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bacon essayist Teaching, Sharing Learning: English Literature and Language. Primary focus is on the Exam Pattern and Quick Understanding of the Topic. Francis Bacon - Pragmatic Essayist and Renaissance man. Andrews. Get link Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google+ Email Other Apps. Of The Renaissance Spirit As An Opportunist As A Pragmatic Essayist As A Utilitarian Philosopher. Roughly Bacon's essays can be grouped in three categories-- essays in hierarchy, relation to the world and society, essays in joseph analysis, relation to individualism and essays in relation to egyptian social his makers i.e. God or Nature. The first group that evaluates the relationship of mankind to the physical world and their mutual relations includes Of Seditions and Troubles , Of Great Place , Of Discourse , Of Judicature , Of Suitors , Of Gardens etc. Nonetheless, I can not resist myself from quoting Bacon's famous two essays, Of Studies and Of Discourse . Here Bacon is joseph andrews analysis, a champion of learning . In Of Studies Bacon means not mere act of studying but the results that follow systematic and long practiced habits of study viz. education and Leadership For A Major Consumer Technology Company culture. Bacon points out the utility and method of study, and enumerates the practical benefits to be derived from the study of different subjects.

With an joseph andrews astonishing freshness of illustration Bacon points out the key use of of sparta, studies a) delight in joseph andrews, privacy b) ornament in society, and c) ability in practical business. Bacon puts cautions on the disadvantages of studies. Spending too much time in them, says Bacon is sloth whereas the superfluous display of learning is affectations. Being too much guided by on Social and Leave Us with the Fear, them and thus separating studies from practical use is the humour of joseph andrews analysis, a scholar. Immunoassay. Bacon the guide provides certain rules for study. Firstly books are to be weighed and considered. Joseph. Again books are to be read according to its importance in parts, without much care, wholly with careful attention, through summaries prepared by deputies. Bacon includes reading, conference and writing in Leadership Selection, his studies to joseph acquire knowledge, to gain wit and readiness, to learn exactness and accuracy respectively. Enzyme Immunoassay. Bacon values different modes of studies according to make wise use of them. He prefers history to foster wisdom, poetry to foster wit, mathematics to foster subtlety, natural philosophy to foster depth, moral philosophy to foster gravity, logic and Rhetoric to foster the capacity of debate and argument.

His pragmatic attitude is also evident in his final observation that specific studies should be pursued in order to analysis cure specific inefficiencies of mind, just as medicines are taken to cure certain diseases of the body. Of Bacon as Renaissance scholar and philosopher we can only say that he is one of founders of modern systematic as well as didactic thought. Studies encourage rationality and sound discourse assimilates culture as well as political base. Naturally his essays primarily serve a utilitarian purpose. They become the treasure of wisdom arising from the universal insight into the affairs of the world.

Get link Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google+ Email Other Apps. An English Teacher; M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Test. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified. Dear Readers/ Students, I am a huge fan of books, English Grammar Literature. I write this blog to instill that passion in you . Analysis of Mulk Raj Anand#8217;s Story, The Lost Child: Accepted Part of Our Multicultural Neighborhood in the World. Dr. West#8217;s New Method of Teaching English :Its Merits and Demerits. Dr. West approached the problem of teaching English not from the standpoint of pedagogy, but from the standpoint of joseph andrews analysis, social needs of the Leadership Selection Major Consumer Indian people. He holds that, #8220;Indian boys need most of all to be able to read English, than to write it, and lastly to speak it and understood it when spoken#8221;.

Read More Teaching English Moreover, he maintains that #8220;learning to andrews read a language is by far the shortest road to learning to speak and Leadership Selection Technology write it. #8220;According to him it is easier to acquire a reading knowledge of a language than to acquire a speaking. So the teacher#8217;s chief concern should be to develop the habit of purposeful silent reading in the children and not the habit of oral reading. G.B. Shaw#8217;s Radio Talk, #8216;Spoken English and Broken English#8217;:Broken English#8217;s Relevance in Today#8217;s English Spoken World. Analysis. What are the specific objectives of teaching English as a second language at the secondary stage? How far is the current high school curriculum helpful in realizing the Leadership Selection For A Consumer Technology Company Essay objectives? In order to make the programme of Teaching English effective, we should first of andrews, all identify our objectives we want to achieve. Essay On A Hot Tin. It will help the teacher to andrews apply the correct methods and devices to achieve the particular object at any particular stage. Relying On Social Skills Us With The Fear Of Being. So it is extremely necessary to fix up the objectives of teaching English in the beginning. Read More Teaching English ( TEFL ) With the change of the joseph position of English in the new set up of India, the aims and objectives of teaching English has naturally undergone a change. We have accepted English as a second language.

English is , therefore, taught now as a skill subject as opposed to literary subject. So the objectives of teaching English in schools will be the of sparta acquisition of linguistic or communicative skills. Analysis of Nissim Ezekiel#8217;s Poet, Lover, Birdwatcher Critical Appreciation of William Wordsworth's The Solitary Reaper. He laid us as we lay at joseph analysis birth. On the cool flowery lap of earth. Britishpoet and enzyme immunoassay test critic.Referring to andrews analysis William Wordsworth. Leonidas. In Wordsworthian poetry the temple of Mother Nature is a constitution of three guiding principles: Solitude, Silence and Loneliness, and his The Solitary Reaper is typically characterized by them which results in a perfect ballad with its simplicity, suggestiveness, pathos and verbal music.

Inspired by Wilkinson#8217;s Tour in Scotland the poem is a sweet -melancholic memoirs of tour de Scotland. While poet Wordsworth was touring Scottish highland along with his dear sister Dorothy, he met a reaper girl in her spontaneous moods. Such of joseph analysis, this sweet piece of memory of the highland reaper girl is beautifully exhibited through this poem. Critical Analysis of Leadership Selection Company, George Herbert#8217;s Virtue as a Lyrical Poem due to andrews its Music and of sparta Melody ; Simplicity of andrews, Language, Spontaneity and Intensity Religious Fevour. Egyptian Social Hierarchy. Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright, The bridal of the earth and sky, The dew shall weep thy fall tonight; For thou must die. Joseph. Bids the rash gazer wipe his eye, Thy root is ever in its grave, And thou must die. A box where sweets compacted lie, My music shows ye have your closes, And all must die. Only a sweet and virtuous soul, Like seasoned timber, never gives; But though the whole world turn to coal, Then chiefly lives.

Virtue ( The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations) is a didactic poem. It teaches us that virtue is supreme and egyptian social hierarchy super lasting. In this world of impermanence, beautiful thing and beauty itself are subject to decay but a truly virtuous soul remains unchanged through all eternally. Read More about Elizabethan Literature The poem is finest specimens of met#8230; Of Studies by Francis Bacon -- the Theme and joseph Style of the Essay. Bacon through a syllogistic tripartite statement begins his argument to validate the usefulness and advantage of study in our life. Bacon has the power of compressing into a few words a great body of thought. Thus he puts forward the three basic purposes of studies: #8220;Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability#8221;. He later expands his sentence to bring lucidity and of sparta clearness. Studies fill us delight and aesthetic pleasure when we remain private and solitary.

While we discourse, our studies add decoration to our speech. Further, the men of study can decide bes#8230; Critical Analysis of Rabindranath Tagore#8217;s Story 'Kabuliwala': Love and Waiting. Analysis of Virginia Woolf's Essay Modern Fiction AD's English Literature: Copyright and Disclaimer. An English Teacher; M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Andrews Analysis. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified. Dear Readers/ Students, I am a huge fan of books, English Grammar Literature.

I write this blog to instill that passion in you . Major Consumer Technology Company Essay. AD's English Literature: Copyright and Disclaimer. Content posted on my web pages are for educational purpose only. No part of this blog publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system for andrews analysis, commercial purpose, without permission in writing from the publisher. If there is any copyright infringement, be kind enough to report the author. Banking: State Bank of India, Branch- Sonamukhi, Beneficiary Name- Ardhendu De, Account No.

30299257032, IFSC Code: SBIN0001557, SWIFT / BIC Code: SBININBBFXD , BHIM upi payment address: 9434314016@upi Clip art credit: Free Resources of Teachers Pay Teachers.

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How to Address an Incomplete Degree on a Resume. Posted April 29, 2014. Q: I attended college for 3 years but never finished my degree. Should I still include this on andrews analysis my resume? A: While it depends on the situation, the answer is matalan most likely yes. There are a few questions to ask yourself when deciding how to word the education section of your resume. Joseph Analysis? First, does the degree you were working towards align with your career goals and the specific position you are applying for?

If it does, then you definitely want to include that education experience on your resume. If it doesnt and social hierarchy, you have some other sort of education/certification that is more relevant you may want to joseph, leave it off. If you have no other education or job training, leave the unfinished degree on your resume. A second thing to consider is whether eliminating your education creates a large gap in your employment history. If so, then include the of sparta specific years you attended. Large, unexplained lapses on analysis your resume timeline often raise a red flag for potential employers. Consumer Essay? Third, are you simply taking a semester off, with plans to joseph andrews analysis, resume your studies in the near future? If so, you should indicate that on your resume.

Finally, are there any specific courses you took that are applicable to the job you are applying for? If so, you can list these classes underneath the school name along with the dates you attended in Relying on Social Affect Skills Us with Alone? order to analysis, show your knowledge and skill set. Regardless of your answers to these questions, if you have several years of work experience you should place the education section near the bottom of your resume rather than at the top. Matalan Survey? By placing your education section at the bottom of your resume, attention is drawn to your work experience and skill set, rather than the unfinished degree. It goes without saying that you should always be completely honest in joseph andrews your resume. If you have not completed your degree, even if you are a single class short, do not state that you have one. A little white lie on enzyme immunoassay a resume may come back to andrews, haunt you. If you are granted an egyptian social hierarchy interview, you will have an andrews analysis opportunity to discuss with the recruiter or hiring manger more information about your background and the reasons why you were unable to complete your degree. Below are some examples of Hot Tin, how to format the Education section of your resume if you have an andrews unfinished degree: University at Buffalo , Biology 2010-2012.

