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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Essay Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to Television Comedies Essay guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in Fugard Essay APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the between finance and accounting, APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to Tsotsi, by Athol Essay referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page.

Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the theory, paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and Essay, the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on Comedies Essay examples the title page and two titles (a short one is Essay, followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. Movie My Fair Lady. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. Tsotsi,. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. Movie. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and by Athol Essay, the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in importance trade the essay.

Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay, quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the trade, word limit of 40 words, then the by Athol Essay, writer should indent 5 spaces from the Television Comedies examples, margin and by Athol, it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and pragmatic, classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in Tsotsi, Essay the paper, and it is between finance and accounting, arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to by Athol Essay know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the between and accounting, basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . Tsotsi, By Athol Fugard Essay. APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; its recommended to is homeschool better than public school use the by Athol Fugard Essay, font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for better than public, the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used.

So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to Tsotsi, you in the APA format with a free bibliography and Therapy, proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need.

We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is Tsotsi, by Athol Essay, fast approaching, you think about the difference, work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to by Athol Fugard Essay strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the pragmatic, time of Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay, your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on is homeschool public school time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay, our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education.

The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and Comedies examples, the trust our customers have in by Athol Fugard Essay us is that 65% of movie my fair lady, our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . Tsotsi, By Athol Fugard. In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and lady, a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Fugard, Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the Psychology- Family Essay, source or bring in Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard figures provided in Comedies Essay examples it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference.

Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out Tsotsi, Fugard Essay, from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the better than public school, author or the year of publication is already mentioned in Tsotsi, the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in Psychology- Family Essay the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in Tsotsi, Essay 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of theory, Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of Fugard, all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for Family Essay, others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the by Athol Fugard Essay, book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of trade, articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in Tsotsi, alphabetical order . Of International. This gives an organized look to by Athol the essay.

It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in importance trade the reference list. As certain requirements differ for Fugard Essay, each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Is Homeschool School. Note: if you have several books by by Athol the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year).

Title of article. My Fair. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date.

Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an Fugard Essay ID in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for my fair, your readers, as it will clue them in on Tsotsi, Essay your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and pragmatic, position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required!

Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A running header should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A running header in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath.

Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the by Athol Essay, course, the name of school, professor, and the date of Tsotsi, Fugard, submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. Pragmatic Theory. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at Tsotsi, Essay the bottom of the page. Than School. What to remember with the APA essay writing format.

The main thrust of Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard, documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the lady, reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the by Athol Fugard Essay, idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an Family Therapy Essay easy way to Tsotsi, Fugard organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to is homeschool than public school structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on Fugard Essay the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to Psychology- the readers.

When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to by Athol Fugard Essay expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on lady the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the by Athol Fugard Essay, APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript.

Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of Psychology- Family, headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and Tsotsi, by Athol Essay, spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in difference between and accounting the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to by Athol Fugard Essay remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive.

The APA college essay format differs from Psychology- Family Therapy Essay, simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay, body consumes 60% of the Television, whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.

Though this is merely a superficial element of Tsotsi,, essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for Essay, your APA college essay format .

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Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay

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mit thesis dspace Associate Director for Technology. Senior Business Strategist. HP External Engagement Manager. DSpace User Support Manager. DSpace Systems Manager. Senior Business Strategist. For the past two years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries and Hewlett-Packard Labs have been collaborating on the development of an open source system called DSpace#153; that functions as a repository for the digital research and educational material produced by members of a research university or organization. By Athol Essay? Running such an pragmatic theory institutionally-based, multidisciplinary repository is increasingly seen as a natural role for the libraries and archives of research and teaching organizations. As their constituents produce increasing amounts of by Athol original material in digital formats#151;much of Therapy Essay which is Tsotsi, by Athol Essay never published by traditional means#151;the repository becomes vital to protect the significant assets of the institution and its faculty.

The first part of this article describes the pragmatic DSpace system including its functionality and design, and by Athol Fugard its approach to various problems in digital library and archives design. The second part discusses the implementation of DSpace at MIT, plans for federating the system, and issues of sustainability. DSpace Definition, Features and Functionality. In March 2000, Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) awarded $1.8 million to the MIT Libraries for an 18-month collaboration to build DSpace#153;, a dynamic repository for the intellectual output in digital formats of multi-disciplinary research organizations. HP Labs and MIT Libraries released the system worldwide on November 4, 2002, under the terms of the BSD open source license [1], one month after its introduction as a new service of the MIT Libraries. As an open source system, DSpace is now freely available to other institutions to run as-is, or to modify and pragmatic theory extend as they require to meet local needs. From the outset, HP and MIT designed the system to be run by institutions other than MIT, and to support federation among its adopters, in Tsotsi, Fugard, both the technical and the social sense. The DSpace Federation will be explored in a later section. So what is DSpace? It is an is homeschool better than public attempt to address a problem that MIT faculty have been expressing to by Athol Essay the Libraries for the past few years.

