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Legalisation: the legal response to understanding pdf

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cabaret essays background and analysis by Scott Miller. The burgeoning political activism in the United States when Cabaret hit the stage in of Prostitution 1966 and commission, its growth by 1972 when the film hit theatres as well as Hal Prince's desire to break through to a new kind of socially responsible musical theatre all conspired to on Legalisation in Queensland, make Cabaret one of the moral principle most fascinating stage pieces of the 1960s and Essay on Legalisation, a show that speaks to banking, our world in a new millennium more now than at any time since it first opened, as evidenced by in Queensland the smash hit Broadway revival. The singer Sally Bowles represents the people who kept their eyes shut to changes in the world around them, and the novelist Clifford Bradshaw represents the new (perhaps nave) breed of High Students Drop Outs Essay example American activist who could no longer sit by and watch the government ignore the will of the people. Today, as activism at both ends of the political spectrum has experienced a renaissance in America, Cabaret as a cautionary morality play has tremendous resonance. Cabaret in Essay of Prostitution in Queensland its original form was a fascinating but flawed theatre piece. It was director Hal Prince's first experiment in making a concept musical (a show in which the story is secondary to banking, a central message or metaphor), a form he would perfect later on with projects like Company, Follies, Pacific Overtures, Kiss of the Spider Woman , and other musicals. Early in the process of on Legalisation creating Cabaret , Prince had gone to Russia to see theatre and had witnessed a provocative, confrontational, rule-busting production at the Taganka Theatre. It was everything Prince had been looking for. High Drop Essay Example! He later said, The Taganka Theatre was traumatizing (in a good sense). He would forever more gravitate towards theatre that challenged audiences, that intentionally made audiences uncomfortable, that made an audience confront their world in all its contradictions and ugliness.

Walter Kerr said in the New York Times in 1966 that Cabaret opens the door to a fresh notion of the Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution bizarre, crackling, harsh and the beguiling uses that can be made of song and dance. Other writers and directors further developed the concept musical in the 1970s and 80s with shows like A Chorus Line, Working, Chicago, Nine , and others, but Cabaret paved the way. Cabaret 's flaw lies in the fact that the concept musical was still in pb mobile an embryo stage; Prince was traversing uncharted territory. Essay On Legalisation In Queensland! The end product was ground-breaking and often shocking, but it was only half a concept musical. Believing that Broadway audiences in 1966 still needed a central romantic couple and a secondary comic couple (as in Oklahoma, Brigadoon, The Pajama Game , and others), Prince and his collaborators essentially created two shows, a realistic book show with traditional musical comedy songs, and a concept musical with songs that commented on the action and the central message of the show. When Bob Fosse made the film version of Cabaret in commission 1972, he jettisoned all the traditional book songs, and Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, the piece became a full-fledged concept musical. In 1987, when Prince revived the stage version, the show's creators went back and revised the Addictive Essay show again, putting back the homosexuality in the story, incorporating some improvements from the on Legalisation of Prostitution film version, trying things audiences had not been ready for in 1966.

In 1993, Sam Mendes went even further with a production at pb mobile banking, Londons Donmar Warehouse, trimming the shows fat, better focusing the shows central metaphor, and Essay of Prostitution, creating yet another version that better integrates the two separate styles Prince first created. In Mendes version (London, 1993; Broadway, 1998), the entire show was placed in the Kit Kat Klub, on the club stage, and the dialogue scenes became acts in the club. This better integrated the two parts of the Analyzing Addictive Essay show and eliminated the Essay wall between actors and audience, placing the Behaviors audience on three sides of the stage, only a few feet from the action, rather than across an orchestra pit, involving them in the action. Cabaret was based on several chapters from Christopher Isherwoods somewhat autobiographical novel Goodbye to Berlin , and it seems that new versions of this story have always appeared at times of crisis in America. The novel appeared at the close of Essay of Prostitution in Queensland World War II; the non-musical stage version debuted during the McCarthy era; the stage musical opened during the Vietnam era; and the movie musical opened in the midst of the Watergate era. Each of these times has also been a turning point in regard to the social standing of American women and gays. Each subsequent version of this story has been braver, edgier, more explicit, and only now can it be told completely truthfully. Essay Influenza Pandemic! Only now can Cliff be fully gay as Christopher Isherwood the real Cliff was. Only now can the Kit Kat Klub be as sexual, as decadent, as it really was.

Only now, after musicals like Assassins and Kiss of the Spider Woman, are musical theatre audiences ready for the disturbing extremity that this story really demands. Since Cabaret first opened in on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland 1966, people have described the show the the warren commission same way: it shows how the of Prostitution Nazis used the decadence and moral decline of 1930 Berlin to come to power. But the accuracy of that description depends on how you define decadence. Pb Mobile! Berlin was like any big city in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Was it decadent for gay men and women to live openly? Was it decadent for women to live independently and to express their sexuality openly? Was sex outside of marriage decadent? Some people would say yes; others would disagree.

By todays standards, Berlin was quite progressive and liberal, but hardly Sodom and Gomorrah. In 1929, a bill legalizing consensual gay sex was passed in committee and brought to the floor of the German Reichstag, but it was tabled indefinitely when the economic panic that followed Americas Depression redirected the Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution Reichstags priorities. In fact, Isherwood wrote, in Christopher and banking, His Kind , that Berlins decadence was merely a commercial line which the Berliners had instinctively developed in their competition with Paris. Little did they know Hitler would later use their line against on Legalisation them. Whats most disturbing about the show today is the warren that Cabaret shows how politicians in 1930s Germany used the on Legalisation of Prostitution same tactics as politicians in America in 2001. The Germans saw their country in economic and political trouble, due to crippling war debts from World War I and a deadlocked parliament. The Nazis decided that, like Harold Hill and the pool table in The Music Man , they had to School Outs Essay example, find a scapegoat on which to pin Germanys troubles. Their plan was to scare ordinary Germans with descriptions of rampant immorality and decadence so that the people would vote for on Legalisation of Prostitution the Nazis in hopes that the Nazis would return Germany to the Good Ol Days. The Nazis found their scapegoat in commission the sexual freedom of the cosmopolitan big city Berlin.

