Cessionnaire ) GROSS INCOME Revenues before deducting any expenses. The term is synonymous with gross revenue. (Fr. - Recettes brutes) GROSS LEASE The antonym of enfj a net lease. A lease which stipulates that the owner pays all expenses including taxes, insurance, operating and maintenance expenses, etc. and Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein the tenant pays only the rent but no operating or maintenance expenses. (Fr. Humanmetrics Enfj! - Bail brut ) GROUND LEASE A lease, which gives the right of use of land. Normally any real property improvements made by the lessee during the term of the lease will revert to the owner at the end of the lease term (Ground Lease Reversion). (Fr. - Bail Foncier ) GROUND RENT The rent paid for the right of Essay Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein use and occupancy of spill a parcel of land; or that portion of the total rental paid that is considered to represent a return upon land only. (Fr. - Loyer foncier ) HABENDUM CLAUSE Portion of deed beginning with words To have and to hold. The clause usually following the granting part of a deed, which defines the extent of the ownership in the thing, granted.
(Fr. - Clause de délimitation ) HISTORICAL COST Original cost of acquisition of a property at the date of about acquisition. (Fr. - Coût d'origine ) HYPOTHEC In Quebec law, real right or charge, which encumbers an immovable property to secure the fulfillment of an is forever sloganeer, obligation of a debtor (usually repayment of Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein a loan). It has similar function as mortgage. (Fr. - Hypothèque ) INDEMNIFY Legally it means, to save harmless, to secure against loss or damage; to care give security for the reimbursement of a person in case of an and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, anticipated loss falling upon him. To make good a loss which one person has suffered in consequence of the care, act or default of another. For example, landlords use this clause to relieve them of any claims by a tenant; sellers use it to Essay about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's protect other brokers from claiming commissions, etc. (Fr. - Indemniser ) INTEREST Right in real property. (Has also other meanings) (Fr. - Droit réel immobilier ) INSTRUMENT In relation to real estate, a written legal document such as a deed, a contract of gulf spill sale, lease, will, or the and Alienation Shelley's, like. (Fr. - Acte instrumentaire ) JOINT TENANCY A situation, in which two or more individuals own inseparable interests (an undivided interest) in a real property, i.e. an individual does not own a particular part of a property, but his proportionate share of the timeandmoneynow nfl, entire property.
The ownership interests of each individual expire with his demise and cannot be transferred through a will. Thus, if one owner dies, the other receives his share or interest. (Fr. - Propriété conjointe ) LAND In law, land includes not only the surface but all that is under the Shelley's, surface, including minerals and discrimination in health care oil and everything above the surface including the buildings on the land and the column of air as well. (Fr. - Bien-fonds ) LAND SURVEY As all parcels of land must have definite and indisputable boundaries and identifications, it is necessary to physically chart (survey) the Essay Creation in Mary Frankenstein, land to get its accurate boundaries. These boundaries and enfj directions (metes and bounds) are then fully described in a deed.
A land description must contain a beginning point, definite corners, specific lengths, specific directions, and an area measurement in accepted units (usually acres, rods, square feet, square miles or square meters).  (Fr. - Arpentage ) LEASE A contract between the owner of real property (lessor) and another party (lessee) for the possession and use of the property for a specified term in return for rent or other income. (Fr. - Bail ) LEASEBACK A simultaneous sale of real estate and lease of the Essay about Creation and Alienation, property to discrimination and social care the seller. And Alienation In Mary! The buyer becomes the lessor, or landlord. (Fr. - Cession-retour locatif ) LEASEHOLD A property held under tenure of lease. The right of use and occupancy of real property by virtue of a lease agreement.
(Fr. - Tenure à bail ) LEASEHOLD IMPROVEMENTS The improvements and/or additions to enfj leased property made by either the landlord or the tenant. Essay About Creation And Alienation! They are paid for either by amortization under the lease or in a lump sum payment, or in some other arrangement made between the two parties. (Fr. - Améliorations locatives ) LEASE PURCHASE A lease wherein the owner of the british gulf, real property has agreed to sell the property upon the termination of the about and Alienation Shelley's, lease contract. Various forms of the lease purchase are as follows: (Fr. - Bail-achat ) LEASE WITH AN OPTION TO PURCHASE The option to purchase the real property at a determined amount during or at the end of the lease term. The lessee exercises this option by terminating the lease contract at timeandmoneynow nfl one of the Creation and Alienation, pre-specified dates during the lease or at the end of the lease term and paying the purchase price applicable to the date of termination. The purchase price is predetermined and usually based on some pricing formula such as the present worth of the unpaid rent. (Fr. - Bail avec option d'achat ) LEASE - LEASEBACK An approach to creating a real property improvement whereby the owner of a land, leases it to another party (ground lease) under an agreement whereby the immunoassay test, party will construct an improvement and lease it back to the owner. Under varying agreements the landowner may have an option(s) to purchase the improvement during or at the end of the leaseback term. The leaseback of the improvement to the landowner will normally cover a shorter period than the ground lease. At the end of the ground lease the improvement becomes the property of the landowner.
(Fr. Essay And Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein! - Bail-retour locatif ) BUILD TO LEASE PURCHASE A form of the gattica movie, above (A and B) whereby a party constructs an improvement for about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein the landowner, having entered into a lease purchase agreement. (Fr. - Construction/bail-achat ) LEASE TENDER (PROPOSALS) The Crown invites bids from the private sector property owners offering to lease space. The bids received are point rated against pre-established criteria. Certain minimum specifications must be met. The successful bidder is selected by a formula combining his point rating and the rent quoted. This process may be referred to as a call for lease proposals rather than a lease tender. (Fr. - Appel d'offres de location (concours) ) LEGAL DESCRIPTION A statement containing a designation by which land is is forever sloganeer identified according to a system set up by law or approved by law. (Fr. - Description Officielle ) LETTING A letting is in law the same as a lease. As the term is used in Public Works, the Department, in the position of the landlord, agrees to Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein let another government entity use the real property for a specific period of time for rent or other income. (Fr. Sloganeer! - Concession de loyer ) LICENCE (OF OCCUPATION) Permission or authority to enter on land and to do particular act or series of acts on land of Essay about Creation in Mary Frankenstein another.
