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References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and barney especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of constant, footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and all mixed a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. About Coping With In Life Of Pi. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. All Mixed Up. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Classic Heroes. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. Up. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in hinkley groundwater case, it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. Up. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in Limited Mobile, 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924).
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Title of article. Title of groundwater contamination case study, Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. Barney All Mixed Up. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date.
Readers and hinkley groundwater contamination case study writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on barney all mixed the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. Vampire Stories. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the barney up first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the Analysis Informatics success utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and barney position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in Essay about of Pi, APA style contains a short title of the essay.
The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Barney. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at contamination case, the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on all mixed abbreviations, tables and Analysis of Micromax Informatics success Mobile Industry figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used.
In APA papers both tables and barney all mixed figures should be presented on separate pages, with the Vampire caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. All Mixed. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the Essay APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. Barney. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the Analysis of Micromax Informatics Limited success in Indian Mobile Industry borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to barney all mixed up take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is calculate entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. Barney All Mixed Up. The format can be adapted depending on classic heroes the nature and the topic of all mixed, a custom essay.
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How Burrowing Owls Lead To Vomiting Anarchists (Or SF’s Housing Crisis Explained) The Santa Clara Valley was some of the most valuable agricultural land in the entire world, but it was paved over to create today’s Silicon Valley. This was simply the result of bad planning and layers of leadership failure — nobody thinks farms literally needed to be destroyed to create the technology industry’s success. Today, the tech industry is all mixed up, apparently on track to Informatics success Industry, destroy one of the world’s most valuable cultural treasures, San Francisco, by pushing out the diverse people who have helped create it. At least that’s the story you’ve read in hundreds of articles lately. It doesn’t have to be this way. But everyone who lives in the Bay Area today needs to accept responsibility for all mixed making changes where they live so that everyone who wants to Vampire Stories Essay, be here, can. The alternative — inaction and self-absorption — very well could create the cynical elite paradise and middle-class dystopia that many fear.
I’ve spent time looking into the city’s historical housing and development policies. Barney Up? With the protests escalating again, I am pretty tired of Vampire Essay, seeing the city’s young and disenfranchised fight each other amid an extreme housing shortage created by all mixed up, 30 to classic heroes, 40 years of NIMBYism (or “Not-In-My-Backyard-ism”) from the old wealth of the city and down from the peninsula suburbs. Here is a very long explainer. Sorry, this isn’t a shorter post or that I didn’t break it into 20 pieces. If you’re wondering why people are protesting you, how we got to this housing crisis, why rent control exists or why tech is even shifting to barney up, San Francisco in the first place, this is meant to provide some common points of understanding. This is a complex problem, and I’m not going to Analysis Informatics Mobile Industry, distill it into young, rich tech douchebags-versus-helpless old ladies facing eviction. There are many other places where you can read that story. It does us all no justice.
Homeowners have a strong economic incentive to restrict supply because it supports price appreciation of all mixed up, their own homes. It’s understandable. Many of them have put the calculate constant bulk of their net worth into all mixed their homes and they don’t want to lose that. So they engage in NIMBYism under the name of preservationism or environmentalism, even though denying in-fill development here creates pressures for sprawl elsewhere. They do this through hundreds of politically powerful neighborhood groups throughout San Francisco like the Telegraph Hill Dwellers. Then the rent-controlled tenants care far more about eviction protections than increasing supply. That’s because their most vulnerable constituents are paying rents that are so far below market-rate, that only an ungodly amount of construction could possibly help them. Plus, that construction wouldn’t happen fast enough — especially for elderly tenants. So we’re looking at as much as 80 percent of the city that isn’t naturally oriented to spring constant, add to barney all mixed up, the housing stock. Oh, and tech?
The industry is about 8 percent of San Francisco’s workforce. Then if you look at the cities down on the peninsula and in of Pi the traditional heart of all mixed up, Silicon Valley, where home-ownership rates are higher, it’s even worse. The true culprit behind our housing problems: let us deflect blame to Mountain View’s burrowing owl! (Photo: Wikimedia Commons user Dori under a CC-by-SA 3.0 license) So the wealthy voting classes of the peninsula are also strangling themselves of housing too. The median rent in Coping With in Life of Pi Mountain View is $2,700 compared to $3,400 in San Francisco, according to Zillow. Once you factor in the cost of owning a car — estimated at slightly more than $9,000 a year by barney, the AAA — it’s not that much cheaper. If you look even closer to the Caltrain stations, rents go way up. The newly-opened Madera complex in Analysis of Micromax success in Indian Mobile downtown Mountain View rents out 1-bedroom units starting at $3,299 all the way up to 2-bedroom apartments at all mixed up $8,000 per month. So one contributor to classic heroes, the tech industry’s spread into up San Francisco is that the peninsula cities are more than happy to vote for jobs, just not homes. 2) Why is the tech industry migrating to cities anyway? This is American Brine, a demographic shift that is much larger than the technology industry itself — although there are some tech-specific reasons that have fueled a migration north from the historic heart of Silicon Valley over the last 10 years.
This is what urbanist Alan Ehrenhalt calls “The Great Inversion,” a major shift where cities and suburbs have traded places over the last 30 to 40 years. All Mixed? As people marry later and employment becomes more temporal, young adults and affluent retirees are moving into the urban core, while immigrants and the less affluent are moving out. San Francisco’s population hit a trough around 1980, after steadily declining since the Essay 1950s as the city’s socially conservative white and Irish-Catholic population left for the suburbs. Into the vacuum of relatively cheaper rents they left behind, came the barney all mixed misfits, hippies and immigrants that fomented so many of San Francisco’s beautifully weird cultural and sexual revolutions. But that out-migration reversed around 1980, and the city’s population has been steadily rising for The North American example the last 30 years. This is all mixed up, a phenomenon that’s happening to cities all over classic heroes the United States. It’s happening in Seattle, Atlanta, New York City, Boston and Washington.
D.C.: Its rapacious speed may even be accelerating. Up? Witness hyper-gentrification in Brooklyn and Manhattan, or the “Shoreditch-ification” of London. People are getting married later and are living longer. Analysis Of Micromax Success Mobile? Nearly 50 percent of Americans, or more than 100 million people are unmarried today, up from around 22 percent in 1950. The job market has changed as well. In 1978, the U.S.’s manufacturing employment peaked and the noise and barney all mixed up grit of the blue-collar factories that once fueled the flight of the upper-middle-class disappeared. These vacant manufacturing warehouses turned into the live-work spaces and lofts that emerged in the 1980s and hinkley contamination 1990s in cities like New York and San Francisco.
The concept of lifetime employment also faded. All Mixed? Today, San Francisco’s younger workers derive their job security not from any single employer but instead from a large network of classic heroes, weak ties that lasts from one company to the next. Barney All Mixed? The density of cities favors this job-hopping behavior more than the relative isolation of suburbia. There are also some tech industry-specific reasons too. The capital costs required to found a company and launch a minimum viable product are much lower than a decade ago.
Startups also need fewer people, especially with the low distribution costs provided by platforms like Apple’s iOS app store or Facebook. So it’s easier for lots of Essay, small companies to find pockets of commercial real estate in the city for new offices. It’s also easier for VCs to up, fund an order of magnitude more experiments, even if the same proportion of Stories Essay, them fails. The products that technology companies are making today are also different. In the barney up 1970s, “Silicon Valley” literally meant making semiconductors in large fabs that required expensive equipment and clean rooms. But the big wave of the last decade has been social networking. And every notable consumer web or mobile product of this wave has been seeded through critical mass in Shrimp example the “analog” world. Facebook had university campuses. Snapchat had Southern California high schools. Foursquare had Lower Manhattan. Twitter had San Francisco.
These products favor social density. An even newer generation of all mixed, startups addresses distinctly urban questions. Airbnb exists because in 2007, San Francisco didn’t have enough hotel capacity to house visitors in town for an industrial design conference. Uber exists because the Essay city’s taxi market was under-supplied with drivers and smartphones offered a new way of summoning transportation on demand. Then there are very young startups like Campus, which is like a venture-backed communal living movement, Leap Transit, which is trying to shake up scheduled transport, or any of the barney all mixed up companies out of Vampire, Tumml, an urban ventures incubator.
As tech workers have moved into cities, the industry has changed San Francisco’s culture and San Francisco has changed the technology industry. Nevertheless, while tech is fueling San Francisco’s current boom and has helped cut the city’s unemployment rate by about half since 2010, this gentrification wave has been going on for decades longer than the word “dot-com” has existed. And it’s happening all over the country. So a great question of barney up, our time is of Micromax in Indian Mobile, how American cities handle this shift. They have to do this in all mixed up the face of global economic changes that are dividing our workforce into highly-skilled knowledge workers who are disproportionately benefiting from growth and lower-skilled service workers that are not seeing their wages rise at all. 3) OK, let’s build more housing! Y Combinator partner Garry Tan tweeted out a map the other week: Want to see why SF housing is so expensive? This is a map of The North American example, allowed building height. Yellow = 4 stories max. http://t.co/OgQ6JCId8I. Wouldn’t that be simple?
But it’s not that easy. While the real estate market is hot, developers are currently building 6,000 units. To go beyond that, you have to build political will. You have to win hearts and minds. You have to make sure that people don’t get pushed out all mixed, or left behind. Origins of SF’s cautious approach to growth are rooted in the freeway revolt and urban renewal struggles of the 1950s and 1960s. San Francisco’s orientation towards growth control has 50 years of history behind it and more than 80 percent of the city’s housing stock is either owner-occupied or rent controlled. The city’s height limits, its rent control and its formidable permitting process are all products of Stories, tenant, environmental and barney all mixed up preservationist movements that have arisen and fallen over decades.
To this day, there’s distrust and The North American Shrimp Essay fear that the same thing will happen again, especially if it’s carried out by private developers. All Mixed? Advocacy group Causa Justa has been documenting this displacement through Census data, noting that the classic heroes Mission has lost 1,400 Latino households while adding 2,900 white households between 1990 and 2011. In the barney up same time period, Oakland lost 40 percent of its black residents. Anti-tech sentiment during the first dot-com boom. (From FoundSF) During the spring constant first tech boom, there was the barney Mission Anti-Displacement Coalition, which pushed for a moratorium on Informatics Mobile Industry, new market-rate housing and live-work lofts in the neighborhood. There were also more violent movements like The Yuppie Eradication Project, which slashed tires, keyed cars and barney broke windows. Throughout the years, these movements have found alliances with other neighborhood organizations, preservationist and Essay Coping With environmental interests. To this day, 1972’s Transamerica Pyramid remains San Francisco’s tallest building.
It’s only in 2017 that a taller 1,070-foot tower anchored by all mixed, Salesforce will open. As political scientist and longtime San Francisco observer Richard DeLeon puts it: San Francisco has emerged as a “semi-sovereign city” — a city that imposes as many limits on capital as capital imposes on it. Mislabeled by some detractors as socialist or radical in the Marxist tradition, San Francisco’s progressivism is concerned with consumption more than production, residence more than workplace, meaning more than materialism, community empowerment more than class struggle. Its first priority is not revolution but protection — protection of the calculate city’s environment, architectural heritage, neighborhoods, diversity, and barney all mixed overall quality of life from the radical transformations of turbulent American capitalism.
While we have to thank these movements for Vampire Stories preserving so much of the land surrounding San Francisco and all mixed up the city’s beautiful Victorians, one side effect is that the city has added an average of 1,500 units per hinkley groundwater case, year for the last 20 years. Meanwhile, the all mixed U.S. Census estimates that the city’s population grew by hinkley, 32,000 people from 2010 to barney all mixed, 2013 alone. Even today, you can see these factions engaging in behavior that might seem absurd in the context of a housing shortage. Exhibit A: Rich, Non-Tech People Trying To Downzone The Waterfront Amid An Acute Housing Crisis. On the classic heroes ballot this June, is an initiative that will require voters to individually approve height limit exemptions for developments on the city’s waterfront. It jeopardizes three major projects including the Warriors stadium (pictured below) and a plan to turn Pier 70 into a mixed-use development with office space and barney all mixed apartments. Those developments are slated to deliver as much as 3,690 housing units and Vampire Stories Essay $124 million in affordable housing fees, according to a memo written by John Arntz, the director of the barney up city’s department of Stories Essay, elections. This initiative is funded overwhelmingly by a non-tech couple named Barbara and Richard Stewart, who gave $75,000. (They did not reply to requests for comment.) It is barney up, overwhelmingly expected to pass, so even the mayor isn’t taking a position on it. “Would you like free ice cream San Francisco? ‘Why yes I would,’ ” is how one political consultant summed up Prop.
B’s voter appeal to John Cote at the San Francisco Chronicle. Spring Constant? “Why stand up against something where 60 to 70 percent are going to vote with the other side?” No. This is not free ice cream! The proposed Warriors stadium, which is in jeopardy along with 3,690 housing units because of a Waterfront Height Limits ballot initiative this summer. (From the NBA) Exhibit B: Protests Against New Housing Developments That Don’t Get Rid Of Any Existing Housing. You’ll also end up seeing demonstrations like this one at 16th and Mission, which protest a proposed 351-unit condominium development that replaces a Walgreens and a Burger King. It does not remove any existing housing or directly displace anyone.
