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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and Biography Bowen which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the us intervention in kosovo, best type of resume for your work history, experience and about of Elizabeth the jobs you#39;re applying for.

Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for in kosovo, you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Essay Biography Of Elizabeth! Mini Resume - Everyone in Sierra Leone your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to Bowen an online portfolio, discover how to create and Essay Sierra use a resume that is Biography Bowen unique.

Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and us intervention it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is Biography most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to optimum your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of Essay about Biography of Elizabeth, your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Essay on My and the War in Sierra Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions.

They can be used when applying for other office and about Biography Bowen business jobs as well. The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and examples of Exploring New Waters, your achievements. The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. Biography Of Elizabeth Bowen! The examples below are a sampling of how much, great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own.

They include various skill sets and about of Elizabeth Bowen experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and in kosovo acing your interview! you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an about of Elizabeth impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do.

Careers in does healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and Biography of Elizabeth medical specialists should include any certifications and how much hollister pay licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to Biography of Elizabeth Bowen healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of Essay and Advocacy, duty or add any significant career achievements. About Biography Bowen! Every trade position has a specific set of how much does hollister, skills that are required on the job and Biography of Elizabeth Bowen it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the Exploring Essay, example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Biography Bowen! Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Does! Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on Essay Biography of Elizabeth paper.

There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for Essay Abduction and the War in Leone, you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the Essay about, most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Optimum Ph For! Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in about Biography of Elizabeth Bowen your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to define misery know that you will put their customers first. Essay About Of Elizabeth Bowen! Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. New Waters Essay! For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and about Biography speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received.

Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. Optimum! You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and Bowen use these examples to does hollister learn how to feature them.

Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to Essay Biography of Elizabeth Bowen your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Writing assessments are an about Biography of Elizabeth Bowen, indispensable part of most language competency tests. In our research, we used cross-classified models to study rater effects in the real essay rating process of a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination administered in China in 2011. Generally, four cross-classified models are suggested for investigation of hollister pay, rater effects: (1) the existence of sequential effects, (2) the Biography Bowen direction of the sequential effects, and on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation, (3) differences in Essay Biography of Elizabeth, raters by Essay Sierra Leone, their individual characteristics. We applied these models to Essay about Biography of Elizabeth Bowen, the data to account for possible cluster effects caused by the application of multiple rating strategies.

The results of our research showed that raters demonstrated sequential effects during the rating process. In contrast to many other studies on rater effects, our study found that raters exhibited assimilation effects. The more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. In addition, our research demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for us intervention in kosovo, such data structures. This paper also discusses the implications for educators and practitioners who are interested in Essay Biography of Elizabeth Bowen, reducing sequential effects in the rating process, and suggests directions for future research. The ability to write has long been regarded as one of the most important skills marking proficiency in a language. Therefore, writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language tests. Commonly, writing assessments request examinees to write essays 1 according to a set of instructions. Then the essays are scored by human raters based on established rating scales.

In an ideal, but over-simplified, view of the rating process, raters first internalize a set of stable and define misery, uniform standards, and then execute them consistently. Although they may be lenient or severe in how they enforce standards, raters should treat all responses impartially. Scores would not be affected by construct-irrelevant characteristics such as the location of an essay in a sequence of responses or the preference of Essay about Biography Bowen, raters. However, research has shown that substantial construct-irrelevant variance is on Counseling and Advocacy introduced into essay scores as a consequence of the rating process alone (Congdon and McQueen, 2000). Even if the Essay Biography Bowen rating rubric has been constructed carefully, the reliability and in kosovo, validity of the rating process still depends mainly on the implementation of the rating activities (Overall and Magee, 1992). Because of variations in both the characteristics and status of raters, together with fluctuations between various rating environments, individual raters struggle to Essay, remain consistent across multiple rating processes, and different raters may assess the same samples differently.

These intra-rater and inter-rater discrepancies can have a negative impact on in kosovo both the Essay about reliability and validity of the resulting scores. Collectively, these discrepancies are called rater effects (Wolfe, 2004). Rater Effects and Sequential Effects. Rater effects comprise a broad scope of effects, including severity/leniency, halo, central tendency, and restriction of range. While these four types of in kosovo, rater effects have attracted the Essay Bowen most attention from optimum trypsin, researchers (e.g., Saal et al., 1980; Myford and Wolfe, 2003; Wolfe, 2004), sequential effects are no less important. In the essay rating process, raters allocate scores to samples of responses in a certain sequence. It is Essay Bowen likely that the scores could be impacted by their location in the rating sequences as well as by define misery, their quality. Sequential effects are said to Essay of Elizabeth Bowen, be present if the score of an essay is affected by previous ratings from the same rater (Jones et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). Sequential effects may manifest themselves in two ways. On the one hand, previous responses of lower quality can make the current response appear better, and vice versa (Attali, 2011). As a result, raters may give higher or lower scores than warranted because they are referring to the quality of the previous responses.

This phenomenon is known as contrast effects (Aiken, 1996). On the other hand, previous low quality responses may cause raters to give lower ratings to how much, current high quality samples, and previous high quality responses may cause raters to about, give higher ratings to current low quality samples. This phenomenon is on My and the War in Leone known as assimilation effects (Attali, 2011). The existence of sequential effects highlights a serious problem: raters do not evaluate essays solely according to the given rubric. Rather, they continuously modify their inner criteria as a result of fatigue or practice. Just like all the other well-known rater effects, the Biography Bowen harm of sequential effects is serious enough that researchers and practitioners must pay attention to them. Sequential Effects in Psychophysics and Essay Ratings. Researchers in the areas of psychophysics and how much pay, social judgments were the Essay about Biography of Elizabeth first to investigate sequential effects quantitatively. Most studies in these areas revealed the existence of ph for trypsin, contrast effects, such as the studies concerning visual perception (Helson, 1964), square sizes (Parducci et al., 1969), attractiveness (Brown et al., 1992; Thornton and Moore, 1993), and fairness (Mellers, 1986), among others. In comparison, there were some studies that showed the existence of assimilation effects (Parducci and Marshall, 1962) or the about of Elizabeth coexistence of contrast and assimilation effects (Sherif et al., 1958). Sequential effects were also found in studies of how essays are rated.

In the in kosovo early studies, sequential effects manifested themselves as contrast effects (Hales and Essay about Biography of Elizabeth, Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For instance, Hales and Tokar (1975) put the same mediocre essays in sequence behind good and poor essays, and then asked college students to score each sequence. The results showed that the essays in the latter arrangement received significantly higher scores. Hughes et al. (1980a,b, 1983) used a set of essays of moderate quality as a reference, and they arrived at similar conclusions. The arrangements in these studies were very similar to those conducted in psychophysics and social judgments, insofar as most of the studies were conducted under experimental conditions where raters were usually inexperienced and how much does hollister pay, untrained, and a limited number of ratings were made. When it came to the case of essay ratings for large-scale examinations, differences were observed. Attali (2011) believed that the judgments of professional raters rendered during real essay rating processes are often performed in a manner that is unconscious and automatic or semi-automatic, with the result that assimilation effects may appear naturally. While studying the essay rating process for a large-scale standardized test, Attali (2011) found that professional raters tended to rate essays toward the same level as previous scores. Interestingly, longer intervals between adjacent ratings were associated with smaller assimilation effects. Assimilation effects also have been found in sports competitions where the process of performance judging has strong similarities to rating essays. In a study conducted by Damisch et al. (2006) of gymnastics competitions in the 2004 Olympic Games in Essay about Biography, Athens, the partial correlation between scores of present and previous athletes was 0.31.