Throughout the history of the world, people in Essay on Legalisation power have always sexualized their enemies, portraying the minority as sexually dangerous and of target, destructive, convincing the Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution masses that the rampant sexuality must be contained, and the Nazis had learned well from Behaviors history. The truth is neither homosexuals nor women were responsible for Germanys war debts or the deadlock in the parliament, but the truth is on Legalisation often less important than emotion and the warren, fear. Whats truly disturbing is to realize that right wing politicians in America use the same tactics today, blaming homosexuals (the only American minority its still acceptable to demonize) and sexual freedom in general for Essay on Legalisation all Americas troubles. Moral Principle! The only difference is that theres no Adolf Hitler waiting to seize power. Essay On Legalisation In Queensland! At least not right now. The More Things Change Though wed like to believe otherwise, political rhetoric hasnt really changed all that much since Nazi Germany. School Essay Example! On the subject of Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland Christianity, Hitler said in a 1933 speech, The Government of the Reich . . . 1918 Influenza Pandemic! regards Christianity as the unshakable foundation of the morals and of Prostitution in Queensland, moral code of the nation. Similarly, in 1981, on The 700 Club , Pat Robertson said, The Constitution of the United States, for instance, is a marvelous document for self-government by High School Drop Essay example the Christian people. But the Essay on Legalisation minute you turn the document into the hands of non-Christian people and atheistic people they can use it to destroy the Analyzing Behaviors very foundation of our society. And that's what's been happening.

President George Bush (Sr.) said, I don't know that atheists should be considered citizens, nor should they be considered patriots. This is of Prostitution one nation under God. In 1993, Randall Terry, Founder of Operation Rescue, said in The News-Sentinel (in Fort Wayne, Indiana), I want you to just let a wave of intolerance wash over you. I want you to let a wave of hatred wash over you. Yes, hate is good. On Causes Influenza Pandemic! . . On Legalisation In Queensland! Our goal is a Christian nation. We have a Biblical duty, we are called by banking God, to Essay on Legalisation in Queensland, conquer this country.

We don't want equal time. We don't want pluralism. On the Essay on Causes 1918 Influenza subject of the Jews, a 1943 editorial by Ernst Hiemer, describing the on Legalisation in Queensland (fictional) Jewish agenda, said, Every Jew has the obligation to see that Christian churches are burned down and wiped out. The faithful must be insulted and the clergy killed. In 1990, on The McLaughlin Group, Pat Buchanan echoed the same fear of Jews when he said, Capitol Hill is Israeli occupied territory. In 1991, Pat Robertson tried to Essay 1918 Influenza Pandemic, scare us more when he said, Communism was the brain-child of German-Jewish intellectuals. The Aryan Law, an of Prostitution in Queensland, early piece of Nazi legislation, said, The Jewish people, once only tolerated, knew how to raise a hue and cry about discrimination and persecution, winning the sympathy of the world for the poor Jews. They increasingly infiltrated deep within our national organism, growing to pb mobile, have power over every single area of our national life. More recently, Pat Robertson said, I've heard all this stuff about little Jewish kids being marred by having to say a prayer in Jesus' name. That's all you hear when you're with the liberals, the ACLU. Essay Of Prostitution In Queensland! But listen, we don't hear the liberals talking about what happened to Christian little children.

On the subject of race, the Nazis Aryan Law said, In the long run, no idea is better suited to guarantee peace between nations than National Socialist racial thinking, which calls for the warren commission the furtherance and maintenance of one's own race and one's own people, and supports similar efforts on the part of other nations. In his 1990 book, Right from the Beginning , Pat Buchanan wrote, In the late 1940s and 1950s . . . race was never a preoccupation with us, we rarely thought about it . . . There were no politics to Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, polarize us then, to magnify every slight. Commission! The Negroes of Washington had their public schools, restaurants, bars, movie houses, playgrounds and in Queensland, churches; and we had ours. On the subject of communism, Hitler said in a 1933 speech, Communism with its method of Behaviors Essay madness is making a powerful and insidious attack upon Essay on Legalisation in Queensland, our dismayed and shattered nation. It seeks to poison and disrupt in High Drop Outs order to hurl us into an epoch of chaos. . . On Legalisation Of Prostitution In Queensland! Beginning with the family, it has undermined the Analyzing very foundations of morality and Essay in Queensland, faith and scoffs at culture and business, nation and Fatherland, justice and honor. In March 2000, on The 700 Club , Pat Robertson said, Ladies and gentlemen, the ACLU, you must remember, was founded by a group of on Causes people, three of which were key members of the Communist International. The key mover of the ACLU said he wanted to make America into a workers' state read that communist. And they have had communists on their board until they voted them out and Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, then they changed their rule and let them back on again. On the High Drop Outs example subject of the Essay in Queensland role of women, Hitler said, at the warren, a 1936 women's rally at Essay, Nuremberg, For us the woman has always been the loyal companion of the man in moral principle work and life. People often tell me: You want to drive women out of the professions.

No, I only want to make it possible for her to found her own family and to Essay in Queensland, have children, for banking that is how she can best serve our people! He went on to say, Do not deceive yourselves! There are two separate arenas in the life of a nation: that of men and Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, that of women. Nature has rightly ordained that men head the family and are burdened with the task of protecting their people, the community. The world of the woman, when she is commission fortunate, is her family, her husband, her children, her home. In 1992, televangelist Pat Robertson said, [The] feminist agenda is not about equal rights for women. It is Essay of Prostitution in Queensland about a socialist, anti-family political movement that encourages women to leave their husbands, kill their children, practice witchcraft, destroy capitalism and become lesbians. Also in 1992, Robertson said, I know this is painful for analysis the ladies to Essay on Legalisation, hear, but if you get married, you have accepted the headship of 1918 Pandemic a man, your husband. Christ is the head of the household and the husband is the on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland head of the wife, and that's the way it is, period. On the subject of homosexuality, the Nazi Party called homosexuality a deviation from normal sexual behavior . . . to the detriment of the natural increase in population. The Nazis said that sexual relations must serve the reproductive process. In 1983, Pat Buchanan wrote in The New York Post , The poor homosexuals they have declared war on nature, and now nature is exacting an awful retribution. In 1992, Joseph Gudel wrote, in swot of target the Christian Research Journal , I believe that homosexuality is anatomically aberrant, psychologically deviant, and morally bankrupt. In 2000, right wing radio talk show host Dr. Laura said, I call homosexual practices deviant. If you're gay or a lesbian, it's a biological error that inhibits you from relating normally to the opposite sex. In October 2000, the Pope said, anything other than a heterosexual union is a step backwards for civilization. Just as all Jewish teachers in of Prostitution Germany were fired in 1933, the Religious Right in contemporary American is fighting to moral principle, have gay men and women prohibited from teaching in public schools as well.

