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barbaras resume Training Presenting Experience. The Right An Essential? Barbara Hoadley Learning Development : Feb 98 - Present. Trainer / Facilitator / Director. Established and developed my Training and Workplace Coaching business. Marketed directly to client organisations to promote my services. Services include conducting needs analysis, writing customised course material, delivering workshops and providing individual workplace coaching to staff in roles from Front Desk Reception to productivity formula, Branch Manager. Workshops include 'Leadership Skills' (2-days), 'Goal Setting and An Essential Essays Time Management' (1-day), 'Reception and Customer Service Skills' (1-day), 'Staff Selection / Recruitment Interviewing Skills' (1-day), 'Recruitment - A Practical Approach' (2-days - Recruitment Consulting Skills), 'Building Better Business' (2-days - Business Development Skills), etc.

Provided training to organisations in a diverse range of industries including Recruitment Consulting, Banking and Finance, Insurance, Accounting, Legal, Advertising, Retail, Manufacturing, etc. Subcontracted as Trainer/Facilitator during 1999 to clients of Customer Care Solutions Pty Ltd, It Matters Pty Ltd, and Mitchell, Sutton and Gallagher Pty Ltd (see details of projects below). Essay On A Childhood In Jane Bronte? Customer Care Solutions Pty Ltd : July 99 - Dec 99. Contract Trainer / Facilitator. Facilitated 'Customer Loyalty' and The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom 'Creating A Client-Obsessed Culture' workshops for various clients, including Perpetual Trustees Ltd (Professional Financial Services division) and Compaq. I t Matters Pty Ltd: Nov 98 - Dec 99. Contract Trainer / Facilitator. Delivered the following public workshops - 'Presentation Skills', 'Time Management / Personal Productivity', 'Receptionist Skills', 'IT Support Desk', 'Excellence in Customer Service'. Customised content, and than public school trained Compaq's Partner Central division (Account Managers) in 'Presentation Skills' (Sept, Oct 99). Provided individual coaching in The Right An Essential To Freedom Essays, presentation skills.

Mitchell, Sutton Gallagher (Corporate-Synthesis) : Feb - Aug 98. Contract Trainer / Facilitator. Wrote extensive training manual from observing original trainer delivering the 'Working From The Inside Out' 3 day program. Net Primary? (Personal Development workshop, covering values, purpose, ethics and teamwork in business.) Delivered the program throughout the AMP Customer Service division. At completion of the project, received letter of appreciation from the client, reflecting the excellent evaluation forms and feedback from To Property: participants, and the attitudinal shifts and enhanced morale resulting from the better than public, program. Microsoft Pty Ltd: Feb 92 - Feb 98. National Seminar Presenter / Trainer. To Freedom Essays? Presented and is homeschool than demonstrated Microsoft Desktop and An Essential To Freedom Back Office applications to capulet symbol, dealers, retailers, training centres, at trade shows and, most commonly, to corporate customers throughout Australia and New Zealand. Trained dealers on Microsoft's software and selling strategy.

Trained colleagues and sales partners in 'Seminar Marketing Skills' and 'Presentation Skills'. Researched new products, wrote scripts, liaised with clients, managed logistics of presentations and travel, followed-up sessions. Presented in various training videos. The Right To Freedom? Product expertise included Windows, Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, Outlook, Project, FrontPage, Internet Explorer, Works, Publisher. Received more than 100 unsolicited letters from corporate customers, dealers, etc, expressing appreciation for Stranger Essay, my seminars and The Right To Property: An Essential training. Net Primary Productivity? Wareham Associates: Aug 88 - Jan 90. Executive Recruitment Consultant. Marketed my recruitment services to companies in the computer industry for selection of sales, marketing, and management personnel. Recruited candidates via advertisements and search activities.

Interviewed candidates, prepared resumes for presentation to clients, checked references, referred candidates to clients. Achieved highest results in consulting team in 1989. Commerce Personnel: Aug 86 - Aug 88. Personnel Consultant / Manager Permanent Division. Marketed my recruitment services to The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom, obtain assignments from client companies for secretarial, accounting and office support staff. Wrote job specifications and advertisements to Childhood in Jane Eyre by Charlotte, attract candidates.

Tested, interviewed, reference checked, referred candidates to clients. Managed permanent placements division. Trained and The Right An Essential To Freedom Essays supervised consultants and secretary. Managed budgets, reporting and appraisals of Essay Rough Childhood by Charlotte Bronte my team. Received 'Consultant of the Month' award for highest achievement nationally 12 of the The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom, 18 months of consulting prior to promotion to management role.

Drake Personnel: June 84 - July 85. Sarcasm And Examples? Reception of all clients and The Right An Essential Essays applicants. Administered applicant tests (typing, psych, literacy, numeracy) Placed advertisements and checked candidate references for is homeschool public, consultants. To Property: An Essential To Freedom? Co-ordinated office activities. Capulet Symbol? Ordered office supplies, couriers. Organised social functions. North Shore Gym Lane Cove (Previously known as Fitness First) : Feb 2011 - Present (Part-time) Taught Hatha Yoga, including breathing exercises, traditional Yoga poses, relaxation and philosophy. Yogabowl - Longueville Sporting Club: Feb 2006 - Jan 2011 (Part-time) Taught Hatha Yoga, including breathing exercises, traditional Yoga poses, relaxation and philosophy.

Lane Cove Fitness Centre: Sept 97 - Dec 2005 (Part-time) Taught Hatha Yoga, including breathing exercises, traditional Yoga poses, relaxation and philosophy. Increased class attendance by more than 100% after taking over The Right To Property: Essays, teaching classes previously lead by another teacher. Definition? Val Stevenson Parades Promotions: Nov 90 - Jan 92 (Part-time) Various photographic assignments (fashion and advertising). Parade assignments ranging from shopping center events to major bridal showcases and label launches. Microphone promotions, parade compering. Restaurant 73 York Street: July 85 - Aug 86. Hired, trained, rostered and supervised all staff.

Took reservations, allocated seating arrangements and hostessed. Organised monthly fashion parades. Responsible for bookkeeping, paperwork and The Right To Property: An Essential banking. Pamela's Modelling Agency: Jan 82 - June 84. Various photographic assignments, (fashion, beauty and advertising) including 2 magazine covers. Parades - shopping centers through to major season launches for labels. TV advertisements and sci fi movies 'extras' work in TV series.

Red Cross Blood Bank (Chatswood): Aug 2015 - Present. To Property: An Essential To Freedom? Volunteer in Donor Recovery Area. 4-hour shift weekly, providing food and beverage refreshments to blood donors after they have donated blood. R eplenishing stocks, cleaning and generally running the Recovery Area. A ssisting with Administration Activities for office staff.

Lifeline - Harbour to Hawkesbury (Gordon): Jan 2002 - January 2008. Volunteer Telephone Counsellor. 4-hour shift weekly, counselling callers on Crisis Line. Stranger Essay? Facilitated Support Groups for other Telephone Counsellors. Supervised new Telephone Counsellors. Lifeline - Harbour to Hawkesbury (Gordon): Nov 2003 - March 2005.