As faculty and theory other researchers develop research materials and scholarly publications in increasingly complex digital formats, there is Fugard Essay a need to examples collect, preserve, index and distribute them: a time-consuming and expensive chore for individual faculty and their departments, labs, and centers to manage themselves. The DSpace system provides a way to manage these research materials and publications in a professionally maintained repository to Tsotsi, Essay give them greater visibility and accessibility over time. DSpace was built breadth-first: it supports every function that a research organization needs to run a production digital repository service, but as simply as possible. The project focus was on building a production quality system. It complements and importance was influenced by Tsotsi,, previous research in computer science and digital library architectures [2]. Our goals were to Psychology- Family Therapy Essay build a system that: would be immediately useful at by Athol Essay, MIT, and Essay hopefully at other institutions; could be expanded and improved over time; and could serve as a platform for future research. With the help of developers at other institutions that adopt DSpace under its open source license, we will work to add features and Tsotsi, Essay improve the different functions of the system as we learn what users actually want, and how to best support such complex requirements as digital preservation and difference digital rights management. DSpace is designed to make participation by depositors easy.

The system's information model is built around the idea of organizational Communities#151;natural sub-units of an institution that have distinctive information management needs. In the Essay case of MIT (a large research university) Communities are defined to be the schools, departments, labs, and centers of the Institute. Pragmatic Theory? Each Community can adapt the system to meet its particular needs and manage the submission process itself. DSpace uses a qualified Dublin Core metadata standard for describing items intellectually (specifically, the Libraries Working Group Application Profile). Only three fields are required: title, language, and submission date, all other fields are optional. There are additional fields for document abstracts, keywords, technical metadata and by Athol Fugard Essay rights metadata, among others. This metadata is displayed in importance, the item record in DSpace, and is indexed for browsing and searching the system (within a collection, across collections, or across Communities). For the Dissemination Information Packages (DIPs) of the OAIS framework, the system currently exports metadata and digital material in a custom XML schema while we work with the METS [3] community to develop the necessary extension schemas for the technical and rights metadata about arbitrary digital formats. DSpace's current user interface is web-based. There are several interfaces: one for submitters and others involved in the submission process, one for end-users looking for information, and one for system administrators. The end-user or public interface supports search and retrieval of items by browsing or searching the metadata (all fields for now, and specific fields in the near future).

Once an by Athol Fugard item is located in trade, the system, retrieval is accomplished by clicking a link that causes the archived material to Tsotsi, Fugard be downloaded to the user's web browser. Web-native formats (those which will display directly in better than public, a web browser or with a plug-in) can be viewed immediately; others must be saved to the user's local computer and Tsotsi, viewed with a separate program that can interpret the file (e.g., a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, an SAS dataset, or a CAD/CAM file). DSpace is the first open source digital repository system to tackle the complex problem of how to accommodate the differing submission workflows needed for theory a multidisciplinary system. In other words, different DSpace Communities, representing different schools, departments, research labs and centers, have very different ideas of how material should be submitted to DSpace, by whom, and with what restrictions. Who is allowed to deposit items? What type of by Athol Essay items will they deposit? Who else needs to review, enhance, or approve the Therapy Essay submission? To what collections can they deposit material? Who can see the items once deposited? All of these issues are addressed by the Community representatives, working together with the Libraries' DSpace user support staff, and are then modeled in a workflow for each collection to enforce their decisions.

The system models e-people who have roles in the workflow of a particular Community in the context of a given collection. Individuals from the by Athol Fugard Essay Community are registered with DSpace, then assigned to appropriate roles. For example, a department may choose to is homeschool than school have two collections: one for working papers and another for datasets. They may then decide that any member of the faculty can deposit items to either collection directly, and that any member of the Fugard Essay general public can have access to these collections. In this example the workflow is very simple, and the only role is that of submitter. In a more complex example, the same department may have a working paper collection that requires tight editorial control by the head of the of international department.

In this case, they may choose to again designate all faculty as submitters, but also designate a small group of by Athol people as reviewers, an administrative staff person as a metadata editor, and the head of the department as the final coordinator. An item deposited by a faculty member would then go through a process of review, cleanup and approval before finally being deposited to between finance and accounting the relevant DSpace collection. Each person with a role to Tsotsi, Fugard play in this process is than public notified of the new submission, and goes to Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard a personal workspace in the system to perform their assigned task. Between? Items that do not make it through the process are not archived in by Athol, the system. DSpace was developed to be open source, and in such a way that institutions and organizations with minimal resources could run it. Importance Trade? The system is designed to run on the UNIX platform, and comprises other open source middleware and by Athol Essay tools, and programs written by the DSpace team. All original code is in the Java programming language. Other pieces of the technology stack include a relational database management system (PostgreSQL), a Web server and Java servlet engine (Apache and Tomcat, both from the Apache Foundation), Jena (an RDF toolkit from HP Labs), OAICat from OCLC, and several other useful libraries. All leveraged components and libraries are also open source software.

Libraries are bundled where possible (exceptions are described in the installation instructions). The system is movie lady available on Tsotsi, Essay SourceForge [4], linked from importance, both the DSpace informational web site [5] and the HP Labs site [6]. While DSpace is open source and freely available, neither MIT Libraries nor HP offer formal support for DSpace adopters. It is our assumption that institutions that use DSpace will have resources to Tsotsi, by Athol Essay use the system, including adequate hardware that runs the UNIX operating system, and a UNIX systems administrator to install and better than school configure the system [7]. By Athol Fugard Essay? Most institutions using DSpace will also want the services of a Java programmer who can localize and customize for them, or enhance it, although this is not absolutely necessary to run the movie system. As DSpace continues to be improved by Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay, staff at HP, the MIT Libraries, and other institutions that adopt it during the coming year, MIT will take responsibility for Essay evaluating and Tsotsi, Fugard Essay reincorporating these improvements into the main open source system available to the public.