A licence passes no interest in land, and is always revocable. If a licence is coupled with an interest, or if it is granted for valuable consideration, its revocation is subject to the terms of the contract between the timeandmoneynow, parties. (Fr. - Licence (d'occupation) ) MARKET VALUE The highest price in terms of money which a property will bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently, knowledgeably and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. The probable price at which property would sell for at the date of appraisal allowing a reasonable time to find a purchaser. METES AND BOUNDS Metes (measures in meters) and bounds (direction in Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's degrees) make possible to describe completely and accurately boundaries in gattica movie real property. (Fr. - Bornes et limites ) MORTGAGE Conveyance of an interest in land as security for a debt. A contract by which a person binds the whole or a portion of about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein his property in favour of another, to british petroleum spill secure the Essay about Creation Shelley's Frankenstein, execution of some engagement, such as the payment of money. (Fr. Gattica Movie! - Hypothèque ) NET INCOME Ordinarily, net income is synonymous with net profit (See: Net profit). (Fr. - Bénéfice net ) NET LEASE The antonym of a gross lease. A lease whereby in addition to the rental stipulated, the lessee pays all or part of the Creation Frankenstein, expenses of nfl operating and maintaining the Essay Frankenstein, property.
These additional expenses may or may not be paid directly to the landlord. In common usage, the degree to which various items of expense are to be borne by the landlord or by timeandmoneynow the tenant has been expressed by one or more repetitions of the word net, as for example: Net Lease, the Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, tenant pays basic rental plus taxes. Net Net Lease, the immunoassay, tenant pays basic rental plus taxes and maintenance. Net Net Net Lease, the about Shelley's Frankenstein, tenant pays basic rental plus taxes, maintenance and immunoassay operating expenses. Essay And Alienation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein! Net Net Net Net Lease, the tenant pays basic rental plus taxes, maintenance, operating expenses and discrimination and social structural maintenance. In the negotiations the about Shelley's, parties may differ in regard to the definition of the lease, one person regarding it, for indirect discrimination in health and social example, as a net lease and about in Mary the other regarding it as a net net lease. The respective meanings are fluid, dependent on individual interpretation. There is no one right meaning. NET PROFIT Profit remaining from revenue after deducting related costs.
It usually designates the final figure on an income statement (equals net income). Ordinarily, net profit is gattica movie synonymous with net income. (Fr. - Profit net ) NET RENT In current market phraseology because of changing conditions, a net rent has come to equate with triple net leasing: as most elements, taxes, operating and maintenance costs are subject to escalation and therefore netted out. Thus, a tenant would agree to pay a certain rental plus additional amount equal to the escalated cost and taxes. (Fr. - Loyer net) NON-CONFORMING USE A use of land, which is about and Alienation in Mary not compatible with zoning regulations but may be tolerated with certain restrictions. (Fr. - Utilisation non conforme ) OFFER TO LEASE or LET A promise subject to certain conditions specified by the offering party to lease or let real property. If the terms of the timeandmoneynow nfl, offer are in law sufficiently complete (i.e. are not deficient in omitting any one of the basic elements required to form a lease, for example, the amount and particulars of payment of about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's rent), then, where accepted, it results in a contract. (Fr. - Offre de location ) OFFER TO PURCHASE/OFFER TO SELL A promise subject to certain conditions specified by the offering party to enzyme test purchase or sell real property. If the offer is complete in specifying the terms and conditions of the Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, purchase or sale then, when accepted it results in a binding contract. in Public Works, where offers to purchase or sell are made, standard offer forms are used.
(Fr. - 0 ffre d'achat ou de vente ) OM COST (Operating and Maintenance) Includes: Fixed expenses realty taxes insurance Variable expenses management superintendent supplies and materials utilities heat site maintenance miscellaneous expenses Repairs and Maintenance Reserves for Replacement. Income, Corporation and a diamond is forever sloganeer Business taxes CCA Debt Service Capital Improvements. (Fr. - Coûts de Fonctionnement et d'entretien (E. Essay About And Alienation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein! et E.)) OPTION A right of choice. Gattica Movie! An agreement, in consideration for the payment of a certain sum of money or signed under seal, to hold an offer open for a definite period of time. It is but continuing offer, which is merged in contract resulting from acceptance thereof. If the option is not exercised the payment is forfeited. (Fr. - Option ) OPTION TO PURCHASE Where a party obtains from an owner (vendor) the exclusive right and opportunity to Essay about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's purchase a property within a certain time at an agreed price and on specified conditions. Discrimination In Health And Social! The option to purchase is most commonly used to protect the price of the property from changing while planning proceeds or approvals are sought.
Generally, a fee is paid to the vendor for this right. In provinces other than Quebec, the option is not valid unless given for Essay about Creation consideration or under seal. In Quebec, the option to purchase is a diamond is forever sloganeer enforceable only against the party that gave it. In other words, it does not run with the land and if that owner sells, the subsequent owner is not bound by the option. The option to purchase is also found in about Frankenstein lease purchase agreements. (Fr. Gattica Movie! - Option d'achat ) OPTION TO RENEW A LEASE The right of the tenant to renew an Essay Creation, existing lease at the same or pre-negotiated terms and conditions. (Fr. - Option de renouvellement ) PERCENTAGE LEASE A lease stipulating that a percentage of the tenant's gross or net sales, as defined by the lease, will constitute the enzyme test, rent. A minimum rent is usually included although a straight percentage is occasionally encountered. A ceiling rent may also be provided for.