A coalition of Mission-based non-profits and activists demonstrating against a proposed 351-unit condominium development at barney all mixed up 16th and Mission. Essay Of Pi? (From the Plaza16 Coalicion Facebook Page.) At face value, this might not make sense. But there are a couple reasons that this happens. One is barney up, that gentrification raises the gap between market-rate rents and hinkley groundwater case study rent-controlled rents, strengthening the financial incentive for landlords to evict longtime tenants. Unlike the all mixed wealthy waterfront NIMBYists, these communities are at risk of being displaced. If they don’t speak up for themselves, who will? Look at Vida on Mission Street, which is a fancy new mixed-use building slated to open up next January (pictured below). The Vida project, which got green-lighted quickly through lots of collaboration with local Mission-based neighborhood groups. As Lauren Smiley wrote in San Francisco magazine last month, when developer Dean Givas wanted to Analysis Informatics Limited success, build luxury condos in the heart of the Mission District, he bent over barney backward for local community groups to get the project quickly green-lighted. Over two years of negotiations with community groups, Givas agreed to buy a plot on nearby Shotwell Street for the city to develop 40 units of affordable housing, dwarfing the 14 units that would have been required within the Vida building.
He was already on the hook to pay $1.4 million in city-mandated impact fees, yet the community got him to Vampire Stories Essay, agree to much more. He donated $150,000 to a fund to help mom-and-pop Mission businesses—to be buoyed with a sales tax on future condo sales. Then, in what the project’s attorney called an unprecedented move by a developer in barney all mixed the Mission, he donated $650,000 to classic heroes, 23 community groups, a strategy that drew sellout criticisms from purists in the nonprofit community and shakedown charges from pro-development forces worried that his philanthropic palm greasing would set a precedent. Next, Givas donated $1 million for the Texas-based Alamo Drafthouse Cinema chain to renovate the long-shuttered New Mission Theater next door into a five-screen dinner-and-a-movie cineplex. The Texans agreed to hire 50 percent of its staff from the neighborhood and to let nonprofits host at-cost benefits at barney up the facility. In principle, it’s fine to use the levers of urban politics to redistribute the wealth an economic boom creates in San Francisco. But these concessions are being negotiated housing development by housing development, which slows the city’s ability to produce housing — both market-rate and affordable — at scale. It’s a good first step, but…. 4) SF’s planning process is deliberately bureaucratic (or highly participatory!) for of Micromax Informatics Limited political reasons:
San Francisco’s construction permitting process (non-ironically written in Comic Sans). One of the things that makes housing development different in San Francisco compared to barney, other major U.S. cities is calculate spring, that building permits are discretionary rather than as-of-right. In other cities, if a developer already matches the existing zoning and barney all mixed up height restrictions of the city plan, they can get issued a permit relatively quickly. But for new housing developments in hinkley study San Francisco, there’s a preliminary review, which takes six months. Then there are also chances for your neighbors to appeal your permit on either an entitlement or environmental basis.
The city also requires extensive public notice of proposed projects even if they already meet neighborhood plans, which have taken several years of deliberation to produce. Neighbors can appeal your project for up something as insignificant as the shade of paint, although the city’s planning department and commission tries to calculate constant, get through minor appeals quickly. If those fail, neighborhood groups can also file a CEQA or environmental lawsuit under California state law, challenging the environment impact of the project. Perversely, CEQA lawsuits have been used to barney all mixed, challenge a city plan to Vampire Stories Essay, add 34 miles of bike lanes. Then if that fails, opponents can put a development directly on a citywide ballot with enough signatures. (Thanks, Hiram Johnson?) That’s what happened with the controversial 8 Washington luxury condo project last November even though it had already gone through eight years of deliberation. These barriers add unpredictable costs and up years of delays for spring every developer, which are ultimately passed onto buyers and renters. It also means that developers have problems attracting capital financing in barney all mixed up weaker economic years because of the Informatics political uncertainty around getting a project passed. The sophistication with which neighborhood groups wield San Francisco’s arcane land-use and zoning regulations for activist purposes is barney all mixed, one of the very unique things about the city’s politics. But the city’s political leadership doesn’t want to change it, because it fears backlash from powerful neighborhood groups, which actually deliver votes. 5) Also, parts of the progressive community do not believe in supply and demand. Yeah, I was surprised by this.
“We can’t build our way to affordability,” is a common refrain. Tim Redmond, who used to edit the San Francisco Bay Guardian, even suggested today that the government should take 60 percent of the city’s housing off the private market over the next 20 years. (I have no idea how you would fund this.) Why the Analysis of Micromax Informatics Limited success in Indian Mobile private market can never solve SF’s housing crisis http://t.co/7vI2VPoV2r. Several activists also sent me this paper, authored by Calvin Welch, of the barney all mixed up Council of Community Housing Organizations. Admirably, Welch has been fighting for affordable housing in San Francisco for Essay about Coping Fear the last forty years and is part of the politically powerful Haight Ashbury Neighborhood Council, which has seen that neighborhood through, well, everything. But this paper conflates correlation with causation. He argues that when there is a decline in new housing units, there is also a decline in price. Namely, he points to 2001 and 2002, while brushing off the mega-gigantic-enormous confounding variable of the up dot-com bust and constant a regional recession. 6) OK, clarification: Affordable housing advocates would support development if it had a meaningful share of below-market-rate units. So I met Welch and he made good points. All Mixed? (He’s been working on this for nearly forty years.)
His organization, the Council of Community Housing Organizations, argues that raw, additional construction will not make housing more affordable to working-class or lower-income San Franciscans. Left to its own devices, the market will only produce housing that chases the very richest buyers. In a time of rising inequality, those market-rate units are increasingly out of reach, even for middle-class San Franciscans. He points to tables like this one, which shows San Francisco’s residential housing pipeline for the last quarter of 2013. Under state mandate, each city has a ‘Regional Housing Need’ allocation or RHNA. In San Francisco, the market is spring constant, producing almost double the number of barney all mixed up, housing units for people with ‘Above Moderate’ incomes, or 120 percent of the area’s median income, as the RHNA says it needs to build. So affordable housing advocates say that developers should be required to The North Shrimp, have a higher percentage of below-market-rate units built. The issue with inclusionary housing is that construction costs are so high in barney San Francisco — calculated here to be nearly $500,000 for an 800-foot square unit — that affordable housing requires generous public subsidies.
The Mayor’s Office of Housing and Community Development says there are 1,759 units of Vampire, affordable housing that are currently being built or preserved at a cost of $824.5 million. About $274.1 million of that funding is up, coming from the city, and the remaining $550.3 million has to come from somewhere else. The federal and calculate state government used to help with this, but their assistance has dropped off dramatically since the 1980s. (Cuts to all mixed up, the federal Housing and Vampire Urban Development department budget under the barney all mixed up Reagan administration coincided with the rise of urban homelessness in San Francisco.) 2,800 people applied to live in this 60-unit affordable housing building at 474 Natoma. Also, inclusionary housing has its own trade-offs. Spring? It can pass on the costs of building below-market-rate units to barney, market-rate buyers, cutting out units that would be affordable to middle-class buyers. Hence, another reason for the disappearance of the San Francisco’s middle-class. You’ll see in the table above that the market is Informatics Limited Mobile Industry, mostly producing housing for ‘above moderate’ incomes, then some ‘low income’ housing units, but hardly anything for ‘moderate incomes.’ The lack of options for middle-class San Franciscans in up turn feeds the two-tier systems that we’re seeing in Analysis in Indian transportation with MUNI-versus-Uber and in barney all mixed up education, where 30 percent of the city’s students go to private schools at $30,000 per year while the American Brine Essay public school system will see almost all of its enrollment growth coming from public housing over barney all mixed up the next three decades. The magic ratio is hard to classic heroes, find and it constantly shifts, depending on the state of the housing market and barney all mixed construction costs. 7) Yet we’re arguing over shades of calculate spring constant, gray. Sorry, supply and demand still totally matter.
More construction probably won’t make prices go down , but it will prevent them from skyrocketing as much as they would otherwise. If you look at this Trulia study examining housing production since 1990 and prices in barney 10 of the U.S.’s biggest tech hubs, you’ll see that San Francisco had the highest median prices per square foot and had the about With of Pi lowest number of new construction permits per 1,000 units between 1990 and 2013. There are also many long-term studies like this one or this one or this one from economists like Edward Glaeser of Harvard University and Joseph Gyourko at the University of Pennsylvania examining the barney impact of land-use restrictions and zoning on U.S. Vampire Stories? home prices in desirable areas like Boston, New York and Coastal California since 1950. But in places where zoning regulations create artificial limits on home production, the final prices to home buyers jump far above construction costs. In the 1980s and 1990s, they found that virtually all of San Francisco’s home prices were at least 140 percent above base construction costs. You can also look at historical housing production levels in New York City and California. Manhattan was permitting more than 11,000 units each year during the postwar boom years between 1955 and 1964.
But between 1980 and 1999, the New York City borough was permitting just an barney up average of 3,120 units per year. Between 1970 and 2000, the Stories median price of a Manhattan housing unit increased by 284 percent in constant dollars. Similarly, California once accounted for one of every five building permits issued in the U.S. during the 1960s. That construction rate slowed down, and real housing prices in up the state have increased by 385 percent from 1970 to With Fear of Pi, 2010. Here’s a similar historical chart for San Francisco housing production. It’s as if both cities reacted 10 or 20 years late — long after the barney Great Inversion started and before anybody had any idea about how big or transformative this suburban-urban migration would become. This issue is The North, profound.
Regional economic booms normally benefit all workers by creating more jobs throughout the economy — supporting locally-owned businesses and bringing in up more tax revenue for public services. Even if most people don’t have tech jobs in Analysis Informatics in Indian the Bay Area, they would get many more opportunities than if there was, say, no economic growth. The point is barney all mixed, that if the entire Bay Area had a more elastic housing supply, it would not only make living affordable for most people, it would allow a far larger portion of the population to find jobs and do things like save or spend money instead of moving somewhere distant and spring spending their money on driving, or even being unemployed. But in San Francisco, that spillover effect is much smaller. This is in no small part because so much of our incomes end up going toward housing costs.
The city’s economist Ted Egan estimates that each San Francisco tech job likely creates somewhere slightly north of two extra jobs, not five. San Francisco’s city economist, Ted Egan, argues above that the tech industry and its spillover effects have been responsible for virtually all of the city’s job growth since 2010. Still, the multiplier effect in San Francisco at slightly more than 2 jobs created for every single tech job, is much lower than the 5-to-1 ratio UC Berkeley economist Enrico Moretti calculated nationwide. Housing costs dampen the spillovers since people end up spending so much more on rent and mortgages. However, it’s hard to have even basic debates over all mixed modest increases in the housing supply here because of this ideological dispute. 8) 1978 and Vampire Stories Essay 1979: Proposition 13 and Rent Control. I keep coming back to the late 1970s because both the all mixed city of hinkley groundwater study, San Francisco and the state of California made choices that have had enduring impacts on housing to this day.
If San Francisco seems torn apart by class war today, the city was in profound agony in 1978. A charismatic, religious leader named Jim Jones had won the favor of barney up, city’s political elite and helped deliver the mayorship to George Moscone. Amid emerging allegations of physical abuse, Jones and hundreds of his followers defected from San Francisco to calculate spring constant, Guyana, where he sought to build a utopia. Instead, he convinced more than 900 of his followers, including mothers and infants, to ingest cyanide mixed with punch in a mass suicide. All Mixed Up? It was an enormous tragedy for the city; nearly every family in calculate the black Fillmore district knew someone they had lost in Jonestown. Then, just nine days later, there was a double blow. Supervisor Dan White murdered mayor Moscone and gay political icon Harvey Milk in the heart of San Francisco’s beaux-arts City Hall. Tens of thousands of grief-stricken people marched down Market Street in barney a candlelight vigil. It was into this chaos that Dianne Feinstein, who had recently been widowed after her husband passed away from colon cancer, stepped into power and assumed mayorship. The broader U.S. economic picture was not great.
Inflation shot from of Micromax Limited Industry, 9 percent at all mixed the time Feinstein became mayor to contamination study, 13.3 percent a year later as the Iranian revolution triggered another energy crisis. Gas lines formed once again around stations throughout the country — again, prompting another cultural re-consideration of up, suburban ideal. Earlier in the summer of 1978, a cantankerous former small-town newspaper publisher named Howard Jarvis led a “taxpayer revolt” as property prices were soaring, threatening to throw home owners out of their homes because of rising tax bills. Jarvis’ idea was to cap property taxes at 1 percent of their assessed value and to Essay about Fear of Pi, prevent them from rising by more than 2 percent each year until the property was sold again and all mixed its taxes were reset at hinkley groundwater a new market value. Howard Jarvis launched the taxpayer revolt that got Proposition 13 passed, capping property taxes for homeowners. One argument that Jarvis used to rally tenant support for Proposition 13, was that he promised that landlords would pass on their tax savings to renters. They didn’t. They pocketed the savings for themselves. Tenants were furious, and rent control movements erupted in at barney least a dozen cities throughout California, from classic heroes, Berkeley to barney up, Santa Monica. San Francisco might have gone a different way, but Angelo Sangiacomo was the alleged trigger.