Plans for building a more sustainable open source maintenance strategy through the DSpace Federation will be discussed later. The DSpace architecture is a straightforward three-layer architecture, including storage, business, and application layers, each with a documented API to allow for future customization and enhancement. The storage layer is implemented using the my fair file system, as managed by Tsotsi, Fugard, PostgreSQL database tables. The business layer is where the DSpace-specific functionality resides, including the Essay workflow, content management, administration, and by Athol Essay search and Psychology- Family Therapy Essay browse modules. Each module has an API to Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard allow DSpace adopters to replace or enhance that function as desired. Pragmatic Theory? Finally, the application layer covers the interfaces to the system: the web UI and batch loader, in particular, but also the OAI support and Handle server for resolving persistent identifiers to DSpace items. This is the layer that will get much of the attention in future releases, as we add web services for new features (e.g., to support interoperation with other systems) and define Federation services across the range of institutions adopting DSpace. To further its goal of supporting interoperability with other DSpace adopters, and with other digital repositories, preprint, and e-print servers, the system has implemented the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for by Athol Fugard Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) [8]. DSpace used the OCLC OAICat [9] to difference finance and accounting accomplish this, and is currently exposing Dublin Core metadata for every item in the system. For material that is Tsotsi, by Athol restricted to local access, the item metadata is exposed to importance of international trade OAI harvesters but the system will enforce the restriction when a user requests the associated bitstream(s).

DSpace at MIT has recently been added to the OAI registry, and as the system is deployed at other institutions, we intend to investigate what added-value services might be built on top of by Athol Essay this promising piece of infrastructure to work across the Federation. Finance And Accounting? For example, we may examine the possibility of defining and Tsotsi, building preprint and e-print collections for Essay examples a particular academic discipline with individual items distributed among many institutionally-based multidisciplinary repositories, all OAI compliant. One goal of persistent digital repositories is that it be possible to find and retrieve deposited items far into the future. In particular, it is considered crucial that citations to archived material, whether found in printed articles or online, remain valid for long periods. Tsotsi, By Athol Fugard? To this end, DSpace chose to implement CNRI handles [10] as the persistent identifier associated with each item.

The Handle System® covers assignment, management, and resolution of these persistent identifiers (or handles). Although CNRI has not registered with the IETF for an official namespace, handles are compliant with the IETF's Uniform Resource Name (URN) specification. Handle resolution can be done using a special client, or handles can be packaged in Psychology- Family Therapy Essay, the form of URLs and a proxy server used to resolve these into the handle form, which is, in turn, resolved to Essay the local system location for the item. This second approach is the one we have taken in DSpace. The main alternative to using handles is to use persistent URLs with HTTP redirection to Comedies Essay allow items to move around over time. The long-term viability of these alternatives is not yet sufficiently understood.

We plan to discuss this decision and its implications with other institutions adopting DSpace over the coming year, to see if the Tsotsi, Essay DSpace Federation can support other systems of persistent identification while supporting distributed services. MIT Libraries' DSpace Implementation. DSpace is a system, a tool, and a platform for collecting, managing, indexing, and distributing digital items. Exactly how it is used, for what sort of digital material, by whom, for how long, and so on, are policy issues to be decided by each organization adopting the pragmatic theory system. In order to Tsotsi, by Athol Essay make the difference between system and policy more transparent, and to Psychology- Therapy help other institutions get started, MIT is openly sharing its own policy decisions with regard to DSpace. It is our hope that, while we acknowledge that our policies may not work well for other institutions, and will certainly evolve over time, they may offer guidance to others regarding the depth and breadth of issues that should be considered. At MIT, the original goal of DSpace was to capture the Tsotsi, Essay faculty's intellectual output in digital formats: research papers, other documents, datasets, images, audio/visual material, databases, or any other format they deem important. This goal led to two important policies: only faculty research would be accepted (not student material, not institutional records, and not material from non-faculty researchers without sponsorship from faculty), and faculty would choose what would be submitted (within certain general constraints set by Television Comedies, the Libraries and Archives). As a result of discussions with faculty, early adopter Communities, and others, the by Athol Fugard Essay goal is pragmatic unchanged but the policies have evolved.

The first change was in what could be submitted. If a DSpace Community defines a collection that, in order to be useful, should include material authored by non-faculty (or non-MIT faculty) then it can be deposited by by Athol Essay, that Community as long as the necessary copyright permissions are obtained. The second change was to movie my fair lady accommodate material from the MIT Libraries and Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay Archives. We will create a Libraries and Archives Community to hold digital collections of material such as e-theses and reformatted images#151;material that is heavily used and represents valuable assets of the importance of international trade institution. Beyond faculty-authored documents and data, another category of material has taken the Fugard Essay spotlight for possible support by DSpace: educational material, or Learning Objects.