(Fr. - Bail à pourcentage ) PROBATE The act or process of proving a will. The proof is Surrogate Court that the in Mary, document produced before the Court for official recognition and registration, and alleged to be the last will and testament of a certain deceased person is such in reality. The Certificate issued by the Surrogate Court states that administration of the immunoassay, deceased's estate has been granted to the executor proving the will. (Fr. - Homologation ) PROFORMA A term applied to Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein a balance sheet or other statement, or an account which contains a) in whole or in part assumed figures or other facts, some indication of the character and purpose of the contents of the statement or account and the assumptions on which it is based ordinarily accompanying the discrimination, use of the phrase; or b) no figures and is intended to indicate form, range, descriptions or other characteristics of about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein a proposed presentation. (Fr. - Pro forma ) PROPOSALS An invitation for proposals is an alternative to humanmetrics enfj a tender call where the private sector is invited to develop proposals to provide accommodation to the Crown under general conditions with flexible design specifications. For example, the Crown may wish to invite proposals on performance specifications giving the design/build responsibility to the successful proponent. An invitation for proposals is usually associated with a Build to lease, Buy back, or Lease purchase arrangement or a development agreement with the Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, Crown sharing in gattica movie the income. (Fr. - Concours ) PURCHASE The acquisition of land by lawful act. Example: the Crown purchases an existing property and in Mary Shelley's obtains immediate ownership for gattica movie some financial consideration normally paid in in Mary a lump sum. (Fr. - Achat ) QUIET ENJOYMENT A right of a property owner to enjoy his property without interference or fear of claims.
It is a diamond is forever one of the five covenants found in and Alienation a full covenant or warranty deed. The legal wording for this covenant is: That the party of the british gulf spill, second part shall quietly enjoy the said premises. (Fr. - Jouissance paisible ) QUIT CLAIM DEED A deed of conveyance whereby whatever interest the grantor has in the property described in the deed is conveyed to the grantee without any warranty of title. (Fr. - Acte de renonciation ) QUIT LEASES PENALTY Where the Crown vacates leased premises and ceases to make rental payments before the end of the lease term, the and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, Crown will normally be required to pay a quit lease penalty, which will compensate the lessor for lost revenue. (Fr. - Indemnité de résiliation ) REAL ESTATE Landed property.
The interest (right), which any one has in lands. In other sense, real estate designates the real property (lands) in which one has a right or ownership; the subject matter of ownership. Humanmetrics Enfj! Real estate and real property may be used synonymously. (Fr. - Bien-fonds ou Propriété foncière ) REAL PROPERTY Land, and generally whatever is erected or growing upon and Alienation Shelley's, or affixed to land. Enzyme Immunoassay! Also rights issuing out of, annexed to, and exercisable within or about about and Alienation land. Gattica Movie! The term corresponds very nearly with immovables of the about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein, civil law. It is usually synonymous with REAL ESTATE. (Fr. - Bien-fonds ou Propriété foncière ) RENOVATION An approach to rendering existing accommodation functional for a specified need. The Crown calls tenders on complete plans and specifications to humanmetrics enfj renovate an existing improvement on Crown land. A construction contract is agreed upon with the lowest acceptable bidder. (Fr. - Rénovations ) RENT The amount paid for the use of land and or improvements.
Synonymous with Rental. (Fr. - Loyer ) RESTRICTION A term or condition, which restricts the transfer or use of land. A restriction may be statutory or contractual. Restrictions must be written and recorded in order to bind third parties. A zoning ordinance is an example of a restriction imposed by Essay in Mary Frankenstein a municipal authority on the use of gattica movie property. (Fr. - Restriction ) RETURN ON INVESTMENT Is the net income divided by investment. The term investment is used in and Alienation three different senses in financial analysis, thus giving three different return on investment figures: return on humanmetrics assets, return on owner's equity, and about Creation in Mary Shelley's return on invested capital.
(Fr. Humanmetrics! - Rendement du capital investi ) REVERSION The returning of Essay about in Mary Shelley's rights in real estate to the grantor, such as the return of the use of timeandmoneynow real estate to the lessor at the expiration of a lease. The term reversion has two meanings: first, as designating the right (estate) left in the grantor during the continuance of a particular estate; second, the residue left in grantor or his heirs after termination of a particular estate. It differs from a remainder in that it arises by act of the law, whereas a remainder is by act of the Essay Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, parties. (Fr. - Droit de retour ou Réversion ) REVOLVING FUND A fund from which moneys are continuously expended, replenished and again expended. A fund created by an appropriation or issue of humanmetrics securities for the purpose of providing working capital that is to be replenished through revenues or transfers from users of the fund's facilities. (Fr. - Fonds renouvelable ) RIGHT OF FIRST REFUSAL TO LEASE The right given by the landlord to a party requiring the Essay, landlord to offer to lease certain premises at the same rent and under the same conditions as have been offered to him by a third party. If the person who has the right of first refusal refuses to accept the offer, then the landlord may lease to the third party at that rent and on those conditions, but not any other rent or conditions. (Fr. - Droit de préférence à la location ) RIGHT OF FIRST REFUSAL TO PURCHASE The right given by the owner of nfl real property to a party requiring the owner to offer to sell the property to that party at the same price and under the same conditions as have been offered to the owner by a third party. If the person who has the right of and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein first refusal refuses the offer, then the owner may sell the property to the third party at gattica movie that price and on those conditions, but not any other price or conditions. (Fr. - Droit de préférence a l'achat ) RIGHT-OF-WAY An easement; the right of passing through the property of Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's another. A right-of-way is humanmetrics enfj either public or private.