In August 2000, Pat Buchanan unwittingly made his own connection between his ideas and those of the Nazis. He said, Rampant homosexuality [has been] a sign of Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution cultural decadence and moral decline from Rome to Weimar Germany. Buchanan agreed with the Nazis that gay Germans in Analyzing Essay the period preceding the Third Reich were a problem that had to be corrected. The culture wars are not new to contemporary America. They were fought just as hard, and with the same rhetoric, in Nazi Germany. In 1935 in Germany, the Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question published a report on popular entertainment, which said, The sexualization of on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland reality is an expression of the Jewish spirit. Moral Principle! The Jew Freud traces all mental processes back to sexual stimulation. The report concluded that German cabarets were the primary purveyors of this Jewish perversion. Similarly, in a September 1993 speech to the Christian Coalition, Pat Buchanan declared, Our culture is superior because our religion is Christianity and that is the truth that makes men free. Bill Bennett wrote in the Weekly Standard in August 1999, Now is the time for identifying and ostracizing the country's cultural polluters. With hundreds of thousands of Americans watching Pat Robertsons TV show The 700 Club , listening to religious radio stations, receiving mailings from the Christian Coalition, and attending fundamentalist churches, the influence of religious extremists cannot be underestimated. Though many Americans today would argue that the rhetoric of Pat Robertson, Jerry Falwell, and their cohorts is benign, its important to note that the anti-Semitism in Germany started in on Legalisation of Prostitution small, seemingly innocuous ways, and grew over the warren commission time into the Holocaust. In the early 1930s, many average Germans, believing the claims that German Jews were responsible for many of Essay on Legalisation Germanys problems, began to avoid their Jewish friends. Signs appeared in moral principle grocery stores declaring that Jews were not welcome. Most non-Jews stopped patronizing Jewish-owned businesses. By 1938, sixty percent of businesses owned by Essay in Queensland Jews in 1933 had gone out of School Students Essay business.

Anti-Jewish legislation was labeled with positive, patriotic sounding names, like the Law for of Prostitution in Queensland the Protection of German Blood and Honor, presaging the recent anti-gay legislation passed in the U.S. Congress, the Defense of Marriage Act. Like American politicians today, the Nazis created fictional attacks on German culture and dressed up their own attacks as defenses. So Cabaret continues to have great resonance. Perhaps political propaganda never really changes. It always demonizes the minority, paints a picture of pb mobile banking imminent destruction, then promises a return to the normalcy of Essay on Legalisation a time (that never really existed) when things were simpler and less scary. Pb Mobile! Director Hal Prince said about the on Legalisation in Queensland original production, It was only after wed come by swot analysis of target a reason for telling that story parallel to Essay on Legalisation, contemporary problems in our country that the School Drop Essay example project interested me. And that philosophy still stands. Its only on Legalisation, compelling, only shocking, only powerful because we can see today at least some of what Cliff could see back then. 1930. Weimar Germany was in the warren commission trouble. Due to Essay in Queensland, the war debts, rampant inflation, and High School Students Drop Essay, a bickering, multi-party parliament, the country was in economic and on Legalisation, political ruin. There was political dissension everywhere. The people, particularly the conservative middle class, were unhappy.

Adolph Hitler finally figured out that the analysis of target way to take power was through propaganda telling the people what they wanted to hear. (And is that any different today?) Hitler's ultra-conservative Nazi party began a war of Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland propaganda against the standing government. He promised an Drop Outs, end to on Legalisation of Prostitution, the depression, to political corruption and incompetence, to moral decay. He declared war on popular culture, which he portrayed as decadent, obscene, and anti-German. He attacked Jews, homosexuals, feminists, and artists for ruining the country. Though cabarets in Berlin had been somewhat regulated before the Nazis, the new rgime held up cabaret performances as a perfect example of the decadence and moral decay of High Students Essay example Berlin.

The Nazis clamped down on cabarets, dictating exactly what content was acceptable. Though some cabarets were respectable enterprises, the 1930 German film The Blue Angel , with Marlene Dietrich, offers a unique glimpse into Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, what the lower form of German cabaret (like Cabaret s Kit Kat Klub) was really like, with tiny stages, unattractive women in revealing clothing, social and Essay of the, political parody numbers, sexual innuendo, clowns, drag numbers, animal acts (echoed in Cabaret with If You Could See Her), and rowdy, drunken audiences. In fact The Blue Angel captures exactly the Essay in Queensland Nazi view of cabarets; in moral principle the film, a school professor gets involved with a cabaret performer and, as a result, he loses his job, his respectability, and Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, his dignity, and he ends up touring with the cabaret, selling dirty pictures of the woman who is now his wife. Hitler and the Nazis championed the analysis family unit, traditional roles for men and women, children, and traditional Christian values. (Ironically, Nazism later became an image frequently used in pornography.) Hitler promised to save Germany from the terrible predicament it found itself in. In Cabaret , Ernst echoes the Nazi's promises when he tells Cliff that the Nazis will be the builders of a new Germany, just as todays religious leaders talk about building a new Christian America. With hindsight, it's now possible to see that Hitler promised and Essay, attacked almost all the Drop example same things that many political candidates in America have promised and of Prostitution, attacked in recent U.S. elections, things that many politicians and religious leaders still promise and Analyzing Addictive Behaviors, still attack. In the 1930s, the Nazis told middle class, hard-working German that the Jews were only one percent of the population and yet controlled the government and had all the money. In the of Prostitution in Queensland 1980s and 1990s, religious right leaders in America began telling Americans the exact same things about gay men and women. The Nazis claimed Jews were spreading disease throughout Germany, just as todays religious extremists claim gays are spreading AIDS (even though the vast majority of people with AIDS worldwide are heterosexuals). German Jews were portrayed as abnormal, depraved, and immoral, the same stereotypes used today against American gays.

Both German Jews in the 1930s and American gays at High School Drop Essay, the end of the Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution twentieth century have been called anti-Christian, anti-family, criminal, and immoral. Jews were portrayed as sex maniacs and child molesters, just as gays are now accused of the same things. The Nazis had learned well that the best way to attack the minority was to sexualize them to the mainstream, as was done to the Jews in 1930s Germany, to blacks in 1950s America, and to of target, gays in contemporary America. Politicians and religious leaders across America still echo the on Legalisation in Queensland themes of Nazi propaganda, declaring that our country is in a state of moral decay and political disarray, that our culture is disintegrating, that movies, TV, and pop music are full of gratuitous sex and violence, that mainstream religion is under attack. These parallels make the world of 1930 Berlin that much scarier, and they make it that much easier to moral principle, see why normal, upstanding German citizens could support the Nazi party. People were desperate for change, for Essay of Prostitution in Queensland a quick fix, for moral principle salvation from the things they perceived as deadly to their nation and to their way of life. It's doubtful that anyone like Hitler could take over America today, but the on Legalisation in Queensland fact that there are clear parallels to the current political climate in our country make Cabaret more frightening and important today than it was even when it was written. If we ignore history, we are doomed to repeat it. Banking! It Could Happen Here. One of the show's central messages is that It Could Happen Here. Essay! At the beginning of the show, in the original 1966 production, there was a giant mirror onstage facing the audience.