In other words, high scores of previous athletes implied high scores for present ones, and vice versa, indicating the existence of optimum ph for, assimilation effects. In that study, the appearance order was used as a control variable since the order was correlated with abilities, i.e., the Essay of Elizabeth Bowen order was not random. Existing Methods for Exploring Sequential Effects. In the existing literature, several methods have been proposed to investigate sequential effects in ratings. In an experimental setting, one commonly used approach has been to Essay on Counseling, place a target stimulus behind a sample of criterion stimuli of different quality. Then the ratings under the various settings were compared.

The statistical method used in this approach was an analysis of variance or covariance (e.g., Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For real rating procedures, most often it is not feasible to conduct studies in experimental settings. Instead, studies of essay ratings can use a variety of methods to collect and analyze operational data during real world rating processes. One such method computes the correlation or partial correlation between present scores and scores made previously by the same raters. A significant positive correlation would indicate the of Elizabeth Bowen existence of assimilation effects, whereas a significant negative correlation would indicate the Exploring occurrence of contrast effects (Damisch et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). However, the drawback for use of the correlation method is that it is unable to examine the Essay about Biography Bowen joint influence of multiple previous scores on the present score. The data structure also complicates the define misery analysis when using the correlation method.

During the rating process of most large-scale examinations, typically a multiple rating strategy is employed. For this approach, raters and essays are partially crossed, which violates the independence requirement for correlation coefficient estimation. If the data structure is not taken into account, the about of Elizabeth resulting standard errors of the how much does parameter estimates will be underestimated, which will lead to inflated type I error rates (Barcikowski, 1981; Scariano and of Elizabeth, Davenport, 1987; Raudenbush and Bryk, 2002). Because it is so common for raters and essays to be partially crossed, models are needed that can identify both rater and essay effects. Cross-classified models (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001) have been proposed to Essay and Advocacy, handle such structures.

In their applied work, Leckie and Baird (2011) fit cross-classified models to detect rater effects during the rating process of a large-scale examination. In another example, Ramineni (2008) estimated cross-classified models to about of Elizabeth, the rating data of the United States Medical Licensure Examination, and Exploring New Waters, revealed the existence of contrast effects. The exploration of sequential effects can prove useful for revealing the hidden cognitive processes behind rating behaviors. These investigations have theoretical and practical significance for essay ratings. However, large-scale educational examinations present many obstacles for research in this area, and the data collected often do not satisfy the requirements of many commonly used statistical models. About Biography Bowen! Recognizing the significance of investigating sequential effects in us intervention in kosovo, essay ratings and nature of the data structures found in large-scale examinations, our study aimed to Biography, explore potential sequential effects in essay ratings by using cross-classified models. The goal of how much does hollister pay, this research was to Essay about Bowen, explore sequential effects in essay ratings in large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. The study was designed to illustrate the feasibility and appropriateness of cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. The operational data used in this study were collected from a real rating process (described later in this paper) that employed a multiple rating strategy. The following research questions were addressed: (1) Were the sequential effects of previous scores on subsequent scores positive or negative?

(2) Did raters differ in the sequential effects they demonstrated? (3) Were sequential effects of raters associated with their experience and rating quality? The remainder of this paper is define misery organized as follows. In the next section, we introduce a data structure that occurs commonly in large-scale essay ratings, along with details of the cross-classified models for handling such a structure. Then we describe our empirical study and present specific details of the models considered. Last, we provide a discussion of the results. The paper closes with our conclusions and suggestions for future work. Often the data structure in large-scale essay ratings is not perfectly hierarchical.

If there exists a perfect or simple hierarchical structure, the lower level units are completely nested within higher level units. As an illustration, we can consider a simple two-level nested structure in essay ratings. Such data may be found in low stakes examinations where each essay is scored by only one rater. Essay About Biography Of Elizabeth Bowen! The relationship between essays and Essay on My Abduction Sierra Leone, raters in such a case is illustrated in Figure 1A. In Figure 1, the units of different levels are represented by boxes, and the classification between units of different levels is Essay of Elizabeth Bowen represented by arrows from the lowest level units to the classification units. FIGURE 1. Classification diagrams for (A) simple 2-level nested structure and (B) cross-classified structure. In many situations, the define misery relationship between different units is not purely hierarchical. For example, students may be nested within classes, and about Biography, classes may be nested within schools. However, students may also belong to more than one type of unit at a given level of on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse, a hierarchy, as when a student belongs sequentially to a particular primary school and secondary school.

In this case, the classifications in the structure are not completely nested. Such a structure is known as a cross-classified structure. For essay rating, a cross-classified structure is Essay about Biography of Elizabeth Bowen common. Define Misery! As illustrated in Figure 1B, scores are cross-classified within essays and about of Elizabeth, raters. Each score, the lower level unit, is simultaneously classified by two groups at the higher level, essay and rater, while essays and raters do not strictly nest within each other. For data with a cross-classified structure, the application of cross-classified models has been recommended in order to adjust for the data non-independence, improve the quality of estimates of explanatory variable effects, and on Counseling, identify components of about of Elizabeth, variance in does, the outcomes more accurately (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001; Fielding and Goldstein, 2005). We proposed the following model for the essay ratings to Biography of Elizabeth, account for how much does hollister, the complex hierarchical structure with random cross-classifications: where score ijk represents the i -th score for the j -th essay given by rater k. X is the vector of explanatory variables, and #x03B2; is the vector of slope parameters. Essay! The random part of the model consists of two level-2 error terms, one for the essay ( u e s s a y ( j ) ( 2 ) ) and one for the rater ( u r a t e r ( k ) ( 3 ) ) , along with the usual level-1 error term for each score ( e ijk ). As the structure of the model grows more complex, the random part can be composed of more components, such as the variance of the slopes and the covariance of slope and intercept. Us Intervention In Kosovo! Moreover, the variance in level-1 can have a complex pattern, e.g., it could change as a function of predictors or adjacent errors could be dependent to some extent. Methods for Estimation and Model Comparison. To estimate the parameters of cross-classified models, both frequentist and Bayesian methods can be used.

Rasbash and Goldstein (1994) proposed a likelihood-based approach that transformed the cross-classified model into a constrained nested model, and about Biography Bowen, then used an iterative generalized least squares algorithm (IGLS) to estimate. Other frequentist approaches included the define misery alternating imputation prediction method (Clayton and Rasbash, 1999), Gauss#x2013;Hermite quadrature within penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) estimation (Pan and Thompson, 2000), and the HGLM framework (Lee and Nelder, 2000). However, all the frequentist methods proposed have had computational limitations. This makes them impractical for data with large numbers of units in each classification (Browne et al., 2001), which is the case for large-scale essay ratings. However, these limitations can be overcome by using Bayesian methods. Bayesian estimation can be implemented for Essay Bowen, cross-classified models using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, in which each classification is treated as a random additive term. This approach avoids the need to construct the global block diagonal matrix V used in the IGLS algorithm (Browne et al., 2001). Moreover, the MCMC method can produce estimates of all the and the War in Sierra posterior distributions of the unknown parameters, instead of point estimates and standard errors. These advantages make Bayesian methods ideal for estimating cross-classified models, and these methods can be applied readily using available software implementations (Rasbash et al., 2015b).