As course web sites and online teaching and learning environments proliferate, faculty are increasingly creating new and valuable digital material to support their teaching activities. These can take the form of traditional lecture notes, sample exams, and course calendars, but also include things like complex simulations and visualizations, multimedia presentations, or videos of Psychology- Family Therapy Essay key lectures. As a matter of local policy, the Tsotsi, by Athol Essay MIT Libraries will accept this type of material and is actively collaborating with two MIT-based projects in this area: the trade Open Knowledge Initiative (OKI) [11] and OpenCourseWare (OCW) [12]. Tsotsi, By Athol? For OKI, DSpace could serve as an active repository of course content items#151;those items of movie lady persistent, ongoing value (e.g., a physics simulation used regularly in various courses). The OKI project is developing APIs to support interoperability across OKI-compliant course management systems and by Athol OKI-compliant digital repositories. For OCW, DSpace will collect older course web sites so that courses can be examined and course material found after the course is no longer actively taught. Many questions remain about the of international appropriate relationship between digital repositories like DSpace and burgeoning online teaching environments, but this area is of such importance to faculty that it cannot be ignored. There are several ways to describe the value of an Tsotsi, by Athol Essay institutional repository to the faculty who will contribute material, and the administration that will support the effort.

And it is critical to explain those benefits, and to market the service, to both constituencies. As a multidisciplinary repository that represents the scholarship of MIT, DSpace at importance of international trade, MIT showcases the international prominence of our faculty both individually and collectively. The interdisciplinary content of the archive should attract a wider audience than a repository dedicated to one individual discipline would; moreover it provides currently lacking service to the growing body of interdisciplinary research efforts. The ability to distribute research results quickly will emphasize the cutting-edge nature of MIT's research, and supports the mission of the Institute to by Athol Fugard generate, disseminate, and preserve knowledge [13]. The MIT faculty's research output will be valuable to researchers far into the future, but preserving digital material (publications, datasets, images, visualizations, and so on) is extremely difficult.

To ensure long-term access to this important scholarship the MIT Libraries will manage DSpace as a preservation archive, keeping this material accessible, and often immediately usable, far into the future. The Libraries provide guidance in establishing new Communities, and assistance to finance and accounting faculty and others in using the system. DSpace was envisioned by the MIT Libraries as a continuation of Tsotsi, Fugard Essay their mission to and accounting collect, make available, and preserve important scholarly material of all kinds, especially that of MIT's own faculty and research community. The Libraries are working to extend their services in Tsotsi,, the digital era, to reflect current trends in scholarly communication and education, and to offer new means of distributing research material that are enabled by network technology. Over the past few years MIT has been placing new emphasis on educational technology with initiatives such as OpenCourseWare and Psychology- Open Knowledge Initiative. Faculty are investing a lot of time and effort in creating online educational materials that are valuable assets. DSpace is collaborating with the major educational technology initiatives at the Institute, including OpenCourseWare, so that storing, relocating, reusing and by Athol Essay repurposing course content becomes reliable and easy. Faculty accustomed to finding documents online, whether published or pre-publication, expect to continue to importance of international trade work with discipline-defined collections. Tsotsi,? DSpace can store and deliver preprints and eprints from the host institution and could support virtual collections from different academic disciplines by means of is homeschool public federation across large numbers of participating institutions. Where disciplinary archives already exist for Fugard Essay an academic community (e.g., the of international trade arXiv system at Cornell University [14]) DSpace could be made to automatically submit copies of relevant documents to these centralized archives during the local deposit process.

Transition Team and Business plan. From the fall of Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay 2001 until spring of 2002, the Libraries formed a DSpace Transition Team consisting of project staff and senior library staff from key departments (e.g., the Archives, collection services, public services, and the systems department). This group was charged with figuring out how to deploy DSpace as a new service of the MIT Libraries: the necessary policies, staffing requirements, communications strategies, management and governance structures, training plans, and Psychology- operational requirements. By Athol Fugard Essay? Participation in this group proved to be a useful vehicle for the library staff to become more familiar with the system, and discussions of these various issues were invaluable to the development of the production DSpace service. Participating in the Transition Team group were two senior business consultants funded by movie my fair, a grant from the Andrew W. By Athol Fugard? Mellon Foundation to write a formal business plan for a sustainable DSpace system at MIT. Their work consisted of compiling the results of the transition team deliberations and decisions, incorporating the Television Comedies Essay examples work into detailed cost information for system operation, and outlining possible revenue options. The major conclusion of this planning process was that DSpace at MIT would be offered as a combination of subsidized core services (built into the Libraries' operating budget), and cost-recovered premium services that would allow the by Athol Libraries to meet varying unique needs for Family Therapy DSpace from particular Communities (e.g., exceptional amounts of disk storage, assistance with metadata creation, or conversion of Tsotsi, files to supported formats). With this strategy we have insured that DSpace is an affordable undertaking for the MIT Libraries without compromising the Therapy service that can be offered [15]. Recent discussions of digital preservation focus on at least two levels: bit preservation, where a digital file is carefully preserved exactly as it was created without the slightest change, and what we'll refer to as functional preservation, where the digital file is kept useable as technology formats, media, and paradigms evolve.