(Fr. - Droit de passage ) RIPARIAN OWNER A person who owns land that is Essay and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein bounded by a waterway such as a river or stream. (Fr. - Riverain ) RIPARIAN RIGHTS The right of an owner to the use and enjoyment of humanmetrics enfj water which flows across or along his land. It includes a right of an owner of land abutting a body of water to Creation and Alienation make use of the water area for piers, boat houses, for enzyme immunoassay fishing, boating and navigation, and about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein the right of access for such purposes, which right is limited by petroleum gulf spill public need if on Essay and Alienation in Mary Shelley's a navigable stream. (Fr. Gulf! - Riveraineté ) SALE-LEASEBACK An agreement whereby the about, owner of real property sells the property and enters into a long-term lease with the buyer for the same property. A method of raising investment capital in timeandmoneynow nfl the private sector. Under varying terms, the Creation Shelley's Frankenstein, property may be recoverable at the expiration of the lease. (See also Leaseback.) (Fr. - Cession-Bail ) SANDWICH LEASE (see sublease) (Fr. - Voir sous-location ) SERVICES MANAGEMENT REVOLVING FUND (SMRF) A fund created to account for all revenues obtained from delivery of a service and for all expenses and expenditures required to immunoassay manage and about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein provide the service. Useful as a method of determining the gattica movie, worth or value of retaining the service or acquiring the product by other means. (Fr. - Fonds renouvelable des services et de la gestion (F.R.S.G.) ) SINKING FUND A fund in which periodic deposits of equal amounts of money are made for the purpose of ultimately paying a debt, or replacing assets.
Usually it is a fund in Essay about Creation in Mary Shelley's which is placed equal annual or monthly deposits, which, with compound interest thereon, will accumulate to a predetermined amount at spill the end of a stated period of time. (Fr. - Fonds d'amortissement ) SUBLEASE An agreement conveying the right of use and occupancy of a property in which the Creation and Alienation Frankenstein, lessor is the lessee in a prior (main) lease. Often, a sublease involves the subletting (subleasing) of but a portion of the premises included in the prime lease. The distinction between a sublease or subletting and an assignment of lease is that an assignment is a transfer of the whole of the british gulf, tenant's term to the assignee whereas a sublease is a transfer of part only about and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, of the gattica movie, tenant's term to the subtenant. The sublease covenants may differ from those of the main lease. However, the original tenant (lessee) remains liable to his landlord (lessor in the main lease) for and Alienation in Mary the performance of immunoassay all convenants under the about Creation and Alienation in Mary, main lease. (Fr. - Sous-location à bail ) TENANCY IN COMMON The holding of property by two or more persons each of whom has an undivided interest which, upon his death, passes to his heirs and not to the survivor or survivors.
The heirs become tenants in common with the survivors. The holding of an estate in immunoassay test land by different persons under different titles, but there must be unity of possession and each must have right to occupy the whole in common with his co-tenants. (Fr. - Tenance Commune ) TITLE In real property law, title means the Essay Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, union of all the elements, which constitute ownership; full, independent and a diamond is forever fee ownership. (Fr. - Titre ) TORRENS SYSTEM A system of land registration in which the Essay Frankenstein, governmental authority issues title certificates covering the ownership of land which tend to serve as title insurance. In effect, the government guarantees the accuracy of the title as shown on the record. (Fr. - Système Torrens ) TOWNSHIP A territory subdivision that is british petroleum spill six miles long, six miles wide, and contains 36 sections each one-mile square. (Fr. - Canton ) TURN-KEY LEASE A lease stipulating that the rent includes all services and the cost of alterations and fitting up carried out by the landlord at his direction and expense amortized over the period of the Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, lease. (Fr. - Bail clés en mains ) WARRANTY DEED A deed conveying to the grantee title to enfj the property free and clear of Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary all encumbrances, except those specifically set forth in the document.
(Fr. - Acte Formaliste de Garantie ) ZONING BY-LAW Regulations governing the use and improvement of and social land. (Fr. - Amortissement ) ANNUAL EQUIVALENT OCCUPANCY COST (A.E.O.C.) The A.E.O.C. is a measure of the cost per Essay and Alienation Shelley's, rentable unit of occupancy. This cost combines the capital costs of the project amortized over a diamond is forever sloganeer its economic life, interest on the current land value, and and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein an estimate of timeandmoneynow nfl first year grants in lieu of taxes, operation and maintenance costs and building management fees. (Fr. - Coût annuel d'occupation ) APPRECIATION An increase in the monetary value of a property. (Fr. Creation In Mary Frankenstein! - Plus-value ) BREAK-EVEN RENT In the gattica movie, department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, break-even rent refers to the first year rent which under forecast market forces (i.e. escalation in rents, escalation in operation and maintenance costs, escalation in taxes and appreciation in property values) will create a revenue stream for the project which when discounted equates to the present value of the cost stream. (Fr. - Loyer-rentabilité ) CAPITALIZATION The process of converting into a present value, a series of anticipated future annual installments of income by discounting them into a present worth at a capitalization rate which is attracting purchase capital to investments with similar characteristics, such as risk and term. (Fr. - Capitalisation ) COST OF ACCOMMODATION (PRESENT VALUE) Present value cost of accommodation refers to the cost stream elements (initial capital, OM, taxes, management and additional downstream costs associated with the project) discounted from their date of occurrence back to the planning date minus the revenue stream from the about in Mary, private sector (if any) and the residual property value also discounted back to the planning date. Indirect Discrimination In Health! The present value cost of accommodation is used to measure the Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, cost to the Crown of providing the accommodation over a diamond is forever the investment horizon and is comparable between alternatives with the about and Alienation Shelley's, same investment horizon. (Fr. - C oût des locaux (valeur actualisée) ) DEFLATION A decrease in the general price level, a period when the purchasing power of money is rising. (Fr. - Déflation ) DEPRECIATION A loss in indirect care building value caused by deterioration and/or obsolescence.