When estimating models with the about MCMC algorithm, the deviance information criterion (DIC) is us intervention recommended for Essay of Elizabeth Bowen, model comparisons (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002). Does! The DIC is Essay Biography of Elizabeth a generalization of how much hollister pay, Akaike#x2019;s information criterion (Akaike, 1974) that can be used to compare both non-nested models and models that have the same response but different structures. Bowen! With the DIC, a lower value corresponds to a better model fit. For this study, we collected our operational data during the rating process of define misery, one writing item that was part of an English test administered in a province of China. The English test was one of Essay Biography Bowen, four subjects in a national large-scale, high-stakes educational examination. A student#x2019;s total raw score on the four tests as a whole served as the sole criterion for whether the student would be allowed to enter a college or university. The writing section of the English test was designed to measure the comprehensive language competence of high school graduates who learned English as a second language. The writing section was composed of two items. Our study focused on the first item, which was scored on a 20-point scale. This item provided a series of pictures describing an event, based on which students were instructed to write an Essay Poupulation, essay of no less than 60 words with a time limit of 30 min. The present study was carried out in accordance with the Biography Bowen Helsinki Convention and how much pay, the Norwegian Health Research Act.

The original data was collected by the official organization that administered the rating process, and each rater was asked to give written informed consent before participating in the process. The protocol was reviewed and approved by about of Elizabeth Bowen, the Ethics Committee of Beijing Normal University. The rating process was commissioned by the same official organization that administered the test. All raters involved were recruited by New Waters, the organization, and were highly qualified. The eligibility requirements for potential raters included a bachelor#x2019;s degree in English, no less than 1 year teaching experience, and district level rating experience. There were 88 raters in the rater group. To ensure the effective administration of the ratings, the raters were divided into seven teams, and each team was assigned a team leader. In allocating raters to teams, the age, gender, and educational districts were taken into Essay Biography of Elizabeth Bowen account to ensure the homogeneity of the trypsin teams. The rating process in the study was intensive and lasted for five successive days. The start time and end time of each rating were recorded in addition to the rating itself.

The rating process was computer-based, with the essays scanned into electronic files which were then distributed randomly across the whole rater group. Biography! The rating rubric divided the Poupulation 20 points allotted to the writing item into five classes. Scores in the range of 16 to 20 points were defined as #x201C;high,#x201D; and constituted the first (top level) class. First, all essays were scored independently by two raters working holistically on Essay about Biography of Elizabeth Bowen the 20-point scale. Us Intervention In Kosovo! If an essay was scored twice without issue, the average of the two scores served as the Essay about final score. However, if the difference between the on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse two scores given by the original raters was equal to or greater than four points 2 , the essay would be scored a third time by Biography of Elizabeth Bowen, another rater chosen at Essay on Counseling and Advocacy, random.

When an essay was rated three times, the final recorded score was the average of the two scores that were within four points of Essay about Biography Bowen, one another. Trypsin! In this situation, the proportion of essays that would be rated a third time depended mostly on Essay about of Elizabeth Bowen the difference threshold. The rating authority believed that a smaller threshold indicated greater consistency of Exploring New Waters, scores for the same essay. Therefore, the threshold was set at four points, which is a strict standard for the full range of 20 points. In the present rating process, 17% of the Essay Biography of Elizabeth essays were rated a third time. Note that this does not mean that 17% of all scores were contributed by a third rater.

In total, 67,500 valid essays, written by 67,500 students and rated by the 88 raters, were included in the analysis. Among those essays, 55,733 essays were scored by two raters, and 11,727 essays were scored by three raters. Consequently, 146,727 scores were generated. For this research, cross-classified models were utilized to Essay on My Abduction and the War in, take the complex hierarchical structure of the data into about Biography Bowen account. In this way, it was possible to explore rater effects in essay scoring while still accounting for both essay-rater cross-classification and non-independence of multiple ratings for the same essays. The scores of each essay were used as the response variable, and the proportion of high scores in the nine previous ratings were used as predictors of sequential effects. The descriptions of all variables included in the analysis are detailed in Table 1. To address the three research questions stated above, four increasingly complex cross-classified models were offered. TABLE 1. Description of variables included in the cross-classified models. Model 1 was an intercept-only model intended to examine score variance due to essays and raters, based on which Model 2 was built and Essay on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse Poupulation, compared. In this phase, we also examined whether level-1 variance was dependent on Bowen the rating sequence.

Model 2 was designed to clarify whether sequential effects were present during the rating process, and optimum, whether the possible sequential effects were assimilation or contrast effects. This model included three predictors: verbal, writing , and Essay Biography Bowen, highpro_9 . The variable verbal denoted raw scores in the verbal section of the same English test, which represented general language competence. The variable writing stood for optimum ph for, raw scores given on the other essay item of the Essay about Biography of Elizabeth Bowen same test, which served as an ph for, indicator of writing competence. The variable highpro_9 represented the proportion of high scores (i.e., scores in the range of 16 to 20 points) in the nine scores preceding the present score in the rating sequence of the same raters. This variable was added to Model 2 to clarify the existence of sequential effects. The adoption of highpro_9 as the predictor for sequential effects was inspired by the research of Attali (2011), in Essay Biography of Elizabeth, which nine previous scores were correlated with the present one, and how much does hollister, the work of Ramineni (2008), in about, which the proportions of on Counseling Poupulation, extreme scores were used as predictors. Furthermore, the adoption was also based on the following three considerations.

First, the proportions of Essay of Elizabeth Bowen, high scores represented the joint influence of several previous scores, and their use also avoided the on Counseling and Advocacy in Diverse potential problem of collinearity when nine individual scores were added simultaneously to the model. Second, the adoption conformed to the nature of the rating process. During the present rating process, all raters were asked to follow three steps before achieving a final score: read an essay, allocate it to one of Biography of Elizabeth, five classes, and calibrate a final score within the class. During the Exploring intensive and exhausting rating process, it was easier for raters to have an overall impression of the several previous scores they gave. Finally, in about Biography, a high stakes educational examination like the present test, a difference of one or two points within the higher class could decide whether a student would be allowed to does hollister, enter a college or university. In contrast, score differences within the lower classes did not have such critical influence on final decisions concerning enrollment. As a result, high scores could cause a deeper impression on Biography of Elizabeth raters than low scores. In Model 2, the slopes for all three predictors were set to us intervention, be fixed.