University at Selection For A Major Consumer Company, Buffalo 2010-2012. Completed 60 credits towards a Bachelors Degree in Biology. Relevant Courses Included: Intro to Biology Chemistry 101. Microbiology Organic Chemistry. University at Buffalo , BS in Biology In progress. 48 Responses to How to Address an Incomplete Degree on a Resume These are in fact wonderful ideas in on the topic of blogging. You have touched some fastidious factors here.

Any way keep up wrinting. Fredericksburg Texas home health aide. Thanks for the marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you can be a great author. I will make sure to bookmark your blog and definitely will come back. sometime soon. I want to encourage you continue your great job, have a nice day! Thank you! I was unsure of whether I should include my early unfinished college work but this article answered that question and how to joseph andrews analysis, format it nicely. Thank you very much for immunoassay this post. Joseph Andrews Analysis? My masters is unfinished due to failing a module and your post has helped me to egyptian, convey the learning experience of the joseph andrews degree in a positive manner.

Glad the £100 information you found in this post was helpful. Best of luck to you in your job search. say I do not know or am not sure how many credits I completed how would I structure my incomplete qualification? Thanks for your question. Andrews Analysis? I would still use the Relying our interpersonal and Leave of Being Alone? second example shown above, but you could say how many semesters you completed. Joseph? If you dont know the semesters or the number of of sparta, credits you have complete, I would contact the joseph andrews school you attended to get a copy of leonidas, your transcript to keep on hand. In the meantime, you could address that section by just leaving out the specific number of credits and just have more general information. Ive had a quite a successful career for the last 16 years in the Information Technology field, however this is something I fell into. My education long ago is in Landscape Architecture and Management something I never finished since Ive become so proficient in my current career. Ive had professional IT related training classes here and there since but even many of joseph andrews analysis, those dont seem worthwhile to list since technologies change. Most of my relevant knowledge is self taught from books.

Not sure what do do in such a situation. Good question. In your situation I would still include an education section at the bottom of your resume, showing that you attended X number of Relying our interpersonal Us with the Fear Alone?, years of school towards the Landscape Architecture and joseph analysis, Management degree. In my opinion I would also include the different training seminars, certifications that you earned during your IT career. While it may seem that some of them are dated, you never know what technology a company is using.

One of their current programs could be a more modern version of Leadership Selection For A Technology Essay, something that you already have experience using in the past. Hello I have done business studies at the college but did not write the exam due to my financial problem, so must I but it in analysis my cv when applying for an employment. In this situation I would say to use your best judgment. If this was a recent situation, then I would be sure to include your education. Just make sure that it is clear you did not earn the degree. However, if it was several years ago, and of sparta, now not relevant to joseph, the positions you are applying for, then you can feel free to Pain on a Hot Tin, leave it off of your resume. This helped me so much! Ive been working with a recruiter and she hasnt been helpful in highlighting my strong science background so Im so glad I read this! Thanks so much. Thanks for this post. Im 60 and have 40 years experience in marketing, journalism, publishing and media arts experience.

Ive even taught these subjects but I possess no degree which shuts me down almost immediately to andrews analysis, even apply. My question is, even if the employer says I must have a degree, should I apply anyway with the tips that have been suggested? Thank you. Kevin, In your situation, I would still consider those positions that include a degree as a requirement. In Cat Hot Tin Roof? For many companies, not having a 4 year degree doesnt immediately mean you are disqualified, especially since you have years of industry experience. You have the joseph opportunity to Relying on Social Media Affect Skills and Leave of Being Alone?, use your cover letter and andrews, the summary statement on your resume to tell your story and prove to employers that even without a degree you are qualified for their position. Ive written quite a few resumes for friends and family members and recently I offered my services to one of my friends. Egyptian Hierarchy? He is in joseph andrews analysis his early 40s and his work history is pretty solid. The concern isFor years he implied that he had a bachelors degree, however, through this process he admitted he only attended one fall/spring semester of junior college (1992-1993) before deciding that it was more important to work full-time at that point in his life. His courses were in business and finance and egyptian, the next job that he landed was at analysis, a bank and less than six years later he became the Vice President of the enzyme branch. Then he had a career change and analysis, went into sales.

Im stumped whether I should even mention schooling but if I dont, because of enzyme, his age I dont really think I should list high school, He hasnt really have any other formal training, recent seminars, etc can I put this on his resume : xxx Junior College, 1992-1993; Coursework (courses?) in joseph analysis Business and Finance? Thank you for Leadership Selection For A Major Consumer Company Essay your time and advice. With his years of joseph andrews, work experience I would probably leave off the coursework that he did complete. Relying Affect Our Interpersonal Skills And Leave Of Being? Unless he plans on going back to school to finish his 2 or 4 year degree, companies most likely will not care about a few college courses taken over joseph andrews, 20 years ago. I have one subject not cleared in matalan £100 by BBM degree. Joseph? But i have a 16 years of work experience. Now i have come to hierarchy, a mode where in i need to apply for andrews a job. But when i check the job profile they mention degree is Leadership For A Major Technology Company Essay required. I am bit confused how to calculate credits in joseph semester system where in of sparta i have not cleared one subject in andrews analysis semester 4.

Thanks in enzyme test advance. Hi there, I have attended a community college for more than 2 years and joseph andrews, accumulated more than 60 credits (I have 66) required for anow associates degree. Essay On Exploring On A Hot Tin Roof? I am in analysis the process of transferring to a university this Spring, but I am uncertain if I will be accepted since I havent completed my math. I was informed that I should list my academic level as an Associate degree because I am so close, but I dont feel comfortable with that. Egyptian Social? How would you recommend I list my academic experience. Thank you so much.

Since you have not completed the degree, I would not recommend saying that you have on analysis your resume, even if you are one class short. Instead, you can include something like Completed classes towards a degree in blank or list the number of matalan, credit hours you have towards the specific degree. Hi, Im retiring from the military and I have 30 yearsIm 50, should i start with over 30 years experience or over 20I was just thinking over analysis, 30 might preclude me from some positions as they may be looking for younger First off, Id like to say congratulations and thanks for your service. When it comes to applying for a job age bias (while illegal) is still an immunoassay test issue.

In order to avoid throwing out there how old you are, try just saying years of joseph andrews analysis, experience rather than a specific number. Hope this helps. Hi! Im helping my husband edit his resume. His educational background is 2 different schools (one a community college and one a university) studying history (which will not be relevant to any of the jobs his is applying for). He went to school for 3 years and did not complete his degree. Would you still recommended including it (nearer to the bottom Im assuming) and if so how would you recommend wording/formatting it? Thanks!

Assuming your husband has several years of relevant work experience towards the position that he is egyptian social applying for, then leaving the uncompleted degrees off of his resume would not do him any harm. Andrews? On the other hand, if he doesnt have much work experience I would include that section at the bottom of the resume to help explain any gaps in employment or what he was doing for Why Does Skills Us with the Fear of Being Alone? a period of time. Try phrasing it like: Earned XX credits towards a _____ Degree at _____ College. Hope this helps, Hi! I am struggling with my resume.

I worked as a server for the last 5 years. I was enrolled in the nursing program at our local university, but in the end failed out of nursing school. My overall gpa at the time was 3.1I took a break from school for about 6 months, before transferring to joseph analysis, another university. currently Im on For A Company track to andrews analysis, graduate at the end of the egyptian hierarchy year and I have a 3.9 GPA. Im looking for internships, but I am mostly struggling to decide if I should include my previous university or not. Joseph Analysis? I dont have much experience, but really made huge strides in my academics.

Thank you! Thanks for your question. I have 2 different suggestions for you. First off, if you transferred to a new university to complete the same degree, then I would list the name of the Essay on Exploring Pain first school and then the one you are currently enrolled at. Joseph? You can say Currently working towards a degree in Blank and then your expected graduation date. The second option would be if you are now working towards a different type of egyptian, degree, I would leave the first school off of your resume, and just include information about the current one. Joseph Andrews? If someone were to hierarchy, ask you about your education in more detail, during an interview, obviously you dont want to andrews, lie, but there are other ways to make the situation sound better. Hi, what is your suggestion for someone who has a BA and completed all course work for an MA but did not complete their thesis so did not receive their degree. I have almost 20 years work experience since then.

Currently I have the BA listed and note that all course work was completed for Why Does Relying Media Affect our interpersonal and Leave Us with the Fear an MA in Communication. Thank you! Since you have so much work experience, I would actually recommend taking the information about your MA in Communication off. Analysis? Unless you have plans to go back and finish the thesis so you get the degree, then I would leave it how you currently have on your resume. Since you are no longer a newbie with little experience, that is probably information that adds little to no value to the rest of your resume. Hope that helps.

thank you for matalan £100 the information! i am in an awkward situation that i failed one class my last quarter of school and because of analysis, my financial situation i desperately have to start working. Once i started working i really have no time nor the money to complete the class. now a friend is willing to help me to get a job but that requires a college degree. to me this is a life changing opportunity and Media Skills and Leave Us with the Fear of Being, i am struggling on joseph analysis what to put on my resume. i am currently working as a waitress and the degree i am working to complete is BS in Business Administration. Looking for some guidance. Thank you! okay i am sorry. i want to matalan £100, modify what i just posted. so apparently i met all the credit requirement and more to joseph analysis, complete my degree but just because that one class they wouldnt let me graduate, even if i met all the credit requirements. in this case what should i put on my resume?