The Italian-American landlord, who was born and raised in calculate spring constant the Richmond District, demanded across-the-board rent increases of 25 to 65 percent in seventeen hundred apartments in March of 1979. Amid the outrage, Feinstein pushed for a 60-day rent freeze that would ward off the rise of a tenant-backed mayoral challenger. Both policies have had far-reaching and unanticipated ripple effects. Overnight, California’s property tax revenues fell by almost 60 percent, and the state had to barney, make emergency allocations from a surplus that year to of Micromax Informatics Industry, keep services afloat. Because the state’s K-12 schools are financed largely by property taxes, California’s spending per student fell from 5th in barney all mixed up the nation in groundwater contamination case the mid-1960s to barney all mixed, 50th in this decade. Without the The North American Brine Essay example ability to barney up, rely as heavily on property taxes, city governments throughout the state had to Essay about Coping With Fear, favor office and retail development over barney housing in order to boost sales taxes. It may have even accelerated the homogeny of suburbs as smaller city governments had to cut deals to attract “big box” retailers to boost sales tax revenue, crowding out independently-run stores.
It also created a lock-in effect as California property values soared, creating a bigger gap in property taxes on newly-sold properties and ones that homeowners had held onto for a long time. That rigidity further enhanced the political power that NIMBY-ist homeowners accumulated in suburban city councils throughout the state. Proposition 13’s legacy? Owners of this Presidio Heights home, which just closed at calculate spring constant a price of all mixed, $5,125,000 earlier this week, had been paying around $2,885 in annual property taxes. The home’s new taxes should be around $60,885.
San Francisco’s 60-day rent control ordinance also stuck around, and of Micromax Informatics success in Indian it was subsequently strengthened through the all mixed following decades. The maximum allowable annual rent increase went from 7 percent to classic heroes, 4 percent in mid-1980s and then to a fraction of the inflation rate set by the Rent Board in 1992. Because both Proposition 13 and barney all mixed rent control insulate homeowners and rent-controlled tenants from dramatic tax or rent increases when the market undersupplies housing, they undermined political will for building homes. Calculate Spring? Both of barney all mixed, these policies were enacted just as the “Great Inversion” started. 9) Rent control’s impact on hinkley case study, the city’s housing stock and politics is more complex than any basic economics textbook would suggest. Rent control is a naturally divisive topic in the tech community. Barney All Mixed Up? Progressives view it as a sacred right that protects the remnants of a working- and middle-class in the city. “It’s a non-renewable resource,” Erin McElroy, who is part of the Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, explained to me. But the tech community is both socially liberal and Essay about Coping With in Life market-oriented, with more than 90 percent of political donations from Apple and all mixed up Google employees going to Barack Obama in calculate spring constant the last election. All Mixed? So price controls in The North American Shrimp Essay example the name of community stability and equity just makes people’s brains explode.
Some influential tech leaders will be supportive (and, as I said, Conway and barney all mixed Benioff back Ellis Act reform). Then there are others, like venture capitalist Marc Andreessen, who has been vocal against rent control on about Coping Fear in Life of Pi, Twitter. Stop SF evictions. Barney All Mixed? Stop the Ellis act. Classic Heroes? http://t.co/sWk21dAvzj. Just know that it covers around 75 percent of the city’s rental housing stock.
If the Google Bus protests were centered on 216 Ellis Act evictions in the last Rent Board year, you could imagine what would happen if you broached the topic of rent control. Want to barney, alienate about groundwater case study, half of San Francisco? Have fun. Yes, rent control is all mixed, a blunt instrument of income re-distribution in an increasingly unequal world. Vampire Stories Essay? It is not means-tested, meaning anyone from all mixed up, well-salaried, white-collar workers to contamination, very low-income residents can benefit from all mixed, it. It also forces a number of contamination case study, small-time, mom-and-pop landlords to individually subsidize someone else’s cost of living in barney all mixed up the city. It creates two classes of tenants — one that is Essay, very legally protected and another that is not.
For market-rate tenants, there is no law compelling their landlords to give them as much as $44,842 in relocation expenses under new city legislation like they will for Ellis Act evictees if they raise rents beyond what they can afford. But tenants activists see San Francisco’s rent-controlled housing stock as a vital public good that gives middle-income residents a foothold in the city. And while the make-up of the city’s rent-controlled hasn’t been studied in more than a decade, it likely contains less-wealthy San Franciscans on average than the market-rate units do. In studies of other cities where rent control unexpectedly ended via a change in barney up state law like Cambridge, Massachusetts, tenants in these apartments had lower incomes than those of market-rate renters. San Francisco’s version of rent control also does not apply to buildings constructed after 1979, so it shouldn’t dis-incentivize developers from hinkley groundwater, producing new units. Instead, a lot of all mixed, other factors are constricting supply. That said, I do think it undermines the political will that would otherwise exist for building more housing. 10) So a highly-restricted housing supply + rising demand + a volatile local economy prone to booms and busts + strict rent control without vacancy control = Eviction crisis every decade!
San Francisco’s version of rent control lacks vacancy controls, which means landlords can re-set rents at whatever the market will bear when new rent-controlled tenants move in. The logic is that with vacancy controls, landlords won’t invest in maintaining their properties. But the flipside is that the landlord also has a strong financial incentive to evict longstanding tenants who are paying below-market rates. So every decade during a boom, there is a tragic, elderly face for Essay about With Fear in Life of Pi the story of all mixed up, displacement. This past year, it was Gum Gee Lee and Poon Heung Lee, the elderly Chinese-American couple with a mentally disabled daughter who were evicted last fall from their home of 34 years. But back in the 1990s, there was Lola McKay. Classic Heroes? A year after her eviction fight started, McKay died alone in her Mission apartment of 42 years at age 83 in 2000. It sucks. I sat in a high school gym in the Tenderloin full of barney up, terrified elderly and disabled people at the citywide tenant convention. During every real-estate boom, no-fault evictions — typically of rent-controlled tenants — tick or skyrocket upwards. (From an October 2013 memo to city supervisor David Campos.)
At the heart of the Google Bus protests are a specific kind of eviction called an spring Ellis Act eviction. There are 16 types of evictions, eight of which are considered “For Cause” and all mixed another eight which are considered “No Fault.” The Ellis Act is one of these. While it’s hard to fight a surge in other kinds of no-fault evictions like “Owner Move-In” evictions, the tenants movement has a stronger moral upper hand with the Ellis Act. That’s because the law, which was passed in 1985, was explicitly designed to let landlords go out of business . Tenants activists say that the Ellis Act is instead abused by American Shrimp Essay example, real estate speculators, who evict their tenants, turn these rent-controlled apartments into tenancies-in-common and sell them at barney a profit.
They point to a list of a “Dirty Dozen” landlords, who are the worst serial Ellis Act evictors. The North American Shrimp Essay Example? One of them is up, Urban Green Investments, which is evicting 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and calculate constant Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant, who live up my street. Phillips moved to the city in the late 1930s as a war bride and moved into this 1950s-era apartment building on Dolores Street, across the all mixed up way from what is now a huge apartment complex containing a brand-new bottom-floor Whole Foods Market. Her last day was supposed to be six days ago on April 8. But she’s still there, at hinkley case least until the sheriff receives a court order to barney all mixed, take action. At 98, she has nowhere to classic heroes, go. 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant are being evicted from their apartments in up the Mission District by Urban Green Investments.
Phillips’ last day was supposed to Stories, be six days ago. She doesn’t have anywhere to go and doesn’t have enough money to afford current market-rate rents in barney all mixed San Francisco. Brant, her neighbor, helps care for her. Analysis Limited In Indian Mobile? (From VanishingSF) The city government is barney, trying to respond as quickly as it can, but it can only do so much because the Ellis Act is state law. Earlier this week, city supervisor David Campos, who represents the other part of the Mission, pushed legislation through the Board of Supervisors that would raise compensation for Ellis Act evictees. It’s going from $5,200 per tenant to the difference between the tenant’s current rent and the market-rate rent for classic heroes a comparable apartment over two years. At current rates, this would be more than $44,832 for a two-bedroom apartment. They’re trying to change the law at barney up the state level too. Mark Leno, who represents San Francisco in the California State Senate, also introduced a bill that would require landlords to calculate, hold a property for five years before invoking the Ellis Act to evict tenants. Up? It just passed the Senate Transportation and Housing Committee earlier this week. 12) Fuck, this is complicated.
Anti-tech sentiment becomes a catalyst. But the Google Bus protests worked. — Jessica Kwong (@JessicaGKwong) April 1, 2014. They were a media sensation. They tapped into this inchoate sense of frustration around everything from rising income inequality to privacy to in Life of Pi, surveillance to barney, the environmental impact of the hardware we buy to calculate spring constant, a dubious sense that today’s leading technology companies aren’t living up to their missions of all mixed up, not being evil.
“The we-hate-tech-workers is mostly a media narrative,” said organizer Fred Sherburn-Zimmer. “It’s not about classic heroes, that. It’s about income disparity. It’s about speculators using high-income workers to displace communities.” Sherburn-Zimmer acknowledged that the barney up bus protests were a tactic. Stories Essay? But she said, without them, the movement wouldn’t have been able to get 500 people to all mixed up, march in Sacramento for Ellis Act reform. She also said that the support of Conway, the Analysis of Micromax Informatics Limited advocacy group he founded called sf.citi and other tech companies will be invaluable in turning votes on all mixed up, the peninsula to get Leno’s bill moving. About With Fear In Life? It just passed the Senate Transportation and Housing Committee this week. So the protests will keep going, because they are what keep Leno’s bill and Ellis Act reform in the news. Barney All Mixed? (Don’t take it too personally. Classic Heroes? You can blame us — the all mixed media — for finding protests against globally-recognized brands like Google much sexier than protests against individual Mountain View city council members.) 13) Who are the contamination protesters and what do they want? Hundreds still marching in the mission to demand no more evictions of #SF teachers.
Going bldg to bldg under threat. pic.twitter.com/ApHZ4ljxwN. — David Zlutnick (@DavidZlutnick) April 12, 2014. Like the tech community itself, the barney all mixed up activist community is pretty heterogeneous. There are groups like Causa Justa, which focuses on Latino and about Coping With in Life of Pi black communities. The are housing focused groups like the Housing Rights Committee and barney all mixed others affiliated with the San Francisco Tenants Union.
There are efforts like the Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, which is asking San Franciscans to boycott renting at places where Ellis Act evictions have happened. McElroy, who is crammed into a two-bedroom, non-rent-controlled apartment with four other people in Bernal Heights, built it along with other tech workers including Kelsey Gilmore-Innis, Sasha Magee and Silvia Amtmann. She’s been leading many of the protests several times a week at different real estate offices, Google Bus stops and homes where long-time tenants are being evicted. The broad point here is classic heroes, that while tech-fueled economic growth can be good, gentrification carries enormous and often tragic costs for certain individuals and all mixed up communities. If those costs aren’t being recognized by a purely market-based system, then the political system should rectify it. “We implore tech to start talking to us. Come out into the streets with us. I don’t think it occurs to people that they can be a body too.
People live in bubbles here,” McElroy said. “If you’re scared, what does that compare to people who are being forced out of of Micromax Limited success, their homes?” But there are times when it can just get weird or borderline disturbing. The Counterforce left creepy flyers at Kevin Rose’s house demanding $3 billion for all mixed up an anarchist utopia and Shrimp Essay example showed up one morning at the Berkeley home of Google engineering manager Anthony Levandowski. While McElroy communicates with The Counterforce, they are a separate group with different tactics. And it often feels like protests meant to barney up, stir meaningful discussion about income inequality, gentrification and housing veer off into misguided anger or hatred. At an classic heroes anti-eviction protest on Friday, hundreds of people marched through the barney all mixed up streets of the Mission with a brass band. Classic Heroes? It was totally non-violent, with lots of children, parents, teachers and barney all mixed seniors singing and shouting.
Lowell High School senior Natalia Arguello-Inglis took the Stories Essay microphone and barney up said, “We can’t blindly hate on the techies and yuppies. Who are we to judge who can come into classic heroes this city and who can not? Gentrification is not going to go away. Barney Up? But we can work with the people who are causing it.” But there was also one ‘Tech = Death’ sign in a visual reference to early 1990s anti-AIDS documentary ‘Silence = Death’ and classic heroes a few other people carried pictures of Jack Halprin, the Google lawyer who is evicting multiple tenants from his house on Guerrero Street. Following the protests, a Business Insider reporter named Kyle Russell also had Google Glass ripped off his face and smashed.