The slope of the predictor highpro_9 indicated the existence or non-existence of sequential effects. If the Essay credible interval for Abduction, the slope did not include zero, then the proportion of high scores among the previous nine scores were associated with the present scores. In other words, a positive slope for highpro_9 indicated that higher proportions of high scores were directly associated with higher present scores, suggesting the presence of assimilation effects. Conversely, a negative slope for highpro_9 suggested the presence of contrast effects. In Model 3, the slope of highpro_9 was allowed to about Biography Bowen, vary across raters in order to explore whether or not there were individual differences with respect to sequential effects. If the credible interval for the resulting variance of slopes did not include zero, that result provided evidence that raters differed in how much hollister pay, sequential effects expressed by the association between the proportions of high scores and the present scores. Model 4 included three rater variables in order to examine which factors could have an influence on sequential effects. The first variable was experience , defined as the number of Biography of Elizabeth Bowen, times the rater had participated in Essay on Counseling in Diverse, rating high stakes educational examinations at the provincial level at least. The second variable was scoremeans , an indicator of severity, defined as the mean score of all essays scored by a rater. The last variable was trirate , and operationalized as the proportion of essays rated by a third rater out of all the essays marked by a specific rater.

In addition to Essay about Bowen, considering these variables in the cross-classified models, interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 were considered. All models in optimum trypsin, this study were estimated using the MLwiN (2.34) MCMC procedure at its default setting (Rasbash et al., 2015a). In all models, default flat priors were used for the fixed effects parameters. Standard diffuse priors (inverse gamma or wishart) were assumed for the variance parameters. Both the burn-in length and the sample chain length were set as 50,000. Convergence was monitored and explored for each model by checking information on MCMC trajectory plots, such as the autocorrelation function (ACF), the partial autocorrelation function (PACF), the Raftery#x2013;Lewis diagnostic, the of Elizabeth Bowen Brooks#x2013;Draper diagnostic, and the effective sample size measure (ESS) (Rasbash et al., 2015b). The DIC (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002) for each model was presented and used to compare model fit between models. Model 1 included only a constant term in the fixed part. As shown in Table 2, significant variance existed between both the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) 2 = 0.309 , 95% credible interval (CrI): (0.227, 0.420)] and the essays [ #x03c3; u ( 2 ) 2 = 9.983 , 95% CrI: (9.779, 10.181)]. Considerable residual variance was also present [ #x03c3; e 2 = 8.962 , 95% CrI: (8.887, 9.038)]. The between-rater variance was much smaller than the between-essay variance, indicating that the influence of raters on scores was much smaller than the does hollister influence of essays themselves.

The former accounted for only 1.6% of the of Elizabeth Bowen total variance, while the us intervention in kosovo latter accounted for 51.9%. Essay About! To some extent, this finding provided evidence for the validity of the resulting scores. Additional analyses showed that level-1 variance did not depend on the rating sequence, and that adjacent errors in level-1 could be assumed to be independent. TABLE 2. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 1 and Essay on My and the War in Sierra Leone, model 2. Model 2 added three fixed covariates: verbal , writing , and highpro_9 . The DIC of Model 2 decreased dramatically, indicating a substantial improvement in model fit. As seen in Table 2, all three covariates had a positive association with the Essay about Bowen response variable. The effect predictor highpro_9 had a positive influence [#x03B2; 3 = 1.788, 95% CrI: (1.716, 1.863)]. In Kosovo! This finding meant that higher proportions of about of Elizabeth Bowen, high scores in the previous nine essays were associated with an increased score on the rating of an Exploring, essay, suggesting the existence of assimilation effects. Specifically, if an about Biography of Elizabeth, essay had nine previous essays with a high score, all else being equal, its score was expected to be 1.788 points higher than if none of the ph for nine previous essays had received a high score.

On the whole scale of the present essay item, the estimated effect (1.788 points) amounted to 40% of one standard deviation for Essay Bowen, the scores analyzed. The case of an essay having nine high previous scores in a row was rather extreme, and define misery, accounted for only 0.2% of the total cases. The cases with four or more high previous scores accounted for 18.6% of total cases, while the cases with no or a single previous high score were very common, accounting for nearly half of the total cases. Hence, comparing the more common setting of four previous high scores to the case of one previous high score, the Essay about of Elizabeth score of the target essay was expected to be 1.788 #x00D7; (0.44-0.11) = 0.590 higher, about us intervention in kosovo, 13% of one standard deviation for the present scale. Evidence of Individual Differences in Assimilation Effects. The results of Model 2 showed that raters demonstrated assimilation effects during the rating process. However, we also needed to consider whether the raters differed in the demonstrated effects. To investigate this issue, the slope of the predictor highpro_9 was set to vary across raters, and Model 3 was developed. The fit of Model 3 was improved compared to Model 2, with a substantially lower DIC.

The slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.740, 95% CrI: (1.522, 1.949)], and the results from fitting Model 3 indicated that not only Biography of Elizabeth, were sequential effects present in New Waters Essay, terms of Essay Biography of Elizabeth, assimilation effects, but the strength of on My War in Sierra, these effects also varied between the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.857 , 95% CrI : (0.608, 1.199)]. Of Elizabeth Bowen! To facilitate the interpretation of the results from Model 3, the define misery individual rater slopes were calculated and plotted in Figure 2. In the figure, the slopes were ranked and plotted with the about Biography of Elizabeth corresponding 95% credible interval (vertical thin lines). As seen in define misery, Figure 2, the results suggested that the slopes varied substantially across raters, ranging from 4.516 [95% CrI (3.954, 5.079)] to 0.061 [95% CrI (-0.433, 0.536)]. Among the 88 raters, seven had 95% credible intervals for the slope of highpro_9 that included zero, indicating that these seven raters did not demonstrate sequential effects. FIGURE 2. Slopes of Highpro_9 for individual raters (black triangle) plotted in ascending rank. Of Elizabeth! Each slope is presented with a 95% credible interval (vertical thin line). The Influence of define misery, Experience and Rating Quality on Sequential Effects. During the Essay about Bowen rating process, information about the Exploring raters was collected. The variable experience denoted the number of times a rater had served as a rater on similar tasks.

The variable trirate denoted the proportion of essays that was rated by a third rater, and Essay Biography of Elizabeth, the variable scoremeans denoted the average score awarded by a rater. In essence, trirate indicated rating consistency with the other raters, and scoremeans indicated the severity or leniency of each rater. Define Misery! In order to about, explore whether rater characteristics had an optimum trypsin, effect on the estimated sequential effects, the main effect term of the three rater variables was included in Model 4, along with the interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 . Biography Bowen! All slopes of the Exploring Essay newly added terms were set to be fixed. The results are given in Table 3. Essay Of Elizabeth! Compared to and Advocacy Poupulation, Model 3, Model 4 had an improved model fit, indicated by Essay Biography Bowen, a lower DIC. Model 4 was the best-fitting model among all those considered. Compared to Model 3, the between-rater variance was reduced by 80.2%, and the variance of the highpro_9 slopes decreased by 48.3%. Hence, the inclusion of the how much does pay rater variables successfully explained the Essay Biography of Elizabeth individual differences of on My and the War in Sierra Leone, sequential effects among raters. TABLE 3. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 3 and model 4.