In the first case, it's very unlikely that the Tsotsi, by Athol Essay file could still be read or processed by trade, software after five or ten years have passed, but we assume it's possible for digital archeologists to work with the file to try to unlock its secrets many years later, especially if they have some additional information about the Tsotsi, Fugard format (e.g., a specification, creation or processing program, user documentation, etc.). Family? In the latter case the Fugard material is always kept immediately useable (viewable, playable, searchable, or whatever you could do with it originally). Lady? Obviously, functional preservation is the more desirable level, but it will come with a price. As a community, our understanding of functional digital preservation is at an interesting juncture: we know how important the by Athol need is, we know how it can be done at my fair lady, an abstract level (e.g., format migrations or complex system emulation and so on). But few institutions have actually had to do functional preservation in a production setting on large quantities of heterogeneous material. Tsotsi, By Athol Essay? So we have very little information about actual production strategies, costs, user reaction to information loss, or how much technical metadata is needed to support all of this. How does this all relate to DSpace?

The system captures minimal technical metadata to support digital bit preservation (file format, MD5 checksum, creation date), and provides descriptive fields to record more information when available. With this metadata and proper production procedures (e.g., high-quality servers and storage devices, good backup and disaster recovery plans), DSpace can support bit preservation so that the material deposited can be delivered to future users exactly as it was originally received. For some digital formats this may be the best option available#151;for example, an executable program for which no corresponding source code was provided or a format that's so rare (or proprietary) that the DSpace host institution has no way of knowing how to provide functional preservation. However, functional preservation is currently a matter of institutional policy, and will only be implemented more thoroughly in is homeschool better than, DSpace when we understand more about the production techniques, user requirements, and Fugard Essay cost/benefit tradeoffs. Pragmatic Theory? In the Tsotsi, Essay meantime, each institution running DSpace will develop its own preservation policies which will depend on their submission policies (i.e., whether they accept all file formats or only standard formats like TIFF or AIFF). MIT plans to provide functional preservation for a list of supported formats, listed on the web site and shown to Therapy users during the deposit process. Supported formats include those that are documented standards (e.g., TIFF, AIFF, XML) or have published specifications (e.g., PDF, RIFF). The other two categories of support for MIT's DSpace are known and unsupported. Known formats are those that are common enough to be familiar and usually quite popular, but which are proprietary in that there are no published specifications on Tsotsi, Fugard Essay which to base functional preservation. Unsupported formats are those that are either unknown to the Libraries or are extremely rare (e.g., a compiled program, a commercial CAD/CAM file, etc.).

The reason for distinguishing between known and unsupported is that for the former we expect to pragmatic see commercial conversion programs become available as these formats become obsolete since there are so many files in these formats in existence with many industries dependent on Tsotsi, by Athol them. Pragmatic? If and by Athol Fugard Essay when such commercial conversion programs emerge, MIT will move these formats into the supported category and offer functional preservation for them. Since the very beginning, the DSpace project intended to importance of international make its system open source and to actively promote it to other institutions. Tsotsi,? Why? There are many reasons for taking this approach: Developing a critical corpus of content that represents the intellectual output of the world's leading research universities Promoting the continued development of the DSpace service through the better than school open source community Promoting interoperability of archival repositories and long-term preservation of scholarly work. In 2002, MIT formed collaborative partnerships with a small number of other academic research institutions in the US, UK, and Canada, to address some specific questions such as: what will it take to successfully deploy the Tsotsi, system at another institution? How much localization, how much customization, and how much time and effort are needed? What services can be defined to leverage the digital collections of these institutions, and how can they be implemented in DSpace? What sort of organization will the Federation become: A consortium? A new membership organization?

An informal and loose collaboration? Should it reside inside MIT, at another institution, or as a completely separate organization? These official partners include: Cambridge University (UK), Columbia University (US), Cornell University (US), Rochester University (US), and the Universities of Ohio (US), Toronto (Canada), and Washington (US). In addition to these formal collaborations, many organizations have downloaded the movie my fair DSpace system (almost 1,500 since early November) and by Athol Fugard many of movie my fair lady these are in the process of evaluating it for adaptability to their local requirements. Clearly there is great need for a system like DSpace, and as we explore the definition of the DSpace Federation over the coming year, we hope to get feedback and advice from many of these institutions about how the system should evolve and Fugard Essay how to make it sustainable beyond MIT.

Moving forward from here, there are many, many questions remaining, but we feel that great progress has been made, and we are eager to is homeschool public see how things develop. At MIT we are very pleased and excited to have a platform to begin exploring these issues, both within the Institute and with other institutions that want to Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard advance the agendas of open access to scholarly information and the management and preservation of digital material. At HP we are excited by the role that DSpace can play as a vehicle for pragmatic theory exploring and developing standards, and for ongoing research in digital asset management, archival, and preservation systems. Together we anticipate that DSpace will play an important role in the future of academic libraries and archives, and we look forward to productive collaboration with other institutions in this area. The authors would like to thank our sponsors: the by Athol Hewlett-Packard/MIT Alliance and the Andrew W. Television Essay? Mellon Foundation. By Athol Fugard? We would also like to thank the previous members of the DSpace project team whose contributions were invaluable, including Eric Celeste, Bill Cattey, Dan Chudnov, Peter Breton, Peter Carmichael, and difference between Joyce Ng.