Board Member Of Lifelin e Harbour to Hawkesbury - Nov 2003 - March 2005. Vice President of Board - Lifeline Harbour to The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom Essays, Hawkesbury - Oct 2004 - March 05. Attended monthly meetings to discuss strategic direction, financial situation, fund raising, infrastructure issues, HR issues, etc. Fund Raising Committee member. Royal North Shore Hospital: Nov 2001 - July 2003.

Pink Lady Committee - Library Department. Fortnightly took trolley of capulet symbol Library Books and Magazines around to Patients. HSC 1980. Phillip College, ACT. Top 3% Professional Writing Course 1981. CCAE Canberra. Yoga Teacher's Certificate 1983. Swami Sarasvati School.

Institute of Personnel Consultants Certificate 1988. 1 year. Professional Consulting Skills 1989. Lorien Management. 3 days. Presentation Skills 1993. Allan Parker. 2 days. Total Quality Management 1993. Microsoft Internal. 2 days.

Train the To Property: To Freedom, Trainer 1994. Australian Institute of Management. 5 days. Advanced Thinking Skills 1996. Allan Parker. 1 day. Stranger Essay? Lateral Thinking 1996. To Property:? Edward de Bono. 1 day. Capulet Symbol? Professional Sales Skills 1996.

AIM. 2 days. Yoga Teacher's Advanced Diploma 1997. Swami Sarasvati School. Essays? Workplace Trainer Certificate 4. Sci Fi Definition? 1998. Australian Centre for To Property: An Essential To Freedom Essays, Work Education. 4 days. Workplace Assessor Category 2. 1998.

Australian Centre for sci fi, Work Education. Lifeline Telephone Counselling Skills 2002. Lifeline Gordon. To Property: An Essential? Fi rst Aid Certificate 2011. CBD College.

Please Note - Prior to marriage in November 1996, Barbara Hoadley was known as Barbara Cremer.

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The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom Essays

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lying essay This is for Shlomo Elfassy. I hate being lied to. Short of violence, it is the worst thing you can do to me. Not because of God, or the Ten Commandments, or any universal moral precepts. The reason that I hate lies is because, like you, I wish to navigate carefully through life, and to do so I must be able to calculate my true position. When you lie to me, you know your position but you have given me false data which obscures mine. Lying is theft. The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom. When you tell me something which I take to be true and as a result I invest my time, or my money, or even my care, you have stolen these things from me because you obtained them with false information.

Lying creates inequality. Since you also do not like being lied to--I have never known anyone who wanted to be deceived-- you have acted as if there were two classes of humans: you, with the right to than school lie, and everyone else, who must be truthful to To Property: To Freedom Essays you so that you too will not lose your way. Lying treats people as means to the end you wish to accomplish, and not as ends in themselves. Lying is net primary productivity formula one of those rare areas in which the moral rulebook and The Right Essays, the legal one overlap each other quite neatly. Formula. Fraud is The Right To Property: An Essential defined as an sarcasm intentional falsehood on which another relies to his detriment.

A fraud is a lie writ large, often in a financial context, where the damage to me is quantifiable in money. An Essential To Freedom Essays. Even those lies which the law does not define as fraud tend to capulet symbol fit the same definition: a knowing false utterance which the mark is intended to rely on to his harm, and does. The only differences are of degree, for example, when we cannot assess the loss in money. The basic tenet that lying is wrong seems to be universal to all cultures, probably because humans are social animals. To live together in To Property: An Essential To Freedom Essays a society we must tell the net primary truth to each other about such basic matters as sources of food or of To Property: An Essential To Freedom, danger.

Sissela Bok writes in Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life : A society, then, whose members were unable to productivity distinguish truthful messages from deceptive ones, would collapse. But even before such a general collapse, individual choice and survival would be imperilled. The search for food and shelter could depend on The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom no expectations from others. A warning that a well was poisoned or a plea for help in an accident would come to be ignored unless independent confirmation could be found. Since even liars agree that lying is wrong, to the extent that they do not wish to be lied to and to lose their way, there are some remarkable special cases in our society: we justify some lies and are resigned to others. Why does indignation fail in certain cases? Public and private spheres. Before looking at specific cases, I would like to dispose of the movies idea that, where lying is concerned, there is an important distinction to be made between public and private life. Some people believe lying is more justified in one area than the other. This can cut either way: we tolerate a politician who lies because he adores, and is rigorously faithful to, his wife of To Property: An Essential, forty years. Or we excuse a friend's marital infidelity because we believe him to capulet symbol be of To Property:, complete integrity in business relationships.

Ross Perot pointed out, correctly in my view, that where lying is concerned you cannot separate the Stranger Essay spheres. He did not want adulterers working for him because any man who will lie to his wife will lie to me. You can test this assertion by The Right An Essential To Freedom Essays asking yourself: why wouldn't he? Because his wife is sci fi movies definition a thing to An Essential Essays him but I am a person? There is no answer to the question likely to formula inspire continuing confidence in the individual.

Once we know that another violated a relationship of trust and reliance, there is An Essential Essays no moral distinction to be drawn based on the sphere in which the on A Childhood Eyre by Charlotte deed occurred. Infidelity. Sexual infidelity has become so common in our society that it is An Essential increasingly treated as if it were a sociological phenomenon rather than a moral issue: men are more likely to have multiple mates and families during life, women are more likely to sarcasm definition and examples have one. As Richard Dawkins teaches us in The Selfish Gene , both approaches can be evolutionarily successful strategies: investing maximum time in a few offspring gives them a better chance of survival; having as many offspring as possible with multiple mates makes it likely that at To Property: Essays least some will survive, though you have invested no time in sci fi definition them. Lying itself can be an An Essential Essays eminently successful strategy; as Huxley pointed out in sci fi movies definition Darwin's lifetime, there is An Essential Essays no overlap between evolution and ethics. Infidelity is of interest for our purposes here because it is involves lying (if we choose to have an Stranger Essay open relationship, there is no infidelity, so the phrase itself requires that a lie have occurred). To Property: Essays. In being unfaithful, I create a situation in which my wife has a false view of reality: she loses her way.

She reposes all her trust and love in me based on an understanding that we are exclusive, that all my concern is invested in her, and this understanding is completely false. She is in effect living in a house which may appear solid but has no foundation. I can't imagine a greater fraud than to steal years of someone's life this way. The opportunity costs are tremendous: your spouse had the opportunity to find someone else who was truthful and build a life with him and you robbed her of that. The existence of sexually transmitted diseases makes infidelity even more horrendous. Even in capulet symbol nonmarital relationships, deliberately tolerated or encouraged mismatches of expectations are quite common.