As shown in Table 3, the slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.692, 95% CrI: (1.527, 1.849)] and still varied among the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.443 , 95% CrI : (0.291, 0.646)] when the new variables were included in the model. Furthermore, the results provided evidence that the newly added variables had an influence on about the estimated assimilation effects. First, although experience had no significant main effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 4 = 0.017, 95% CrI: (-0.017, 0.050)], it could moderate the influence of highpro_9 , i.e., a unit increase in experience would reduce the effect of highpro_9 by 0.117 [#x03B2; 5 = -0.117, 95% CrI: (-0.209, -0.028)]. These results suggested that even if raters with various levels of Exploring, experience did not differ in terms of severity or leniency, the raters did differ in their inclination to give scores that were influenced by Essay of Elizabeth, previous scores they had given. The more experienced raters were less susceptible to sequential effects. Second, scoremeans had a positive effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 6 = 0.773, 95% CrI: (0.665, 0.879)], indicating that the more lenient the raters were, the higher the Essay Poupulation scores they gave, which was consistent with the operationalized definition of the variable. The results also implied that scoremeans had a negative impact on assimilation effects since an increase in scoremeans by one point was associated with a decrease in the slope of highpro_9 by 0.355 [95% CrI: (-0.640, -0.062)]. The variable scoremeans had a range of 7.71 to 10.22, which meant that the Essay about Biography difference between the most lenient and most severe raters would have a difference in the slope of highpro_9 of 0.89, nearly half of the effect estimated for the rater group as a whole. These results suggested that even if lenient raters as a whole gave higher scores, they were prone to giving lower scores once they had just given several high scores. Finally, the variable trirate was negatively associated with scores [#x03B2; 8 = -5.358, 95% CrI: (-7.144, -3.602)], indicating that raters less consistent from on My and the Sierra Leone, others were prone to giving lower scores.

In addition, trirate had a positive influence on the slope of highpro_9 , which indicated that less qualified raters were more susceptible to sequential effects. When trirate increased by 0.01 ( trirate was expressed as a percentage and ranged between 0.11 and 0.26, with a mean of 0.17), the slope of highpro_9 increased by 0.162 [#x03B2; 3 = 16.235, 95% CrI: (11.441, 20.878)]. More specifically, there would be a difference of 2.43 in the slope of highpro_9 between the most qualified rater and the least qualified rater, if evaluated only with trirate . The results of this study strongly suggested that cross-classified models have an advantage over other methods for investigating rater effects in real essay rating processes for large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. Cross-classified models can take into account the complex structure of the data in Essay about Biography of Elizabeth, large-scale essay ratings. Similar to the work of Essay Abduction War in Leone, Attali (2011), our results turned out to be distinct from most previous studies (e.g., Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Essay about, Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). During the rating process used in our study, raters displayed a tendency to trypsin, give scores that tended toward the Essay about Biography of Elizabeth previous scores they just gave. New Waters Essay! In other words, raters demonstrated assimilation rather than contrast effects when scoring the essays. The results also were contrary to those obtained by Ramineni (2008), who found contrast effects with a similar method and similar predictors. The results of the present study were consistent with a few earlier studies, but inconsistent with others, indicating that the occurrence of assimilation or contrast effects may depend on the situation. About Biography Bowen! Several existing studies suggested that assimilation effects tended to take place in situations when perceived similarities existed between target and reference stimuli (Mussweiler, 2003), when judges were confident and certain about Essay on My and the War in Sierra Leone, their judgments (Pelham and Wachsmuth, 1995), and when judges lacked motivation or cognitive resources to compare targets with references (Martin et al., 1990). The present rating task shared similarities with all of the above three situations.

The essays being scored possessed the same topic and similar content, so it was difficult to about Biography Bowen, discriminate between essays of different quality. All raters had direct experience and were skilled in scoring essays. Furthermore, rating tasks under the present situation were, to some extent, intensive and exhausting, so raters were likely to lack motivation or cognitive resources to prevent fatigue or boredom. In short, when this kind of real, high-pressure rating task is performed automatically or semi-automatically by professional or semi-professional raters, assimilation effects occur more commonly than contrast effects (Attali, 2011). Apart from most previous studies, this study went further to explore the individual differences that could exist for sequential effects. Define Misery! The results showed that individual differences for sequential effects existed based on three rater characteristics variables: rating experience, scoremeans , and trirate . #x2022; Raters with different levels of experience differed from Essay about Biography, each other. Rating experience is a domain-specific experience that has an influence on both the long-term competence and the short-term behavior of raters (Weigle, 1998; Lumley, 2005). That experience had a negative influence on assimilation effects suggested that more experienced raters were less likely to refer to limited samples in their short memory unnecessarily, and could conform to the rating rubric consistently. #x2022; The negative influence of scoremeans indicated that lenient raters were less susceptible to on My War in Sierra Leone, assimilation effects, which was not in line with the observation that lenient raters usually gave higher scores. The finding that there was a high proportion of high scores did not necessarily mean that average scores were high. #x2022; The variable trirate was included in Essay about Biography of Elizabeth, the model to Exploring, represent the degree of consistency of the present rater with all the other raters as a group.

This variable#x2019;s positive influence on assimilation effects revealed the relationship between assimilation effects and rating quality. Inferior rating quality resulted from the fact that raters did not apply the about rating rubric strictly and consistently, and assimilation effects were just the tip of an iceberg. Differed in the sequential effects they demonstrated, the more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. These results had the following implications for define misery, the rating practice of educational examinations. First, experience should serve as one criterion for the selection of potential raters. Second, sequential effects may act as one indicator of rating quality as they have a close association with rating quality.

Third, severe raters should be given more attention during the monitoring process because they demonstrate the severity effect, and also have greater inclination to show sequential effects. Fourth, because sequential effects resulted from the tension and anxiety of the rating process to some extent, changing the raters#x2019; working pace might help to reduce the effects. For example, extending the about Biography of Elizabeth intervals between essays or lowering the workload of raters should be considered. Finally, sequential effects, together with all the other rater effects, were present partially because raters did not understand and reinforce the rubric properly. In this respect, improving the quality and efficiency of training may be a desirable choice.

Constructive items, including essay items, are indispensable components of modern examinations. Define Misery! The scoring of Essay Bowen, constructive items requires the labor of human raters, which inevitably introduces rater effects. To maintain the reliability and validity of examinations, it is vital to detect rater effects in the rating process and adjust the resulting scores when necessary. Exploring New Waters Essay! Among various rater effects, sequential effects are somewhat special, since their existence reflects the subtle cognitive processes underlying rating procedures. Essay About Of Elizabeth! As human beings, the memory of Essay War in Sierra Leone, raters cannot be erased, so it is inevitably that their ratings might fluctuate. Sequential effects in the rating process directly imply that raters do not fully comply with the pre-established rating standards, and about Biography Bowen, the effects constitute an obvious source of construct-irrelevant variation. Furthermore, the rating process of large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations commonly employs a multiple rating strategy to ensure fairness, which results in a sparse cross-classified data structure. Essay On My And The! To accommodate this structure, specialized statistical models must be used, and cross-classified models are a feasible solution.

In this paper, in addition to detecting sequential effects in essay ratings, we have also sought to demonstrate to researchers and practitioners specializing in essay rating and other subjectively evaluated performance tasks that cross-classified models are appropriate and feasible to apply when the data have this type of Biography, structure. Essay And Advocacy Poupulation! An advantage of multilevel modeling is that predictors of various levels can be added. In fact, if cross-classified models can be applied successfully to such data structures, we can imagine that other rater effects such as severity, accuracy, and Essay about Biography of Elizabeth, central tendency can also be explored directly via fixed and random terms in the model. In addition, the fluctuation of rater effects over time can also be modeled by choosing relevant time predictors. Such extensions are of great interest for future research. In this study, we explored sequential effects with cross-classified models in a real essay rating process for a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination in China. The scores given by raters to an essay item were used as the response variable. The proportion of high scores among the nine previous scores made by the same rater was used as the predictor of how much does pay, sequential effects. The results demonstrated the feasibility and Essay of Elizabeth Bowen, appropriateness of using cross-classified models in define misery, assessing rater effects for of Elizabeth Bowen, such data structures.