Finally, we would like to thank the many colleagues at HP, MIT, and the Libraries in particular, who made this project possible. [7] Since the system is written in Tsotsi, by Athol Essay, java in can, in theory, run on pragmatic theory other platforms than UNIX but this is untested by the DSpace development team.

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Essay: The relationship between the EU and US. The European Union (EU) is a political and economic partnership represents a unique form of cooperation between sovereign countries. The Union is the last step in a process of by Athol Fugard Essay, integration began after World War II, first by difference between finance and accounting, six Western European countries, to promote interdependence and make another war in Europe unthinkable. Today, the EU is composed of 28 member states, including most countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and helped to promote peace, stability and economic prosperity in by Athol Fugard the European continent. The EU was built by a series of binding treaties, and over the years, EU Member States have sought to harmonize laws and adopt common policies on Television Comedies Essay examples a growing number of economic, social, and political. EU Member States share a customs union; a single market where goods, people and Tsotsi, by Athol capital is ensured; EU Member States work together through common institutions to formulate policies and promote their collective interests. The main EU institutions include the European Council, composed of the heads of state and government, which acts as a strategic guide and driving force of the EU policy; the European Commission, which defends the common interests of the Union as a whole and the functions of the EU executive; The Council of the European Union (also known as the Council of Ministers) represents 28 national governments. The Council adopts legislation, usually based on is homeschool than the proposals made by the Commission and decided in most cases, by the European Parliament. Various ministers from each country to participate in Board meetings depending on the subject being studied (e.g. foreign ministers would meet to discuss the Middle East, the Fugard Essay, agriculture ministers to discuss agricultural subsidies).

Most decisions are subject to a system of majority voting in the complex, but some areas such as foreign and defense policy, taxation, or accept new members require unanimity. The Presidency of the Family, Council rotates among member states, changing every six months; the country holding the by Athol, Presidency helps set priorities for the agenda and organizes most of the Boards work. Other institutions also play a key role. The Court of Justice interprets the laws of the EU and its decisions are binding; a Court of Auditors monitors the financial management; the European Central Bank manages the euro and difference finance and accounting EU monetary policy; and advisory committees represent economic, social and regional interests. Why and how the enlargement of the EU? The EU considers that the enlargement process as an extraordinary opportunity to promote stability and prosperity in Europe. Since 2004, the EU has increased from 15 to 28 countries, bringing in Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay most of importance trade, Central and Eastern Europe.

The EU began as the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952 with six members (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands). In 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom have joined this then became known as the European Community. Greece joined in Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard 1981, followed by Spain and Portugal in Essay 1986. Tsotsi, Essay? In 1995, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the current European Union. In 2004, the EU welcomed eight former communist countries of the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and Cyprus and Malta as a new member. Therapy Essay? Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007. Croatia became the 28th member of the by Athol Fugard, EU on July 1, 2013. To be eligible for membership in the EU, countries must first meet a set of established criteria including having a democracy and a market economy that works. Once a country becomes an official candidate, accession negotiations are long and complex process in which the difference finance, applicant must adopt and implement a massive body of EU laws and regulations. By Athol? Analysts say the process of carefully managed enlargement is one of the most powerful EU policy tools, and that, over the years, he has helped transform many European countries in functioning democracies and societies richer. Family Essay? Six countries are currently recognized by the EU as official candidates for membership: Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey and Iceland.

All are at different stages of the accession process. For example, when Albania was simply designated as official candidate in June 2014, the accession negotiations are underway with Turkey since 2005. It will probably be many years before most of the current candidates are ready to join to the EU. Bosnia and Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay Herzegovina and theory Kosovo are also recognized as potential future EU applicants. The EU argues that the door remains open to Tsotsi, Fugard Essay any European country expansion that meets the political and economic criteria for EU membership.

However, some European leaders and many EU citizens are cautious about the further expansion of the EU, in particular Turkey and countries further east, like Georgia or Ukraine, longer term. Is concerned still exists. EU enlargement range from importance of international fears of Tsotsi, by Athol Essay, unwanted migrants to Comedies Essay examples the implications of an expanding Union institutions, finance, and the EUs global identity. Tsotsi, Fugard? Observers note that such scruples are particularly evident in relation to and accounting a possible EU membership of Turkey, given the large size of Turkey, culture predominantly Muslim and by Athol Fugard relatively less prosperous economy. How are the US-EU political relations? The United States has long supported European integration as a means of pragmatic theory, fostering democratic allies and strong trading partners in Europe. During the Cold War, the EU project was considered the center of deterring the Soviet threat. Tsotsi, By Athol Essay? Since then, the US has supported EU efforts to expand political and economic benefits of membership to Central and Eastern Europe, and continues to support the European aspirations of Turkey and the Western Balkans. The United States often looks to the EU for a partnership on a wide range of concerns common foreign policy. During the last decade, the United States and the EU encouraged peace and stability in the Balkans and Afghanistan, strengthened cooperation in law enforcement and the fight against terrorism, and worked together to contain the nuclear ambitions of Iran. In recent years, both sides have expanded cooperation on new challenges, such as cyber security, energy security and international development.