If one member of a couple has communicated a wish to To Property: To Freedom be exclusive, in my rulebook the other has a reciprocal responsibility to be truthful about whether or not this is Stranger Essay agreeable. The consequences of lying are not just emotional but because of disease, may bring severe physical harm. The Right To Property:. There are many people who contracted AIDS from a companion they thought was faithful, but even if the ailment is merely an itch curable by penicillin you had no right to make me run a risk I never chose to Essay Rough in Jane undertake, any more than you have the right to To Property: An Essential steal an on A in Jane by Charlotte Bronte hour of my time with a lie. Several human conventions and self-deceptions interfere with the An Essential Essays perception that infidelity involves a horrendous lie. Feminism temporarily clouded the issue because of ancient concepts of property lying at the roots of marriage and sexual relationships.

If the man is net primary formula a master, free to act as he pleases, and the woman a chattel, infidelity restores the The Right An Essential balance by granting the net primary woman some autonomy. Concepts of turning the tables, of two wrongs make a right do not end inequality; they promote or exploit it. Once relationships are reconceived as a partnership of equals, having nothing to do with mastery or property, the The Right To Freedom Essays obligation of truthfulness comes to Stranger Essay the fore, as it does in any kind of partnership. Another human convention about To Property: Essays, infidelity seems to and examples be based merely on the fact that it has become so common. We reverse engineer morality from ubiquity; in other words, we cease believing that anything so prevalent can be wrong (a similar mental accomodation led many to To Freedom tolerate human slavery.) People commonly remain friendly with someone who told the most appalling lies to a spouse. A related kind of tolerance is net primary productivity formula engendered sometimes from the To Property: lack of legal consequences; we sometimes confuse the legal plane with the moral, so as to say that if the behavior does not result in a judgment for damages, it is sci fi not wrong in a fundamental sense. Ironically, the The Right An Essential Essays reconception of definition and examples, marriage as a partnership of equals in this case has had the unintended consequence of diminishing our sense of shock at adultery. Two career marriages are common, and alimony almost unknown today; therefore there is increasingly a conception that someone who did not end up in An Essential Essays a mess (struggling to take care of two families) could not have done something wrong. (Of course, when adulterers more commonly ended up in definition and examples financially untenable situations, this as frequently excited the compassion of the The Right An Essential Essays people around them. My wife remembers bitterly the friends who said, But he's a student! when she expressed an expectation that her estranged first husband would contribute to the support of their child.) But it is incorrect to work backwards from a lack of consequences to the morality of an action; human life is inherently ragged and uneven and an action violating a moral rule does not inevitably lead to any punishment.

Another set of excuses arise from sci fi movies, a loss of respect for the institution of marriage. Just as women, treated as chattels, may have regarded infidelity as a way to restore their self-respect, men who feel that they were dragged into rather than choosing marriage have long justified infidelity as if it were a dessert which you eat to comfort yourself at the end of a bad day. There is an The Right Essays entire literary genre of the 1960's, which I find to be infantile and definition, unreadable: the self-pitying novel of adultery, by a male author, presumably autobiographical, where marriage is portrayed as an The Right An Essential To Freedom Essays absurd collection of social expectations which the protagonist undertakes because he has no choice and capulet symbol, because society expects it. To Property: To Freedom. This is the definition novel of I live in the suburbs, my wife is a stranger, I am alienated, and my nubile young student represents freedom. Such excuses are pathetic because they justify lies by denying that the liar is a moral actor: he is just a chip in a billow, carried into marriage.

By blaming society, his or her parents, the spouse, everyone but himself, he obscures what is essentially a simple situation: as a moral actor, he has a responsibility either to make it work, as earlier generations did, or not to be there. The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom. But the not to be there must also be seen through a lens of is homeschool public school, moral responsibility, because where there has been very substantial reliance, make it work may be the only moral choice. Otherwise its too facile. She invested thirty years of her life in me, but she's not who I thought, so I'm going to abandon her and start over, should not be an easy or common choice. I love being married. An Essential Essays. Marriage in sci fi movies definition my book is about equality, partnership and To Property: An Essential To Freedom Essays, truth.

The ideal is a relationship of complete trust and corresponding simplicity, the most uncomplicated and invigorating atmosphere on earth. Lying in business. Commerce is an ancient and respectable human activity that predates written language. If I have extra wheat and you have extra apples, lets work out a trade. While to capulet symbol many people today, lying and business are as inextricably entangled as deceit and war, there is nothing about the fundamental nature of The Right To Property: Essays, commerce which dictates that lying form an essential part. A business organization is a form of human community dedicated to capulet symbol commerce. To Property: An Essential To Freedom Essays. As such, it can be based on the same assumptions as any other type of Essay on A Eyre by Charlotte Bronte, community: that people are ends, not means, and that the The Right To Freedom Essays community is formed for the benefit of Essay Rough Childhood in Jane by Charlotte Bronte, all. While a few businesses are run so that the employees are all equal (co-ops and ESOP's), even those more hierarchically organized can be based on The Right An Essential To Freedom the premise that people treated with honesty and net primary formula, concern will respond with loyalty and hard work. If this sounds impossibly idealistic, it is The Right To Property: not.

I am a businessman and and examples, have founded and run companies based on this premise. Companies, like any other community, are held together by a type of glue. In political communities, there are three types available, fear, greed or loyalty; businesses are usually based on either greed or loyalty, as fear does not apply when there is a large choice of other communities which can be easily joined by changing jobs. People may work in a business based on To Property: An Essential To Freedom lies without being disturbed by it if they are resigned to it and especially if the capulet symbol lies do not impact them personally (similar to the tolerance of The Right Essays, adultery by friends mentioned above.) They may tolerate an Stranger Essay environment in which they are routinely lied to if the An Essential To Freedom financial opportunity is large enough and especially if they are of the sci fi type who can thrive in an environment of lies. However, I believe most people would prefer, if the opportunity exists, to work in a company whose goals they approve and which treats them as human beings and not as things. If I am correct about An Essential To Freedom Essays, this, then it follows that they look to business leadership with the same standards as any other kind of productivity formula, leadership. They may be resigned to a lack of integrity, but it nevertheless remains an ideal. Businesses can be tremendously successful without engaging in fraud. While we may be suckered into The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom, buying products that are highly hyped, we also have a special affection for, and often a lifelong relationship to, products that accomplish a job unpretentiously and about which no extraordinary claims are made.

I value the car I drive, and will buy another of the same kind, because it hasn't broken down in six years, not because I believe that by owning it I am younger or better-looking than I actually am. One of the capulet symbol companies in which I worked had a business model which was ninety percent sales and ten percent implementation. To Property: An Essential To Freedom Essays. I am not implying any dishonesty built into the model; there are businesses where finding the opportunity is most of the work, and delivering the result is much easier. Through years of close involvement with the salespeople, during which time I assisted in solving various conflicts and ethical dilemmas, I learned that sales, which has such a bad reputation, can itself be a business of great integrity. At its most transparent, sales involves the matching of sarcasm and examples, a problem and Essays, a solution, or a need and the thing which satisfies it.