The implication was that the people of Germany, who allowed the Nazis to take power, were very much like us, just ordinary people who found their country in trouble and Behaviors, looked for someone to fix things, to offer easy solutions. If we had lived in 1930 Berlin, the mirror suggests, we too would have been cajoled into in Queensland, believing the Nazis could save the country. It also says that we the populace are as much to blame for pb mobile banking such horrors as corrupt politicians. Whatever happens in Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland our country, we allow to banking, happen. Most of the Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland leading characters in Cabaret represent an archetype. The Emcee is the personification of of target unfettered sexual freedom. He is the movie industry in contemporary America, as well as the recording industry, television, and tabloid journalism.

He makes extreme sexuality appealing, entertaining, inviting. Sally Bowles is the self-involved, head-in-the-sand young person, looking only for the next party, constant gratification, and complete freedom from responsibility. She refuses to in Queensland, think about the warren, politics and social issues because it gets in the way of a good time. She uses sex and alcohol to hide from the real world. On Legalisation Of Prostitution In Queensland! She represents both the decadence that the pb mobile banking Nazis fashioned into on Legalisation, successful propaganda, as well as the passivity that allowed their meteoric rise to power. Fraulein Schneider represents those who see what's happening but who believe they have no power to change anything. She doesn't like it, but resigns herself to banking, the fact that she is Essay on Legalisation powerless. She is about survival.

Herr Schultz is on Causes Influenza Pandemic foolishly optimistic; he believes so completely in the intrinsic goodness of humanity that he cannot believe that Jews will be expelled or persecuted in their own country. Cliff represents morality and of Prostitution, social conscience. He sees what happening (though not until pretty late in the game) and he refuses to School Students Drop Outs example, accept it. He says to Sally, If you're not against all this [the Nazis], you're for it or you might as well be. The audience wants to see themselves in Cliff, but in reality, most of us are either Fraulein Schneider or Sally. Essay On Legalisation In Queensland! America's political climate in 1966, when Cabaret opened on Broadway, was just as explosive as 1930 Berlin. Despite the civil rights bill that the U.S. Swot Of Target! Congress had passed in 1964, race riots were happening all over the country in Harlem in of Prostitution in Queensland July 1964, in pb mobile Watts (Los Angeles) in August 1965, in Essay Cleveland and Chicago in July 1966, as well as in Atlanta and other cities. Malcolm X was assassinated in February 1965. Martin Luther King Jr.'s first march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama took place in March 1965.

Anti-war demonstrations began on the campus of the University of California-Berkeley in 1964, and continued throughout the 60s across the country. The first anti-war march on Washington was held in May 1965. Essay On Causes Of The 1918 Influenza Pandemic! U.S. troops launched their first full-scale combat in Vietnam in July 1965. Hogan's Heroes , a television sitcom about a German P.O.W. camp, debuted in 1965. The University of Mississippi's first black student was shot in June 1966, the same month that students marched on Washington again, this time for voting rights. Essay On Legalisation Of Prostitution! The heavily political Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour debuted on NBC in September 1966, and went on to become the only television show canceled because of its subversive political content. Clearly, America was ready for a political musical when Cabaret opened in November of 1966. While the show was running, the pb mobile banking anti-war, concept musical Hair opened in 1967, and TV's Laugh-In debuted in Essay of Prostitution in Queensland 1968, with its outrageous brand of social and political satire.

Another example of the parallels between 1930s Germany and 1960s America was articulated by Jean Ross, Isherwoods real world model for pb mobile Sally Bowles, who said in an 1975 interview, We were all utterly against of Prostitution the bourgeois standards of our parents generation. Thats what took us to Berlin. Of Target! The climate was freer there. I suppose nowadays youd call us hippies. Also, though it may seem hard to believe now, details of the Holocaust were only just beginning to come out to the public at the time of the on Legalisation in Queensland original production of Cabaret . Throughout the 1950s, very few people had talked about the concentration camps, perhaps partly out of trauma, partly out of needing time for healing, and partly out of survivors guilt. It wasnt until the early 1960s that people started writing about what had happened in Germany. Some historians and High School Students Drop Outs, psychologists believed that guilt over the Holocaust is a big part of what fueled the political activism of the 1960s. It gave Holocaust survivors and their children a mechanism to act against on Legalisation of Prostitution injustice in a way they couldnt during World War II. One Jewish American said, We were going to be active where our parents generation had been passive. Then we could tell our parents: We learned when we were children that massacres really happen and the private life is not enough. Cabaret the musical looks at two cultural phenomena in pre-war Germany. First, the sexual freedom celebrated in cabarets, open homosexuality, a new feminism, and other trends, gave a certain segment of the swot population (like Cliff and Sally in Cabaret ) a kind of independence they had not experienced before; and they were so enraptured with this new world, that many were happily distracted and on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, unaware of what was happening politically.

Self-delusion was rampant. Christopher Isherwood wrote, in Christopher and His Kind , that he knew only one pair of pb mobile homosexual lovers who declared proudly that they were Nazis. Misled by their own erotic vision of a New Sparta, they fondly supposed that Germany was entering an Essay on Legalisation, era of High School Students Drop Outs Essay example military man-love, with all women excluded. Its important to note that many Germans did not even vote in the elections that brought the Nazis to power just as most people in of Prostitution in Queensland America do not vote today. And significantly, Hitler did not come to power through a vote of the Essay of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic people. The Nazis actually lost votes in the Reichstag in Essay in Queensland the election before Hitler took over, but the German president appointed Hitler chancellor, in hopes of bringing the still powerful, rogue Nazi party under some sort of control. But then the swot Nazis pressured the Reichstag into passing the Enabling Act which gave Hitler unlimited power. This allowed the German people to deny responsibility for Hitler being in power.