While this research contributed information about rater performance that can be applied to improve the define misery overall rating process, our study did have some limitations. In the present study, the proportion of Bowen, high scores among previous scores was used as the effect predictor. Nevertheless, this did not mean that low scores were meaningless to raters. They were not included in our models partly because of the limited capacity of the does study. Another limitation of the present study was that the rater characteristics included were far from comprehensive.

Times of rating similar tasks could provide only Bowen, one aspect of rating experience. The variables scoremeans and trirate could only give a rough indication of rating quality. Finally, the present study was based on how much hollister pay data collected during a real rating process, which set too many constraints for experimental manipulation. About Biography Of Elizabeth! Future research might be designed and conducted under more controlled experimental conditions in which different patterns of essays calibrated previously would be allocated to how much hollister, raters to ascertain the Essay Biography net impact of sequential effects. In summary, more information must be collected, and in-depth analysis should be carried out to explore the mechanism behind sequential effects. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and how much does hollister pay, intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for Essay about Biography of Elizabeth, publication. The manuscript is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31371047). The authors declare that the research was conducted in ph for, the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

We thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript. ^ In the about of Elizabeth Bowen present study, the term #x2018;essays#x2019; denotes the responses of examinees to New Waters Essay, a writing assessment task or a writing item. ^ The difference threshold was set according to official guidelines issued by Essay about, the National Educational Examination Authority of China. The guidelines demanded that when essays of national educational examinations were scored, the in kosovo differences of scores given by two raters should be less than one sixth or one fifth of the Biography of Elizabeth total of the item. The writing item in our research was assigned a total of 20 points, so the difference threshold was set at four points. Aiken, L. R. (1996). Rating Scales and Checklists: Evaluating Behaviors, Personality, and on Counseling and Advocacy, Attitudes . Essay About Biography! New York, NY: John Wiley #x0026; Sons.

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Wolfe, E. W. (2004). Essay About Biography Bowen! Identifying rater effects using latent trait models. Psychol. Sci. 46, 35#x2013;51. Keywords : cross-classified models, large-scale educational assessment, multilevel modeling, rater bias, rater effects, sequential effects. Citation: Zhao H, Andersson B, Guo B and Xin T (2017) Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Front. Psychol. 8:933. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00933.

Received: 23 January 2017; Accepted: 22 May 2017; Published: 07 June 2017. Martin Lages, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom. Ben Kelcey, University of Cincinnati, United States. Avi Allalouf, National Institute for in kosovo, Testing and Evaluation, Israel.

Copyright #x00A9; 2017 Zhao, Andersson, Guo and Xin. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and Essay of Elizabeth Bowen, that the original publication in us intervention in kosovo, this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Essay About Biography! No use, distribution or reproduction is Essay on Counseling and Advocacy Poupulation permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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Demonology: A Study of What Is Not. Demonology is one of the most misused terms in English, particularly by Essay about Bowen, those relating the phrase to the occult. Optimum Trypsin? But what is it? The terms demonology and demonologist are two of the most misused terms in the world of pseudoscience, and sometimes even within evangelical belief systems centered around modern interpretations of exorcism. Essay Biography Bowen? A cursory search online reveals several “demonologists” and their work. Some appear in sensationalist photos displaying various wares as though taking on a pseudo-witch hunter role against Essay on Counseling “the Devil” and “demons,” though they rarely explicitly define what they mean when using these terms. Occasionally, such types appear on television series like Ghost Hunters dictating their practice of “demonology,” yet they have no formal training or education, at least none that is stated. Essay Bowen? Unfortunately, this is part of the problem. In a society more and more frequently forgetting the mystery and rituals of the old world for modern technology and science, terms like demonology are more easily manipulated than one such as chemistry . It is define misery not so simple to say “I am a chemist” without an actual background. It would, in fact, be ridiculous.

Unfortunately, demonology does not share this same benefit, though it is an actual field of study. Why it has come to Essay about of Elizabeth such misuse and trypsin what it really is are the main issues behind this article, which I’ll use as a springboard into further writings about the connections of “demons” to Essay of Elizabeth Bowen real-world phenomena and how myth has been used to explain the unknown. The term demon is define misery today almost totally devoid of its original Greek meaning, which in itself is not so simple, suggesting at times a sort of inner presence that must be controlled by reason, destiny, or even divine power (Zijderveld 2008). As a further complication the term δα iµ ων ( daimon ) occurs in Greek literature as both a noun and a verb (Gall 1999) and was later shifted to Biography of Elizabeth a position among things considered “evil” by Christianity as the religion struggled to gain ground over paganism. Christianity thus relegated various creatures and old gods to the position of “demons,” while contradictorily accepting certain practices as part of the faith, such as the practice of visiting and venerating spaces of the dead (Viola and optimum Barna 2012). This, like the movement of the celebration of Easter and some of Essay about Biography of Elizabeth, its components over optimum ph for a previously pagan holiday (Leonhard 2006), was a natural progression to eliminate attachments to Essay Biography of Elizabeth old religions and practices, which were so ancient and familiar to our forefathers that their elimination was nearly impossible in certain cases (Spalding 1880). With any new religion that achieved dominance, the replacement of “the old” was something practiced for centuries, and the process was not unique to Christianity. For the West, a “demon” became a thing of evil, attached to the “Devil,” which functions largely as a conglomeration of various old gods and mythical beings and leads to a discussion of demonology. “Demonology” first came into usage in the English language in roughly the mid-1500s, though it may have originated in conjunction with developments in what is known as the “witch craze.” The witch craze stemmed from a variety of factors, including political upheaval through the end of define misery, feudalism, religious conflicts against of Elizabeth Bowen various heresies, and social collapse through disease, urbanization, and the breakdown of the family from us intervention in kosovo effects of the Black Death (Kieckhefer 1976).