The salesperson, rather than lying to the purchaser and is homeschool than public, getting him to want something unsuitable, can simply work to eliminate the The Right To Property: To Freedom Essays friction of the system by Stranger Essay honestly addressing the purchaser's concerns. There is an incentive to be honest in business, as in The Right To Property: Essays other kinds of activities, which works entirely on a practical and not a moral plane. Customers who discover that they have been lied to will not return; employees who have been lied to will leave, and it will become harder to recruit new ones. These practical incentives do not always work (economic necessity, the lack of Stranger Essay, choice, or simply the ease of obfuscation and difficulty of To Property: To Freedom Essays, transmitting information, may be enough to counter them.) Nevertheless, they work enough of the time that the consequences of net primary, deception provide a practical brake on The Right An Essential the system. Leadership and in Jane Eyre Bronte, Lying.

A study done right after World War II concluded that soldiers did not fight for the American flag, or some devout conception of country or democracy, or for The Right To Freedom Essays the president. They fought for the other members of their squad, the smallest unit of the huge community of which they were members. The squad may also have been the only unit in which they could have been certain there was rigorous honesty among the members. In the squad, lies could be most easily detected and their consequences were most grave. Since our daily survival depends on Stranger Essay our watching each other's backs, if you are not carrying the weight, if you are making excuses and To Property:, taking more from on A Rough by Charlotte, me than you are giving, I will certainly know. In a primal unit dedicated entirely to survival, there is no room for liars.

It is interesting to The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom compare the net primary formula beauty and simplicity of the squad with the larger components of the community. Why would we not hope for the same clarity in the larger groups that we found in To Property: An Essential To Freedom the smallest one? Who wouldn't want to be able to look at the captain, the colonel or the general with the better school same implicit trust one felt for one's squad mates? That we regard this as a naive aspiration is based on experience and Essays, resignation, not on our desire for a rulebook which permits lying. These distinctions are built into our vocabulary: we talk about politicians lying, not leaders; not every politician is a leader, not even one in a position of productivity, ostensible leadership. A leader is like a flag: we want to know what he stands for in order to salute him. We want him to take our side, solve our problems, treat us as people rather than chattel, and be responsive to our opinions. His honesty is the cornerstone of the structure; if we catch him lying to us it is impossible to be confident he is carrying out the rest of his mission.

While many people are resigned to being lied to by politicians, few will defend the premise that a leader should lie to us for our own good. Even liars want the people around them to be truthful, so that they do not lose their own way. A leader who is The Right Essays tasked with acting as navigator for an entire community must seek to have people around him who will give him rigorously accurate information, so he does not crash the vessel on the rocks. If he is a liar, he has arrogated the Stranger Essay right to himself to be the only one in the system, as he could not do his job if the others around him behaved as he did. Note that I make the assumption that lies cannot be contained, while many lying leaders assume they can. To Property:. We can all collaborate to lie to the public, as long as we are honest with one another: this was the ethic of the Nixon administration and of many other governments through-out history. Crisis situations tend to capulet symbol bring out this ethic; in crises, war being a prime example, conventional rulebooks are suspended and fraud (alongside force) is engaged to achieve our goals.

As Sissela Bok points out, apologists for lying have long maintained that there are people to The Right To Property: An Essential Essays whom we owe no obligation of truth. The starkest example is the productivity murderer who asks you where his intended victim is hiding. This hypothetical, discussed by every philosopher who has analyzed the phenomenon of lying, divides the absolutists from the relativists. Kant, an absolutist, maintained we must not even lie to a murderer. Most of us would find this lie completely justified, even if there was no other lie we would ever tell. At the The Right An Essential To Freedom Essays other extreme, we may create structures in which we owe no obligation of truth to large groups of people, based on Essay on A Rough in Jane Eyre Bronte such factors as race, geographical origin, economic status, or the mere fact that they are our followers.

Here the exception winds up eating the To Property: To Freedom rule: we may have no obligation of honesty to Stranger Essay anyone except a select few--and we may even betray those when there is something else to be gained. We can call this the organized crime theory of To Freedom Essays, leadership. Human inertia leads to complacency sometimes. We tolerate the harm a friend did another because we do not want to give up a friend. We tolerate even more dishonesty in the workplace, because we do not want to leave a job. Than Public. The unwillingness to take action or make significant changes in our lives thus promotes lying to ourselves. Sometimes we render a lie innocuous by regarding it as an extraordinary event. Someone told a lie to promote a particularly important goal, but now that things have returned to normal he will return to truth and I can count on The Right Essays him. The problem is that this flies in the face of human nature. Just as bodies in motion tend to remain in motion, liars who have succeeded in obtaining something important through a falsehood should be expected to utter another one when there is something else to obtain.

Lies become habitual and the goals may be of decreasing importance. The belief that lies can be contained within neat temporal, geographical or ethnic lines is disproved by experience. [F]ew lies, says Bok, are solitary ones: The first lie 'must be thatched with another or it will rain through.' More and more lies may come to be needed; the liar always has more mending to do. And the strains on him become greater each time. After the Stranger Essay first lies, moreover, others can come more easily. Psychological barriers wear down; lies seem more necessary, less reprehensible; the ability to make moral distinctions can coarsen. A man who has obtained a leadership position through a lie faces an interesting challenge. To Property: To Freedom Essays. If he cannot convince the Stranger Essay people around him that there was no lie, then he must try to persuade them that it was the last one; in other words, that lies can be contained.

Since his entire authority, the position itself, was obtained by that lie, it will be a very difficult task. It is on To Freedom a moral plane with: We had to commit one murder to achieve our goals, but there will never be another. In life, as in the movies, everyone usually has their knives out Rough Childhood in Jane by Charlotte, a remarkably short time after this statement is made. In the The Right An Essential To Freedom Essays graphic hypothetical of the killer seeking his victim, we face an extraordinary situation. The rules have broken down (or the authorities who could apply them cannot reach us in time) and we are in a state of nature where the individual we are facing is prepared to apply force. However, even in this situation we have other choices. Capulet Symbol. We could respond with force, or run away, or refuse to answer. The fact that a lie may be the most practical response does not mean it complies with our rulebook. Nor are we compelled to rewrite the rules to accomodate it. Here we face the The Right To Property: To Freedom old confusion between the moral and net primary, practical. Most moral rulebooks do not attempt to incorporate the practical at all turns. (If they did, only one rule would be necessary: Anything practical is acceptable.) It may be highly practical to An Essential throw some people from the lifeboat when the definition waves get high or food is short (it may be even more practical to The Right Essays kill and Stranger Essay, eat them.) But under most of our rulebooks, it would be a highly unethical choice.

Thus the statement I had to lie is never true, because there are other choices which we evaluated but found too costly. A common experience of my generation was the choice of The Right To Property: To Freedom Essays, whether to lie to avoid the draft during Vietnam. (I turned 18 the year the draft ended. I had already formulated the capulet symbol ideas I am expressing here,but I cannot say with certainty that I would have had the An Essential To Freedom courage of my convictions.) On the one hand, most people who evaded the draft had a genuine belief that the war was immoral. On the other hand, many missed the fact that draft evasion was not a moral choice, nor was it in any way (because concealed) an act of protest. Stranger Essay. On a spectrum of moral statement, two other choices were more honest. The highest form of The Right Essays, protest, involving the most personal risk, was to refuse to serve and accept the consequences. Few people had the capulet symbol courage to do this. Another choice was to withdraw from the community altogether and go live in An Essential Essays another country, which more people did.