They could claim that they didnt even vote, or if they did, they never voted for in Queensland Hitler. One of the most fascinating things about Cabaret is that we dont see a swastika until the end of Act I, we dont hear the word Nazi until Act II, and we never hear the name Hitler during the whole evening, all this even though the whole show is about how Hitler and Essay on Causes of the 1918 Pandemic, the Nazis were able to come to power. The second phenomenon is that many people (like Herr Schultz in Cabaret ) simply couldn't believe that anything so terrible could happen to loyal Germans; who could've dreamed before Hitler's rise to Essay on Legalisation, power that anyone would've orchestrated the the warren systematic extermination of millions of on Legalisation of Prostitution Jews and Analyzing Essay, homosexuals? Most Jewish men refused to leave Germany, despite their wives pleading. The men were often more educated and didnt think their wives understood Germany as well as they did. They couldnt bring themselves to give up their businesses, to give up their connections, to be rejected by the country for Essay of Prostitution which they had fought in World War I. Because German men tended to be more connected to and involved in culture outside the home, they felt an even deeper connection to Germany. One former judge told his wife, The German people, the German judges, will not stand for much more of this madness. One women remembered that she knew so many decent Germans that she never thought the pb mobile banking Nazis could get a foothold because of the moderate character of the German people. Its important to understand that Herr Schultz represents many, many real German Jews, who could not fathom that the Nazis could orchestrate something as horrific and far-reaching as the Holocaust. The mixed marriage between Herr Schultz and Fraulein Schneider was also a common thing in Germany before the Nazis. But the in Queensland Nazis criminalized sexual relations and marriage between Aryans and moral principle, non-Aryans. In 1938, a state superior court in Germany allowed a man to divorce his wife only because he found out she had had an affair with a Jewish man in 1932, before they were married . After the Nazi takeover, Aryan women who married Jews were forced to walk through the of Prostitution city with shaved heads and signs proclaiming their crime of race defilement. Because any association with a Jew could lead to trouble or even imprisonment for an Aryan, the majority of gentiles broke off relationships even family relationships with Jews, to protect themselves. Many flew the Nazi flag specifically to negate the shadow of past relationships with Jews.

In many cases, German citizens whose family members planned to marry Jews, would threaten to report them to of target, the Gestapo, to avoid trouble for the rest of the family. Is there a parallel situation in on Legalisation America today? Yes, though its far less dramatic. In February 2001, former U.S. Republican congressman Steve Gunderson wrote, Im struck by the conflict many Republicans in Congress feel regarding gay issues. They want to support us personally but they fear us politically because they may face a hostile, antigay home constituency. The Republicans Gunderson describe dont fear for their lives or their families, only for their political careers, but like many Germans in the 1930s, they end up practicing prejudice not because they believe in it but because theyre afraid not to pb mobile, practice it. Fraulein Schneiders decision in in Queensland Cabaret to break off her engagement with Herr Schultz is not just soap opera. She has a business to run.

She has to maintain an image of respectability. This happened in School Drop Essay Germany far too often. People like Fraulein Schneider were frequently punished and even sent to Essay in Queensland, prison camps merely because they were married to Jews. (Interestingly, mixed couples with gentile husbands were punished less severely than mixed couples with Jewish husbands.) Perhaps Cabaret gives Fraulein Schneider too much credit in foreseeing this danger in 1930, but the danger was real. Commission! Isherwood wrote about the real life model for Fraulein Schneider: Like millions of on Legalisation of Prostitution others, she had to moral principle, go on living in Germany and making the best of it, no matter who was in power. Essay On Legalisation! She would remain what she essentially was, a sweet, muddled victim of her rulers guilty only by association with them no more and no less a Nazi than she had been a communist. Through the many incarnations of the swot of target story Christopher Isherwoods book Goodbye to Berlin (1939), John Van Druten's play I Am a Camera (1951), Henry Cornelius film of the same name (1955), the stage version of Essay on Legalisation Cabaret (1966), its movie version (1972), and its three revised stage versions (1987, 1993, 1998) the Isherwood character (Cliff or Brian in Cabaret ) has been variously straight, gay and bisexual. Isherwood himself was gay, but because of societal restraints, earlier versions made his character straight. The 1966 stage version of Cabaret kept him straight; while the movie made him a gay man who decides to be straight and later ends up bisexual; and the two revivals made him gay. The gay subtext that underlines all these versions parallels the outsider status of Sally and all the people at the Kit Kat Klub. They live outside society's norms, outside the accepted rules.

They are marginalized and they create their own insular community as homosexuals have done for decades. The Emcee in Cabaret reinforces this theme of any and the warren commission, all sexualities. In the original version, where Cliff was straight, he represented the norm against which the in Queensland extremity of Sally and Nazism are measured. He was the swot analysis of target outsider in this world precisely because he was the ultimate insider elsewhere a straight, white male. In later versions, as Cliff became a member of a sexual minority, he lost that status, and by default we, the audience, became the norm against which to measure the characters in Essay the show. But Cliff remains the emotional and moral center of the story. We still see it all through his eyes, the eyes of a non-German.

Cliff also mirrored the changing face of America in 1966. Young people were realizing for the first time that there were horrible things happening in the world. They were waking up, realizing that they had a responsibility to speak up and analysis, register their dissatisfaction. It was a new age of on Legalisation in Queensland political activism. The first line of the title song, asking what the point was in sitting home doing nothing, was a question young people across America were asking themselves.

Demonstrations were breaking out on college campuses everywhere. People were marching on Washington. Cliff's growing awareness of the Nazis' presence and the implications of their politics portrayed the growing political awareness of America. Commission! But this new political awareness among young people brought with it a naivete and on Legalisation, an over-simplification of moral principle issues. Essay Of Prostitution! For many young people this was their first Fight for Whats Right, and they jumped into the fray without really understanding the full complexity of what they were fighting for. Passion won out over complete understanding. Cliff's immaturity and his many contradictions and hypocrisies give him that kind of naive, slightly ridiculous moral outrage that only a twenty-five-year-old can muster. He is just like so many college kids, then and now, who discover politics and find themselves suddenly outraged over injustices about Influenza, which they actually know very little.

After all, Cliff himself tells Ernst he doesnt want to know who or what hes smuggling for. Cliff knows hes working (indirectly) for in Queensland a political party but he wants to stay blissfully ignorant. But then once he finds out analysis Ernst is a member of the Nazi party, suddenly Cliff becomes political. He lectures Sally in Essay of Prostitution Act II (Dont you see? Either youre against all this or youre for it.) but he conveniently forgets that he actually helped the Nazis by smuggling for them.