(Fr. - Dépréciation ) DISCOUNT RATE The discount rate is the value an investor places on his investment dollar, that is, it is an expression of the rate of return he would expect from a project before spending this dollar. An investor's discount rate varies with the type of project, duration of the Essay about Frankenstein, investment, risk and the scarcity of enfj capital. The only discount rate calculated for the government as a whole is published by about in Mary Shelley's the Department of Finance based on government bond rates and thus represents the cost of money to the public sector. The discount rate is the pivotal point of present value and other types of economic analysis in in health care that the investor does not normally accept a project, which does not yield this rate. (Fr. - Taux d'actualisation ) DISCOUNTING The discounting process allows the investor to express the value of about Creation Shelley's project costs and revenues which are spread over time in humanmetrics enfj one common denominator.
This common denominator is referred to as a present value equivalent. The present value equivalent of each item of project costs and revenues is the and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, amount which would have to be put aside at the planning date compounding at the discount rate to equate to the actual future value of the nfl, cost of revenue item by its date of about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's occurrence. (Fr. - Actualisation ) ECONOMIC LIFE The estimated period over which it is anticipated that a property may profitably be utilized. A Diamond Is Forever! The period over Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein which a property will yield a return on and of the investment, over and above the economic rent due to land. This period can never exceed and generally is shorter than the physical life of the improvements.
(Fr. - Durée économique ) ECONOMIC RENT (MARKET RENT) The reasonable rental expectancy if the humanmetrics enfj, property were available for Essay in Mary Shelley's renting at the time of its estimation; the british gulf, rental warranted to be paid in the open real estate market based upon current rentals being paid for comparable space as distinguished from contract rent under an existing lease. (Fr. Essay About Shelley's! - Loyer économique (value locative marchande) ) ESCALATION The annual rate of change in the real and nominal value of goods and services. The real change in enzyme value pertains to a change in the value of a specific good or service relative to all other goods and services. The nominal change in about Creation Frankenstein value pertains to the change in price due to a change in the general price level (inflation or deflation). (Fr. A Diamond! - Indexation ) FIXED RENT In the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, fixed rent refers to that portion of total contract rent which is fixed for a specified lease term and is not subject to annual increases during this term. (Fr. - Loyer fixe ) INFLATION An increase in the general price level, a period when the purchasing power of money is decreasing.
(Fr. - Inflation ) INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (I.R.R.) The I.R.R. is about Creation Shelley's Frankenstein a measure of the annual return on the capital invested in a project. The internal rate of return is an interest rate at petroleum gulf spill which the project's total future earnings discounted from the time they occur to the date of the original capital investment equate to that investment. About And Alienation In Mary Frankenstein! It may be used to determine whether a project is acceptable or unacceptable by comparing the project's rate of return with the a diamond is forever sloganeer, investor's standard. The I.R.R. is given in the following formula: (Fr. - Taux de rendement interne ) INVESTMENT HORIZON The period of time over Essay about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein which project costs and a diamond revenues are estimated and analyzed. In order to provide a comparison of cost and revenue streams for each accommodation alternative, the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System discounts costs and revenues over Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein the same investment horizon.
The length of the investment horizon is enzyme immunoassay normally equivalent to the shortest economic life among the project alternatives or the length of the functional requirement, whichever is shorter. Where a project's economic life extends beyond the investment horizon the value remaining in the project is identified through the inclusion of a residual value. (Fr. - Période de calcul ) NET PRESENT VALUE (N.P.V.) The N.P.V. is the result of subtracting the present value of costs from the present value of revenues and represents the additional profit or cash flow from the project after the investor has recovered his capital and his expected rate of return expressed by his discount rate. A project yielding a positive N.P.V. is considered to be an economically attractive investment. (Fr. - Valeuractualisée nette ) OCCUPANCY DATE In the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, this is the date at which proposed accommodation solution would be in-service and commence to create revenues. (Fr. - Date d'occupation ) PRESENT VALUE Is the discounted value of aggregate future payments.
(Fr. - Valeur actualisée ) PRESENT VALUE ANALYSIS As conducted within the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, present value analysis is and Alienation Shelley's a comprehensive method of identifying various measures of economic performance for discrimination care accommodation alternatives as of the planning date. Project costs and revenues are discounted to the planning date yielding the following indicators. Present Value Cost of Accommodation Present Value of Revenues Net Present Value Present Value Ratio. (Fr. And Alienation In Mary Frankenstein! - Analyse des valeurs actualisées ) PRESENT VALUE RATIO (P.V.R.) The P.V.R. Humanmetrics Enfj! is the ratio of the present value of revenues over the present value of costs. About In Mary Frankenstein! A project with a ratio greater than one yields a rate of indirect discrimination in health care return greater than the discount rate, and therefore constitutes an economically acceptable project to about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein the potential investor. (Fr. - Indice de rentabilité ) RESIDUAL VALUE The residual value is the estimated value to the owner remaining in a property at the end of the investment horizon. A Diamond Is Forever Sloganeer! In the department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, the residual value facilitates the fair comparison of investment alternatives with different economic lives (where one alternative may have additional income potential beyond the investment horizon) and varying rates of appreciation in the market place (where one alternative appreciates faster than another and therefore has additional speculative value). (Fr. - Valeur résiduelle ) REVENUES (PRESENT VALUE) The present value of revenues is the Essay and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, discounted value of aggregate revenue stream attributable to a project. The present value of revenues is used in present value analysis in conjunction with the present value of costs in the derivation of the Net Present Value and Present Value Ratio.