Three protests so far have also individually targeted Google employees, including Kevin Rose, who came home to a large banner and flyers reading “Kevin Rose Parasite” (pictured below). Also, a protester climbed on up, top of classic heroes, a Yahoo bus at all mixed the MacArthur station and vomited on it. Randy Shaw, who houses low-income San Franciscans in 1,600 units under the calculate constant non-profit Tenderloin Housing Clinic, calls this backlash a new form of up, nativism. When he moved here in the late 1970s, he remembered straight residents making the same complaints about an influx of gays into classic heroes the Castro or a flood of Latino immigrants into what was a largely Irish-American Mission District a generation ago. “…the war on tech workers—as opposed to barney all mixed, tech companies or policies— is not really a “class war.” Rather, it is about one group of predominately white people complaining about a similar demographic group that likes many of the same restaurants, bars, street festivals, and Samba classes that they do—but who makes more money.” He points out that many of the union-affiliated protesters blasting Twitter in front of the company’s headquarters are simultaneously requesting budget increases from the mayor’s office, which is of Micromax in Indian, largely possible because of the tech-fueled economic boom. In other cases, it feels like activists are misusing state laws to make a point. Several groups spent eight hours at the Board of Supervisors meeting earlier this month challenging the all mixed up city’s decision not to put the Brine Essay new tech commuter shuttle pilot program under environmental review via CEQA. This is even though the buses take cars off the road for barney up as many as 4,000 commuters every day. They argued that displacement of existing communities should be counted as an environmental impact of the shuttle program.
The Board of Supervisors disagreed, voting 8-2 to Stories Essay, uphold the exemption. “We’re not saying no buses,” Sherburn-Zimmer said. “We’re saying that there are consequences that happen when these buses move into all mixed up the neighborhood.” Certainly, charging $1 per use of a public bus stop is low when the regular MUNI fare is $2. Essay About Of Pi? But under California Proposition 218, the transportation agency is not allowed to create a revenue-generating program. So the program can only pay for its $1.7 million in costs now. But the barney up activists aren’t happy with that. “Google never came to us and asked us what we would like to see,” McElroy said. “We are not into backdoor deal-making with politicians.” Also, none of this — the increased eviction protections, the calculate push to barney, stall the shuttle program under CEQA, Ellis Act reform — amounts to massive, systems-level change.
It protects long-time residents who are already here, but it doesn’t make San Francisco affordable or available to calculate, future middle- or working-class residents. The activists know this. “We’re playing fastball right now,” McElroy said. “These are Band-Aid solutions.” Indeed, this is politics! 14) So complicated! What are compromises that have actually worked?
Normally, city policy makers favor constructing housing where there are no pre-existing units because new housing is generally less affordable than old housing. All Mixed? But because we are a city that has been built out hinkley groundwater contamination case, since the 1950s, we have very little unused space left. One project that could point the barney way is Trinity Plaza at 8th and Mission. It’s a 1,900-unit complex that came about through an agreement in 2005 between the unlikeliest of allies. Trinity Plaza in 1962. Contamination Case Study? Described as “San Francisco’s new, luxurious, fully air conditioned 400 room motor hotel.” Eric Fischer/Flickr.
On one side was the infamous “Father of Rent Control” Sangiacomo. Trinity was a rundown 1960s-era motel that ended up being turned into an apartment building with 360 rent-controlled units. When Sangiacomo originally proposed re-developing the area, it stirred up progressive opposition led by Daly and a two-year political battle ensued. It was a big win. Longtime residents weren’t displaced and got brand-new homes at near their old rent, plus the city got to barney up, provide many more homes to other San Franciscans. 15) What is the city government doing? If you can see any possible silver lining in Vampire Stories being antagonized every day in protests, it’s that the all mixed city government will be really, really, really focused on housing. A lot of The North American Shrimp Essay, things that weren’t considered politically possible for barney all mixed up years are happening now. The Board of Supervisors was able to pass a bill to The North Shrimp, legalize in-law units, which can be anything from garages to attics that have illegally housed tens of barney up, thousands of San Franciscans for Vampire Stories decades in barney all mixed a shadow housing market.
They also voted to increase Ellis Act relocation compensation, although landlords represented by the San Francisco Apartment Association say they are considering a lawsuit to challenge this. Calculate Spring Constant? The mayor doubled the city’s downpayment assistance program to all mixed up, first-time home buyers to $200,000. Hinkley Contamination Case Study? The mayor pledged to build or rehabilitate 30,000 units in the next six years, with one-third of those being permanently affordable to lower and moderate-income families. He also convened a working group representing more than 75 different interests that will come up with solutions to barney, the housing crisis. You can read different ideas for solving the Analysis in Indian Mobile housing crisis here from SPUR, the San Francisco Housing Action Coalition or the Council of barney all mixed up, Community Housing Organizations. There is no silver bullet in any of these. It’s a hard problem. Lee, Leno and others are collaborating on classic heroes, this Ellis Act bill in the state legislature. They’re also working on using city-owned land for affordable housing developments. Barney Up? Ahead of all these protests, Lee also got voters to pass an Essay Affordable Housing Trust Fund back in 2012.
But any projects from it are also likely to up, be mired in that crazy planning process. 16) What is the tech industry doing? Ron Conway is asking tech CEOs across the Coping of Pi industry to speak up in favor of Ellis Act reform, which would help longtime tenants at up risk of no-fault evictions stay in their rent-controlled units. Google also gave $6.8 million as a temporary source of funding for a MUNI program that gives free rides to classic heroes, low-income youth. In March, the company also opened a Bay Area Impact Challenge, which will grant $5 million to 25 Bay Area non-profits. Barney Up? Two weeks ago, they also funded all of the Bay Area projects on Donors Choose, which is a platform where teachers can list projects that they need funding for in their classrooms. The amount was roughly $600,000 for 600 area projects.
Salesforce CEO Marc Benioff also challenged tech industry workers to raise $10 million in The North American example the next 60 days for anti-poverty organizations. Up? Google was also a founding partner in Analysis success in Indian Mobile Industry the effort, called the Tipping Point SF Gives fund, with a $1 million donation. Just a few days ago, Benioff and his wife also gave a second $100 million to the UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital and its affiliate, the Children’s Hospital Research Center in Oakland. The mayor and sf.citi have been brokering meetings between tech companies like Jawbone, Pinterest, Airbnb and non-profits like the YMCA, the Tenderloin Housing Clinic and the Mission Economic Development Agency. Jawbone CEO Hosain Rahman and YMCA San Francisco CEO Chuck Collins co-authored a piece outlining a “One City” strategy today. Airbnb is now remitting San Francisco’s 14 percent hotel occupancy tax. Then there are lots of barney all mixed, other efforts (and I can’t remember them all), like Zendesk’s and city’s new mobile site for homeless services called LinkSF. Square, which has been doing trash clean-ups every Friday on the streets of Mid-Market for The North American Brine Shrimp Essay example more than a year, starting hiring security guards with equity instead of contracting this work out to other companies. There was a Hacktivation for the Homeless, where developers donated their time to build projects requested by local non-profits.
Consider these things just a start. 17) What about barney all mixed up, this “Twitter tax break” that the unions say is costing the city $56 million? There is a ton of anger at the tech industry over Vampire Stories two tax exclusions that were passed in 2011. David Campos, the city supervisor who represents the Mission, recently called for a hearing on the so-called “Twitter tax break.” (Not so coincidentally, he is all mixed up, currently running to represent San Francisco in the California state assembly against David Chiu.) It’s a complicated issue if you look into it. Yes, San Francisco is an classic heroes extremely desirable place and barney up it has more leverage than most cities in the entire country to The North Brine Essay example, squeeze corporations for additional taxes or concessions. But those taxes can’t be so out of barney, line with neighboring cities that companies just move one city south, leaving San Francisco with the same housing problems but nothing in business tax revenue to show for it. This is one reason for why the Vampire Stories biotechnology industry has historically been centered in all mixed South San Francisco with companies like Genentech, even though San Francisco is home to UCSF, one of the best medical schools and research facilities in the world. At the time that the city passed both exclusions, San Francisco was the only city in calculate spring constant the state of California to derive all of its business tax revenue from barney up, payrolls and one of the few in the nation that taxed employee stock options. So this uncapped, unpredictable tax liability that could stretch into Analysis of Micromax success tens of millions of dollars was a huge reason to leave even though Twitter’s leadership wanted to up, stay.
At the spring same time, San Francisco’s unemployment rate was north of 8 percent at barney all mixed that time, so the city’s priority was to create jobs. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion (a.k.a. “Twitter tax break”) will be a moot point by 2018 when the groundwater contamination study city shifts entirely to a gross receipts tax. The new @twitter HQ sign is an homage to the civic importance of its predecessor. Here’s old vs new. pic.twitter.com/XNF3Lurwbs. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion, was created with Twitter in mind in 2011 to incentivize companies to stay in San Francisco and move to a part of Market Street that had 30 percent storefront vacancy rates. The point was to create a tech cluster that would generate meaningful tax revenues over the long-run through an estimated $54 million over 20 years and boost economic activity in the area. The exclusion was available to all companies with more than $250,000 in payrolls that moved there. Twitter was the anchor, and it moved its headquarters to a Shorenstein-owned SF Mart building that had been vacant for up five years.
Companies like Zendesk, Spotify and One Kings Lane also joined the program and got a break from the city’s 1.5 percent payroll tax on additional headcount for up to six years if they moved to Mid-Market. Groundwater Contamination Case? In 2012, this amounted to barney up, $1.9 million in Analysis of Micromax Informatics success in Indian Mobile foregone taxes on $126.8 million in payroll expenses. Because these companies had more than $1 million in payroll expenses, they also had to create ‘Community Benefit Agreements’ that documented how they’re giving back to barney up, the community through donations and volunteership. While the advisory committee overseeing the program loves IPO candidate Zendesk, its members are frustrated with Twitter and hinkley groundwater study other companies for barney all mixed up being too vague on constant, commitments or not even showing up to meetings. Then, the barney whole payroll tax was subsequently reformed or scrapped by Analysis Informatics Mobile Industry, voters the following year through Proposition E in favor of a tax on gross receipts that’s starting to be phased in. Barney All Mixed? The argument was that payroll taxes penalize job creation.
On top of that, the Essay Coping in Life city was only all mixed up collecting the payroll taxes from less than 10 percent of the roughly 100,000 registered companies in hinkley study the city at that time. A gross receipts tax focuses on revenues; it’s generally good for service businesses like restaurants and pre-revenue companies that could scale quickly like tech startups. The city used to charge either the greater of a gross receipts tax or a payroll tax, but the California state court system ruled that this was illegal after companies like Eastman Kodak and General Motors sued the city of Los Angeles for the same practice more than a decade ago. All Mixed? The city had tried to shift from a payroll tax to a gross receipts tax before, but the measure didn’t pass until 2012. So this whole tax break that people are screaming about will be a moot point by calculate spring, 2018, when the gross receipts tax is fully baked in for everyone. And if San Francisco is barney, able to convince tech companies to stay instead of moving down south to the peninsula, and one of about, them turns into a Facebook, Oracle or Google-sized company, the city will be able to capture a percentage of what will be billions of dollars in annual revenues. The city said today that the program had already helped generate $8.4 million in up property and real estate transfer taxes, attracted 18 tech companies and convinced 17 small businesses to open on the street.
The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion zone. Companies that move to this area receive a break from the 1.5 percent payroll tax until 2017. By 2018, the city will be fully shifted over into a gross receipts tax, however. The employee stock options tax is the one that cuts to the heart of a broad inequality debate. There was a second temporary tax exemption that was passed in 2011 that focused on employee stock options and was created to retain pre-IPO companies in of Micromax Informatics Limited Industry San Francisco like Zynga, Twitter and Zendesk. TechCrunch covered it back in barney all mixed up 2011 and it should also be over-ridden by the shift to of Micromax Industry, gross receipts taxes. This is the one that is more controversial in the context of the broader inequality debate. James Temple, who now works at Re/Code, wrote a piece for the San Francisco Chronicle last fall saying that this tax break cost the up city $34 million on top of the projected $22 million in foregone revenue from the The North Essay Mid-Market program.
This is where this $56 million figure keeps coming from, even though if Twitter had moved, the city wouldn’t have seen any of it. It’s phantom money. Paying $56 million to San Francisco-versus-paying business taxes in other neighboring Silicon Valley cities. All Mixed Up? (From a 2011 Budget and Legislative Analyst memo.) At the time it was passed, San Francisco was one of the few cities in the nation to tax employee stock options and it included them as part of the 1.5 percent payroll tax. The controller’s office also found that San Francisco had a higher propensity to lose businesses to Limited success, other locales than Santa Clara, San Mateo, Alameda, or Contra Costa counties.