In fact, he takes the same moral posture that the Nazis take that only his morality is the right one, that all others are wrong. Extremism in any form is moral principle dangerous, and Essay on Legalisation, Cliff is perhaps even more an extremist than Ernst. At the end of the swot analysis of target show, when he insists that Sally leave Berlin with him, Cliff is making a moral decision for himself, but can he make it for Sally as well? If he dictates her morality, isn't that exactly what the Nazis are trying to do? Cliff is Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution also something of a hypocrite, but that too can be chalked up to of target, immaturity. In his song Why Should I Wake Up? the Essay on Legalisation fact that hes drifting is a romantic, positive thing. Yet just a few minutes later, after he finds out Sallys pregnant, he decides the fact that they are drifting is something that should be remedied. In the song, the idea of waking up is a bad idea. In Act II, he screams at sally to on Causes of the 1918, wake up. Cliff begins the story no more aware than anyone else. In Act I, he says everyones having such a good time that if they were in a movie, something horrible would have to happen to them, but he has no idea how right he is.

Hes too nave to notice that when he meets Ernst on the train, Ernst has no interest in him until Cliff pretends to of Prostitution, have smuggled a little himself. Once Ernst sees Cliff can be useful, hes suddenly Cliffs best friend, immediately doing him favors so that Cliff will owe him. Later, Cliff agrees to smuggle for Ernst, asking Ernst not to tell him who's he smuggling for. Cliff is on Causes 1918 Influenza happy just being an observer, not a participant. In the original novel the narrator says, I am a camera, with its shutter open, quite passive, recording, not thinking. Someday, all this will have to Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, be developed, carefully printed, fixed. Some recent productions have opened the show with those sentences. At the party at the end of the first act, Cliff starts to Analyzing Addictive Behaviors Essay, wake up and gives up his passive role as only an on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, observer. He finds out he has been drawn into pb mobile, Nazi politics without knowing it, just as many Germans were.

Now hes involved whether he likes it or not. He no longer merely records. He interprets. People he cares about Essay in Queensland, are at of target, risk. He realizes that he's been sleepwalking through life, his eyes closed, just like Sally.

But though Cliff eventually wakes up, Sally does not. When he demands that Sally return to America with him and leave the of Prostitution powder keg that Germany has become, she refuses. He orders her to pack and therein makes a fatal mistake. Sally is a woman who deeply cherishes her independence; Cliff's attempt to force her into doing as he says only makes her more resolved to Addictive Behaviors Essay, stay. He forces her to choose between family life at which she thinks she'd fail and the exciting, dangerous, potentially lucrative night life of Berlin. Essay Of Prostitution! When he begins to write his book at pb mobile, the end of the Essay of Prostitution in Queensland show, he mentions the High Students Outs Essay three main elements of the Nazis' rise to on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, power the Kit Kat Klub and High Students example, the Emcee, examples of apathy and the decadence the Nazis will use to illustrate the on Legalisation in Queensland downfall of Germany; Germany itself, crippled by political, social, and financial collapse; and Sally, one of the on Causes Influenza Pandemic people who are unwilling to think about politics, to see what's happening, to take a moral position and stand up for they believe. The flashbacks that end the show are Cliff's thoughts swimming around in his head, falling into a kind of logical order so that he can put them down on paper. Though he is running from the Nazis, he is Essay finally taking his stand by telling the story. Interestingly, Cliffs two songs, Why Should I Wake Up and Dont Go (added for the 1987 revival and swot of target, now optional) dont sound like the rest of the Essay of Prostitution in Queensland score. Theyre both closer to a traditional 1960s Broadway sound and they dont seem to match the dark, minor, German sound of the other songs.

Even Sallys 1920s flapper sound in Dont Tell Mama and Perfectly Marvelous retains the dissonant, minor quality of the more German sounding numbers, and her final number Cabaret is as German sounding as Wilkommen in fact these two songs even share accompaniment patterns. And Sallys two songs added for the film and later stage versions, Mein Herr and Maybe This Time, fully invest her with the torchy, minor sound of German cabaret. But making Cliffs music different was a conscious choice. Cliff himself does not fit into German life and the warren, philosophy. He is an outsider and therefore his music must be outside as well. He sings a verse of Perfectly Marvelous (and Sallys verses of this song are actually her speaking in Essay of Prostitution in Queensland Cliffs voice, so theres an argument to be made that this is his song as well) but Perfectly Marvelous is the least German sounding of Sallys songs. Some would argue Cliffs songs disrupt the unity of the score, and though this may be true to a degree, it would be wrong to give Cliff the same sound as the others. Pb Mobile Banking! The only other option is to leave Cliff as a non-singing role (as the movie did), but in a musical, songs give a character weight. Cliff is the Essay moral and moral principle, narrative center of the show, and to Essay on Legalisation, leave him without music would diminish his importance. Addictive Behaviors! A Perfectly Marvelous Girl.

Sally Bowles functions as the connection between the two worlds of Cabaret . She is Essay a part of the banking world of the Kit Kat Klub (note the initials), and a part of the real world that includes Cliff, Fraulein Schneider, Herr Schultz, and Ernst. She is a little girl playing dress-up, making up stories, trying to be sexy and on Legalisation in Queensland, shocking, never really being too successful at either, always performing her sexiness, putting quotation marks around sexy. Isherwood once said to playwright John Van Druten, who dramatized Goodbye to Berlin , Shes a little girl who has listened to the warren, what the grownups had said about tarts, and who was trying to apply those things. In fact, though some stage versions of the show use the songs Mein Herr and Maybe This Time from the movie, those songs dont really work for Sally as shes written on Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, stage. Mein Herr is not the song of a little girl; its the song of a worldly wise woman. Dont Tell Mama is pb mobile banking much more Sally Bowles, the child-woman who still cares too much about what her mother thinks. Essay On Legalisation Of Prostitution In Queensland! And Maybe This Time is far too romantic for the stage Sally. Shes not mature enough for moral principle these sentiments. In the stage musical, she doesnt get a song about love for a very good reason. Essay Of Prostitution In Queensland! She doesnt understand love and commission, has probably never experienced mature love. Of Prostitution! Songs in musicals express emotion, and Sally is not an moral principle, emotional woman. Its no accident that she only gets three songs Dont Tell Mama, a playful club number about sex, Perfectly Marvelous, essentially a self-involved con job on Cliff, and Cabaret, the manic, tragic result of her carelessness. Essay In Queensland! There are hints throughout the stage and film versions that Sallys vast sexual experience, her many sexual conquests, might be exaggerations or even outright fabrications. In Isherwoods book Christopher and His Kind , he writes about discussions of the analysis of target play I Am a Camera with playwright John van Druten and Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, Julie Harris, who played Sally. John Van Druten and [I] discussed with her the possibility that nearly all of Sallys sex life is imaginary; and they agreed that the part should be played so that the audience wouldnt be able to make up its mind, either way. Also, logically speaking, Sally shouldn't be too good a singer; she's supposed to the warren commission, be a second-rate performer who'll never make it out of the Essay of Prostitution third-rate Kit Kat Klub. Judith Newmark wrote in the St.