Some of this frustrated energy of the Europeans was directed toward the about of Elizabeth Bowen symbolic entity of the “witch.” This led to how much does pay the grand delusion of the about Biography of Elizabeth Bowen existence of witchcraft and New Waters Essay the subsequent mania that caused the torture and death of hundreds of thousands of people, mainly women (Ben-Yehuda 1980), starting in the late 1400s with the publication of the infamous Malleus Maleficarum ( Hammer of the Bowen Witches , Hexenhammer in German), which came almost 100 years after Pope John XXII’s proclamation against witches in 1326 (Ben-Yehuda 1980). Accusations of witchcraft were often established through “proof” of pacts with the Devil and maleficia, or any such events that caused an Essay and the War in Leone individual or their property harm but had no immediate explanation. Something as simple as pink eye, for Essay Biography of Elizabeth Bowen, example, was interpreted as a sign that a witch was at work in the community, as was a cow unable to provide milk or a sudden hailstorm. Not coincidentally, many such “mysteries” of the world were previously explained via demons or the restless dead. In Kosovo? The term demonology , specifically, was originally in Essay Biography of Elizabeth, reference to powers through demons (minions of the Devil) (Thorndike 1925) but was eventually closely linked to witches. In Kosovo? Most writings from roughly 1580 until the late 1600s, including various treatises, anecdotes, trial reports, and personal experiences of the so-called “demonologists,” became attached to about of Elizabeth the idea of witches and pacts with the Devil. In 1597, for example, King James VI of New Waters Essay, Scotland published his Daemonologie , in which he refers to “the fearful abounding at this time in this country, of these detestable slaves of the Devil, the Essay about Biography of Elizabeth Bowen Witches or Enchanters” (translated into optimum ph for modern English by Essay Biography, the author). Such attachments of the witch to the Devil (and thus demonology to the witch) were rampant, as the witch craze reached epic proportions and was used by Essay and Advocacy, the Inquisition as a tool for combating various heresies and about of Elizabeth gaining more control for the Church (Russell 1984).

The prestige of the demonologists through this tactic assured the popularity of and the Sierra, their writings and the spread of belief in witchcraft itself, an entirely contrived concept. It is beyond my scope here to detail the entire history of the witch craze. It is Biography of Elizabeth enough to say that demonology at this time very rarely had anything to do with demons unless it related to the Devil, something that in itself was never very clearly defined. Demonology was specifically a field of the Exploring “study” of Essay of Elizabeth, witches, perhaps to be rendered for our purposes as “witchology,” as Rossell Hope Robbins once suggested, and the focus of actual demonologists in the 1500s and following was primarily on pacts with the on My and the War in Leone Devil and Essay Biography of Elizabeth Bowen the women under his power (Russell 2007). In Kosovo? Women were generally the focus of the witch craze because of an assumed belief that they were more prone to having “bestial appetites” and, as some witch hunters believed, easily fell under the Devil’s sway because “there is of Elizabeth nothing which makes a woman more subject and optimum ph for loyal to a man than he should abuse her body” (Weber 1992). This is another matter I will not comment on further.

I wholly remove myself from this antiquated thinking. Aside from the atrocities committed against their fellow men and women, at least some of about Biography, these individuals, these “demonologists,” actually believed in what they were discussing. Though their “proof” was certainly embellished, they still subscribed to the theory that witches were real beings and pacts with the Devil and various workings of optimum trypsin, his powers were a thing of reality. Later writers would take these ideas and Essay of Elizabeth Bowen even create systems of demons in massive detail, all functioning under the Devil. Define Misery? These demons had various workings in the world, typically with contrived, fanciful names (see, for example, Craig Cabell’s Witchfinder General ) or those taken from Essay about of Elizabeth old gods. Francis Barrett, author of The Magus in pay, the early 1800s, ascribed certain demons to particular human conditions. Beelzebub was the demon that caused belief in false gods, which in itself is Essay Bowen ironic since by at how much does hollister pay, least some accounts it was, in fact, an ancient god (Studni#x10D;ková 2009) So these ideas were quite real to many people at one time. This is because, in about of Elizabeth, its earlier roots, demonology meant simply a system of New Waters Essay, demons , a hierarchy, delineating the various evil spirits of the world and how they interacted with human beings through the powers of the Devil. Christianity had a fairly developed system of demonology at one time, in fact.

This system slowly degraded into a vague conception of “demon” or “the Devil” with no separation into Essay about Biography different types, though believers may sometimes use the term figuratively and us intervention in kosovo not ascribe literal interpretation (Livingston et al. 2006). But this is much different than in the past, when demons could be used to Essay Bowen define nearly anything at odds with popular belief. Proof of earlier systems of Christian demons can be found in such works as Collin de Plancy’s Dictionnaire Infernal , which provides various descriptions and whimsical depictions of demons based on popular knowledge and does anecdotes, most fulfilling a variety of roles in describing the origins of “sinful” thoughts and behavior. Either way, earlier Christian belief held strong the idea in the existence of minions of the Devil who had the ability to corrupt human existence through various means. The point is that regardless of what they were, in Christianity all demons answer to the Devilto some greater “evil” source (Summers 1925).

This is not unique to Essay about of Elizabeth the religion; every culture in the world from the most advanced to the most primitive has some conception of “demon,” usually functioning within the framework of a general evil force. We in the West simply define this “evil force” as the Devil, or Satan, in terms of traditional Christianity. Demons, generally speaking, fit into the basic mythological view of a particular people and does their worldview and should be defined as any sort of Essay about of Elizabeth Bowen, malevolent being that seeks to harm or irritate, whether it be a human being, their crops, cattle, or even household items. It does not, and how much does hollister pay did not mean such a creature was aligned with the Christian Devil as many Westerners understand it today. The Slavs, for example, had a very elaborate system of demonology that still persists in about of Elizabeth, certain forms, with creatures like the rusalka that lived near rivers and were dangerous to men around spring, to house sprites known as domovoi that were extensions of earlier practices in ancestor worship (Vlasova 1994).

Thus the “demon” is not a Christian invention; it is an invention of humankind and hollister pay a universal phenomenon, typically the result of misunderstandings of bodily phenomena, especially diseases. Most Westerners with a Judeo-Christian background have a preconceived notion of “demon” attached to concepts of hell or Satan, when in fact a demon should be understood simply as any sort of malicious spirit that plays a part in the mythological structure of a culture. This has gone from specific ideas to a general sense of Essay Bowen, “demon” or simply “the Devil” for much of the Christian west. Demons that were once used to explain emotions like rage or instilling senses of vengeance are today believed by many Christians, especially fundamentalists, to come from the Devil himself (Herriot 2008), and are typically not given any individual powers. Demons for modern Westerners are quite similar to our conception of “angel,” which went from a more detailed system of various tiers of celestial beings to a simple, universal (albeit vague) concept of a benevolent being connected to God who helps the human race (Muehlberger 2013).

Now that I’ve defined and explained the history of the term demon , let’s consider the term demonology once again. Specifically, what is the cause for modern misusages of the term? Early on, the term was connected to trypsin hysteria concerning witches and was thus perceived as the study of real things as they pertained to witchcraft . That is not the case today; there is no witch craze, and very few people would admit that they actually believe in witches (aside from pagans who believe in Wicca, for example). Demonology , as a term, has a dual nature, with two separate meanings. First, demonology can be defined as an actual belief system, one of faith of a particular people, which is outside the realm of science and a matter for religion. Of Elizabeth? The Etoro, of New Guinea, for example, have a belief in different malevolent spirits and thus a system of demons that explains how these beings work within the framework of the rest of the world and other realms beyond human experience. This is demonology’s first definition: a system of mythological categorization of malevolent beings within a greater mythological system particular to a group. Mythology here refers to a system , not a statement that a religion or beliefs concerning it are “true” or “untrue” (Puhvel 1989). Essay On My War In Leone? The succubus, for example, was originally part of the system of about Biography, beliefs in ancient Sumeria, a female demon that would have sex with men during sleep (Rosen 2008). How Much Does Hollister? Today this could be interpreted as an explanation for Essay about Biography Bowen, nocturnal emissions or sleep states such as sleep paralysis. Any group can have a system of demonology, one that explains what type of evil, malevolent beings exist, perhaps also how and why they interact with the world, often to and Advocacy Poupulation explain things unknown.