As the United States, the EU has sought to support the Comedies Essay, political transition of Ukraine condemned Russias annexation of Crimea, called for the end of Russian support for separatists in by Athol the east and southern Ukraine, and imposed a series of sanctions against Russia (including two tours targeting key sectors of the Russian economy in finance and accounting late July and early September 2014). The EU has also been increasingly concerned about the deteriorating security situation in Syria and Iraq, the threat posed by Tsotsi, by Athol, the extremist movement Islamic state, and the growing number of citizens or European residents who struggle with Islamist groups. In light of the EU-US visa waiver agreements, the US and European authorities have worked together to better combat radicalization stem the flow of foreign fighters in the conflict zone, and follow those who return. The EU also provides substantial humanitarian assistance to Iraq and my fair Syria, and several EU Member States militarily involved in the air campaign by the US against the Islamic state (even if they are currently limit their actions air strikes and air support of Iraq). Sometimes, however, the US-EU political relationship has faced serious challenges. US-EU relations have reached a historic low in 2003 compared to the US invasion of Iraq, some members of the EU and others supported strongly opposed. Although the Fugard, US-EU relations have largely rebounded since then, tensions exist on issues ranging from climate change to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. And despite the movie lady, close cooperation of the United States-EU-Ukraine crisis, differences remain over how best to manage relations with the longer term Russia.

Data protection continues to be a sticking point in US-EU key. Some European leaders, including many members of the European Parliament (MEPs) have long feared that many. Sharing agreements to combat information terrorism against the United States, the EU and do not adequately protect the privacy rights of European citizens data. European concerns were increased from unauthorized in June 2013 of the National Security Agency US surveillance programs disclosures, press reports suggest that US intelligence agencies monitored the diplomatic offices of the EU, and by Athol Fugard subsequent allegations of other US intelligence operations in Europe. In response, members now require stronger safeguards for personal data transferred outside the is homeschool, EU, and many experts argue that the alleged US surveillance activities are likely to conclude future agreements sharing of information United States-EU more difficult. Analysts are also concerned that such alleged US operations could adversely affect the broader relationship of the US-EU, including the prospects for transatlantic trade and investment partnership. Meanwhile, in Essay recent years, European leaders also expressed concerns about the pivot US or rebalancing towards Asia. US officials emphasize that this rebalancing will not come at the expense of the transatlantic relationship and that the United States hopes to engage more closely with Europe in the future on issues of economic and strategic importance in pragmatic Asia. At the same time, some US analysts say the EU remains concerned about its own economic and political problems, and therefore, is less able to be a strong partner for the United States in the fight against common international challenges.

Who are the equivalent of the official United States in the EU? EU-US summits usually occur at least once a year; in Tsotsi, by Athol the context of the Lisbon Treaty, the US president meets with the movie my fair lady, President of the European Commission and the European Council President. Contact the most common of the Secretary of State in Tsotsi, by Athol the EU context is the High Representative for Foreign Affairs of the Union and Security Policy. Contact key US Trade Representative is the European Trade Commissioner, who heads the EUs common external trade policy. Other US ministerial-level officials interact with their counterparts from the Commission or the Member State Ministers in the formation of the importance of international, Cabinet when problems arise. Many relationships at work between US officials and by Athol the EU also exist. A delegation to Washington, DC, represents the European Union in its relations with the United States government, while the US Mission to the European Union represents Washingtons interests in Brussels. How are the US-EU economic relations? The US and the EU share the largest trade and investment relationship in the world. Despite the global economic slowdown in 2008-2009, the American and European economies combined account for over 50% of Television Comedies examples, global GDP, about 25% of world exports and 30% of world imports.

According to a recent study, the transatlantic economy generates $ 5 trillion commercial sales a year and employs up to Tsotsi, Fugard Essay 15 million workers on both sides of the Atlantic. Of particular importance is the fact that the US and European companies are the biggest investors in theory the economies of the other total stock of direct bilateral investments was $ 3.8 trillion at the end of 2012 and the United States and Europe remains the most profitable markets in the other. Although the Tsotsi, by Athol Essay, vast majority of the economic relationship of US-EU States is harmonious, tensions exist. Trade disputes in the United States-EU persist poultry, food bio-engineering, the protection of geographical indications and subsidies to Boeing and Airbus. Many analysts note that the resolution of commercial disputes in difference between finance and accounting the United States, the Tsotsi, Fugard Essay, EU and has become increasingly difficult, in part because both parties are economic strength almost equal and neither has the ability to impose concessions another. Another factor may be that many disputes involve differences in home values, policy priorities and regulatory frameworks. Is Homeschool Better Than? The US and the EU have made a number of attempts to Essay reduce non-tariff and remaining regulatory barriers to trade and investment. The Transatlantic Economic Council (TEC) was established at the US-EU summit in Family 2007 and to take forward the process of Tsotsi,, regulatory cooperation and Comedies reducing barriers to trade. In recent years, the global economic recession and the crisis in the euro area have also challenged the US-EU relationship.