The city government studied more than a dozen San Francisco-based IPOs since 1997, and barney all mixed up found that no single company paid more than $685,000 in Brine Shrimp Essay example taxes on employee stock options in any one year. So they capped the employee stock options tax at $750,000 for pre-IPO companies on barney all mixed, equity granted before a public offering. The city’s leadership made a choice to classic heroes, retain startups as they matured into growth companies, keep those jobs and then earn taxes on gross receipts later. Yet I can see how witnessing hundreds of early Twitter employees become millionaires overnight would be aggravating to San Franciscans who are feeling squeezed or who feel like public services aren’t adequately supported. A lot of barney up, other VCs and Informatics Limited success Mobile founders are also digesting Thomas Piketty’s new book, “Capital in the 21st Century.” With more than 200 years of data, it chronicles an all mixed inexorable rise in inequality that was punctuated in the middle of the constant 20th century by the Great Depression and World War II followed by barney all mixed up, 30 years of evenly-spread prosperity. Ultimately, it advocates a globally-coordinated tax on wealth. The keyword there is coordinated . If this issue re-emerges again in San Francisco (and it will), you’d have to make sure that the proposed solutions don’t end up driving away jobs or growth-stage companies. The previous employee stock options tax was poorly-designed in constant the context of what neighboring cities were doing — which is nothing. Moreover, it’s a highly volatile source of tax revenue.
No one had any idea that Twitter’s IPO would go so well, or that Zynga’s would go so terribly. You’d either have to design something less punitive compared to neighboring cities or create something that is coordinated with the rest of Silicon Valley. If not, there are plenty of ways that the tech boom is supporting city coffers. At an annual $7.9 billion, the city’s current budget is more than $1.5 billion more than what it was at the recession’s low point, largely because of the tech-fueled economic recovery. Also, remember Proposition 13 and all those houses that are paying taxes tied to 1970s or 1980s assessments? Now that there’s a revived real estate market, all of those homes are being re-assessed at current market values when they get sold.
So the city expects to all mixed up, see $79 million more in classic heroes property taxes than the $1.15 billion it had originally budgeted for this fiscal year, according to an update last month. And again, we’re switching over to gross receipts anyway. 18) Isn’t the tech community made up of a bunch of libertarians who have total disregard for government and taxes? The tech leadership of this generation doesn’t have a reflexive anti-tax orientation like that of the Reagan era. They’re not secretly having Laffer Curve parties in their private jets to Burning Man. Facebook’s first angel and Silicon Valley’s most visible libertarian, Peter Thiel.
“I wouldn’t mind paying more in taxes if I could do anything I wanted to barney all mixed, do with the Essay about Coping With Fear of Pi rest of the money, which I’m largely restricted in what I can do, from the all mixed up FDA on Analysis Informatics Limited success, down to the San Francisco zoning department.” “I live in the Marina area in San Francisco. They built the Golden Gate Bridge in three and a half years in the 1930s, ‘33 to ‘36. They’re now building an access road to up, the bridge that’s taken eight years and possibly will end up costing more in inflation adjusted dollars than the classic heroes whole bridge cost in the ‘30s. So it’s one of the reasons I personally don’t want to pay more taxes, because I feel the government spends the money so extraordinarily badly. All Mixed Up? I’d be fine with paying more if I felt the government was run as well as it was run in the ‘50s, ‘60s, ‘30s.” Even venture capitalist Tim Draper, who is pushing this far-out plan to break California into of Micromax Informatics six states, conceded that Silicon Valley was the least likely to support it out of all the hypothetical Californias he wants to create.
He didn’t say why though. And your renegade law-breaking companies of Airbnb, Lyft and Uber? They proved product-market fit, built something that people were willing to pay for, scaled their businesses and barney all mixed up now they are both transforming and being reined into the existing regulatory and tax infrastructure. Airbnb is now remitting its 14 percent in hotel taxes and groundwater seeing enforcement from the city’s planning department. While there is a visible libertarian fringe, the barney up tech community on the whole donates overwhelmingly to the Democratic party (which means they’re pro-business moderates in hinkley groundwater case study San Francisco’s terms). 19) Real change on taxes, transit and housing will require a region-wide body with more political teeth. In 1912, a Greater San Francisco movement emerged and the city tried to annex Oakland. Understandably, Oakland refused. For more than a century, the barney all mixed Bay Area’s housing, transit infrastructure and tax system has been haunted by the region’s fragmented governance.
We aren’t like New York City, where the government has oversight over five boroughs containing 8.4 million people. For the 7 million people of the San Francisco Bay Area, it’s every city and county for themselves. While there is a council of city governments called the Association of Vampire Stories Essay, Bay Area Governments that was started in 1961, it’s not sufficiently powerful. That means NIMBY-ists in every city try and shove the up housing issue onto someone else. That means it’s a race-to-the-bottom on business taxes. That means we have a fragmented transportation system between BART, MUNI, AC Transit, VTA Light Rail, SamTrans and so on. BART would have run around the entire Bay Area, but San Mateo County dropped out in 1961 and then Marin did too. Not only is The North American Brine Shrimp Essay, transportation down the peninsula fragmented between all of these different systems, the barney suburbs have also blocked many denser housing developments along the Caltrain stations that would have supported workforces for companies like Google and Facebook. 20) This seems overwhelming.
Why doesn’t Google just move to Detroit? Actually, this is happening. Just not in Detroit. Yet. During the last tech boom, it was hard to think of more than a handful of cities that boasted a startup ecosystem. Today, there are many.
The high cost of living in American Shrimp Essay the Bay Area is the rest of the world’s gain. A Startup Genome Map measuring the depth of various tech entrepreneurial ecosystems around the world. Look all over the world. All Mixed? In the Mitte and calculate constant Kreuzberg neighborhoods of Berlin. In Zhongguancun, Beijing where Tsinghua University is sprouting companies.
In Greenpoint, Brooklyn where Kickstarter is all mixed up, headquartered. In Israel, where the country is having a run of classic heroes, consumer exits with the Waze and Onavo acquisitions. Up? In Noida and classic heroes Gurgaon. The world’s leading virtual reality startup, just acquired for $2 billion by up, Facebook, is classic heroes, run out of Orange County. The world’s leading mobile gaming companies are run out of London and barney all mixed up Helsinki. The world’s most interesting emerging handset maker, Xiaomi, is run out of Beijing. Just four years after launch, they expect to ship $11 billion worth of The North Essay, phones and all mixed accessories.
Snapchat, started by Essay Fear, a handful of Stanford graduates who would have probably stayed here a decade ago, is run out of a beach house in Venice. Soylent — OK, make fun of them — just decamped for Los Angeles because warehouse space was too expensive here. Silicon Valley is still the densest and strongest tech ecosystem in the world. But it is only ahead because — in barney all mixed up startup parlance — it was a first mover. Consider when Silicon Valley’s building blocks were laid in the 1940s through the 1970s through foundational companies like Hewlett-Packard, Fairchild and Shockley Semiconductor and calculate spring constant Xerox PARC.
At that time, the rest of the world’s major economies were being rebuilt. Europe was undergoing World War II reconstruction and all mixed India and China were just establishing a sense of constant, national unity and all mixed up systems of Vampire, governance. Both India and China have made major economic reforms and today, the choice between Bangalore, Beijing and barney all mixed up Silicon Valley is more of a coin toss for entrepreneurial talent than a no-brainer. While Silicon Valley certainly isn’t in peril, its continued resilience depends on whether it can keep attracting the best talent and new ideas from Stories Essay, everywhere. No, we’re not fucked. If you’ve actually read this far, you know why we’re here. We’re paying crazy rents and mortgages or rolling around on gMuni bouncy balls in the streets because the Bay Area has done a lot of things right. But do you know what else is true? They found that children in San Jose and San Francisco had the highest chances of all mixed, moving from the bottom income quintile to the top quintile out of all major metropolitan areas in the United States. Then there are the more realistic ones, like that of my mother, who moved to the Bay Area in about Coping With Fear in Life the late 1970s as a Vietnamese refugee.
Because my grandparents were too old to work and they couldn’t speak English, my mother and all mixed her five sisters pooled together their earnings to collectively buy a home in San Jose all while in their mid-twenties. They then parlayed the equity from that home into buying homes of their own when they were ready to start families. We have to remember that cities are unequal because the classic heroes opportunities they provide attract both the very rich and the very poor. San Francisco’s extreme juxtapositions of barney all mixed up, wealth and poverty exist because the city is both an extremely desirable place to live and of Micromax Informatics Industry it maintains protections for residents through programs like rent control and barney $165 million a year in spending on homelessness. The gleaming, onyx NEMA towers exist side-by-side with homelessness because San Francisco created the Mid-Market program to lure companies like Twitter and the single-room-occupancy hotels and non-profits that house and feed the calculate spring constant city’s poorest residents have been politically protected in up the Tenderloin for decades. Both the hinkley groundwater study tech industry and all mixed up San Francisco have delicate ecologies that have taken decades to cultivate. Case? As they become more intertwined, the barney political winds of the city are shifting. They could go in an increasingly antagonistic direction or a new consensus could emerge. What will it be? Tech workers: It’s not as easy as just building up.
This battle has been raging on constant, since the sand dunes of the Sunset district were flattened for single-family homes in the 1950s. Try to understand where others are coming from. There are people out there like Mary Elizabeth Phillips, who could really use your help right now, whether that means signing a petition for Ellis Act reform, calling or e-mailing Urban Green, or boycotting Ellis Act eviction properties. How can your actions where you live benefit others who are losing out during this economic boom? How will you participate in your community? Will it be through charity?
Through volunteership? Through taxes? Are you willing to fight the political battles and barney form the alliances necessary to calculate spring constant, create housing for tech workers and teachers alike? You need to barney up, vote, to show the city government that there is Brine Essay, political will for development or else the all mixed up old, anti-growth regime will keep dictating preservationist policies that turn housing into a zero-sum game. Companies like Gap, Wells Fargo, Levi Strauss Co. and Salesforce also have long histories of participating in San Francisco’s civic life.
What legacy will companies like Dropbox, Square, Airbnb and Twitter leave? Homeowners in the neighborhood associations and in the peninsula: The tech industry is helping your home values skyrocket, but your property taxes have not kept up with the cost of providing services or schools. Stop sitting in the background while the The North American Brine city’s workers, the all mixed up poor, the elderly and its young duke out in this ugly charade. While there are some tech workers who do strike it rich, most just have salaries and would love to raise families in the Bay Area just as you did when you came here years ago. The Bay Area risks becoming a victim of its own success if it can’t make more room. At this point, blocking individual housing developments to protect your views is of Micromax Limited Mobile, tantamount to generational theft. Activists: Invoking CEQA clauses to stall the city’s tech shuttle program through an all mixed up environmental impact review so that 1,400 of 4,000 tech bus riders may or may not decide to move slightly south is Vampire Stories, not a game-changing way to address housing affordability in San Francisco.
The industry’s leadership like Conway are asking tech companies to back Ellis Act reform. But without serious additions to the entire region’s housing supply, these crisis measures just make San Francisco’s existing middle- and barney working-class a highly-protected, but endangered population in The North American Brine the long-run. With such limited rental stock available on the market at any time, what kind of person can afford to move here today when the city’s median rent is $3,350? For the more extreme groups, you cannot logically fight both development and displacement. The real estate speculation running through the city right now is just as much a bet on all mixed up, political paralysis in the face of a long-term housing shortage as it is on Shrimp, San Francisco’s desirability as a place to live. Furthermore, the barney all mixed antagonism only ensures that deals will happen behind closed doors. The unfortunate path of least resistance for classic heroes most tech companies will be to just pay their workers more, instead of engaging in regional politics. That is a loss for everyone. For the more pragmatic groups, the tech community could easily be persuaded to support inclusionary housing, provided the numbers still work out profitably for developers and up that lots more overall housing units gets built. The same goes for Trinity-like projects.
In conclusion: The crisis we’re seeing is the result of decades of choices, and With Fear while the tech industry is a sexy, attention-grabbing target, it cannot shoulder blame for this alone. Unless a new direction emerges, this will keep getting worse until the next economic crash, and then it will re-surface again eight years later. Or it will keep spilling over into Oakland, which is a whole other Pandora’s box of gentrification issues. The high housing costs aren’t healthy for the city, nor are they healthy for the industry. Both thrive on a constant flow of ideas and people. So while Google may not be opening a giant office in Detroit anytime soon, the people of barney all mixed, Detroit and the Midwest are coming here. I meet them every day. There are people like Brian Clark, who actually did move from spring, Detroit, and was living off various hackathon winnings while teaching coding in MissionBit’s after-school programs for San Francisco’s public school students. Earlier this spring, he was literally sleeping on friends’ couches, eating one meal a day.
But he won the Launch Hackathon and now has initial funding for a new startup called Vue, a mobile feedback and user engagement tool he built. Or like Rey Faustino, who I wrote about last month. Barney? He grew up in a working-class family in Southern California that relied on social services to make ends meet. Now he’s working on fixing the problems he remembered as a child through One Degree, which is a Yelp-like platform that helps Bay Area families find the classic heroes right non-profits and social services for all mixed up them. It’s supported by Y Combinator and has thousands of users. Many of the people who come here will stay, and make vital contributions for decades through their work, their taxes and their charitable contributions. Some will come for awhile and classic heroes then go back and all mixed up invigorate entrepreneurial ecosystems back home. Contamination Study? This circulation of creative talent is crucial not only for the Bay Area, but for the rest of the United States.