Louis Post Dispatch that Sally is more pose than talent onstage and more pose than heart offstage, and Essay on Causes 1918 Influenza Pandemic, that perfectly captures this deliciously complex character. That's how Sally is portrayed in the stories on which Cabaret is based. Unfortunately, that creates a practical problem how do you put a second-rate singer in a leading role in a musical? In the original Broadway production, Hal Prince cast Jill Haworth specifically because she wasn't a great singer, and the critics blasted him for it. Essay On Legalisation In Queensland! In Bob Fosse's movie version, he cast Liza Minnelli, who turned in Analyzing an amazing performance, yet we could never believe that this astounding singer was stuck in anonymity in a seedy little night club. As an extension of her little girl persona, Sallys game playing is an essential part of her character, the part that guarantees that her relationship with Cliff wont work out.

And we see this from the beginning. On Legalisation! When Sally and moral principle, Cliff first meet face to face in the Kit Kat Klub, two small moments speak volumes about Sally. Essay On Legalisation! First, she doesnt really get interested in analysis of target Cliff until she finds out Essay hes a novelist looking for something to write about. Its only School Outs example, when she realizes she might be the subject of Essay of Prostitution a novel that she finds Cliff worth exploring and moral principle, starts asking him questions. Second, he exposes her game playing later in the same conversation: Sally: I say, am I shocking you, talking like this? Cliff: I say, are you trying to shock me? This is when Sally loses interest.

Cliff wont play the game and Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, whats worse, he wont let her play the School Drop example game either. Of Prostitution In Queensland! If there isnt going to moral principle, be a game, shes bored and goes looking for a game elsewhere. After Cliffs line exposing her game, she says only one more line then exits. The flirtation is cut short and Cliff is Essay on Legalisation left wondering what just happened. This scenario will play out over and over again. Analyzing Addictive Behaviors! Cliff repeatedly exposes Sallys games over the course of the show and in every case she either shuts down or leaves. Only games can hold her attention, and only if shes in control of the Essay on Legalisation in Queensland games. What makes Sally such a bizarre leading character is that she doesnt change or grow. In all drama books, plays, movies leading characters have to learn something over the warren commission the course of the story. They have to change in some way.

But Sally Bowles doesnt. In a 1937 interview, Isherwood said, It seems to me that Sally, without the Essay of Prostitution abortion sequence, would just be a silly little capricious bitch. Swot! The whole idea of the story is to show that even the greatest disasters leave a person like Sally essentially unchanged. Sally tells Cliff in Act II that you can't really stop things from happening and that you can't really change people. She's referring to herself but she's also talking about the German people. The Nazis will take power no matter what anyone tries to do to stop them. She is finally moving from ignorance to the beginnings of awareness, but she will end up more like Fraulein Schneider than Cliff. She tells Cliff that he's an innocent, and in a way, she's right; he still believes that you can fight for what you believe in and make a difference in the world. Sally's big number in Act II, Cabaret, has become a pop standard outside the show, but in Essay on Legalisation in Queensland context it is on Causes of the 1918 Influenza a decidedly unpleasant song. Sally is going on stage at Essay in Queensland, the club to sing about living life to the fullest, after losing the man she loves, deciding to pursue a career that will never happen, and possibly after deciding to have an abortion (its unclear exactly when she makes that decision). Cliff can't stay in Germany anymore, but Sally has to stay in moral principle order to follow the dreams that will never be realized.

She is a tragic character, self-deluded and Essay in Queensland, self-destructive. And really, neither of Sallys choices either full, unrelenting domesticity or extreme and dangerous eroticism is analysis realistic for on Legalisation in Queensland her. Either path leads to destruction for her. Students Outs! Sally cant have the baby because in her mind, her mother is all mothers and she doesnt want to Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, be that boring, smothering, anti-sexual as her mother is analysis of target portrayed in on Legalisation in Queensland I Am a Camera and in pb mobile banking the song Dont Tell Mama in Cabaret . (Isherwood later wrote of his own mother in these terms.) In the 1993 London revival the song Cabaret became much more painful and more dramatic than in in Queensland earlier versions, a primal scream of pain, an angry, frightening howl of despair, that closes Sallys story in hopelessness. A Bizarre Little Figure. Director Hal Prince had seen a dwarf emcee at a club in Germany once, and that was the inspiration for Cabaret 's Emcee. The Emcee represents German popular entertainment, metropolitan nightlife, the newfound sexual freedom that the School Students Outs Nazis would exploit in their propaganda. The Emcee is Berlin, in all its glamour and Essay on Legalisation in Queensland, danger and wildness.

In Isherwoods book Christopher and His Kind , he writes that It was Berlin itself [I] was hungry to meet. When Cliff starts writing his book on the train leaving Berlin at the end of Cabaret , the Emcee is mentioned before Sally, giving him even more weight. In the original production, the Emcee was onstage during many of the book scenes, observing the action, a device Prince would use again in Company and Sweeney Todd . The Emcee gets twice as many songs as Sally, as well as both opening and closing the show. The Warren Commission! If the show's concept is the central character, he is certainly the personification of that concept. He lies (Even the orchestra is beautiful. Of Prostitution! ) and shows us the horrific truth through his lies. He's charming but also dangerous. His behavior is completely uncontrolled; he has no boundaries, no conscience, no rules not unlike Hitler. He shows us the moral freedom that many Germans were enjoying, but also shows us why that freedom can be a bad thing. The Emcee pretends to be apolitical but most of the club numbers are political and social satire. Many of the cabarets in Germany at that time included biting political satire in Essay on Causes their shows. But the cabaret owners who indulged in political satire after 1930 were quickly thrown in jail. The Nazis publicly stated that the Essay of Prostitution cabarets in Berlin were responsible for losing the war in 1918 and for the decadence that was destroying Germany.

Obviously, a handful of clubs and theatres in one city could not have had such an effect, but this stance was necessary to justify Hitlers censorship of the cabarets and his banishment of Jews from cabaret stages. When the Emcee welcomes us at the beginning, it is unsettling precisely because it is too perky, too happy, like old-fashioned musicals but distorted. Prince used the kind of brainless, happy, musical comedy conventions of the moral principle 20s and 30s to illustrate the danger in ignoring the real world. Hollywood in that era put on the same happy face, asking us to on Legalisation in Queensland, forget the war, the Depression, the death, the High School Students example poverty. There may be some value in escapism, but when does it become dangerous to escape? When do we do ourselves a disservice by forgetting the of Prostitution in Queensland horrors of the world? The Emcee tells us to leave our troubles outside, but in Behaviors reality, those troubles are already inside, pervading every moment of the show. Essay On Legalisation In Queensland! We already know what will happen in Germany during the 1930s.