But this is religionor at least folk belief functioning within religionnot something to be studied but rather something believed . Bowen? In addition, as you may assume, as knowledge increases, demons begin to disappear. In the second definition of the term, demonology is, as a field, the study of demons as myth . It is a subset of a broader field with a specific focus, like a lagomorphologist within biology; in this case the field is mythology. Mythology is commonly divided into define misery two main areas: upper mythology, concerning the gods, the heavens, benevolent beings, etc., and lower mythology, concerned with the underworld, evil gods, the Essay about Biography of Elizabeth restless dead, ancestor spirits, demons, and similar figures (Willis 1993). This separation into two main branches is simply due to the fact that human beings have always thought in dichotomies, so naturally we categorized our world into pay concepts of “good” and “evil”; the same delineation may be used in a study of such things stemming from our myths (Eccles 1991). Demonology is just a subset of lower mythology, simply the study of the myth of demons . So, should you wish to study the demonological system of ancient Greece, your focus would be on Greek demonology. Essay? It does not mean you actually believe in Exploring Essay, these demons (or any for that matter), it means you study the demons of this particular culture in the specific context of Essay Biography of Elizabeth Bowen, their mythological function, which in most cases was used to explain natural phenomena not understood at one time. The demonologist, then, is the person who studies demonology, the myth of demons, including their sociological and psychological functions. As such, calling oneself a “demonologist” and then performing “exorcisms” is entirely at odds with the actual meaning of the term.

A demonologist may study curses, cures, and practices of us intervention in kosovo, exorcisms in about of Elizabeth, the context of particular demons, and may even know how to “perform” them, but that does not imply belief in optimum, these matters. Most demonologists have studied under others in about of Elizabeth Bowen, an educational setting that typically revolves around folklore or anthropology, sometimes sociology. As such, the actual study involves accessing materials generally available. Optimum Ph For Trypsin? Many rare books, such as Collin de Plancy’s Dictionnaire Infernal , are easily accessible, but without proper training or education, how can one understand what one reads? Demonology requires knowledge in history, archaeology, theology, mythology, sociology, medicine, and Essay about Bowen psychology. Even something as simple as a recipe passed down over generations may contain elements important to the study of a specific demon.

Garlic and on Counseling in Diverse Poupulation the vampire, for Essay Biography, example, were tied together long ago, and the herb plays a large role in Eastern European cuisine even to this day, largely because of that connection. Demonologists should never state their beliefs about demons, if they even have any. This is define misery a matter of faith and religion, which is outside the study of demons as myth. Second, a demonologist must make a thorough study of the demon in question, and this involves several important areas completely ignored by charlatans. In essence, to understand a single type of demon, a demonologist must research the background of the idea. This will always involve a study of the history of a culture, geographical roots, linguistic variations, historical writings, anecdotal evidence of “true” experiences of the creature, folklore, literature, natural phenomena related to the demon in question, and Essay Biography of Elizabeth Bowen a variety of other topicsalmost anything imaginable, including sociology and define misery disease theory. The latter field is in fact the root of Essay Biography Bowen, many demon myths due to simple misunderstanding of natural bodily processes. Demonology is never a system to on Counseling “cure” those who believe in the existence of Essay Biography of Elizabeth, such creatures, which in itself is a serious disregard for knowledge and an abuse of human emotions. Demonology is a real field of study, frequently misused by those who do not know the true meaning of the ph for trypsin term. About? To be a demonologist involves a thorough and detailed approach, but never one attached to faith. Demonology is a study of the myth of demons, nothing more.

Those who engage in using the term demonology in the sense of Abduction, religion are practicing an entirely different field of Biography of Elizabeth Bowen, study outside the scope of the mythology of does hollister pay, demons. Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1980. The European witch craze of the Essay about of Elizabeth 14th to 17th centuries: A sociologist’s perspective. American Journal of Sociology : 4. Eccles, John C. 1991.

Evolution of the Brain: Creation of the Self , Routledge, pgs. 194-216. Gall, Robert S. 1999. Kami and Daim#x14D;n. A Cross-Cultural Reflection on What Is Divine. Philosophy East and West : 6. Herriot, Peter.2008. Religious Fundamentalism , Routledge, pg. 173. Kiekhefer, Richard.

1976. Witchcraft: European Witch Trials , Routledge, pg. 95. Leonhard, Clemens. Essay On Counseling In Diverse Poupulation? 2006. The Jewish Pesach and the Origins of Christian Easter , De Gruyter, pg. 305. Livingston, James C., Francis Schüssler Fiorenza, and Sarah Coakley.

2006. Modern Christian thought: The Twentieth Century. Vol. 2, pg. 400, Fortress Pr. Muehlberger, Ellen. 2013. Angels in Late Ancient Christianity , Oxford University Press. Puhvel, Jaan. 1989.

Comparative Mythology , Johns Hopkins University Press, pg. 2. Rosen, Brenda. 2008. Mythical Creatures Bible: The Definitive Guide to Legendary Beings , Sterling, pg. 196. Russell, Jeffery Burton. 1984. Of Elizabeth Bowen? Witchcraft in the Middle Ages , Cornell University Press, pg.

200. Russell, Jeffery Burton 2007. Optimum Ph For? A History of Witchcraft , Thames Hudson, pg. 55. Spalding, Thomas Alfred. 1880. Elizabethan Demonology , Dodo Press Edition, pg. 21.

Studni#x10D;ková, Milada. 2009. A Lifelike Fly in Margins of Manuscripts: a Symbol as Trompe l’Oeil. IKON 2.1: 253-262. Summers, Montagne. 1925. The History of Essay of Elizabeth, Witchcraft and us intervention in kosovo Demonology , Dover Publications, pg.

55. Thorndike, Lynn. Biography Of Elizabeth Bowen? 1925. Some Medieval Concep­tions of Magic , “The Monist”, pg. 110 Vol. Define Misery? 25 No. Essay Biography? 1. Viola, Frank, and Barna, George. Essay Poupulation? 2012. Pagan Christianity?: Exploring the Roots of Our Church Practices , Tyndale Momentum, pg. 16.

Vlasova, Marina, 1994. The New ABC of Russian Folk Belief , North-West, pgs. 298312. (Published in Russian.) Weber, Alison. 1992. Culture and Control in Counter-Reformation Spain, “Saint Theresa: Demonlogist”, Uni­versity of Minnesota Press, pg. 172. Willis, Roy G. 1993. World Mythology: The Illustrated Guide , Oxford University Press, pg. 302.

Zijderveld, Anton C. 2008. A Theory of Urbanity: The Economic and Civic Culture of Essay of Elizabeth, Cities , Transaction Publishers, pg. 9. Stanley Stepanic received his PhD in the fall of 2012 in Slavic Studies. His professional areas of interest include general demonology, Slavic demonology, folklore, and Exploring Essay the Russian language. His personal interests include weightlifting, video game collecting, retro gaming, music, and Essay Biography vintage science-fiction paperback collecting.

He lives with his wife in Charlottesville, Virginia, where he teaches a popular course on vampires at the University of Virginia.