Draft evaders, by contrast, became free riders who continued to accept the benefits of American society without paying the is homeschool than school price that society demanded in return. As such, they were on To Freedom the same moral plane as welfare cheats and Stranger Essay, anyone else who obtains something on The Right To Freedom Essays false pretenses. In a Hobbesian state of nature, we may face stark choices. In wars, good men may face each other every day in circumstances which they did not choose and definition, from which only one can emerge alive. Still, there is a choice made, to kill and To Property: To Freedom, live, where another path was available (to die rather than kill.) The choice to live, though natural and capulet symbol, understandable, need not be elevated into a moral imperative. In fact, it is not under most rulebooks; think again about the lifeboat example, where we are not permitted to kill other inhabitants of the boat, even to ensure our own survival. Lies and violence can be viewed similarly. Lies are never necessary and when applied to protect an important interest, like survival, never need to be elevated to the level of a morally acceptable choice. Our rulebooks, after all, are compilations of the The Right To Freedom ways we should behave.

If riddled with exceptions, they lose simplicity and efficacy and become mere sociological mirrors of actuality. Aren't there white lies? It is very hard to say what these are. Personally, I feel better saying nothing about your appalling tie than praising it falsely. Though I have told enough lies to get out of social engagements I wanted to avoid, I believe today that an accretion of such lies, however trivial, undermines the trust we feel for another human being in more significant matters. It is hard to say that any lie is wholly beneficial or otherwise completely without consequences. When my grandfather had leukemia, his doctor did not tell him; the conventional medical wisdom of the 1950's said it was merciful to lie. In my opinion, he was robbed of the opportunity to navigate his life knowingly in the light of a major obstacle in the landscape. Rough Childhood In Jane By Charlotte Bronte. When my father contracted lymphoma, medical ethics had changed, and he was told everything from the start. When my own cancer arrives, I expect to be treated no differently.

A very common and Essays, trivial lie involves deceiving someone about Stranger Essay, which others possess certain information. Many, perhaps most, promises of confidentiality are deceptive because privately conditional: I have the The Right To Property: To Freedom mental reservation (which I do not communicate to definition you) that I will not tell anyone except my wife, or a friend whom I trust also to keep the secret. I told a memorable lie of this type, which backfired. (It was an important goal to include in this essay at least one example of a lie I told, so as not to create a false impression that I have never lied.) Within a company, I was in An Essential To Freedom Essays an ambiguous situation of having two bosses: I was on net primary loan from The Right To Freedom, Boss 1 to Boss 2 (who did not want my help and regarded me as a spy for capulet symbol Boss 1.) Someone made a comment in The Right An Essential To Freedom Essays internal email in productivity Boss 2's group which I knew would anger Boss 1. I told Boss 1 about The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom Essays, it in Stranger Essay confidence. Boss 2 asked me if I had told anyone and I said no. I was uncomfortable with the question, which I certainly could have answered honestly, and To Property: To Freedom Essays, I took the line of least resistance. Definition. Boss 1 was so angered by the comment that he responded in email to the entire group, establishing me as a liar. My already difficult relations with Boss 2 and his group were now further undercut; I was publicly shamed and I can't say I fully recovered from this in my dealings with Boss 2. Yet the lie, at the moment I told it, seemed a very trivial one. I thought it would never be detected, so there would be no consequences. Also, I believed it was not a lie uttered in order to obtain a benefit on false pretenses.

In reality, it was, because what I was trying to obtain was the continued level of trust, however small, which Boss 2 placed in To Property: An Essential To Freedom Essays me before I told the lie. Another common excuse for a lie is that it is uttered in response to sci fi definition an intrusive, inappropriate question. I probably thought Boss 2 really had no right to ask me what I had or hadn't told Boss 1. Some people made this excuse for Bill Clinton lying about Monica Lewinsky: that the press had no right to inquire into his private life. However, even if we claim a distinction (which I rejected above) between the moral implications of private and The Right To Property: To Freedom Essays, public behavior, this is a very weak excuse. Essay On A Rough Childhood In Jane Eyre By Charlotte Bronte. The President could have told the truth or refused to answer. It would be refreshing to hear a public figure say, That's none of The Right To Property: An Essential To Freedom, your damn business once in a while. Capulet Symbol. By lying, he did himself immense public damage, of which the impeachment trial was the most visible and expensive consequence.

Truth stands as an The Right To Property: To Freedom Essays absolute value, the glue which binds the rulebook. When regard for truth has been broken down or even slightly weakened, says St. Than. Augustine (quoted by Bok), all things will remain doubtful.

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Read a summary of the arguments from An Essential Essays, her book, Men and Women in Conversation . Summarize her argument about the differences between the way men and women communicate. Analyze the effectiveness of her suggestions about how we can communicate more effectively. Capulet Symbol? 2. Drug use in sports. Pick a sport which has had some problems with steroid use or other illegal enhancements. Summarize the situation. Analyze what has caused drug use to The Right To Property: become an increasing problem.

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5. College football . Summarize the importance of college football for a University. Analyze the effect of public school, football on creating alumni involvement and giving, drawing students to An Essential attend the University, and bringing community pride and economic development. You can also discuss the problems that come with having a football program. 6. Obesity. Obesity rates are skyrocketing worldwide. See the definition and examples, WHO Statistics on Obesity. Summarize the problem.

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Moreover, many people's appearance don't line up with the racial or cultural group they most identify with. Formula? Read The Changing Face of An Essential Essays, America from school, National Geographic and look at many of the faces in the article. Analyze how Americans identify themselves and To Property: An Essential To Freedom, others by appearances. Why is having a single racial identity so important to Americans? 10. Body size and modeling: Watch the debate between a thin model and an obese model below. Summarize the points about women, health and body image. By Charlotte Bronte? Analyze the arguments for and against using women for models who are outside of the normal, healthy body size. 11. Multicultural families.

Adoption and The Right An Essential To Freedom, intermarriage between people of net primary productivity, different cultures and races has created more families of mixed races and cultures in the United States and other countries. Describe this situation and analyze how adoption and marriage across racial lines affect individuals in The Right To Property: To Freedom those families and the cohesion of the family as a whole. 12. Changing gender roles: The feminist movement fought to secure equal rights for women. How have the roles of men and women changed over the last 40 years? How have they stayed the same? Analyze the change in gender roles and whether it has been good or bad for relationships and families. How are these changes seen in cultural images? 13.

Ethnic music: Many mainstream musicians are using ethnic influences from Africa, Latin America and elsewhere in their work. Describe the use of ethnic music in one or more artists that you know. Analyze how ethnic or folk music has been used by that artist. 14. Latino influences : As the United States Latino population has grown, Latino culture has become more mainstream. Describe some of the cultural examples of that Latino influence and analyze how it is changing American culture. 15. Productivity Formula? Single parent families: The rise in divorce has created many more families headed, at least for a while, by To Property: An Essential To Freedom Essays, a single parent. Describe the differences between single parent and dual parent families.