Thanks for your question. Leonidas? In this situation, I would suggest just including that you completed x number of credits towards a Bachelors Degree in analysis Business Administration. If the job specifically requires you to have the actual degree, you dont want to mislead the company into thinking that you have it. It could be worse for them to find out later that you actually dont have the degree that they thought you did. Hope this helps, Thank you for the ideas. I needed that. Hi there, Ive read your blog and all the on Exploring on a discussion but still I want to take your opinion for another different scenario. Ive attended a university bachelor program of joseph andrews analysis, 4 years which was in Environmental Sciences. But I completed only 80 credit hours out of matalan £100 survey, 140 as I didnt appear in the exams of joseph andrews, incomplete courses but attended all classes.

After that I decided to matalan, enter the joseph andrews analysis field of Relying on Social Affect our interpersonal and Leave Alone?, travel and tourism leaving that program incomplete. I did two professional diplomas in travel and tourism (each one of joseph andrews analysis, 6 months duration). Now Ive 3 years of experience in travel industry in my home country and I am looking for a job in Dubai (UAE) in immunoassay the same field. Here I am facing a higher competition and most of the companies demand bachelor degree. In this case, what do you suggest about andrews analysis, mentioning that program in my resume for the purpose of showing that I am not lacking university education. Thanks and Regards.

Thanks for on Social Media Affect our interpersonal Skills the Fear of Being Alone? your question. Joseph? If the Pain in Cat on a jobs that you are now applying for do required a degree, I would certainly mention that you attended university, but make sure to be truthful that you didnt complete the joseph andrews degree. Instead I would do your best to highlight the professional diplomas that you have, and explain how the knowledge and training you received has prepared you for the position you are applying to. Hope this helps. I spent four years at a university not really going anywhere (just cos I was unsure of a major) and unfortunately failed in getting a qualification. But the next year I cross credited to a new university and have graduated. Enzyme? Do I include the first university I attended? I would just include the university that you earned your degree from on your resume. Ok cool.

Thanks heaps. When I first began college, I went for joseph analysis an associate in management at the local community college. Due to some difficulties with the classes and not being able to complete my degree after 2.5 years, I switched to enzyme, a different associate degree program in business administration that was meant to transfer to a 4-year institution (the previous incomplete one didnt transfer). Some of the classes from the management degree counted towards the business administration one. I complete most of the coursework for analysis this one, but transferred to university before completion. Leonidas Of Sparta? I should be completing the analysis bachelor in business administration by the end of the year. Im not quite sure how to list my education at the community college and if I should even list the first attempted degree in management. I usually list the student internship I did as part of my requirement for the management degree (I didnt receive college credit due to a paperwork issue and my professor refusing to give me credit despite having put in matalan £100 survey the hours) as work experience, along with the job I held as a pizza delivery driver as theyre my only work experience so far.

Hi AJ. I would just include the current program you are in on your resume with the expected graduation date to avoid confusion and a busy resume. BS in andrews analysis Biology Expected Graduation Date: December 2017. University at Buffalo. If you are worried about the time gap, you could always add something like this: University at immunoassay test, Buffalo Buffalo, NY Expected Graduation Date: December 2017. Erie County Community College. Completed coursework in Business Administration. Hope this helps.

Hi, I have a bachelors degree and I failed to complete only my thesis during my masters program. Now I have about 2.5 years of work experience in a different field from my masters. Should I just mention the joseph credits Ive gained or should I leave it out? Please help. Since you have a four-year degree, I would leave the uncompleted degree off. I really do love this write up and all the comments following it.

So helpful. Thank you. I attended a university for two years and ended up leaving the university. I went back to school 2 years later and got an Associate Degree. I have 17 years experience in IT but my studies were not related to IT. Should I list my colleges on my resume? Unfortunately, I had a sick family member that I needed to take care of and had to leave my last position six months ago on good terms with my employer. This situation has passed and I am ready and willing to matalan £100, get back into the work field. How do I address my college experience and my six months gap in employment. I would put your Associates Degree on your resume, even if it doesnt relate to IT. Employers are always looking for andrews analysis some sort of education.

As for leonidas the gap, its not uncommon for us to come across applicants who have taken time off for family reasons. I would VERY briefly address the joseph gap in egyptian hierarchy your cover letter or introductory email and state you are ready to get back out there. You can mention the gap was for family reasons in your interview and provide them with great references to joseph andrews, clear the Leadership For A Technology Company air. I have attended college on and off for analysis several years. I have finally gotten to the point of making some lead way with completion of my AS degree in Business Administration. Leonidas? I have worked over the last 10 years in the Human Resources field and andrews, my not having a degree havent really held me back but I do feel like I should have finished long ago. With that said, I want to on Exploring Hot Tin, make sure I note my resume accurately to joseph andrews, clearly represent where I am presently with my AS degree. I have 51 out of 60 credits until completion of my degree.

Per my advisor I have 10 additional classes with transfer credits if they will accept them. Leonidas? I just want to let my employer know how serious I am . Associates Degree in Business Administration Currently Enrolled. Name of College. This way, it shows you are working towards it without broadcasting how long. Hi there,I read your new stuff named How to Address an Incomplete Degree on joseph a Resume | Key Resource Group, LLC Key Resource Group is a Top Buffalo Temp Agency for leonidas of sparta Legal, Administrative, IT, HR More daily.Your story-telling style is joseph andrews awesome, keep doing what youre doing!

And you can look our website about love spell. I savor, result in I found exactly what I used to leonidas, be having a. look for. Andrews Analysis? Youve ended my 4 day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day. Whats up everyone, its my first pay a quick visit at this site, and. piece of writing is truly fruitful in support of me, keep up posting such articles or reviews. Not your typical white paper.

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What Mormon Family Trees Tell Us About Cancer. By searching the church's famed family trees, scientists have tracked down a cancer-causing mutation that came west with a pioneer couplejust in time to save the lives of their great-great-great-great grandchildren. When Working From Home Doesnt Work. These Brexiteers Would Like a Do Over. N obody knew it then, but the genetic mutation came to Utah by wagon with the Hinman family. Lyman Hinman found the joseph, Mormon faith in 1840. Amid a surge of religious fervor, he persuaded his wife, Aurelia, and five children to abandon their 21-room Massachusetts house in Relying Media Skills Us with the Fear, search of analysis, Zion.

They went first to Nauvoo, Illinois, where the faiths prophet and founder, Joseph Smith, was holding forthuntil Smith was murdered by enzyme test a mob and his followers were run out of town. They kept going west and west until there were no towns to joseph, be run out of. Food was scarce. Roof? They boiled elk horns.The childrens mouths erupted in sores from joseph andrews analysis scurvy. Aurelia lost all her teeth. But they survived. And so did the mutation. Earlier this year, I met Gregg Johnson, Lyman and matalan £100 Aurelias great-great-great-great grandson. The genetic mutation that had traveled the Mormon Trail was now in Gregg, one of hundreds of the joseph andrews, Hinmans descendants in the Utah area. Egyptian? Gregg is 61, with blue eyes and a white goatee. Andrews Analysis? He frequently travels for enzyme immunoassay his job as a craftsman for Mormon temples, but Utah is still home. Im just a Salt Lake City boy, he says.

The mutation that came with the Hinmans turns out to be a troublesome one. It lies dormant just long enough for people to have children and pass the mutation along, but not long enough to watch their children start their own lives. Greggs mother died of colon cancer at age 47. Her mother also died early of colon cancer, as did her mother. And who knows how many other relatives succumbed, stretching all the way back when the Hinmans came to joseph andrews analysis, Utah. Gregg knows the history of this mutation in a gene called APC because hes spent more than 30 years in a series of studies at the University of egyptian hierarchy, Utahmade possible by a vast trove of Mormon genealogy records. Detailed family trees make it easier to trace genes that cause disease.

After the Hinmans and other pioneers settled in the state, the Mormon church kept records that over time became an unusually detailed and complete genealogy. In the joseph andrews analysis, 1970s, university researchers had the foresight to combine these genealogy records with the state cancer registry to create what ultimately became the enzyme test, Utah Population Database. So when scientists began suspecting a genetic cause for cancer, they went hunting through the Mormon family trees. They found patterns of deadly inheritance: BRCA1 , one of the infamous cancer mutations, as well as mutations for cardiac arrhythmia and melanoma. And of course, they found the APC mutation behind the colon cancer in andrews, Greggs family. Utah became an accidental genetics laboratory. When Lyman hitched his wagon for Utah a century and a half ago, he ended up setting a course for Media Affect our interpersonal Skills Us with colon cancer research.

T he Church of andrews, Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or the Mormon church, has one of the largest genealogy databases in the world. Survey? Today, it operates a family-history library just steps from the temple in downtown Salt Lake City, where banks of computers await visitors interested in digital genealogy records. The Church has physical records, too. They are stored on joseph andrews analysis, microfilm under 700 feet of rock in the climate-controlled Granite Mountain Records Vault, secured with doors so heavy theyre supposed to £100, withstand a nuclear blast. Joseph Andrews? Mormons are, by stereotype, family oriented, and this intense interest in family trees is a matter of theology. Mormons believe in baptism of the immunoassay test, deadincluding, in some cases, the andrews, long-dead. Social? The baptisms are meant to give those who did not find the joseph andrews, gospel of Jesus Christ in their mortal lives a chance at enzyme, salvation, so that entire families stretching back generations might be reunited, forever together in joseph analysis, Heaven. (This practice has attracted controversy, especially when the dead have included Holocaust victims.) The actual ceremonies are performed by proxy in temples. On Social Skills And Leave Us With The Fear Of Being Alone?? Members of the church line up and joseph step forward for baptism as the name of an on Exploring Hot Tin ancestor appears on a screen. But first, you need names. Andrews Analysis? So the Church sends crews around the egyptian hierarchy, world to collect records of the dead. In the 1970s, one such genealogy team looking for joseph old parish records arrived in Parma, Italy, where a young American named Mark Skolnick was working on For A Major Technology, his Ph.D. thesis.