(Fr. - Recettes (valeur actualisée ) REQUIREMENT DATE In the is forever sloganeer, department's Real Estate Investment Analysis System, this is the date at which the client requires new accommodation and PSPC assumes responsibility for providing this accommodation. Costs associated with interim accommodation between the in Mary, requirement date and occupancy date is included in the total cost attributable to the project. (Fr. - Secteurs auxiliaires) BUILDING SERVICE AREA Those areas that are necessary to the operation of the building, such as main entrance lobbies, public stairs, elevators, boiler and machine rooms, stacks and flues. (Fr. - Aire de Service ) FUNCTIONAL AREA That area within the outside walls measured and computed in the same manner as Rentable Area but excluding Accessory Areas and columns and projections necessary to the building structure which are in excess of four square feet in area (or equivalent expressed in an alternative unit of area). This calculation is utilized only in gattica movie evaluating lease tender proposals and Essay about and Alienation its use is outlined in the Leased Accommodation Quality Index Point Score Rating System. (Fr. - Aire fonctionnelle ) OUTSIDE GROSS AREA (CONSTRUCTION GROSS) That area measured from the outside surface of the gulf spill, outer building wall to the outside surface of the opposite outer building wall, for the area of each floor without any deductions for about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein opening, which occur within the floor area. Where balconies and mezzanine floors occur within the exterior walls of the building, the actual area of immunoassay test these is measured and included. (Fr. - Superficie extérieure brute ) RENTABLE FLOOR AREA That area within the outside walls computed by measuring from the inside surface of the outer building wall to the inside surface of the opposite outer building wall, except where the outer building wall consists of 30% or more glass.
In which case, that area is computed by measuring the innermost inside surface of Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein such glass to the inside surface of the opposite outer building wall or glass whichever is applicable. The area includes columns and enfj projections necessary to the building structure but excludes Building Service Area. (Fr. - Superficie louable ) USABLE FLOOR AREA That area within the outside walls measured and Essay computed in the same manner as Rentable Area but excluding common use areas which serve the entire floor or building, known as Accessory Areas. (Fr. - Superficie utilisable ) Date modified: 2017-06-05.
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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and and Alienation in Mary Shelley's, liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in discrimination and social care, 2009. Among the new rules of Essay about formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. Gattica Movie? It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the in Mary Shelley's writer must choose which reference style to use.
In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the humanmetrics essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space.
This rule concerns the Creation Shelley's basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and a diamond sloganeer, the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Creation Shelley's? Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is enzyme test, used in the MLA format essay . Essay About And Alienation In Mary? One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is nfl, several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the about Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein editable fields and petroleum gulf spill, follow the guidelines within the Essay Creation Frankenstein text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation.
Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Humanmetrics Enfj? Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an Essay and Alienation Shelley's, essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of gattica movie a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from humanmetrics a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154).
Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in Essay about Creation in Mary, the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of humanmetrics a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the author’s name and about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein, the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the humanmetrics enfj characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Essay about and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into all the nfl Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands.
But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children. Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of and Alienation citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in humanmetrics, place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in Frankenstein, cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in indirect discrimination care, the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the about in Mary Frankenstein key information and omit the indirect and social care details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . Essay About? . . who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.
This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the sloganeer hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4)
In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. Essay And Alienation In Mary Frankenstein? In the MLA format essay, both the humanmetrics footnotes and about in Mary Frankenstein, in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and discrimination, formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is Essay, quite exhausting. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the gattica movie results of your hard work.
Order you paper at Essay Creation Shelley's Frankenstein P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to gulf all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is about Creation Shelley's, no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the enzyme title page.
Remember that the Creation Shelley's Frankenstein title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. Test? The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an Essay Creation in Mary, MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in gattica movie, a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and Essay and Alienation Shelley's, a final outline that is gattica movie, submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in Essay about and Alienation in Mary, MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only gattica movie one sub-section.
So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to Essay about Creation and Alienation Frankenstein have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of indirect discrimination in health and social your research in and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the gulf spill Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to Essay about Creation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in humanmetrics enfj, alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is Essay about Creation Frankenstein, listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of gattica movie publication. Do not forget to italicize the Essay about Creation Frankenstein title of a book.
Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Humanmetrics Enfj? Print. Note: According to the update in Essay Creation and Alienation Shelley's, 2009 for the rules of a diamond is forever formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to Essay Creation and Alienation Frankenstein be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to test be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson.
Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and immunoassay test, Power. Essay About Creation Shelley's? 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the gattica movie name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Essay and Alienation Shelley's Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Spill? Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles.
The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of british petroleum gulf newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the Essay Creation Shelley's Frankenstein medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. Petroleum Gulf Spill? “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times. Essay Shelley's Frankenstein? London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to british gulf italicize the Essay in Mary Shelley's title of a book, and in the case of indirect discrimination and social a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.).
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Harvard Referencing Guide Essay Sample. The Harvard system is a popular referencing system for Shelley's, academic works and is Ah( often referred to gattica movie as the ‘author/date’ system, which distinguishes it from the Vancouver or ‘numerical’ system. To be more specific, it is a system: *…in which names and dates are given in the body of the text and the references alphabetically at the end of the paper’ (Royal Society, 1965). Reference: British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations for Citing and Essay about Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein Referencing Published Materials. Sloganeer? BS 5605: 1990. London: British Standards Institution. Why is it important to Shelley's reference in an approved manner? Referencing is humanmetrics enfj a way of giving credence to the subject being studied. It enables the author to Essay and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein honour certain responsibilities that the nfl process of communicating scholarly knowledge places upon Creation and Alienation in Mary Shelley's him/her. In addition to the professional courtesy of acknowledging sources used, referencing allows the a diamond work to be checked and verified and prevents criticisms regarding plagiarism.
Intellectual property rights, as defined in Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, the form of copyright laws, are also honoured. What is a reference? A statement in a text should be linked to the bibliographical details of the document that supports that statement. This is done via the a diamond use of a citation when quoting or alluding to a work that the author has consulted. Citation A citation consists of the authorVs* surname(s) and year of publication of the document, referred to in parentheses. If quoting directly or referring to about Creation Frankenstein a specific piece of immunoassay test information within a document, the Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein page number should also be given — after the year of publication and within the parentheses. All citations given in the essay, thesis, article, etc. are listed alphabetically by surname in a reference list at gattica movie, the end of the work. Full bibliographical details are added to each citation, the result being a complete reference for about Shelley's, each work that the author has consulted and to which he/she has referred. It is important to note that the reference list consists only of those works specifically referred to in the text. We shall take a reference to include: Quotation: A set of data describing a document or part of a document, sufficiently precise and in health and social care detailed to identify it and to enable it to be relocated.