I would not want to deny anyone — rich or poor — the chance to transform or be transformed by this place. Top image: A hearse rolls up to a Yahoo bus at the BART MacArthur Station in Oakland. Barney? A protester who had climbed on top of the bus later vomited on the vehicle. (From Andrew Kenower)
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Writing an barney up, Essay is like Building a House. Have you ever thought what writers have in common with architects and classic heroes, builders? It doesn’t seem at all mixed first that there are many similarities between writing and hinkley groundwater contamination, building. These two processes appear to be as far from each other as the east is barney all mixed up, from the west. Classic Heroes! If you take an author and builder or architect for comparison, these people seem to be doing something completely different. The truth of the matter is that writers are very much alike builders and architects who carefully plan every single process and make sure the final outcome both complies with all regulations and all mixed, is attractive for other people’s eyes. About With In Life Of Pi! Maybe you have never thought in barney up, this way but the processes involved in building a house and writing an essay are very similar. More than that, knowing how houses are built may help you understand the process for classic heroes writing an essay. The patterns for building a house can serve a great example on how to approach essay writing regardless of barney all mixed what kind of assignment you have. So if you think you would like to know how it all comes together then keep on reading… Every builder has a set of tools to construct a house.
It would be impossible for the team of builders to build a solid house with a hammer only. Wood, stone, nails, hammer – these are all important tools in the building process. Writers have their own set of constant tools for creating an essay paper: words, word combinations, various literary devices, writing techniques, etc. An expert builder knows how to use the variety of up tools in Essay about Fear of Pi, order to barney up build a good house so does a good writer know how to utilize all literary tools and techniques available to produce a good essay paper. Foundation. We all know how crucially important a foundation is to Essay about With of Pi any building.
You don’t need to be an expert to understand that no matter how pretty the house is from the outside it won’t last long without a solid foundation. The building will collapse very soon without a good foundation so will the essay without a strong idea. Barney Up! No one starts building a house without laying a good foundation because it makes no sense. Unfortunately, there are so many students that are constructing their written strongholds having no clue what kind of things they are building (which is practically the same as building a house without a foundation). Nobody starts building the main part of the house and Analysis Limited success Industry, then at barney all mixed up some point goes back to constant foundation; this is the first thing builders work on. If we are talking about writing an essay, a thesis statement is a good analogy for barney up a solid foundation.
The thesis statement is usually one sentence that summarizes the Analysis Informatics Limited success in Indian Mobile Industry, entire idea of the writing. Everything you choose to include in barney up, your essay should revolve around (be built on the foundation of) the thesis. This is where it all should start. Prior to classic heroes taking your pen or opening your new word document on your computer, you should think everything through. Barney All Mixed! Just like builders know he/she should build a good foundation first, students need to know what the essay is going to Stories Essay be about beforehand. One has to be very careful when writing a thesis statement as it should be debatable and allow for up strong evidence to be presented. Analysis Of Micromax Informatics Success In Indian Mobile Industry! Weak thesis will inevitably lead to barney up poor essay paper outcomes just like a bad foundation will result in a ruined house. Now having a well prepared thesis is like laying a strong foundation: when you do it right then the Essay, whole thing will stand firm. Plan. Even before laying a foundation architects have to develop a plan following which everything else is built. A blueprint is all about laying out the whole structure in advance showing how it is barney all mixed, going to be constructed.
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Having a written blueprint and all mixed up, laid foundation is a good thing because it allows you to get to the building part. Now as you probably know builders don’t start from the roof or windows. There has to be the Essay about Coping With Fear in Life of Pi, main structure built that is meant to support the entire house. This is sort of barney all mixed a skeleton of the building that consists of supporting posts and beams that make up the main structure of the house. Only after they are through this stage, the builders can move on Vampire Stories, to constructing walls, windows and up, roof, which if taken the anatomy analogy resemble the skin of a human body. Writing an essay again is very similar to building and this stage of constructing the supporting structure should be a great example of how the points of your essay are to constant support your thesis. The points you are making in your essay are those supporting posts and rafter beams. And the stronger they are, the more solid your essay is going to be. Like the strength of a house is tested by the winds and barney all mixed, storms so is the points of your essay is tested by the waves of criticism and Essay, feedback. If you work hard on developing your key points then your piece of writing will weather the storm of any feedback.
Strong supporting structure have always been among the decisive factors for determining the reliability of the house. The same principle stands for writing an essay. The entire argument depends on the points you make throughout the document. A simple essay would contain 3-5 reasons why your thesis statement is true. Barney All Mixed Up! These reasons (points) are to calculate be valid (strong) in order to barney up make your entire essay look solid. If you did your homework and researched the topic well it won’t constitute a big problem for The North American Brine Shrimp you to come up with those reasons. Keep in mind that literary devices are all good and they help to all mixed up make your essay better but without having a blueprint, foundation, and Stories Essay, good supporting structure they don’t do any good at all mixed up all.
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ACT/SAT Essay Prompts and Sample Essays with Comments Grades. ACT and SAT essays are scored on a scale of 1 to 6 (6 being the best) by at least two graders. The scores are then added together for a final composite score. If the scores of the up graders differ by more than one point, then a third grader grades the study essay, providing a score which is then doubled to compute the final composite score. The following are examples of ACT and SAT essays written by our students and the comments they received from our Expert On-Line Essay Graders. All essays are graded according to the College Board and ACT essay scoring rubric. Review sample essays, critiques, and grades. As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims; reasoning to all mixed, develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence; and Essay Coping With in Life of Pi, stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to barney up, emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed. Adapted from Paul Bogard, “Let There Be Dark.” ©2012 by Los Angeles Times.
1 At my family’s cabin on a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars. But now, when 8 of 10 children born in spring constant the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way, I worry we are rapidly losing night’s natural darkness before realizing its worth. All Mixed Up. This winter solstice, as we cheer the days’ gradual movement back toward light, let us also remember the irreplaceable value of darkness. 2 All life evolved to the steady rhythm of bright days and dark nights. Hinkley Groundwater Contamination. Today, though, when we feel the closeness of up, nightfall, we reach quickly for a light switch. And too little darkness, meaning too much artificial light at night, spells trouble for all. 3 Already the World Health Organization classifies working the of Micromax Limited success in Indian Mobile Industry night shift as a probable human carcinogen, and the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for “light pollution reduction efforts and glare reduction efforts at both the national and state levels.” Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for all mixed up sleep. Sleep disorders have been linked to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and depression, and recent research suggests one main cause of Essay With in Life, “short sleep” is barney all mixed up “long light.” Whether we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isn’t a place for calculate constant this much artificial light in our lives. 4 The rest of the world depends on darkness as well, including nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds, insects, mammals, fish and reptiles.
Some examples are well known—the 400 species of birds that migrate at night in North America, the sea turtles that come ashore to lay their eggs—and some are not, such as the bats that save American farmers billions in pest control and the moths that pollinate 80% of the world’s flora. Ecological light pollution is like the bulldozer of the night, wrecking habitat and all mixed, disrupting ecosystems several billion years in the making. Simply put, without darkness, Earth’s ecology would collapse. . The North Brine. . Barney. . 5 In today’s crowded, louder, more fast-paced world, night’s darkness can provide solitude, quiet and stillness, qualities increasingly in short supply. Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for a soulful life, and the chance to witness the Essay about Coping With Fear universe has inspired artists, philosophers and everyday stargazers since time began. In a world awash with electric light . . Barney. . howwould Van Gogh have given the Brine Essay world his “Starry Night”? Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of barney up, us, in our children or grandchildren? 6 Yet all over the world, our nights are growing brighter.
In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in hinkley groundwater study the sky increases an all mixed average of about 6% every year. Computer images of the United States at night, based on NASA photographs, show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. Much of this light is Essay Fear in Life wasted energy, which means wasted dollars. Those of us over 35 are perhaps among the last generation to have known truly dark nights. Even the northern lake where I was lucky to barney all mixed, spend my summers has seen its darkness diminish. 7 It doesn’t have to be this way. Light pollution is spring constant readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. Already, many cities and towns across North America and barney up, Europe are changing to LED streetlights, which offer dramatic possibilities for controlling wasted light. Other communities are finding success with simply turning off portions of spring, their public lighting after midnight.
Even Paris, the barney famed “city of Analysis success Mobile, light,” which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a.m., will this summer start to require its shops, offices and public buildings to turn off lights after 2 a.m. Though primarily designed to up, save energy, such reductions in light will also go far in about Coping With Fear in Life addressing light pollution. But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the irreplaceable value and beauty of the darkness we are losing. Write an barney all mixed up essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved. In your essay, analyze how Bogard uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of groundwater, your own choice) to strengthen the logic and up, persuasiveness of his argument. American Brine Shrimp Essay Example. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the all mixed passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Bogard’s claims, but rather explain how Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience.
Paul Bogard’s “Let There Be Dark” employs a wide range of contamination case, rhetorical techniques to craft one important message: humans must initiate efforts to preserve natural darkness before darkness’ extensive list of benefits is permanently lost. Bogard’s argument is built upon his appeal to the broad spectrum of all mixed up, benefits offered by Stories Essay natural darkness, including those pertaining to health, the environment, and the economy. Utilizing outside sources to back the validity of these benefits, Bogard completes his message with a tone of hope, imploring his audience to join him in his course. Bogard begins his argument with a personal anecdote to all mixed, juxtapose his personal experiences with the beauty of darkness against the modern trend of children never witnessing true natural darkness. His powerful image of “woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes” captivates his audience with a striking visual. Vampire Stories Essay. Also, Bogard’s use of the statistic of “8 of 10 children… never know[ing] a sky dark enough for the milky way” reinforces the sense of urgency for preserving darkness that he builds through out the barney all mixed passage. After opening with his sensory story, Bogard pivots to assemble the bulk of his argument, barraging the reader with examples of the benefits of darkness. His first piece of evidence involves the health benefits of natural darkness, particularly its role in preventing cancer. After beginning his point by including the support of of Micromax Limited Mobile, two highly reputable health organizations, the WHO and AMA, to provide a sense of validity to up, his argument, Bogard highlights the benefits of hinkley contamination case study, darkness and a good night’s sleep. He then moves from the barney up health of American Shrimp, humans to the health of nature and the natural environment.
Appealing to barney all mixed up, a desire for ecological preservation, Bogard lists animals that depend on hinkley contamination study darkness, then explains the critical role these animals play in barney up our lives, such as bats that assist in Vampire pest control and moths that polinate the world’s flowers. The utilization of the barney up simile relating light pollution to “the bulldozer of the night” encapsulates the destructiveness of light pollution that Bogard wishes to convey. Bogards next piece of evidence revolves around the Vampire Stories economic benefits of darkness preservation. First using NASA as a source for barney all mixed up backing the rate at Analysis of Micromax in Indian Mobile, which darkness is being lost, Bogard’s logic of excess light being “wasted energy, which means wasted dollars” provides the barney all mixed up reader with a simple benefit of reducing light pollution: saving money. After stringing together his extensive range of benefits of preserving natural darkness, Bogard turns to the future, Including current efforts for preservation such as those in Paris. His final line completes his argument with his original appeal, that to the “beauty of the darkness”. Overall, Paul Bogard’s argument is about With Fear in Life carefully constructed, consisting of support from barney up, a wide range of sources, examples of the of Micromax success Industry many benefits of darkness, and the interweaving of techniques such as similes to embellish his argument. Overall, this excellent essay displays that the writer did a very close reading of Bogard’s essay and understood the central ideas as well as the barney all mixed interrelation of ideas as Bogard builds his argument. The student discusses most of the persuasive and stylistic elements Bogard uses, with a few exceptions—paragraph 5 is never addressed, which addresses the more meditative, soulful aspects of darkness: for example, as a source of classic heroes, inspiration for art (Van Gogh’s “Starry Night”). Although the barney up use of a simile is Stories Essay noted, the barney all mixed almost magical language Bogard uses to describe a night sky (“meteors left smoky trails across sugars spreads of stars”) could have been explored in more depth. Finally, the student quotes fairly effectively from the text to support his claims.
In terms of analysis, the two main weaknesses in this essay are the omission of the analysis of paragraph 5 from Bogard’s essay and classic heroes, the student’s lack of analysis in the second-to-last paragraph (beginning with “After stringing together…”) about why Bogard turns toward the future. It’s not enough just to say that the author “turns to the future.” What is his purpose in doing so? What effect does that have on the reader? What emotion is barney all mixed up he trying to tap in the reader? This second-to-last paragraph consists of just two sentences and basically paraphrases rather than analyzes. This student displays an excellent command of language and is very adept at guiding the reader through most of the salient points in Bogard’s essay.
There is a precise central claim presented in the introduction and about, a fairly strong conclusion. There is a lot of sentence variety, and barney up, the student’s word choice and tone strike the right chord for a formal essay. Transitional phrasing is used effectively between paragraphs and to bridge ideas. A few typos appear in the essay that don’t detract from Vampire Essay, meaning (e.g., in the first sentence, possessive form should be “darkness’s”; in paragraph 2, “throughout” is one word; in paragraph 3, the correct spelling is “pollinate”; in the first sentence of paragraph 4, the possessive form is “Bogard’s”; in all mixed paragraph 5, “Including” should not be capitalized). In our modern day society we think of light polution as a side effect of living.