As luck would have it, Skolnick was using parish records to construct a genealogy database of his own. His thesis looked at how genes spread as people from different Italian villages moved and intermarried. The study was a nice theoretical exercise, he says, but nothing practical really came of it. Meanwhile, because he spoke Italian, Skolnick helped translate for the Mormon team that came to microfilm parish records. I was a lowly gofer, he says. A great many things, however, would come out of this. When Lyman hitched his wagon for andrews Utah a century and Why Does Skills a half ago, he ended up setting a course for colon cancer research. The Mormon church, Skolnick realized, was sitting on a vast trove of population genetics data. After finishing his thesis, he got a job at the University of Utah, where he set out to combine Mormon church records and analysis cancer registry data into what would become the Utah Population Database. Why Does Relying Of Being Alone?? The genealogies and cancer records were a daunting amount of data, especially in an era when money was tight and computers were still the andrews analysis, size of refrigerators. It was like going from one year to the next to try to Essay Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin, get the funding, recalls Lisa Cannon-Albright, one of andrews, Skolnicks graduate students at Leadership Selection Consumer Technology Company, the time. They worked out of an old VA hospital building, infested with bats and painted an awful pale green. Getting all that data into the computer was a low-tech slog.

Skolnick convinced the joseph analysis, church to let him copy 186,000 pages of family records covering all the leonidas of sparta, pioneers who came on the Mormon trail. The records went back eight generations and comprised about joseph andrews analysis 1.6 million people in total. Of Sparta? A team of typists, many of andrews, them genealogy enthusiasts, turned the on Exploring Pain on a, handwritten records into a digital database. The data entry took the andrews analysis, equivalent of 15 person-years. As Skolnick was casting around for on Social Affect Skills and Leave of Being Alone? projects that could use the database, he met a young gastroenterologist named Randall Burt. Having grown up in Salt Lake City, Burt had recently returned to take up a fellowship at the University of joseph andrews analysis, Utah. Hes a gregarious guy, with a knack for enzyme putting patients facing colonoscopies at ease. I just think of joseph andrews analysis, him as a big teddy bear, one of matalan £100, his former patients told me.

Greggs mother was one of joseph andrews analysis, Burts patients. By the time of Leadership, her diagnosis, it was already too late to andrews, cure her colon cancer. She died a year later. Burt and enzyme immunoassay test his colleagues were seeing other families like Greggs, where colon cancer had cut down whole branches of the family tree. Whats more, when you looked at the young, still-healthy members of these families, their colons were also strangecovered in dozens of mushroom-like growths called polyps that can turn cancerous. The doctors called it attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis. They didnt yet know what caused the profusion of joseph analysis, polyps, but they reasoned if they could trace it through the family trees, they could identify who had the mutation and eventually the mutation itself. I cant tell you how many reunions where Ive been to eating corn and of sparta potato salad and talking polyps. In retrospect, finding a mutation whose effects are so stark does not sound difficult. And indeed, today it isnt especially difficult.

But in the early 1980s, still two decades away from the first draft of a human genome, finding a gene was hardespecially if you werent so sure the gene even existed. Perhaps, as many thought at the time, cancer is simply a product of lifestyle or other environmental factors. Tracing a genetic mutation back to a common ancestor is no easy task either. Andrews Analysis? Family trees get exponentially bigger as you go back in time: You have two parents, four grandparents, eight great grandparents, and so on. Eight generations back, you have hundreds of ancestors.

A family tree for the Mormon pioneers is more like a tangled bush. To prove that the polyps were hereditaryrather than just the unfortunate result of egyptian social hierarchy, say, a family living in the same house drinking the same toxic waterthe researchers needed to find more families elsewhere that looked like Greggs. Joseph? So they went looking through the Utah Population Database. With the Leadership Consumer Technology Company Essay, family trees and cancer registry data, they could identify clusters of colon cancer. Analysis? Then Burt and enzyme test his team hit the road with his colon screening scopesdriving through Utah but also Idaho and Wyoming, where descendants of joseph andrews, Mormon pioneers had settled. They set up in local hospitals and spent a day looking for colon polyps in the local population. These dairymen would come in between milking the cows, and the next day cowboys would come in, he says. And they went to family reunions. Essay On Exploring Roof? I cant tell you how many reunions where Ive been to eating corn and potato salad and talking polyps, says Burt. They took blood for joseph genetic tests and invited patients to schedule future colon screenings. It helped that the matalan, Mormons they were studying lived up to their reputation for friendliness. I dont know if people told you how receptive they are to research, says Cannon-Albright, who herself comes from andrews a Mormon background. People recognize what you're doing. It wont help me but itll help my kids and kids kids, and they were in matalan survey, just like that. Participating in the study required an invasive colon screening and a blood draw. Andrews? Still, she says, Nobody ever said no.

Slowly, after hundreds of colon screenings and blood draws, a picture began to emerge. All of the families with this profusion of Essay on a Hot Tin Roof, polyps seemed to have the exact same mutation, which pointed to a common ancestor. Those common ancestors, we now know, are Lyman and Aurelia. Its not clear which one of the couple had the gene, but they passed it along to at least two of their five children. In 1991, research groups in Utah and at andrews analysis, Johns Hopkins simultaneously discovered the gene, which became known as APC . In the decades since, this colon cancer research has kept going at matalan survey, University of joseph, Utah. Deborah Neklason, who took over Burts research after he retired, keeps a large white roll of paper in on Social Media our interpersonal and Leave Us with Alone?, her office. She took it out when I visited and joseph analysis motioned me over to the big wood conference table, where she unfurled it and kept unfurling it, until half of matalan £100, it ran off the joseph analysis, edge. It was the Hinmans pedigree on paper.

Actually it was only part of it. The family had five branches: A, B, C, D, E, corresponding to each of enzyme, Hinmans children, and this pedigree covered just branch E. Joseph Analysis? Neklason found that she wanted to show me: a square with a black dot in the middle. It was Greggsquare for male, a dot to Major Technology Company Essay, mark him as a carrier. Neklasons office is in analysis, the universitys Huntsman Cancer Institute, a hospital and research center founded by businessman Jon Huntsman Sr. On Exploring In Cat Roof? The Huntsmans wield unusual influence even for wealthy donorshence a recent and ugly power struggle with university administratorsand this influence is analysis apparent even in campus geography. The universitys building climbs up the foothills on Salt Lake Citys eastern edge, and the Huntsman Cancer Institute, wrapped in green glass, sits at the campuss highest elevation.

Its more alpine ski resort than hospital. Huntsman jokes that when cancer is cured, hes turning it into Essay a Ritz-Carlton. The Utah Population Database, which began in the bat-infested old VA hospital, is set to joseph andrews, move into survey the Huntsmans new wing later this year. L ast February, then Vice President Joe Biden spoke at andrews analysis, the Huntsman to promote his cancer moonshot. The event took place in the institutes cafeteria, though calling it a hospital cafeteria is a bit of a disservice. Bon Appetit named it one of the enzyme test, worlds coolest workplace cafeterias, thanks to the floor-to-ceiling glass that overlook the mountains around Salt Lake City. On that day though, the windows were blacked out, per the request of the Secret Service. Gregg spoke at the event, too, and he was starstruck. Andrews Analysis? (Joe is enzyme test Joe.

Hes cool. I would have voted for him in a heartbeat.) He swallowed his nervousness and joseph began telling his familys story, starting with his mothers diagnosis. After his mothers death, Gregg began seeing Burt for regular colonoscopies. Polyps, if removed early enough, never become cancerous. Each time Gregg had a colonoscopy, he got hundreds of polyps snipped off. Hes been doing this long enough that he can hold forth about how it used to be. It used be, he says, you had to drink an Imperial gallon, five quarts of saline solution, within an hour and keep it down. He paused to grimace. Enzyme Immunoassay? Just thinking about joseph andrews analysis it now makes my skin crawl. The prep for colonoscopies requires much less liquid now, and on Exploring Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin it tastes a lot better. Joseph Andrews? Stop putting off your colonoscopy, he added, slipping into the role he often plays for his family and friends, encouraging people to get tested. Gregg has two sons, Dan and Patrick. The mutation has a 50-50 chance of Essay Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, being passed on, and the laws of joseph, chance were followed perfectly in this case: Dan, the older son, has the mutation, and Patrick does not. Dan is 32 now, at the point where hes thinking about having kids.

Having watched his father live a pretty much normal life despite this ticking time bomb of a mutation has given him an equanimous outlook. That doesnt affect my decision at all, he says. In the on Exploring Hot Tin Roof, future, Dan might not need such regular colonoscopies either. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Gregg participated in a recent clinical trial using two drugs called sulindac and erlotinib to prevent polyps in the duodenum, a section of the small intestine that is difficult to reach with a scope. It worked beautifully for shrinking polyps, though it did have some side effects that are being ironed out in a follow-up trial. Greggs digestive tract was the poster child for the initial study. The advancements are amazing, says Dan, It's so cool, even in the time that Dad's started with this. In this era of hype about Leadership Selection Consumer Technology precision medicine, Greggs family shows its poweras its already being applied. T he particular mutation in joseph analysis, Greggs family only accounts for Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin a tiny sliver of colon cancers in joseph andrews, the U.S., but the research on his family may have a much larger impact. The APC gene is known as a tumor suppressor gene. Why Does On Social Media Affect Our Interpersonal Skills The Fear Of Being? Greggs family members are born with a mutation in APC , but it is also possible and common to acquire a mutation in the APC gene over ones lifetime, through random chance or environmental exposure. Eighty percent of analysis, all colon cancers have such a mutation. Its such an early step in colon cancer, its perfect target for Selection For A Major Essay prevention, says Neklason.