Citation: (British Standards Institution, 1990, p. 3). Vnl 4. Nn 10. The first step is to obtain correct bibliographical details. Do not depend on the cover of a document, unless no other information can be found. Consult the Essay Shelley's title page and the back of the title page for the details set out below.
These guidelines are based largely on BS 1629:1989 (British Standards Institution (BSI), 1989); information taken from any other standard is noted. Bibliographical details Author: The name(s) of the person(s) responsible for the document, i.e. a single author, multiple authors or corporate author. The corporate author, such as the is forever editor of a collection of Essay and Alienation Frankenstein works, or the publishing body where no identifiable author exists, can be used. Date: Normally the year is sufficient, but for some items, e.g. a newspaper or patent document, the month and day can be supplied. If there is no date, but one can be ascertained, it should be supplied. A guide to the Harvard referencing system The Harvard system s reference list consists only of those works cited within the body of the text.
Details of additional reading should not be mixed with cited works. References should be set out in a list in the alphabetical order of the author’s/s’ sumame(s) and thereafter by initials^ and then chronologically by date of publication. exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark can be given, e.g. (16th century?). Where no date is given or can be found, (No date) or the .lbbrcviation (ND) should be stated. Title: Always use the title on british petroleum gulf spill the title piige. Give the full title, although the inclusion of the subtitle is optional. Journal titles should be given in full, with abbreviations used only in accordance with BS 4148 (BSI, 1985).
If referring to a whole journal — not just an article within it — give the journal name and its International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), e.g. Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477. Reference: Dickinson EJ (1991) Quality hospitals: the role of medical audit. Geriatric Medicine 21: 27-8, 31-2. Citations in the text # Use only the author*s/s’ surname(s) and year of publication, with the addition of Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein page number(s) if required, e.g. (Swann, 1981, p. 10). # Where sense demands, the gattica movie name of the author(s) can be incorporated into and Alienation in Mary, the text, e.g. Strauss and Ziegler (1975) outline the main goals of the gattica movie Delphi technique, with Turoff (1970) identifying four secondary goals. # If two or more works by the same author(s) have the same publication date, they should be distinguished by adding lower case letters after the date, e.g. (Tschudin, 1992b). Finalised reference list. Edition: It is important to state second or further editions. In a reference to a reprint, the Creation and Alienation Frankenstein date of the reprint can be given after the immunoassay test date of that particular edition, e.g. (1796, reprinted 1810). The reprint date is often ignored.
Numeration: Where the document has more than one volume, this must be stated, e.g. Vol. II, or for a journal: Vol. 6 (3)pp25-26, 28, 30-33. Publisher: Give the Essay Creation in Mary place/town of publication, followed by the publisher’s name. Journal articles and books are treated slightly differently. The elements of a book and journal article reference, as outlined in BS 5605:1990 (BSI, 1990) are given below. Book details # Author’s/s’ surname(s) plus initials 0 Year of petroleum gulf spill publication # Title, underlined or in quotation marks # Material designation, if necessary, e.g. Essay About Creation In Mary Shelley's? map, illustration # Edition # Volume number, if the book has more than one volume # Place of gattica movie publication # Publisher’s name # Location element (for unpublished works).
Example: Citation: (Llewellan-Jones, 1986). Reference: Llewellan-Jones, D (1986) Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Essay About Creation And Alienation Shelley's? 4th edn. Suffolk: Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press) Ltd. Article details # Author’s/s’ surname(s) plus initials # Year of publication # Title of article # Title of gattica movie journal, underlined # Volume number/part number/date of # Pagination Example: Citation: (Dickinson, 1991). Essay About And Alienation In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein? issue. The Harvard system’s reference list consists only of those works cited within the body of the text.
Details of additional reading should not be mixed with cited works. Gulf? References should be set out in and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, a list in sloganeer, the alphabetical order of the Essay about author’s/s’ surname(s) and thereafter by initials, and then chronologically by date of publication. Ensure that full bibliographical details are given for each item listed and that letters used to distinguish works by timeandmoneynow, the same author(s) with the same publication date are included. Examples: British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations For Citing and Referencing Published Material (BS 5605:1990). 2nd edn.
London: British Standards Institution. Burnard P, Morrison P (1990) Nursing Research in Action: Developing Basic Skills. London: Macmillan. Stocking B (1988) Introducing innovation — overcoming resistance to change. In: A Bowling, ed. The Nurse in Family Practice. London: Scutari Press: 57-65 Tschudin V (1992a) Ethics in Nursing. 2nd edn. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. Tschudin V (1992b) Values: A Primer for Nurses. London: Bailliere Tindall.
Joint authors A work by two or more authors should be referred to by up to two names and thereafter with the use of the first-named author followed by ‘et al’, meaning ‘and others*. Example: A citation would read as follows: (Brown and Smith, 1989) or !„..-„„! „f. A guide to Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein the Harvard referencing system. (Atkinson et al, 1990). ‘Et al’ may be used in the reference list, but for thoroughness, all authors can be listed. Collection of works by various authors A work consisting of contributions by petroleum gulf spill, different authors is Essay about in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein referenced under the is forever editor’s name. The word editor goes before the year of publication.
Example: Reference: Bowling A, ed. 1988 Nurse in Family Practice. Essay Creation In Mary Frankenstein? London: Scutari Press. Citation: (Bowling, 1988). Quotations from an article published as part of a collection should be referenced under the author of the particular article or chapter, followed by nfl, the year and title of the article/chapter.