Analyze the effects of single parenting on children, on the experience of the parent or on schools and communities. 1. Explain the changes in a character over the course of a novel . Analyze the causes and significance of those changes (example: Pip or Estella in net primary formula Great Expectations ). 2. Examine a setting in a novel . Explain it in detail. Analyze the significance of To Property: An Essential To Freedom Essays, that setting, for instance how that setting either foreshadows what is to is homeschool better public school come, explains a character in the novel, or provides contrast (example: the setting in Jane Eyre ). An Essential To Freedom Essays? 3. Explain the conventions of a particular genre such as the Gothic novel, the Realistic novel or the Romance. Analyze how a particular novel meets or subverts those genre expectations. 4. Find out about the background of an definition author.

Examine one of the To Property: To Freedom Essays, author's works and analyze how that author's life influenced what they wrote (example: Katherine Mansfield, Virginia Woolf, or Ernest Hemingway). Productivity? 5. Describe the way irony is used in a short story . Analyze how that irony creates meaning. Essays? How does using irony work to create meaning in a shorter work? (examples: Flannery O'Connor's short stories, or Mark Twain's). Capulet Symbol? 6. Describe the climax of a work of literature. Analyze how the author builds up to that climax (example: Death of Julius Caesar in Shakespeare's play, the trial in To Kill a Mockingbird ). 7. Describe the mood of a literary work . Analyze how the author creates that mood through word choices. 8. Describe a critical dialogue in a play or novel.

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12. Essay On A Rough Childhood In Jane Eyre By Charlotte Bronte? Describe the narrative voice in a work of literature. Analyze how using that narrative voice impacts the meaning of the The Right To Property:, work, or how it influences the reader to see events in a certain way. This is an especially interesting critical analysis to do when a work of literature uses more than one narrative voice (examples: The Help by Kathryn Stockett, Turn of the Screw by Henry James, or Bleak House by Charles Dickens). 13.

Examine the historical, cultural or literary context of a work of literature. Analyze how understanding that context can help the reader understand that work (examples: Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart , or Giovanni Boccaccio, Decameron ) 14. Look at the imagery in Childhood by Charlotte a poem or poems by a particular poet. Describe the An Essential To Freedom Essays, imagery and then analyze how it creates meaning, tone and mood (examples: Elizabeth Barrett Brown, Walt Whitman or Carlos Williams). 15. Examine and describe a poem which has a first person point of view . Definition? Analyze how telling the poem in the first person allows the poet to create meaning (examples: Robert Browning's Fra Lippo Lippi or My Last Duchess). 1. Pick a really terrible movie you have seen . Summarize it and analyze what makes this movie so bad. Is it so badly done that it actually becomes funny to watch? (examples: Trolls II , Plan 9 from Outer Space ) 2. Examine a movie based on a book you've read. Analyze how well the book has been adapted into a movie.

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Do such movies help people who are struggling in high school? Do they exploit stereotypes or help to undermine them? (examples: Napoleon Dynamite, 21 Jump street, Mean Girls, Easy A, Project X ) 6. Pick a cake Show. Sarcasm Definition And Examples? Analyze why these shows are interesting to viewers and how these shows have spawned a new interest in cooking, decorating cakes and The Right To Property: Essays, other forms of food preparation inside the home. Are these shows really long advertisements for products and services? (examples: Cake Boss, Cupcake Wars, and Stranger Essay, Amazing Wedding Cakes ). 7. Look at a vintage high school movie. Analyze whether the struggles depicted in this movie mirror the one's teens experience today. How are schools, teens, parents, teachers and problems the same or different? (examples: The Breakfast Club, Dead Poet's Society, To Sir With Love, Rebel Without a Cause, Fast Times at Ridgemont High ). 8. Examine a remake of a classic movie. Analyze whether the remake is as good as the original. What has changed?

Are some aspects better and others worse? Is the vision of the directors the same? (Example: Piranha 3-D, Evil Dead, Red Dawn, Clash of the Titans ). The Right An Essential To Freedom Essays? 9. Examine a Hitchcock horror film or another classic horror movie. Capulet Symbol? Analyze how the movie creates horror and suspense while following the strict Hollywood guidelines of the time (examples: The Birds, Psycho, Vertigo, Rear Window ) 10. Examine a movie based on The Right a comic book series. Analyze how well the movie interprets the comic book character (examples: The Avengers, Batman, Superman, Captain America, Green Lantern, Ironman ). 11. Examine a Wedding Dress Show.

Analyze why these shows are popular. Have they contributed to the sharp rise in and examples wedding costs? Is the The Right To Property: An Essential Essays, popularity related to the fact that so many marriages don't last? (examples: Say Yes to the Dress, My Big Redneck Wedding, My Fair Wedding ). 12. Examine two (or more) movies based on the same comic book character. Analyze the definition, change in the character over the series, or examine the way two different actors and directors interpreted the character, motivations and plot (examples: Spiderman, X-Man, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Justice League, Superman ). 13. Look at An Essential a romantic comedy. Analyze how this genre draws the audience into the story. What makes a romantic comedy effective? (examples : When Harry Met Sally, Pretty Woman, Clueless, Picture Perfect, Like Crazy ). 14.

Choose your favorite horror movie to examine. What makes this such a good horror film? Analyze what elements this movie has that creates the experience of horror in the audience (examples: The Exorcist, Sleepy Hollow, The Silence of the Lambs, The Shining, Halloween ). 15. What makes a good summer movie? Examine one of your favorite summer movies, a classic, or a hit from last summer. Essay Rough By Charlotte? Analyze what makes a movie good for a summer release?

What are the To Property: Essays, audience expectations. How well does this movie match what the audience has come to movies expect? (examples: Do the Right Thing, Caddyshack, Jaws, (500) Days of Summer ). 16. Pick a dumb comedy. While these sorts of movies don't generally hold up as classic literature, they can make us laugh and be fun to watch with a group of friends. However, there is a fine line between funny dumb and To Property: An Essential Essays, stupid dumb.

Analyze how well your movie presents comedy that is funny for the audience. Sarcasm? What makes a movie like this work? (examples: Ted, Bad Santa, The Cable Guy, Borat: Cultural Learnings of America, The Hangover ). 17. Choose a movie that one The Best Picture award. Analyze what makes a movie the best of that year and one of the best of all time. Does your movie have features that most best pictures do? What makes it unique? If it was produced this year, would it win again? (examples: Wings (1927/29-the first Best picture award), Gone With The Wind (1939), Ben Hur (1959), The Sound of Music (1965), Kramer vs.

Kramer (1979), The King's Speech (2001). 18. Choose a reality T.V. series : Analyze why people like these shows. Why are they so popular and To Freedom Essays, what makes a reality T.V. show good or bad? Do these shows exploit the people who appear on them?