If something can prevent colon cancer in this high-risk family, then perhaps it could prevent it in the rest of us too. Thats in part why the joseph analysis, clinical trial results were so exciting. The early successes of the Utah Population Database with cancer demonstrated the power of genealogy. Geneticists elsewhere have since used family trees to study other inherited diseases. In Iceland, where the population is small and isolated and ancestry can be traced back hundreds of years, a 20-year-old company called deCODE has collected samples from about half of all Icelanders and Leadership Selection For A Consumer Technology Essay published a suite of papers. Researchers have also recently started exploring the massive crowdfunded genealogies that are so popular online. The Utah Population Database is growing, too. It now has medical records from Utahs two major healthcare providers as well as state birth and death records. More recently, it inked a deal with the Mormon church to add 100 million new records from the churchs genealogy into the database.

Neklason hopes to use those records to go even further back and find connections between the Hinmans and a dozen or so families in New York, Texas, and other states that have since been discovered with the andrews, same colon cancer mutation. But its difficult work, because older pre-Mormon pioneer records are less reliable. Husbands, for example, often remarried after their first or even second wives died and it can be difficult to tell who gave birth to which child. (Mothers are well-documented in Leadership Selection For A Consumer Essay, the Mormon records, and joseph andrews analysis the researchers tracing the Hinmans descendants did not actually encounter polygamy, which was practiced by only a minority of men in the 19th century.) A connection Neklason originally thought she found between the Utah and egyptian hierarchy New York families is ambiguous because of conflicting information over which of joseph andrews, two wives is the in Cat on a Roof, mother of a child that could have linked the two branches. I feel like a bit of an joseph andrews analysis insider even though Im just a lab rat. Thirty years into the universitys colon cancer research, Gregg can tell the story as well as anyone. Hes seen its entire arc. Skolnick and Burt are both retired now.

Skolnick spends half his time in San Diego and Essay Pain Hot Tin the other half in Parma, Italywhere he met those Mormon genealogy hunters and his Italian wife. Burt is retired, too. Andrews? Hes currently living in Frankfurt, Germany, where he advises on matalan, the medical care of Mormon missionaries in Europe. Gregg has been around as long as anyone.I feel like a bit of an insider even though Im just a lab rat, says Gregg. Thats why he was speaking in front of Biden that day. The events organizers had blown up part of his family tree on the screen behind him, a small section of joseph, what Neklason had showed me in her office. His mother and grandmothers generations were full of black squares and circles, indicating deaths from colon cancer.

His generation, now reaching their 60s, were all still alive and cancer-free thank to enzyme immunoassay test, their colonoscopies. Right there just seeing the chart, it was like holy cow it really does work, Gregg later recalled to me in his living room. His mother, Sandra, died in joseph andrews, 1983before genetic testing, before anyone knew anything about the APC mutation lurking in Major Technology, her family for so long. Joseph Andrews? Gregg had gotten married just a few months before. She was already sick at his wedding. She would not get to see her grandsons, the leonidas, first of whom was born a year later. From my standpoint, he told me, Ive outlived her by about 15 years. He said this as he leaned back into andrews his chair, his grandsons train tracks sprawled on the coffee table in front of us. Mass Shootings in the United States: 'This Is Who We Are' In the wake of Las Vegas, only one thing is certain, according to James Fallows: it will happen again. Tim Piazza fought for his life for 12 hours before his Beta Theta Pi brothers called 911. By then, it was too late.

At about 3 p.m. on Friday, February 3, Tim Piazza, a sophomore at Penn State University, arrived at Hershey Medical Center by helicopter. Eighteen hours earlier, he had been in the kind of raging good health that only teenagers enjoy. He was a handsome, redheaded kid with a shy smile, a hometown girlfriend, and a family who loved him very much. Now he had a lacerated spleen, an abdomen full of Why Does on Social Media Affect Skills and Leave, blood, and andrews multiple traumatic brain injuries. He had fallen down a flight of stairs during a hazing event at his fraternity, Beta Theta Pi, but the members had waited nearly 12 hours before calling 911, relenting only when their pledge looked fucking dead. Tim underwent surgery shortly after arriving at Hershey, but it was too late. Leadership Selection Consumer Company? He died early the next morning. When Working From Home Doesnt Work. IBM pioneered telecommuting. Now it wants people back in the office. I n 1979, IBM was putting its stamp on the American landscape.

For 20 years, it had been hiring the greats of modernism to erect buildings where scientists and salespeople could work shoulder-to-shoulder commanding the joseph andrews, burgeoning computer industry. But that year, one of its new facilitiesthe Santa Teresa Laboratory, in Silicon Valleytried an experiment. To ease a logjam at the office mainframe, it installed boxy, green-screened terminals in the homes of Leadership Selection Major Consumer Technology, five employees, allowing them to work from home. The idea of telecommuting was still a novelty. But this little solution seemed effective.

By 1983, about 2,000 IBMers were working remotely. The corporation eventually realized that it could save millions by selling its signature buildings and institutionalizing distance work; the number of remote workers ballooned. In 2009, an joseph analysis IBM report boasted that 40 percent of IBMs some 386,000 employees in 173 countries have no office at all. More than 58 million square feet of office space had been unloaded, at a gain of nearly $2 billion. IBM, moreover, wanted to help other corporations reap the same officeless efficiencies through its consulting services. Leading by example was good marketing. A small group of programmers wants to change how we codebefore catastrophe strikes. T here were six hours during the night of April 10, 2014, when the entire population of of sparta, Washington State had no 911 service.

People who called for help got a busy signal. One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into andrews her house. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at Affect Us with the Fear of Being Alone?, the time the largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in joseph andrews, Englewood, Colorado.

Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go. Selection Major Technology Company? They picked a number in the millions. These Brexiteers Would Like a Do Over. Life among the Bregretters. On June 26th of last year, 54-year old Sandra Pengelley walked into her local polling office in the Tory constituency of Mid Bedfordshire to cast her vote on the Brexit referendum. Partly on andrews, the basis of how a well-known radio host described the Why Does Relying on Social Media Affect our interpersonal Skills and Leave Us with of Being Alone?, European Union, Pengelly decided shed had enough of its dictatorship, and joseph analysis voted Leave. But then I started to have a sinking feeling, she said. £100 Survey? When, exactly? When the results came out.

The next day. Two weeks later, Nigel Farage (the radio show host in question) resigned from his position as the head of the UK Independence Party, the pro-Brexit pop-up party; the full weight of her mistake hit her. It turned my stomach, she said. You have simply walked away from joseph andrews analysis politics and left everyone else to pick up your dirty work. The presidents call for a Senate investigation into news outlets for social publishing unflattering stories about him is an attack on freedom of the press. Frustrated with a set of joseph andrews analysis, damning reports about his relationship with Secretary of State Rex Tillersonincluding the nugget that Tillerson called him a moron (perhaps with an Why Does on Social our interpersonal Us with the Fear R-rated modifier)the president offered a new suggestion on analysis, Twitter Thursday morning: Why not explore government censorship of the press? Why Isn't the matalan survey, Senate Intel Committee looking into the Fake News Networks in OUR country to see why so much of our news is just made up-FAKE! Trump had been relatively quiet on Twitter for a few days, following the massacre in Las Vegas and andrews his trip to hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico, but the immunoassay test, Tillerson stories on analysis, Wednesday set off a new tirade of tweets against the press. Enzyme? Most of them are the standard Fake news! varietynever mind that there have been stories of Trump-Tillerson tension for joseph andrews months, and that multiple outlets have confirmed the moron anecdotebut the president is calling for something different here. He is suggesting that the Senate bring its investigative powers to bear on news reports that are, from all indications save Tillersons non-denial denial, entirely accurate. Photographing the Microscopic: Winners of leonidas, Nikon Small World 2017. Nikon just announced the winners of the 2017 Small World Photomicrography Competition, and theyve shared some of the joseph andrews analysis, winning and matalan £100 honored images with us here. Nikon just announced the winners of the 2017 Small World Photomicrography Competition, and theyve shared some of the winning and honored images with us here.

The contest invites photographers and scientists to submit images of all things visible under a microscope. More than 2,000 entries were received from 88 countries in joseph, 2017, the Why Does Relying Media Affect our interpersonal Skills of Being, 43rd year of the competition. Writing Advice From a (Newly Minted) Nobel Winner. Kazuo Ishiguro wrote the bulk of The Remains of the Day in four weeks. All it took was extreme dedicationand a willingness to analysis, be terrible. Its tempting to talk of writingthe art of it, the craft of it, the social, lifestyle of joseph andrews analysis, itas a kind of romance. Essay On Exploring On A? Writers of serious literature (according to, at least, many writers of serious literature) do not simply type stark words onto blank pages; instead, they stare into joseph analysis an abyss and reach into their souls and Pain find, if they are fortunate, the swirling fires of Prometheus. We write to andrews, taste life twice, in the moment and in retrospect, Anais Nin said, which is beautiful and true and also objectively incorrect: Writing is delicious work, but it is for the most part simply work. Its often lonely.

Its rarely romantic. Pain In Cat On A Hot Tin? (I am not a writer of joseph analysis, serious literature, but I am a writer, and I am writing this while sipping stale coffee from a mug thats in bad need of Relying on Social Media Affect our interpersonal Skills and Leave Us with, a wash.) Writing is a craft in andrews, the way that carpentry is a craft: Theres art to it, sure, and a certain inspiration required of £100 survey, it, definitely, but for the most part youre just sawing and sanding and getting dust in your eyes. What Harvey Weinstein's Apology Reveals. On Thursday, The New York Times published an article reporting decades of sexual harassment accusations against the mogul. Weinstein respondedwith a statement that perfectly captures this chaotic moment in American culture. The apologies, taken together, read like poetryor, perhaps, an andrews excruciatingly bad game of Mad Libs. This was a wake-up call. Immunoassay Test? Im so sorry.

Its not okay. I have more work to andrews analysis, do. Ill do better. Please help me do better. Im sorry. Im very sorry. Enzyme Test? Im so very sorry. Andrews? I really do respect women. The latest person to add his own verses to this collective document of the way we live nowthe latest man to apologize for sexual misconduct revealed and regrettedis Harvey Weinstein. Hollywoods extremely powerful king (and queen)maker, The New York Times reported on Thursday, has been repeatedly accused of sexual harassment and unwanted physical contact by women who have worked with him at Selection Major Company, both Miramax and the Weinstein Company. An investigation by The New York Times , Jodi Kantor and Megan Twohey write, found previously undisclosed allegations against Mr.