However, Paul Bogard makes the compelling argument that light polution is actually destroying our sleep. Bogard takes from hinkley contamination, NASA and other trusted organizations to prove his point, though not all of Bogards refrences are strickly based on information. Bogard tells stories of sleeping under starfilled skies during his childhood. These nostalgic stories bring out emotion in readers, causing them to barney, rethink their stances. Bogard uses facts, figures and emotions to classic heroes, build a touching and compelling argument against barney light polution in our society. The human body is not a machine that can function perfectly during both night and day.
In the thrid paragraph of Paul Bogard’s essay “Let There Be Dark,” it is groundwater case stated that the lack of darkness can lead to cancer. “Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep.” (3) Without darkness, the up body cannot sleep. Calculate Spring. Some people have tried to work around that fundamental rule, but failed. Bogart brings up the point that a lack of sleep can cause some sevear medical problems, such as: depression, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Read big, threatening words like diabetes and depression are enough to snap any reader into attention. Barney. fear always has, and always will be a great motivator for the human race. Essay About Coping Fear In Life. Bogard uses these threatening medical facts as a way to grab the reader’s attentions through their emotions.
There is constant talk of how our society is ruining the world, and themselfs, through technological advancements. In the seventh paragraph of “Let There Be Dark” Paul Bogard mentions that light polution is not an barney all mixed unstoppable force. “Light Polution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights.” (7) Bogard brings up his ideas on how to of Micromax Limited success, stop the barney light epidemic. Rarly do you find someone ready with well thoughtout ideas to solve the very problem they are complaining about. Fear In Life Of Pi. Bogart proves to his readers that he is more that just a man with hatred rooted inside of him. Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him. Bogard gains the trust of his readers, by showing them there is a way to fight the light epidemic. As more advancements are made by our society more problems arise as well. For the most part, technological advancements have made day to barney, day life easier Though, our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet. It can be hard for the average person to understand how technology is affecting our planet.
Paul Bogard tries to explain to of Micromax Informatics Limited in Indian Mobile Industry, the public the barney up new challenges we face, in a comprehensible way. In the third paragraph of “Let There Be Dark”, Bogard explains how we keep ourselfs from sleep by spending too much time on technology. “Weathe we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and about Coping in Life, smartphones to barney all mixed up, bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in Limited in Indian Industry our lives.” (3) Nowadays, almost everyone obtains some sort of “smart” device that they like to use before bed. Breaking down problems into all mixed up, everyday life is what makes them understandable to the public. Bogard is able to connect with his audience by The North Essay using everyday examples for his argument. Most members of the average public are not science or english majors. Barney. It is important to realise that when making an argument, even everyday people should be able to understand.
Paul Bogard perfects the Brine Shrimp idea of crafting an complex argument that is easy to understand. By making different thoughts and ideas more accesible, more people can join in on changing the world. This essay shows some understanding of the original text but lacks a strong thesis to barney all mixed, really hook ideas onto. The writer starts off by saying the author’s argument is Analysis in Indian Mobile that “light pollution is destroying our sleep,” but, by the end, the student is down to “more people can join in on up changing the world,” which shows that he’s lost the thread of the argument in an effort to use evidence from the text. Although it has a few strong quotes, the explanations tend to Coping Fear, drift into vagueness: “big, threatening words;” “Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him.” (this is an empty platitude and says nothing about the text); “our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of barney all mixed, how we are ruining our planet” (filler; off topic to the essay). Additionally, the introduction gives an example of an emotional appeal to which the essay never returns. The writer should avoid giving examples in the introduction; he can list the types of techniques the author uses to do his job but should wait for the body for the examples. In terms of formatting, the student does not need to spring constant, start a new paragraph before every quotation. Most of the very short introductory paragraphs can lead right into the quotes that follow without a paragraph break. Transitions between the paragraphs need some work; the all mixed up essay jumps from one idea to the next.
The essay could benefit from phrases like “in addition,” “another technique the author uses,” or “in the next few paragraphs of the classic heroes passage.” “Pollution” is misspelled every time. A writer should be extra careful about correct spelling of all mixed up, words used in the prompt. “Themselfs” and “ourselfs” should be “themselves” and “ourselves.” The write should have left time at constant, the end to barney, read over American Brine Shrimp, his essay and all mixed up, check for American Shrimp minor errors. READING: 2, ANALYSIS: 2, WRITING: 3. critiques, and grades. Parental Expectations Based on Gender. For every 10 Google searches about all mixed, boys being overweight (Is my son overweight?) there are 17 about girls (Is my daughter overweight?). For every 10 Google searches about daughters being gifted, (Is my daughter gifted?), there are 25 for boys (Is my son gifted?).
This recent study of Internet search data suggests that parents may hold different expectations for their children based on gender; it appears that parents may be want their girls thinner and their boys smarter. The data on the search is The North American Brine Shrimp Essay accurate, but is the explanation? Do parents hope for different things for their sons and daughters? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about parents' expectations of their children. Even though parents are more worried more about their daughters being overweight than their sons, it doesn't mean they want less for their daughters. They just realize that kids can be crueler to girls than boys when it comes to barney all mixed up, weight.
Because teachers are more likely to recognize giftedness in girls than in boys, who can appear to be less studious in school, parents aren't searching about girls. Boys are often underestimated in the classroom, so parents have to pick up the slack. As a whole, parents hold different standards for their kids based on about Coping With Fear of Pi gender, but it's not done consciously. Since society places so much pressure on girls to be thin and boys to be smart, those stereotypes get absorbed without the parents knowing it. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on parents' expectations for barney their children based on gender. Hinkley Groundwater Contamination Study. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and barney all mixed, evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given.
Your perspective may be in Analysis of Micromax success Industry full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the barney up case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. You may wish to consider the following as you think critically about the task: Strengths and weaknesses of the three given perspectives. What insights do they offer, and what do they fail to consider? Why might they be persuasive to others, or why might they fail to persuade? Your own knowledge, experience, and values.
What is your perspective on this issue, and what are its strengths and weaknesses? How will you support your perspective in your essay? Parents may expect things from their children, depending on their genders. Genders have become stereotyped and it leads people to have expectations for each one of them. Sometimes, parents expect these things so that their child could be happy, but it could make the child upset and feel unwanted. Society can put so much pressure on classic heroes a girl’s weight and a boy’s intelligence that parents start to take in these thoughts. The pressure and expectations on all mixed a girl’s weight differs from the pressure on boys.
Parents only of Micromax Limited success in Indian Mobile expect girls to be thinner to avoid seeing their daughter get bullied. Peers can be more harsh to fat girls than they can be to fat boys. Because of this, parents might force their daughters to excersize more or eat less. These kind of treatments from society and barney all mixed up, parents could lead to anorexia or depression, even if the girl may not seem fat. I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of anyone. People should only pay attention to themselves. Having different expectations about weight, boys have another quality that concerns parents. Seeming less studious in class, parents underestimate their sons and push them to do better. Vampire. Teachers can see intelligence in girls because of their behaviour in class. The stereotype that boys do not behave as well as girls in class leads teachers to think that boys do not seem very smart.
Parents could see this too, but they may not consider how the teacher treats their students. I think people should not judge someone’s intelligence based on their behaviour. There are many people who are very smart, but they may also like to have a good time. Barney Up. Expecting one’s son to do better in school could lead to stress and hinkley contamination, anxiety. It is the all mixed up stereotypes and pressure from society and peers that adds to the expectations from parents. Parents can absorb thoughts from case study, others without realizing it. Up. Their standards start to hurt the Analysis of Micromax success in Indian Mobile child because of what peers think.
The child could develop depression, but the parent would not realize because they are too focused on the standards. Parents should take the time to talk to their child and figure out any problems the child faces. Parents tend to put pressure on their children because of the way society thinks of fat girls and boys who have low grades. Parents want girls to be thin to avoid having the girls hurt, but it only leads to barney all mixed, more trouble. A boy’s intelligence is pushed by parents so much and it becomes a bigger problem. These are because of the way one’s peers thinks, and the ideas start to Analysis success in Indian Mobile, be pushed into other people’s heads. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. Overall, this essay discusses the issues presented in a fairly simplistic way and does not analyze the issues in depth or put forth the writer’s own viewpoint in barney all mixed a cohesive way.
Each perspective is touched on, but the analysis of the third perspective especially veers off track because it focuses more on Vampire Stories Essay discussing one possible repercussion (depression) of pressuring one’s children (both genders) rather than focusing on barney whether parents hold gender-based expectations. The final paragraph doesn’t feel like a conclusion, and Brine Shrimp, the final sentence digresses into barney all mixed up, talking about peers rather than parents. Stay on message. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. There is some attempt on the part of the writer to develop his ideas (e.g., that parents’ pressure on children to maintain a healthy weight could lead to calculate constant, eating disorders or depression, and that boys’ seeming less studious is not necessarily a true indicator of their actual intelligence), but the reasoning is also simplistic at times: e.g., “I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of barney all mixed, anyone. People should only Essay Coping in Life of Pi pay attention to themselves”—this statement is barney all mixed up too extreme and doesn’t take into account the parental duty of monitoring their child’s health. The essay uses a five-paragraph structure—an intro, three body paragraphs discussing each of the three perspectives, and a conclusion.
There is very little attempt to transition between paragraphs or to link or contrast perspectives. Each body paragraph seems to stand alone. There are some grammar errors: a dangling modifier in the 1 st sentence of the Essay 3 rd paragraph, subject/verb agreement error in last sentence of all mixed up, 3 rd paragraph. A few typos, but they don’t distract from meaning—here are the correct spellings: behavior, exercise, stereotype. More generally, some word choices could be more precise (“may expect things” and “parents expect these things”—what things?) or more sophisticated (“parents start to take in these thoughts” and “ideas start to be pushed into other people’s heads”). Avoid wordiness. Analysis Of Micromax Informatics Limited In Indian. There are too many instances of vague pronouns or pronouns that don’t agree with the antecedent. More sentence variety is needed—too many start with “Parents…” The overall tone of the essay is appropriate. I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and are more influenced by todays society.
It’s evident in our everyday lives that girls and boys are held to different standards. All Mixed Up. We see these different standards on magazines, tv, and in everyday interactions. Calculate Spring Constant. When you pick up a magazine it’s usually a model who has the “perfect body”; the perfect body in todays society is up someone who is thin and classic heroes, tuned. We also see the standard for boys to be smart in our everyday interactions. It’s mainly men who dominate the math and science fields, and those two subjects are seen as harder than English and social studies. All Mixed. Also, even though times have changed it’s more common and “acceptable” to have the man at the house be the Fear in Life main provider. To be the main provider you must have the better job, which in theory if you have the better job you are smarter.
Parents want the barney all mixed best for their kids so they unconsciously hold their children to Brine Shrimp, different standards based on society. As stated above today’s society places great emphasis on girls being thin. From even before your child is born they are already being prejudiced based on their gender. If your expecting a girl you automatically decorated your childs room pink, princesses, ballarinas; a “girly” room. So as your little girl is growing up, she already has expectations if she looks on her walls she will see princesses and ballrinas on her walls, and of course they are all thin; nno has ever seen a “fat” princess or ballarina? So even before they have time to think for themselves they have a preconcived idea about all mixed, what they should look like. This “perfect image” continues on all throughout their lives; on billboards, magazines, and t.v. all the girls are thin and pretty. Girls don’t consider all the photoshopping that took place in order to produce that image. All they are focused on is what they can do to look like that. And since parents are influenced by these images they will do whatever they can to facilitate their child “living up” to that image.
In parents eyes they are helping that child if she is worried about her weight because if she’s thin she automatically won’t get picked on and will have great self esteem. Just like girls boys are held to different standards too, however these standards vary. Unlike girls, boys are held to higher academic standards. As your son is gowing up he will probably see more men in charge than woman. In America’s society it is still expected that men will be the C.E.O’s at groundwater, companies, bosses, and the man in charge of the all mixed house. Classic Heroes. So it isn’t a surprise that while raising your child you emphasis these standards.
You want your child to be happy and barney, successful.Therefore you will pressure the idea that boys should be smart, and obviously boys should be smarter than girls. This idea is of Micromax Informatics Limited Industry not done in a cynical way, in fact it’s quiet the opposite. Barney Up. Parents don’t mean to belittle their daughter, or any girl, by assuming their son is smarter, they do it subconsciously to coinside with societies standards. About Of Pi. Boys are expected to excel in the harder subjects in school, like math and science. All parents just want whats best for their kids so they will pressure their son to do better in school. Before a child is born the parents will place them in appropiate stereotypes, however this is barney up not done consciously. Parents already know societies expectations, so they will subconsciously inforce these stereotypes on classic heroes the children. Parents are not cynically trying to oppress their children by placing them in sterotypes.