Where should we draw the line? (examples: Toddlers and Tiaras, Biggest Loser, Survivor ). 19. Choose a popular older T.V. sitcom. Research the sarcasm, current events happening at the time the show was produced. Analyze why the show was popular at that time. Did that shows humor last? Can audiences who watch it now still appreciate the humor? (examples: I Love Lucy, Cheers, M.A.S.H ). 20. The Right To Property: An Essential Essays? Examine a popular game show. Explain the movies definition, history of the show.

Analyze how the show works to make the game interesting not only for the contestants but also for the viewing audience. Was the key ingredient the set-up of the game show, the The Right To Freedom Essays, contestants, the host, the audience, viewer participation or some other factor? (examples: Let's Make Deal, Minute to Win it, Jeopardy ). Is Homeschool Better Public School? How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16. 8 Differences Between the Wizard of Oz Movie and The Right An Essential, Book. Is Homeschool Better? Differences Between British and American English. by Paul Richard Kuehn 126. Differences Between a Short Story, Novelette, Novella, a Novel. by Syed Hunbbel Meer 47. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. The Right To Property: To Freedom? How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. On A Rough In Jane Bronte? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from To Property: Essays, United States. Thanks teaches--I get a lot of my ideas from my discussions with my college students in capulet symbol class and my high school kids at home!

Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is a great list for students when selecting an essay topic and critical analysis. To Property: An Essential? Your suggestions are all ones that people find interesting and are popular finds. I will be using this as a reference in classes. Thanks! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Ms Dora--I so appreciate that from someone who is such a gifted communicator and capulet symbol, teacher! Dora Isaac Weithers 3 years ago from The Caribbean.

Very interesting and informative for those still in the classroom. Good topic ideas from a good teacher. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. To Property: An Essential Essays? Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on sci fi affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and The Right To Property: To Freedom Essays, others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and and examples, respective owners.

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essay on thalamus 6.1 Amygdala - General Considerations. Amygdala is the integrative center for To Property: To Freedom emotions, emotional behavior, and better public, motivation. If the brain is turned upside down the The Right An Essential To Freedom end of the structure continuous with the hippocampus is called the Stranger Essay uncus. If you peel away uncus you will expose the amygdala which abuts the anterior of the hippocampus. Just like with the To Property: hippocampus, major pathways communicate bidirectionally and contain both efferent and afferent fibers. Relationship of the amygdala to some other brain structures. 6.2 Inputs to the Amygdala. Inputs or afferents to net primary, the amygdala via the stria terminalis, ventral amygdalofugal pathway, olfactory stria, and The Right Essays, directly from temporal lobe structures. As was the case with the hippocampus, fibers carrying inputs to the amygdala are in virtually all cases combined with fibers carrying outputs from the amygdala.

The amygdala receives inputs from Rough Childhood Eyre by Charlotte Bronte all senses as well as visceral inputs. Since the amygdala is very important in emotional learning it is not surprising that visceral inputs are a major input source. Visceral inputs come from the hypothalamus, septal area, orbital cortex, and parabrachial nucleus. Olfactory sensory information comes from the olfactory bulb. Auditory, visual and somatosensory information comes from the temporal and anterior cingulate cortices. Outputs or efferents from the amygdala via the stria terminalis, ventral amygdalofugal pathway, and direct pathways. 6.3 Major Output Pathways of the Amygdala. Ventral amygdalofugal pathway.

Directly to To Property: Essays, the hippocampus. Directly to the entorhinal cortex Directly to the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus. 6.4 Ventral Amygdalofugal Pathway. Ventral Amygdalofugal Pathway. The term fugal comes from the word fuge—to drive away—as in Stranger Essay, fugitive. This pathway continues to the anterior olfactory nucleus, anterior perforated substance, piriform cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral striatum. The ventral striatum includes part of the caudate, putamen, and the nucleus accumbens septi (nucleus that reclines on the septum).

Projections from the ventral striatum are links in a basal ganglia circuit that are important in stimulus-response associative learning. The ventral amygdalofugal pathway also connects to the hypothalamus and septal nucleus, but the amygdala's major connection to the hypothalamus and septal nucleus is through the stria terminalis. The ventral amygdalofugal pathway is important because it is a link whereby motivation and To Property: Essays, drives, through the limbic system, can influence responses. It is also a link whereby responses are learned. In this case this is the link whereby associative learning takes place. Sci Fi. That is The Right Essays where responses are associated with appetitive and aversive consequences that is rewards and punishers. The stria terminalis is similar in form, function, and location as the definition fornix for Essays the hippocampal pathway.

Thus by way of analogy one can say that the stria terminalis is to than, the amygdala as the fornix is to the hippocampus. Stria is a Latin word that means line, groove, or band. Related to the word striated. The stria terminalis connects only to subcortical structures. (Connection to An Essential To Freedom Essays, cortical structures is through the ventral amygdalofugal pathway.) The stria terminalis overlaps with the ventral amygdalofugal pathway in that it also connects to the septal nuclei and hypothalamus and thus forms a loop. More on similarities to the fornix:

Like the fornix, the productivity stria terminalis has precommissural and postcommissural branches in The Right, relation to the anterior commissure. The precommissural branch goes to the septal area. This is exactly what the fornix does. Movies. The postcommissural branch goes to the hypothalamus. An Essential To Freedom Essays. This is exactly what the fornix does. Whereas the postcommissural branch of the fornix projects to mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus, the postcommissural branch of the stria terminalis projects to the lateral nucleus and ventral-medial nucleus of the hypothalamus. As with the fornix, some fibers enter anterior commissure cross to the contralateral side. Just as in sarcasm definition and examples, the case of the two hippocampi communicating with each other through the anterior commissure, the two amygdala communicate with each other through the anterior commissure.

The stria terminalis also projects to the habenula, which is part of the The Right To Property: Essays epithalamus. The central nucleus of the amygdala produces autonomic components of emotion (e.g., changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration) primarily through output pathways to the lateral hypothalamus and brain stem. The central nucleus of the amygdala also produces conscious perception of emotion primarily through the ventral amygdalofugal output pathway to the anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and Rough in Jane Eyre by Charlotte, prefrontal cortex. 6.5 More on An Essential Essays, Function of the Amygdala. Irritative lesions of temporal lobe epilepsy have the effect of than public stimulating the amygdala. In its extreme form irritative lesions of temporal lobe epilepsy can cause a panic attack. Panic attacks are brief spontaneously recurrent episodes of terror that generate a sense of impending disaster without a clearly identifiable cause. PET scans have shown an increase in blood flow to the parahippocampal gyri, beginning with the right parahippocampal gyrus.

Similar but attenuated blood flow increases occurs during anxiety attacks. Destructive lesions such as ablation of the amygdala cause an effect opposite to the irritative lesions of temporal lobe epilepsy. Destructive lesions of the amygdala cause tameness in animals, and a placid calmness in humans characterized as a flatness of affect. Lesions of the amygdala can occur as a result of Urbach-Wiethe disease where calcium is deposited in the amygdala. If this disease occurs early in life then these patients with bilateral amygdala lesions cannot discriminate emotion in facial expressions, but their ability to identify faces remains. The anatomical area for face recognition and memory is in the multimodal association area of the inferotemporal cortex. To Property: An Essential. This is sci fi definition a good example of how emotion in one area (amygdala) is linked with perception in another area (inferotemporal cortex) to create an intense emotionally charged memory. fMRI results showing amygdala activity in normals viewing facial expressions from happy to fearful.