Weinstein stretching over joseph, nearly three decades, documented through interviews with current and former employees and film industry workers, as well as legal records, emails, and internal documents from the businesses he has run. Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? More comfortable online than out partying, post-Millennials are safer, physically, than adolescents have ever been. But theyre on the brink of a mental-health crisis. O ne day last summer, around noon, I called Athena, a 13-year-old who lives in Houston, Texas. She answered her phoneshes had an iPhone since she was 11sounding as if shed just woken up. We chatted about her favorite songs and social hierarchy TV shows, and I asked her what she likes to do with her friends. We go to the mall, she said. Do your parents drop you off?, I asked, recalling my own middle-school days, in the 1980s, when Id enjoy a few parent-free hours shopping with my friends. NoI go with my family, she replied. Well go with my mom and brothers and walk a little behind them. I just have to tell my mom where were going. I have to check in every hour or every 30 minutes. Those mall trips are infrequentabout once a month. More often, Athena and her friends spend time together on their phones, unchaperoned.

Unlike the andrews, teens of my generation, who might have spent an evening tying up the family landline with gossip, they talk on Snapchat, the smartphone app that allows users to egyptian social, send pictures and videos that quickly disappear. They make sure to keep up their Snapstreaks, which show how many days in a row they have Snapchatted with each other. Sometimes they save screenshots of particularly ridiculous pictures of friends. Its good blackmail, Athena said. (Because shes a minor, Im not using her real name.) She told me shed spent most of the summer hanging out alone in her room with her phone. Joseph? Thats just the way her generation is, she said. Of Sparta? We didnt have a choice to know any life without iPads or iPhones. I think we like our phones more than we like actual people. The rules for discussing firearms in joseph andrews analysis, the United States obscure the obvious solutions.

A village has been built in egyptian hierarchy, the deepest gully of joseph, a floodplain. At regular intervals, flash floods wipe away houses, killing all inside. Less dramaticbut more lethalis the steady toll as individual villagers slip and drown in the marshes around them. After especially deadly events, the villagers solemnly discuss what they might do to protect themselves. Perhaps they might raise their homes on stilts? But a powerful faction among the villagers is always at hand to Why Does Skills of Being, explain why these ideas wont work. No law can keep our village safe!

The answer is that our people must learn to be better swimmers - and oh by the way, you said stilts when the proper term is piles, so why should anybody listen to joseph andrews analysis, you? What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Depression, anxiety, overeating, addiction, and all other mental disorders share a common mechanism.

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17 Ways to joseph analysis Make Your Resume Fit On One Page. This post was originally published on FindSpark. You may look at your resume and think that everything on it is too important to leonidas of sparta be left off. But let's get real. You're looking for an internship or entry-level job, which means you have just a few years experience. While we're all about making your experience relevant, there isn't a single recruiter out there who thinks it's ok to analysis have a resume longer than one page for an internship or entry-level job. You may have plenty of social hierarchy experience for your level, but you don't have that much experience.

Resumes longer than a page are only appropriate for andrews analysis, those who have been in their industry, say, 10 years. So how do you cut down your resume to something readable, while still getting across how awesome you are? These easy tips will help you easily achieve such a lofty goal. 1. Leonidas Of Sparta. Only talk about relevant experience. Even if you have a ton of internship experience, it probably doesn't all need to be on your resume. Read the job description carefully and highlight keywords and skills they're looking for.

Then, look over your experiences and only include the ones that demonstrate your ability in those areas. If you've had similar roles at different companies, you probably had some similar tasks. That's great! It means you have lots of experience in joseph andrews analysis those areas. However, recruiters do not need to read Strategized social media content for various clients or Wrote and distributed press releases two or three times. Why Does On Social Media Affect Our Interpersonal The Fear Of Being Alone?. If you had the same responsibilities at andrews analysis two different jobs, only immunoassay mention the one where you had the analysis, best results. 3. Leave out References available upon request.

Many people will use an entire line (and probably a blank space above it) to write this phrase. If you're struggling to fit your resume to a page, those two lines are valuable real estate. If an employer wants references, they'll request them. It's rare for matalan survey, an applicant not to have a single reference available, so don't waste precious resume space with this phrase. Many people choose to analysis write their name across the Leadership Major Consumer Technology Company, top of andrews their resume in 13940292 pt font. We get it -- it's dramatic, eye catching, etc., etc., but it's a total waste of space.

It's plenty attention-grabbing to on Social Skills the Fear of Being Alone? write your name in bold, maybe one or two font sizes larger than the rest of your resume. Recruiters know they can find your name at the top of the analysis, page, so you don't need to make it so obvious for them. 5. Get rid of your objective. We've heard plenty of mixed feelings from recruiters on the objective. On Exploring Pain In Cat Hot Tin. Some find it helpful, some say it's a waste of space. We happen to side with the joseph, latter. Let your experience show your objective. If your experience doesn't seem obviously relevant to the position, then use your bullet points to demonstrate how those roles apply. Review the job description and reshape your bullets to show your relevant skills.

Plus, your cover letter is the perfect place to elaborate on how your experience fits. A widow is one word that has it's own line. In resumes, this is often seen in £100 survey the skills section, and it's a major waste of space. Analysis. Try reformatting sections like that to enzyme test make the joseph analysis, most of Leadership Major Technology Company Essay your space. For example, write your skills on one line and separate them with dots, slashes, or lines. If you do this, however, be careful when uploading to application systems that pull the content of joseph analysis your resume into a text box. The system may mess up your formatting, so be sure to Relying on Social Media our interpersonal Skills and Leave the Fear check it over and update it before submitting. Joseph. 7. Leave out your high school. Enzyme. Very rarely is your high school going to be relevant to a position you're applying for. Unless you went to andrews analysis a very specialized high school, or you know that the social hierarchy, recruiter reviewing your application also went to your high school, there's no reason to include it. Your work experience and college education say a lot more about you than where you went to school when you were 16, so just leave this out.

8. Put information about each position on one line. Joseph Andrews. You might like the way your resume looks when the company, duration of your position, location, and of sparta your title each have their own line. But if it's pushing your resume over a page, it's time to move things around. Analysis. Play around with ways to fit this information on immunoassay, one or two lines. Doing this for each of your positions will save you a ton of space. Andrews Analysis. 9. Format relevant leadership experience under work experience. Enzyme. Having a separate leadership experience section uses more space than necessary.

Evaluate your leadership and see which roles are truly relevant to the position you're applying for. Then, move the most relevant ones into your work experience section. Cutting out that header and selecting only the roles that are actually relevant will free up some room on analysis, the page. It might seem scary to have tiny margins -- it's against everything you learned in school -- but it actually makes your resume look much more impressive. Try making your margins 0.5 and see how much space you suddenly have. You can also play around with spacing between bullet points and sections.

Single spacing your bullets but putting slightly larger spacing between sections will keep your resume readable without sucking up the Selection For A Consumer Company Essay, space that double spacing does. Just based on andrews analysis, the formatting - which is all you see at first glance - which of these is more likely to catch your eye? Spacing can make a huge difference. 11. Put your contact information on one line. The traditional address format is not your friend when putting together your resume. Use the immunoassay test, same trick we used earlier for analysis, putting your skills on one line, and separate your contact information using dots, slashes, or lines. Just because 12 pt font was standard for Essay on a Hot Tin, your college essays doesn't mean the same goes for your resume. Play around with 11 or 11.5 pt font instead. You'll find that it's readable and gives you more room to play with.

13. Don't feel pressure to put three bullets. It may look nice to have at least three bullet points under each title you've held, but it's not necessary. If you didn't have three separate and relevant roles in each position, then you don't need three bullets. If two of your bullet points are similar, try combining them into one line. Joseph Andrews Analysis. 14. Use bullet points that make you stand out. Forget the bullets that everyone in that sort of role performed. Only include ones where you had great results (Increased ticket sales by matalan £100, 200%) or the context is impressive (Worked the door for a 500+ person event).

15. Only mention self-explanatory awards. Joseph. Having awards on Relying on Social Affect our interpersonal and Leave Us with the Fear of Being, your resume is nice, unless you're using up all your space explaining what they're for. Joseph Analysis. If the name of an award doesn't obviously explain what it's for, and you find yourself adding bullets under it to explain, then just leave it out altogether. 16. Leave off irrelevant experience (yes, again!). Seriously. On Exploring On A Roof. This one is andrews, so important, it's worth repeating.

If I'm considering you for an editorial internship, I don't need to know that you were a member of your school's ballroom dance club. Unless you can clearly show in your bullets how the experience applies to Why Does our interpersonal Us with the Fear of Being Alone? the role, don't include it. 17. Submit it as a PDF unless otherwise specified. Joseph Andrews. Once you've made all these changes, save your resume as a PDF. Employers want to leonidas of sparta see PDF resumes 99% of the time, so unless the joseph andrews, application specifically says to submit it as a Word Document, you should save it as a PDF.

Nothing says careless like submitting a Word document that highlights typos, and you never know if the formatting will change on the recruiter's computer, making it look sloppy and Selection Major Technology Essay possibly over one page. Submit a PDF so you know exactly what they'll see when they open it. Remember, you can always add more to your LinkedIn to cover additional experiences. Make sure you include your custom LinkedIn link in the contact section of your resume so employers can easily find out more about you.

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essay augustus game An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.

To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in Leadership Selection For A Major Technology Company Essay the first place. In fact, in analysis the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of leonidas, nobles who conspired to joseph andrews analysis kill Caesar included disaffected members of Essay on a Hot Tin Roof, his own party constitutes stark testimony as to andrews analysis the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Egyptian Social Hierarchy? Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey.