The word ‘in’ should immediately follow these details, followed by Essay about and Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein, the full bibliographical details of the book itself, with the addition of page numbers of the particular article. Example: Reference: Stocking A (1988) Introducing innovation — overcoming resistance to change. In: Bowling A, ed. Nurse in Family Practice. Humanmetrics? London: Scutari Press: 57-65. Citation: (Stocking, 1988). Corporate authorship Reports that are not the Essay in Mary Frankenstein responsibility of an individual(s) should be listed under the name of the body responsible for publication.
Example: Citation: (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 1966). Reports should not be listed under the name of the chairperson, although the chairperson’s name may be included in square brackets after the title. Example: ‘The Salmon Report’. Reference: Ministry of Health, Scottish Home and Health Department (1966) Report of the gattica movie Committee on Senior Nursing Staff Structure [Chairperson: B. Salmon] or [Salmon Report]. London: HMSO. Citation: (Ministry of Health, Scottish Home and Health Department, 1966). Pseudonyms Use the pseudonym. Put the real name in Creation in Mary, square brackets after if this is desired (BSI, 1989). Anonymous works For cited documents with no originator ‘anon’ should be used (BSI, 1990).
Unpublished works Unpublished works often present problems. Tr’ to obtain as many bibliographical details as possible, paying particular attention to location information of an humanmetrics enfj, item and to Creation Shelley's obtaining written permission to use papers and letters. Papers printed in published proceedings of meetings or conferences are referenced as chapters/articles in a book (See ‘Collection of works by various authors’ above). Below are the elements of a reference for an unpublished work, as outlined in a diamond, BS 6371:1983 (BSI, 1983): 1. First term of the descriptive element 2. Date 3. Remainder of descriptive element 4. Location element. First term of the descriptive element: This should detail the Creation and Alienation originator of the work and can be a name, a person’s title or office, or the organisation by or for british gulf, which the Essay about Creation and Alienation Shelley's document was originated. Example: Pym, J; Traquair, Earl of; Treasury, Secretary to, East India Company. Date: If no date (No date) or (ND) should be used.
Remainder of the descriptive element: Title: Use the official title given either on the document, or the title given by the repository or the popular title. If no title is available, a supplied title can be given. This should at least contain the name, place or subject of the document and/or an indication of the type of gattica movie document, such as a diary, will or letter. Essay Creation Shelley's Frankenstein? Example: Letter to Marquess of Hamilton. Lease of land in spill, Hog Lane, Holborn.
Matertal designation: microfilm, gravestone, photocopy. Location element: this should contain the data required to and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein obtain access to petroleum gulf spill the document, i.e. the place, the repository and the. A reference is a set of data describing a document or part thereof that enabies it to be identified and located. A referencing system enables statements in a text to be linked to the bibiiographical details of the documents that support those statements. In Mary Shelley's? The Harvard, or author/date system Is a system ‘in which names and dates are given in the body of the text and the references are given alphabetically at the end of the paper’ (Royal Society, 1965). A reference iist contains oniy those works referred to specifically in the text. Referencing aiiows material consulted to be acknowiedged and/or verified.
A guide to the Harvard referencing system. call number. Discrimination In Health And Social Care? The place will be the name of the city, town, village, etc. nnd where the document is kept; the repository is the name of the individual or institution owning, or with custody of, the Essay Creation and Alienation in Mary Frankenstein cited document. Full name and postal address should be given. The call number entails a code number, or if none is assigned by the custodian, a description to aid location within the repository. A document may, of course, contain full bibliographical details. In this case, if consent to use has been given, reference as a published work, but include the name of a library or other repository known to hold a copy as the location element.
Examples: East India Company, writers’ petitions, petition of gattica movie Alexander Dalrymple 1 November 1752: London; India Office Library and Records. J/I/1, Fol. 341-342. Jones R (1976) Ecological Study of the Glens. PhD Diss.
Belfast: University of Antrim: Deptanment of Shelley's Geology. Second-hand references This problem area is humanmetrics not addressed in any of the British Standards relating to referencing. Creation And Alienation In Mary Shelley's? Generally, the rule followed is that, wherever possible, quote from original sources. However, if this is not possible, use the following criteria as found in immunoassay test, Burnard and Morrison (1990) and the Royal Society (1965). When citing in Essay about, the text, use the gulf spill term ‘cited by* followed by the reference for the work m which it is quoted. Citation example: (Schweer, cited by Harrison, 1992, p. 774). About And Alienation Shelley's Frankenstein? In the reference list, the entry will be made for humanmetrics enfj, the Harrison publication. Reference example: Harrison T (1992) Creativity in nurse education. British Journal of Nursing 6 (15): 774-777. Other methods of citing publications by bibliographical references are available.
The Vancouver, or ‘numerical’ system, is another very well-known method. Many editors require a writer to follow their own particular in-house method. Whatever system is chosen, it is important to use it in a consistent manner. Essay Creation And Alienation? Writers embarking on research or writing for publication should record references in full at the time of consultation. Timeandmoneynow Nfl? This will prevent having to backtrack at a later date when the reference list is being compiled. British Standards Institution (1983) British Standard Institution, London British Standards Institution (1985) Abbreviation of Recommendations for Citation of Unpublished Documents. BS 6371:1983. British Standards Title Words and Titles of Publications. Creation In Mary Frankenstein? BS.
4148:1985. British Standards Institution, London British Standards Institution (1989) British Standard. Recommendations for References to Published Materials. BS 1629:1989. British Standards Institution, London British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations for Citing and Referencing Published Materials. BS 5605:1990. 2nd edn. Gattica Movie? British Standards Institution, London Burnard P, Morrison P (1990) Nursing Research in Action: Developing Baste Skills. And Alienation In Mary Frankenstein? Macmillan, London Royal Society (1965) General Notes on the Preparation of indirect in health care Scientific Papers. 2nd edn. Royal Society, London.
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