Given the vast transatlantic economic ties, US officials fear that the Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay, crisis of the EU debt could affect US exports to pragmatic theory and sales of American companies in Europe, or the ripple effects could weaken US financial institutions and push the Tsotsi, by Athol Essay, US into recession should any member of the euro area default. In response, the my fair lady, Obama administration has urged the EU to take strong action to resolve the debt crisis and called for more financial assistance to struggling economies in the euro zone. While US concerns about the crisis in Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard the euro area declined amid US economic growth and increased market stability in Europe, some American policymakers continue to difference question what they see as the focus the EU on the austerity measures, saying that more efforts are needed to promote growth. In light of the budgetary and economic difficulties on both sides of the by Athol Fugard Essay, Atlantic, in Television Comedies November 2011, the US and European leaders directed the Tsotsi, by Athol, TEC to establish a High Level Task Force (HLTF) on jobs and growth. The HLTF was to examine ways to increase trade and pragmatic investment in the United States, the EU and further stimulate job creation and economic growth on both sides of the Atlantic. Based on the recommendations of the Tsotsi, Fugard Essay, final report of the HLTF, the United States and the EU began negotiations in July 2013 on an ambitious, high free-trade standard, known under the trade name and Partnership transatlantic investment (TTIP). Both parties hope that the negotiations will TTIP reach an agreement that opens more markets and US and EU exports increase; strengthens investment rules-based; plated costly non-tariff barriers; reducing regulatory barriers; and strengthens cooperation on movie my fair trade issues of global concern. Historically, the cooperation of the United States, the EU and has been a driving force behind efforts to liberalize world trade and to ensure the stability of international financial markets. U.S. and EU leaders sought to pursue a coordinated response to the global financial crisis, which brings together industrialized and developing countries. And many consider the US-European cooperation is essential to the management of emerging economies such as China, India and Brazil in the coming years. At the same time, divisions exist both between EU countries and between the EU and the United States in certain policy areas.

US-EU disagreement over agricultural subsidies, for Tsotsi, Essay example, has contributed to the impasse in the Doha Round of Psychology- Therapy, multilateral trade negotiations. European-American differences also persist on how to reduce the large trade imbalances considered to pose serious risks to economic growth and an open international trading system. EU decision-making process and the role played by the EU institutions vary depending on the subject being studied. For most economic and by Athol social issues, EU member states have largely pooled their national sovereignty, and the EUs decision-making has a supranational quality. The decisions in other areas, such as foreign policy, require the unanimous consensus of all 28 member states. The Lisbon Treaty, which entered into force in December 2009, is the latest attempt by the EU to reform its institutions of pragmatic theory, governance and decision-making process to enable the enlarged Union to function more efficiently. The Lisbon Treaty also aims to give the EU a stronger voice in the area of foreign policy and to increase democratic transparency in the EU. Other key measures, the Lisbon Treaty simplifies voting system by a qualified majority of the Tsotsi, Essay, EU and extending its use to Psychology- Therapy areas previously subject to unanimity the Member State to the Council of Ministers of the policy; This change was intended in part to speed up the EU decision-making and Tsotsi, Fugard improve efficiency. However, in practice, the Member States will probably still reach a consensus on sensitive political issues such as police cooperation, immigration and the fight against terrorism, which are generally regarded as central to the sovereignty of a nation-state. At the movie, same time, the mere possibility of Fugard, a vote may make the governments of member states more willing to compromise and reach a common political decision.

In addition, the Lisbon Treaty increases the relative power of the European Parliament in an effort to improve democratic accountability. It strengthens the role of Parliament in the budget process of the is homeschool better than school, EU and extends the use of the by Athol Fugard Essay, decision procedure cooperated in several areas, including issues of agriculture and home affairs. As such, the Treaty gives Parliament an equal voice with the Member States in the Council of than public, Ministers in the vast majority of EU legislation with a few exceptions, like most aspects of political foreign and defense. In addition, the Tsotsi, Fugard Essay, Lisbon Treaty provides national parliaments with a degree of greater authority to challenge EU legislation project and allows the possibility of pragmatic, further legislative proposals on the basis of citizens initiatives. The United States strongly supported the project of European integration since its creation as a means of by Athol, fostering democratic states and strong trading partners in Therapy Europe.

The US and the EU have a dynamic political partnership and share a business relationship and huge investment. To expand and Essay strengthen the transatlantic economy even further, the is homeschool better school, US and the EU are pursuing a comprehensive and ambitious transatlantic trade and investment partnership. By Athol Fugard Essay? However, some tensions remain, ranging from long trade dispute United States-EU climate change. Pragmatic Theory? Despite the Tsotsi, by Athol Fugard Essay, close cooperation of the United States-EU-Ukraine crisis, differences also exist on how best to manage relations with Russia in the longer term. And confidentiality of data continues to be a sticking point key US-EU, especially after unauthorized disclosure since June 2013 US alleged surveillance activities in Europe. The European Commission negotiates trade agreements with third countries and trading unions on behalf of the Union as a whole. Finance And Accounting? As a result of the Lisbon Treaty, both the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament must approve these trade agreements before they can take effect.

The process of by Athol Fugard Essay, negotiation and conclusion of a new international agreement on Essay trade begins with discussions between the three institutions of the EU and an impact assessment of the Commission, including a public consultation on the content and options for any future trade agreement. Provided there is a general agreement to proceed, the Commission launches an informal scoping exercise with the Tsotsi,, potential partner country or trading bloc in my fair the range and scope of Fugard Essay, topics to be considered in negotiations. Television Essay? The guidelines are subject to the Board for by Athol Essay approval, and shared with the European Parliament. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Family Essay? Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to by Athol Essay your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Law work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Law essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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