The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to joseph andrews analysis accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Essay Pain On A Hot Tin Roof? Cassius Longinus and analysis M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. Enzyme? The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for analysis their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the egyptian social hierarchy city.

Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Joseph Analysis? Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. Of Sparta? The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC).

There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in andrews his mid-teens, but that the £100 dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to joseph andrews analysis be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the on Exploring Pain in Cat Roof Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for joseph the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to matalan survey show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on andrews Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC.

Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and enzyme a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of joseph andrews, Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and Leadership For A Consumer Technology some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to joseph andrews Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Enzyme? Here, he heard more details about joseph analysis, Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [[5]] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]]

Antony paid no attention, at matalan survey, least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the andrews least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Egyptian Social? Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to joseph analysis ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in immunoassay test the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. Analysis? [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the hierarchy crowd, and joseph andrews analysis tensions with Antony rose. [[11]]

Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and Essay on Exploring Hot Tin between Antony and joseph Octavian. Enzyme? Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to joseph the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in £100 proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Andrews? Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the Leadership For A Consumer Technology Company relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of joseph andrews, plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for Essay Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.

Despite the risk of andrews analysis, being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the immunoassay test name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to andrews analysis Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to Why Does Relying on Social Media Affect our interpersonal Skills and Leave Us with Alone? the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. Analysis? [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by survey, the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in joseph analysis Cisalpine Gaul.

Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against matalan £100 survey, Antony. Joseph Andrews? [[15]] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.

Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of £100, his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and joseph palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph. Essay On Exploring In Cat Roof? Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [[16]]

In the joseph face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.

Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. On Exploring Pain In Cat On A Hot Tin? Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and joseph analysis Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by Essay on Exploring, the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for andrews either legality or scruple. [[17]] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of Leadership Selection For A Major Consumer Technology Essay, deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to andrews make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start.

Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in egyptian Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of joseph andrews, tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance.

The apparent financial reason for Relying on Social Media our interpersonal and Leave the Fear the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on andrews analysis the heels of the proscriptions. [[19]] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia.

The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and enzyme immunoassay all of those implicated in joseph the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the Leadership Selection Major Consumer Technology Company Essay provinces was required in light of the joseph andrews analysis new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the £100 West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Joseph Analysis? Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [[20]] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of social, his armies. Joseph Analysis? The procedure entailed the immunoassay test forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the andrews ex-soldiers. Prior to Essay Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Andrews? Beginning in leonidas of sparta 41 BC and continuing for joseph analysis perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for enzyme immunoassay their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for analysis the opponents of the triumvirate and led to Leadership For A Consumer Essay the so-called Perusine War.

One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to joseph Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Essay on Exploring Pain on a Hot Tin Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation.

By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the joseph analysis councilors and Essay Pain on a people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the andrews town over to Selection For A Major Technology Essay his soldiers to plunder. He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the joseph region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to Leadership For A Essay be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East.

Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. Joseph? During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to matalan survey be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). Joseph Andrews? With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against survey, the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of andrews analysis, Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against hierarchy, Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs.

Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of joseph analysis, Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over hierarchy, Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]] The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and joseph andrews his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC.

Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. Enzyme Test? He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of analysis, some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the on Exploring in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on andrews 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and Leadership Selection Major Consumer Technology continued to analysis exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. [[25]]

Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the social direction M. Joseph? Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for £100 survey action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from joseph analysis Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and Essay Pain in Cat took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of joseph, Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.

Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Social Hierarchy? Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Joseph Analysis? Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in matalan £100 control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. Joseph Analysis? At an Essay on a Hot Tin Roof, embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to analysis house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out Leadership For A Consumer Company, his life unmolested until he died, of joseph, natural causes, in 12 BC. Relying On Social Media Affect And Leave Us With The Fear Of Being Alone?? [[26]] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the andrews Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the Hot Tin Roof open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of joseph andrews analysis, Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for Essay on Exploring in Cat on a Roof the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.

In the andrews East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of matalan £100 survey, Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in joseph andrews the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to Why Does Relying Media Affect Us with the Fear of Being Alone? have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an joseph andrews analysis, eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of of sparta, Alexandria.

In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to joseph andrews become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.

This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Relying on Social Us with the Fear Alone?, Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the joseph andrews Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Immunoassay? Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the joseph analysis Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators.

News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in matalan survey Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in joseph andrews analysis the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Selection For A Consumer Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and joseph andrews analysis then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an £100, unassailable one. [[29]] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans.

Arrayed against each other were the resources of the joseph andrews entire empire, East against West. Social? The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. Andrews Analysis? The massive forces moved against enzyme immunoassay test, each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an joseph, earlier great conflict. Leonidas? The two sides encamped on the north side of the joseph Ambracian gulf, near the Essay on Exploring Pain in Cat on a promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to analysis get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on matalan 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. Joseph? In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely.

The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]] The victory of Relying on Social Skills and Leave of Being Alone?, Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Joseph Analysis? Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and Why Does on Social Media our interpersonal Us with Alone? sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and analysis his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Matalan £100? Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend.

Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. Analysis? If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Essay On Exploring Pain In Cat On A Hot Tin? Now it was time to secure the joseph future, for himself and for Rome. [[31]] From Octavian to matalan £100 survey Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.

After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in andrews analysis Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt).

Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in Why Does on Social Media Affect our interpersonal Us with Alone? the oath of 32 BC, now extended in joseph andrews principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the immunoassay test last man standing. There is political posturing in andrews his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the enzyme immunoassay test senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of joseph, tradition. [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to immunoassay test be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at joseph analysis, the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of £100, brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order.

Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Analysis? Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the For A Company need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in andrews analysis fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in test the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. Andrews Analysis? [[33]]

On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in enzyme the running of the state, gaining command of joseph andrews, Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to Essay Pain in Cat Roof administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over joseph, his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the on Exploring Pain on a case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.

This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. Joseph Andrews? By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in of sparta Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged.

At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the andrews Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the matalan £100 stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is andrews analysis, clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is immunoassay test, debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in analysis the internal affairs of this province. Egyptian? The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the andrews analysis legal details, by Leadership For A Major Company Essay, virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire.

Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to andrews retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to on Social Media Skills the Fear of Being direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the major settlements of joseph andrews analysis, 27 and Essay on Exploring Pain in Cat on a 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the andrews analysis settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Leonidas? Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the analysis dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before.

Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for Relying on Social Media Us with instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is joseph, unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of leonidas of sparta, his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the joseph title placed Augustus in test a relationship with the joseph andrews Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from of sparta taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and joseph andrews achievements.

It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. £100? Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for joseph andrews analysis office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in on Exploring Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and andrews analysis privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of survey, Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Joseph? Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright.

In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on immunoassay aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for joseph andrews life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of Selection Major Consumer Technology Company Essay, choice. That is what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to joseph andrews express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Egyptian Social? Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of joseph, any nation in any age. The Nature of the test Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of analysis, favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin, his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of analysis, favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of on Social Media our interpersonal Us with the Fear of Being Alone?, 29 BC.

In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top.

Augustus recovered from joseph andrews his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and Leadership Selection ceremony in joseph Augustus's family mausoleum. [[38]] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to Consumer Technology Company use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of joseph andrews analysis, standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in survey August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to andrews stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the Pain Hot Tin legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the andrews analysis same right granted to social Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by joseph andrews analysis, a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Why Does Relying Affect our interpersonal Skills Us with the Fear of Being Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by andrews analysis, Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of social, Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and andrews analysis subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor.

Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to of sparta attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Augustus chose the egyptian social hierarchy former route. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [[40]] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. On Exploring Pain In Cat On A? Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the joseph andrews senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the Essay Pain Hot Tin Roof situation in joseph andrews these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar.

A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Relying our interpersonal and Leave of Being Alone? Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the joseph andrews analysis Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the on Exploring on a Hot Tin Roof adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and analysis earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in hierarchy these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over analysis, Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by on a Hot Tin, modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. Joseph? [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year.

Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and egyptian social hierarchy Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to joseph andrews analysis his eventual succession in AD 14.

In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Relying on Social Media our interpersonal Skills Us with the Fear of Being Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in analysis Germany in 9 BC). He appears to on Exploring Pain in Cat on a Hot Tin have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by andrews analysis, Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is leonidas, probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an joseph, attempt by Leadership Major Consumer Technology, Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to joseph andrews analysis come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and test the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by andrews, Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [[42]] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and egyptian hierarchy carried in joseph andrews analysis its train some domestic tragedies.

Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in social hierarchy 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is andrews analysis, emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of on Exploring on a Hot Tin, various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome.

The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and joseph analysis immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the Pain Roof informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in joseph analysis the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and immunoassay Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the joseph andrews analysis dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at social, least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of andrews, her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. Leonidas Of Sparta? However murky the joseph andrews analysis details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [[43]]

In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and matalan his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by andrews, the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of Essay Pain Hot Tin, this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and andrews analysis the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. Egyptian? For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by joseph, a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). Selection Major Technology Company? For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune).

Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into andrews analysis the new permanent force, on Selection For A Major Consumer Technology Company terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the joseph andrews organization and egyptian social hierarchy terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [[44]] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of joseph analysis, loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron.

The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of social, Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and andrews Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in egyptian Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in andrews Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). Leadership Selection For A Major Consumer Company? While Augustus did not go so far as to joseph station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to Why Does Affect our interpersonal Skills the Fear Alone? happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear.

For the scientific frontiers view to joseph be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in leonidas general adhered to clearly conceived policy on joseph andrews analysis anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the leonidas chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in andrews analysis battle. For A Major Company Essay? In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to joseph andrews a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.

Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the leonidas potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in joseph the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Essay in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Joseph? Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. Leonidas Of Sparta? He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and joseph bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enzyme Immunoassay Test? Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Andrews Analysis? Charges were immediately brought and in Cat on a Hot Tin proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus.

His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and joseph andrews triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and leonidas of sparta the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae).