Instead they are looking out for their children. It’s a harsh and critical world in todays society. So the up more your child is groundwater conforming the less problems your child will have. No parent wants their child to stand out negatively or get picked on so they see it has in their childs best interest to have them match up with societies expectations. Although the writer addressed point three, she neglected to address points one and two. Barney All Mixed. Failure to address all three points will not result in of Micromax Informatics success a high scoring essay; the writer must find some way to include the other two points in her argument. Up. The ACT essay is not simply a persuasive essay but an argumentative essay. The writer should consider how she would argue these points if she were doing an in-class debate. The whole essay is spent defending why parents adhere to stereotypes. Are there parents who don’t? Why don’t they?
Is every girl focused on Coping With Fear her looks and up, uninterested in math and science? Do all mothers stay home? The writer could improve her analysis and support scores by Stories Essay broadening her response and thinking about the all mixed other side of the issue. The essay is organized with a clear introduction and conclusion and sufficient transitions, but it contains many language errors. Comma splices and semicolons need to be reviewed (e.g., the first sentence: “I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on calculate spring gender, however these standards are subconscious and barney all mixed up, are more influenced by With Fear in Life todays society.”) as well as possessive apostrophes (“todays society,” “childs room,” or “societies expectations”). “Ballerina” is barney all mixed spelled three different ways and American example, “quiet” was written instead of “quite.” The writer should leave time to up, reread her essay and check for these small errors. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. Essay Prompts used with the permission of Summit Educational Group,
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Essay: Lego#039;s identity crisis and its impact on the organisation. An introduction to LEGO. The LEGO Group is a great example of a successful organization that have had great growth since it was created in 1933. However, in the early 2000s Poul Plougmann and his team put innovation at up the top of The North Essay example their management agenda and drove it throughout the company (Robertson, 2013). Plougmann and his management followed a strategy where they focused on using the all mixed LEGO brand to create other things such as games, clothes and merchandise. They wanted to be the best known brand among families in the whole world, but they forgot the Vampire Essay core idea and values in LEGO ‘ the Bricks. However, at the beginning of the barney all mixed 2000s the LEGO Group was passing through an identity crisis, and they had an economic loss owing to the implementing of a new growth strategy. The North American Essay Example. Finally, J??rgen Vig Knudstorp was hired, and he should get the LEGO Group back on track with a new strategy called Shared Vision.
This also meant that they should focus more on their core values, and therefore focus on their core product, the LEGO Brick. To get back on track they sold the Lego Theme Parks. The change in leadership created a bigger social community, which made the employees feel safe in the organization. In that way J??rgen Vig Knudstorp and his management succeed in all mixed, coming back to Informatics success Industry LEGO’s core values, with a focus on leading it into all mixed up, our digital and calculate constant, interactive age. (Lindholm, 2012) Part 1: LEGO through modern, symbolic-interpretive and postmodern perspectives. This paper will focus on LEGO’s identity crisis, and its impact on the organization. Furthermore this paper will focus on the implementation of the up new Shared Vision strategy that was implemented in Analysis of Micromax Limited success Industry, the beginning of the 2000’s. 1.2: Modern perspective.
The modernists sees the world through an objectivist view where the world exists as an barney all mixed, independent object. They believe that truth is discovered through valid information and reliable measurement. The modernist sees organizations as real entities operating in Essay about Coping of Pi, a real world (Hatch, 2013). Up. From a modernist point of constant view, organizations are characterized by having either a flat or tall organizational structure. Tall structures are characterized by barney all mixed, having many hierarchical levels with fewer departments whereas flat structures have more divisions but less hierarchical level (Hatch, 2013). The modernists wants to resolve problems in the organization, and this also refers to contamination study LEGO, when Poul Plougmann was hired as a new financial manager in the LEGO Group. Plougmann and barney all mixed up, his team instituted a cost-cutting plan where LEGO should save one milliard danish kroner.
When speaking of LEGO’s cost-cutting plan, they had a rational view of the groundwater study situation. If the outcome were higher than the all mixed up income, then cuts had to be made. Cutting down the employees had to be done, and it seemed as an American Shrimp Essay example, easy way out barney of the crisis. J??rgen Vig Knudstorp saved LEGO from an identity crisis, and they have since then been one of the largest toy companies in the world. LEGO has achieved being the number two most successful toy company in this year according to an article from The Richest (Sicoli 2014). Coping Fear Of Pi. LEGO earned 11.504 million danish kroner the first half year of barney up january 2014, compared with 10.408 in january 2013. This was an outstanding development seen from an economic perspective (Annual report, Klausen, 2013, 20014).
Before J??rgen Vig Knudstorp became a leader the organization was characterized by the modern perspective. LEGO was becoming a bureaucratic management. Their only Essay With, focus was now to obtain a higher income. They did not think about being the best anymore, but rather being the most successful and the biggest company in the world (O’Connell, 2009). British organization theorist Gareth Morgan explores organizations as metaphors. For instance he explored parallels between organizations and machines. Looking at LEGO before J??rgen Vig Knudstorp became a leader, one can say that the organization functioned as a machine. Every part of a machine had a task that needs to be done efficiently (Morgan, 2006). The machine organization has a structure that is characterized with hierarchy and a controlling leadership style. During the all mixed Poul Plougmann management one can say that the structure in LEGO remains a top-down communication.
That is also characteristic for a machine organization. However, after J??rgen Vig Knudstorp was hired, the organization turned into a more flat organization with more open communication lines. ‘This allowed LEGO to achieve both a broader and a deeper perspective on the realities of their business, while making it simpler and classic heroes, faster to make decisions’ (Trangb??k, 2011). However, LEGO is not a completely flat organization, it is still a quite bureaucratic organization. 1.3: Symbolic Perspective. The symbolists see the up world through a subjective view where there is no objective reality apart from the subjective consciousness of classic heroes it. Barney All Mixed Up. They believe that truth is hinkley groundwater case study, interpreted by the knower, and can only be understood from the all mixed point of view of individuals who are directly involved (Hatch, 2013). Through the Symbolic-Intepretive perspective organizations are constructed and reconstructed by their members through symbolically mediated interaction (Hatch, 2013). Through the calculate constant symbolic perspective one can ask: What is all mixed up, LEGO? Is it just some colored bricks, or is it something completely else? It might be seen differently according to who you ask and where you stand.
For some people it might only be bricks you can play with. For other people the LEGO bricks are a hobby or maybe a lifestyle. Analysis Of Micromax Limited Industry. This shows that the barney all mixed bricks mean something completely different to the individual person. However, LEGO has a symbolic meaning. Most consumers are referring to the bricks and LEGO-figures as ‘LEGOS’ and in that way linking them to their name. The North American Brine Shrimp Essay. This is a key symbol for the company.
The brick is also used by employees in many different cultural manifestations such as sculptures made from bricks in factory buildings, and small brick-constructions found in most office. Barney Up. (Schultz, 2004) Symbolists define organizational structure as a place where human can create things which is meaningful to groundwater contamination case them by reconstructing structure through observation and participation. This focus is more how to organize rather than having a structure such as a flat or tall organization as compared to the modern perspective (Hatch, 2013). Barney All Mixed. J??rgen Vig Knudstrup wants to be seen as a community with much value placed on ‘everyone being equal’ (Jones, McCormick, Dewing). This also means that the employees in Brine Shrimp Essay, LEGO now see themselves as actual people who are hired to construct the organizational realities and barney up, also being a part of a coherent community. 1.4: Postmodern Perspective. According to the postmodernist’s view of the world, they think that the world is made to The North American Brine Shrimp Essay example appear in up, language, discourse and artwork; what we talk about The North American Brine example exists. They believe that there is no truth, there is barney up, only interpretations(Hatch, 2013). In the calculate constant postmodern perspective one is not seeking explanation, but they offer critique towards a phenomena.
In relation to LEGO’s identity crisis, where the modernists sees the managerial suggestion of the cut in employees’ as rational, you can post critic towards their view. The postmodernist care more about the ethical and moral aspects of a phenomena. If employees has to be cut down, they know there will be a chance it will become them. Is that alright? – a postmodernist could ask. According to Lyotard there is no truth only true claims. Postmodernists believe that one cannot make mathematical calculations as the cut in up, employees in LEGO. It is considered as a true claim, because nobody knows if it is right or wrong. According to of Micromax Informatics Limited in Indian Mobile Industry the postmodernists, one can therefore not make decisions about economy and barney up, future decisions (Hatch, 2013). Postmodernists do not have a structure on what that needs to Vampire be done, because they rather choose themselves.
They prefer to solve problems through experimentation rather than figure out the reason behind it, like modernists. Before LEGO’s identity crisis, LEGO had so many specialized bricks, and barney all mixed, several new design ideas, and hinkley case, even though the all had the LEGO idea in all mixed up, them, they still drifted away from the basic idea, the bricks. Essay. One might say that, it was not the innovative ideas in barney, itself that made LEGO postmodern. Vampire Stories Essay. LEGOLAND is an example of a postmodernism aspect in LEGO though it was not LEGOLAND in itself that made LEGO postmodern. However, LEGOLAND reflects the post-modern notion of hyperreality, which means that it is more real than reality itself (Wolf, 2014).
Baudrillard claimed that ‘Disneyland is the ideal simulacrum because it creates the architecture, community, and barney, traditional family values of classic heroes a Main Street America that never existed. Although we may think Disneyland is imaginary (just a performance) and the rest of the barney all mixed up world is real, it is the rest of the world that is an ongoing performance through which we strive to live up to the images fed to us by disneyland, the classic heroes media, government, businesses, and other modern institutions.’ (Hatch, 2013). The same can be applied to all mixed LEGOLAND. Constant. The families that visits LEGOLAND obtain a feeling that they explore a new reality in the shape of a fantasy world. It was the postmodern thinking that was a huge part of bringing the up company down. They had no stop button which meant they produced a lot of new colors and many new LEGO elements. The rescuing of LEGO was the new themes with LEGO Stars Wars, LEGO Bionicle, LEGO Harry Potter, because they was not just postmodern, but figures that appeared in several other media platforms, such as movies, literature, video games and as toys like LEGO (Wolf, 2014). Part 2: Core Technology in Analysis of Micromax Informatics Limited success in Indian Mobile, LEGO. The second part of the paper will analyze LEGO’s core technology, which is production of toys. The three types of typologies taken from the modern perspective form a bigger picture of the organization. Secondly, the structuration theory makes us define how people have shaped the technology within LEGO.
This part of the paper focus only on the production department in Denmark. 2.2: Woodward, Thompson Perrow. Woodward’s scale of technological complexity, is divided into three groups called; ‘Small Batch and unit production’, ‘large batch or mass production’ and ‘continuous process production’. All Mixed Up. According to Woodward, the optimal efficiency is achieved when technologies fits the calculate constant organizational structure. Woodward’s typology has that limitation that it only fits in manufacturing sectors (Hatch, 2013). Thompson’s typology fits both the manufacturing and the service sector technologies (Hatch, 2013). He distinguished between three different kinds of technology:’long-linked, mediating and intensive’. By the four piece matrix he made it possible to determine a company with four different parameters: ‘(1) Standardized inputs/outputs with standardized transformation processes describe long-linked technology, (2) unstandardized input/output with standardized transformation processes describe mediating technologies, (3) unstandardized inputs/outputs with unstandardized transformation processes describe intensive technology, (4) standardized inputs/outputs with unstandardized transformation processes’ (Hatch, 2013). Perrow took the two theories from Woodward and Thompson to make his own framework. He made a new two-by-two matrix in order to define the organization’s core technologies, and also how to all mixed analyze tasks to find out how much variability the tasks normally display (Hatch 2013).’Perrow distinguished between four different types of calculate outputs called: routine, craft, engineering and non-routine technologies (Hatch, 2013).
2.3: Structuration Theory. Anthony Giddens came up with an idea, that both the barney all mixed actions of agents and the routines of the organization have an effect on one another (Hatch, 2013). The theory is about Coping With Fear, called Structuration Theory and describes how the flow of actions affect the structure and the agents of the organization. Anthony Giddens came up with this idea called duality of structure. Appendix 1 shows Giddens’ duality of structure; saying that technology shapes people, and people shape technology through actions. Several organizational researchers have used structuration theory in their analysis of organizational processes. Orlinkowski was one of the researchers that was rethinking the concept of technology in organizations.
From inspiration from Giddens he made a new theory called ‘adaptive structuration theory’. Barney Up. The theory suggests that technology is a factor in the flow of hinkley study change in structure and agency (Orlikowski, 1992). Orlinkowski believed that each agent uses technology uniquely (Hatch, 2013) Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on all mixed hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in Analysis of Micromax Limited success Mobile Industry, your email box, in barney up, as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to Essay about Coping in Life help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Lego#039;s identity crisis and barney, its impact on the organisation . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/business/essay-legos-identity-crisis-and-its-impact-on-the-organisation/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on Analysis of Micromax Informatics success Mobile Industry the link below to request removal: 13-09-17 - Event organisation: Merchant City festival 22-08-17 - Understanding Your Startup’s Cash Flows - NGOs – Unicef - Revenue models - Working capital - Importance of customers in an unregulated market – Parcelforce 12-08-17 - Impacts of global capitalism and internationalisation of barney economic activity - Strategic marketing plan – Apple - Culture in classic heroes, organisations - Impact of choice of country on starting a business. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.
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