Flatness of affect is one of the symptoms of the The Right To Property: To Freedom Essays previously mentioned Kluver-Bucy syndrome where the entire temporal lobes of monkeys were removed. Actually,just lesions of the amygdala were shown to be primarily responsible for flatness of affect. Net Primary Formula. This work eventually led to the psychosurgical technique of The Right To Freedom Essays prefrontal lobotomies. Remember the movie with Jack Nicholson, “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.” The prefrontal cortex inputs into the amygdala. By severing this input a flatness of affect is produced which was thought to be desirable in schizophrenic patients who were aggressively violent or emotionally agitated. The amygdala combines many different sensory inputs. Like the hippocampus it combines external and internal stimuli. Every sensory modality has input. These are integrated with somatosensory and sci fi, visceral inputs—this is To Property: An Essential where you get your “gut reaction”. Essay On A Childhood By Charlotte. The link between prefrontal cortex, septal area, hypothalamus, and amygdala likely gives us our gut feelings, those subjective feelings, about To Property: To Freedom, what is good and what is bad. It is also where memory and emotions are combined.

When the reward is particularly sweet, that behavior and association may last a lifetime. Likewise, the trauma and humiliation of capulet symbol punishment may be remembered for a long time too. 6.6 Fear Conditioning: An Example of the Role of the Amygdala in Learning. Another example of emotion being linked to some perceptual experience is fear conditioning. The Right To Property: To Freedom. In this example the sensory experience is auditory rather than visual as in the emotion of net primary faces. Much of what we know about the amygdala and its role in The Right To Property: An Essential, emotional learning and sarcasm, memory comes from An Essential To Freedom Essays fear conditioning, mostly but not exclusively conducted with animals. This is an example of classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning. In the classic experiments conducted by sarcasm definition and examples Pavlov just after the turn of the century, a neutral stimulus—a bell—was sounded and after a brief interval food powder—the unconditioned stimulus—was placed in the dog’s mouth. After a few such pairings the dog would salivate to the sound of the bell.

The crucial aspect of classical conditioning is that it is a pairing between two stimuli. No response is required to The Right To Property: An Essential, get the reward. In fear conditioning, an organism hears a noise or sees a visual stimulus. A few seconds, later it receives a mild shock. The reactions involve freezing, elevated blood pressure and Childhood by Charlotte, heart rate, and it gets twitchy—startles easily. Animals showing fear conditioning . Figure 6.6 (top) and 6.7 (bottom) Pathways of fear conditioning and emotional information. Pathways from the thalamus to the amygdala are particularly important in emotional learning. To Property: To Freedom. Output pathways from the capulet symbol central nucleus of the amygdala make extensive connections with the brain stem for emotional responses and extensive connections with cortical areas through the nucleus basalis. Cholinergic projections from the nucleus basalis to the cortex are thought to arouse the cortex. The following diagram provides additional information on The Right Essays, outputs controlled by Stranger Essay the amygdala during fear conditioning.

Expression of To Property: An Essential To Freedom different emotional responses by the amygdala. Some pathways of fear conditioning have been discovered and this is a hot research topic in neuroscience. If the Stranger Essay auditory cortex pathway is lesioned, for example, basic fear conditioning is unaltered, but discrimination is The Right To Property: altered. In the discrimination procedure one sound is paired with shock and another sound is not paired with shock. The animals had to rely solely on the thalamus and amygdala for learning and they could not learn the discrimination; apparently the sarcasm two stimuli were indistinguishable. So, the To Property: An Essential cortex is than public not needed for simple fear conditioning; instead it allows us to To Property: An Essential To Freedom, recognize an on A, object by sight or sound— to interpret the environment. Thus, pathways from the sensory thalamus provide only The Right To Property: An Essential, a crude perception of the world, but because they involve only one neural link they are fast pathways. Why might FAST be important? We need a quick reaction to potential danger.

The thalamus—amygdala pathway provides us with this and may also prepare the Stranger Essay amygdala to receive more highly processed information from the cortex. On the other hand, pathways from the cortex offer detailed and accurate representations of the environment. The Right. Because these pathways have multiple neural links they are slow by comparison. If for example we see a slender curled shape behind a tree its much better to jump back and later recognize its a garden hose than to fail to quickly jump back if it were a snake. There is plenty of Childhood by Charlotte Bronte time later to The Right To Property: To Freedom Essays, reflect that it was foolish to be startled in our own secure garden where there are no snakes. Cortical vs. subcortical pathways of capulet symbol fear conditioning. Fear producing visual stimuli is quickly processed by the thalamus and this information is passed to the amygdala (red) producing a quick response (green) to The Right, danger. The thalamus also passes the information to the cortex so that more careful (and slower) judgments can be made about the real potential danger.

The amygdala is involved in pleasureful emotional learning as well as fearful emotional learning. Consider instrumental learning. Unlike classical conditioning where two stimuli are paired, in instrumental conditioning responses are followed by reward and stimulus-response associations are learned. There are thus three events: a stimulus, a response, and a reward. It has become clear that all three pairwise combinations are learned in instrumental conditioning.

Where the net primary formula amygdala comes in is that lesions of the basolateral nuclei of the To Property: An Essential Essays amygdala disrupt the association the stimulus and rewarding attributes of the food. This amygdala memory system serves as an example of memory systems generally. The establishment of memories is a function of the entire network, not any single component. Stranger Essay. The amygdala is involved in a kind of primitive emotional memory, one that is likely preserved by evolution. According to the diagram of memory systems (e.g., Nolte, p.577), declarative memory is mediated by the hippocampus and the cortex. But like the cortex, lesions of the hippocampus have little effect on fear conditioning except in The Right To Freedom Essays, discriminating environmental stimuli. A study of sarcasm definition patients with damage to the amygdala, hippocampus, or both clearly demonstrates the distinctive roles of these two structures in memory. These patients were shown slides of green, blue, yellow, or red colors.

After some colors, a loud and frightening horn blast was sounded. Autonomic responses were recorded (via GSR recordings) to determine learning. Amygdala patients did not become conditioned to colors followed by the loud horn. But when asked how many colors were presented and which were followed by the horn, their recall was correct. That is, they had explicit memory about the events. To Freedom. On the other hand, hippocampal patients showed learning and conditioning to the colors followed by Stranger Essay the horn, but could not recall which they were. That is, they had implicit memory about the events. Patients with both types of The Right lesions showed no conditioning and Essay on A Rough Childhood by Charlotte, had no explicit memory about which colors were followed by the horn. The chapter on Learning and Memory will explain more about To Property: Essays, explicit memory and the hippocampus. Donations to Neuroscience Online will help fund development of new features and content. All Rights Reserved.

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