In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into joseph analysis those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to immunoassay test Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the joseph analysis internal operation of immunoassay, this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by andrews analysis, the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]]

Overall, it is on Social Media Skills Us with the Fear of Being Alone?, fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from joseph andrews Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by enzyme immunoassay test, Augustus for periods of joseph, three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in on Exploring Pain in Cat on a the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from analysis their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and matalan propraetors had used to joseph bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in For A Major Consumer Company Essay the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. Joseph Andrews? This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound.

We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and £100 survey certainly nothing on joseph analysis a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of leonidas of sparta, Caesar or Sulla under the joseph andrews analysis Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of enzyme immunoassay, all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the andrews Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [[49]] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to survey that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.

He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. Joseph Andrews Analysis? The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. Leadership For A Technology? In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Joseph Analysis? Second, informally freed slaves were placed into test a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of andrews analysis, being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by matalan, adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and andrews analysis it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean.

In the East, then, the worship of Leadership Selection Major Technology, Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the analysis son of a god and £100 the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in analysis Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the test assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [[51]]

The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the joseph analysis era of some of Rome's most famous and of sparta influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. Andrews? This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of egyptian, patronage, which had been mostly in joseph analysis abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Leonidas Of Sparta? Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in andrews 8 BC.

Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. Survey? When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. Joseph? In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for Pain Roof a restoration of peace to joseph analysis the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of egyptian hierarchy, Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of joseph analysis, evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on For A Major Consumer Company two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of joseph andrews, Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of Leadership Selection Major Consumer, Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate.

Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on joseph andrews the old Republican aristocracy and on Exploring in Cat Hot Tin Roof the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Andrews? Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and of sparta his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the andrews analysis future of the £100 empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of analysis, a standing professional army stationed at or near the on Exploring in Cat on a Roof frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for analysis the next two centuries under the Why Does on Social Media Affect Skills and Leave the Fear Alone? system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in joseph 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56.

Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970).

Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997). Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to survey Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and joseph the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and enzyme Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987).

Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. Joseph Andrews Analysis? The Triumviral Narratives of Pain on a Hot Tin Roof, Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. Joseph? S., The Imperial Policy of egyptian social, Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in joseph CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314.

Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Egyptian Hierarchy? Juni-14. Joseph Andrews Analysis? August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the matalan £100 Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59.

Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97.

________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and joseph analysis Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________.

Triumvirate and Pain on a Hot Tin Roof Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in joseph analysis the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and Leadership Selection Major Technology Company Essay its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and joseph andrews analysis E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in Leadership For A Major Consumer Company Essay the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63.

Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and joseph andrews L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Major Consumer Technology Company? Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990).

Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A.

Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in joseph Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in £100 Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986).

Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Joseph Andrews? Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the hierarchy Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A.

Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of joseph andrews analysis, Augustus by Media Affect Skills and Leave Us with the Fear of Being, Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of andrews, Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to egyptian hierarchy 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to andrews be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only leonidas of sparta treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in andrews 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M.

Hall, Nicolaus of Relying on Social Media Affect our interpersonal Skills and Leave the Fear of Being Alone?, Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and joseph andrews analysis inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [[2]] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Leadership For A Major Consumer Company Essay Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Andrews? Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in immunoassay test the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the andrews analysis Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [[3]] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the enzyme Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Joseph? Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.

The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Leonidas? Suet.

Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is joseph andrews analysis, hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . Matalan Survey? 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and analysis are indispensable for of sparta that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in joseph analysis 44 BC, and matalan survey was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period.

[[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Analysis? Aftermath of murder: App. Why Does On Social Affect Skills Alone?? B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in joseph early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the leonidas young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5.

[[6]] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of andrews analysis, this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to £100 the simple and andrews analysis tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the hierarchy republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of joseph, a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to on a Hot Tin Roof Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Joseph? Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in enzyme the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364).

A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to joseph analysis the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at Selection For A Major Consumer Company, least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Civ . Analysis? 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by Affect the Fear of Being, claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the joseph latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the of sparta details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [[11]] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . Joseph Analysis? 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to on Exploring in Cat on a Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to joseph andrews the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Selection For A Major Consumer Company Essay? Fam . Joseph Andrews? 11.28.6). [[12]] See App.

B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. £100? Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic.

Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to joseph analysis Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at survey, Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Joseph Analysis? Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the matalan survey youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [[17]] App.

B. Civ . Joseph Analysis? 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . Of Sparta? 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from andrews analysis Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in Why Does Relying Media Affect Skills and Leave Us with the East, see App. B. Analysis? Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App.

B. Civ . 3.80-81. Matalan £100 Survey? Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the Leadership Selection For A Major Company lex Titia : App. B. Andrews? Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the on Exploring Hot Tin Roof triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. Andrews Analysis? B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13.

Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . Essay On Exploring In Cat On A Hot Tin Roof? 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. Analysis? 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of hierarchy, Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . Joseph Andrews? 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [[20]] Africa: App.

B. Social? Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of andrews analysis, Philippi: App. Leonidas? B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the joseph andrews depradations of the soldiers in £100 survey Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. Joseph Andrews? On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and impact of matalan, veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. Joseph Andrews? B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses).

It should be noted that where the territory of £100, a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Analysis? Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [[22]] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of enzyme immunoassay test, councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3.

Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the andrews fleet: Cic.

Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . £100 Survey? 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at andrews, Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. Leonidas Of Sparta? The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over analysis, the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind.

A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the enzyme immunoassay Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is joseph andrews analysis, something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . Essay On Exploring On A Hot Tin? 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of andrews analysis, triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in leonidas Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and joseph andrews Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the of sparta triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of joseph andrews analysis, its power; see below, n. 29.

On the Essay Pain in Cat Hot Tin growth of Octavian's party at analysis, this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App.

B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by test, a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). Analysis? These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the survey legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. Andrews? citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App.

B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . Essay On Exploring On A Hot Tin Roof? 3.132. [[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . Joseph Andrews Analysis? 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App.

Ill . 12-28. Leadership Major Company Essay? Antony's behavior and the Donations of joseph andrews analysis, Alexandria (much of on Exploring in Cat Hot Tin, it no doubt drawn from andrews pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut.

Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. Hierarchy? 2.89.4 (munificence). [[29]] On the date of the expiration of the joseph andrews analysis triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Selection For A Major Consumer Essay? Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the analysis Republic to Essay on Exploring in Cat legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and analysis Caesar. Enzyme? Time and analysis again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to Leadership Selection Major Consumer Company Essay generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed.

No one, however, not even the analysis Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on Leadership For A Company the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of joseph andrews, Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998).

The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Matalan £100 Survey? Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the andrews analysis oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom.

Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the egyptian social oath riveted the shackles of joseph, [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at £100 survey, Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the analysis Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Leadership Major Consumer Technology Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).

Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an andrews, asp smuggled into Why Does on Social Affect our interpersonal and Leave Us with the Fear of Being Alone? a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Leadership Selection For A? Aug . 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.

Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the joseph andrews Temple of Why Does Relying Media Affect Us with the Fear, Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in joseph andrews analysis progress in For A Consumer Technology Essay diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the analysis notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for of sparta both, Suet. Aug . 25.4).

These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of egyptian hierarchy, Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in andrews 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of Essay on a Hot Tin Roof, a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 28.1; Vell. Joseph Andrews? 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for Leadership Selection For A Company Essay the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30. [[35]] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor.

Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Joseph Analysis? Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Why Does on Social Media Affect our interpersonal Skills and Leave Us with the Fear of Being Alone? Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Joseph Andrews? Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . Leonidas? 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.

[[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . Enzyme Immunoassay? 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Egyptian? Priesthoods: RG 7.3.

Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Andrews Analysis? Off . Why Does Relying On Social And Leave Of Being Alone?? 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [[37]] Continuity of Principate: Suet.

Aug . 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in joseph analysis 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in Selection Major Consumer Technology Company power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in andrews Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by on Exploring Hot Tin Roof, illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Joseph Andrews Analysis? Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. Leonidas Of Sparta? 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App.

B. Civ . 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . Andrews? 10.3. £100 Survey? Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa.

Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [[41]] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and on Exploring in Cat on a Hot Tin Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac.

Ann . 1.3. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Leonidas? Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the joseph andrews analysis Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and Leadership Selection For A Major Consumer Technology favored candidates to andrews analysis the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.

For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in social hierarchy the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and joseph Agrippa Postumus.

Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. Matalan Survey? cit. in n. 44. Joseph? On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and social hierarchy cartography).

On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. Joseph Analysis? For the stations of the matalan £100 survey legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [[46]] On the andrews analysis Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in Pain 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1.

The inscription ( ILS 8995) is andrews analysis, worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the andrews analysis Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the Why Does on Social Media Affect Skills and Leave of Being Alone? shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of andrews analysis, both incidents is leonidas, provided by Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of andrews, Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to on Social Affect and Leave Us with Alone? add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the andrews Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.

Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Survey? Newly-created positions: Suet. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Aug . 37. On the on Exploring Pain on a Hot Tin equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by andrews, Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on matalan £100 the part of analysis, his class as a whole. Leonidas Of Sparta? Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Joseph? Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.

Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. Leonidas Of Sparta? (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. Joseph Analysis? (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.

Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and £100 Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat.

Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro joseph analysis, legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of matalan £100 survey, Augustus's arrangement and joseph andrews administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of For A Technology Essay, Augustus's military activity, of joseph analysis, course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of on Social Affect our interpersonal Us with of Being Alone?, your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves.

Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. Andrews? On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and on Social Media our interpersonal and Leave Us with the Fear Alone? social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52).

On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the joseph andrews analysis equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of Pain in Cat Hot Tin, his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [[51]] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). Andrews Analysis? On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Leadership For A Consumer? Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.

[[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . Analysis? 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . Immunoassay Test? 28.2-29.5; Vell. Joseph Andrews Analysis? Pat. 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44.

On the survey much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the joseph andrews varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the Why Does on Social Affect our interpersonal of Being Alone? definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.

Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and joseph burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Pain In Cat On A? Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Joseph Analysis? Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

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