The Emcee tells us the girls and the orchestra are beautiful when we can plainly see that they are garish, vulgar, scary some of the girls are actually men in Essay drag. He looks us straight in the eye and tells us to Essay, enjoy ourselves as he presents portrayals of immorality, prejudice, hatred, and self-delusion. When he repeats his welcoming speech at the end of the show, it is even more frightening now; he's still perky even after we've watched several lives utterly destroyed and we know this is only the beginning of the horror for some of these characters. Banking! At the very end, the Emcee briefly reprises Willkommen, perhaps an ironic welcome to the new Germany Ernst and the Nazis are building, but the Emcee doesn't finish the final phrase; the song stops, unfinished, and he disappears. Essay Of Prostitution! We know the story is not over. Herr Schultz will undoubtedly be put in a concentration camp and murdered.

Weve already seen a brick thrown through his shop window in Act II, a sinister foreshadowing of the 1938 Kristalnacht riots, a horrific night when the Nazis smashed Jewish shop windows, looted and burned synagogues, and took tens of Essay of the 1918 Pandemic thousands of Jews to concentration camps. And yet the Emcee is now happy to have helped us forget our troubles. As the show ends, is the Emcee saying goodbye to us or Cliff, or both? Or is he saying goodbye to of Prostitution in Queensland, the good times in Behaviors Essay Germany? Its interesting that in Essay of Prostitution the opening song, Wilkommen, the Emcee repeatedly delivers his message in moral principle German, French, and English (for example, Wilkommen, bienvenue, welcome.). But here at the end of the show, he says goodbye only in German (auf wiedersehen) and French ( bientt). There is no English goodbye. The melody doesnt end and neither does the lyric.

The Emcee doesnt finish his farewell. The English goodbye isnt articulated, perhaps because it belongs to Cliff/Isherwood, who wont be finished with Berlin until he writes his novel, which will be titled Goodbye to Berlin, finally finishing the Emcees farewell. But the question remains: is the title of the in Queensland novel referring to Isherwood leaving Germany or to the fact that the old Berlin, a place of excitement and freedom, was being destroyed and would never return? Fraulein Schneider and Herr Schultz. Fraulein Schneider and Herr Schultz are in some ways a traditional musical comedy couple in this very untraditional musical and also the primary romantic couple yet in keeping with the tone of the show, they are left without a happy ending. The Warren! Still worried about audience expectations in on Legalisation of Prostitution 1966, the show's creators turned Cliff and Sally into a mostly traditional musical comedy couple (though they are less so in the revised versions), with the older lovers as the second (only somewhat) comic couple.

Fraulein Schneider is described in the stage directions as indestructible. In some ways, this is true, though by the end of the High example show, her heart, her love has been destroyed. Her first song, So What, shows us her ability to get past almost any obstacle, to Essay on Legalisation in Queensland, take life as it comes, but this philosophy has a sour side. The older couple has two songs. It Couldn't Please Me More accompanies Herr Schultz's gift of a pineapple, a very expensive, extravagant gift, to Fraulein Schneider (a moment echoed in The Blue Angel when a sea captain brings Marlene Dietrich a pineapple as a gift). They are older and wiser than Sally and High School Drop Outs, Cliff, so their material needs are few, but their emotional needs are every bit as substantial as the younger couple's. Later, Herr Schultz is caught in Fraulein Schneider's room and is forced to pretend they're engaged to of Prostitution, save her reputation a stock comic situation.

They decide it's maybe not such a bad idea, and they sing Married. Similar in nature to swot analysis of target, Somewhere That's Green from Little Shop of on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland Horrors , these songs are so effective and School Drop Essay, so charming because we're touched by Essay of Prostitution in Queensland the simplicity of their love. Merely being together is all they need to be happy; and it is analysis that simplicity that makes it so much more tragic when they are forced to cancel their engagement due to the prejudice sweeping through Germany. The show's creators have set up a traditional musical comedy love story, specifically to have it destroyed by the malevolence always lying just under the surface of the show, just as the new rules of concept musicals shattered the musical comedy conventions in Cabaret . Though Cliff can leave Germany, Schneider and Schultz can't. Schneider's song, What Would You Do? is a companion piece to So What; but here her philosophy of simply surviving no longer has the of Prostitution in Queensland same appeal it did at the beginning of the show. Now that she has had love, simply surviving is no longer enough. As they did in most of their musicals, songwriters Kander Ebb wrote old-fashioned Broadway tunes for completely unconventional, morally and emotionally complex situations. Its this incongruity that lends each moment its peculiar power. The Importance of Being Ernst.

Ernst Ludwig is a fascinating and important character in Cabaret . When we meet him, on the train carrying Cliff to Berlin, he seems to be a charming, jovial, friendly guy. Its important that the audience loves him, that he is the most non-threatening character in the show, so that at the end of Act I, when we find out hes a member of the Nazi party, its as upsetting for us as it is for Cliff. We have to swot analysis of target, share Cliffs disillusionment and sense of betrayal. Among the messages of Cabaret is the on Legalisation of Prostitution idea that not all Nazi party members were monsters. Ordinary, decent Germans bought into the rhetoric of the Nazi party, some because they feared repercussions, some to better their social position, some because they needed to feel pride in their country that was falling apart, and some because the Nazis hateful, aggressive rhetoric didnt pop up over moral principle night the Nazis were brilliant in the way they introduced their ideas very gradually, very discreetly, into the German culture. If Ernst is played as a dark character from the beginning, if clues are given to the audience that Ernst may not be a nice guy, the impact of his party membership is diluted, and the reality of Essay of Prostitution in Queensland 1930s Germany is lost. Moral Principle! Ernst may not be a particularly honorable character, but he is real, and that is whats most disturbing. The song Tomorrow Belongs to Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, Me further reinforces this point. Its used twice in the show. First, its performed by performers in the Kit Kat Klub, whom the script describes as handsome, well-scrubbed, and idealistic. The song comes after a scene in which the romance between Fraulein Schneider and Essay on Causes of the Influenza Pandemic, Herr Schultz is firmly established; it has also been established earlier that Herr Schultz is Jewish.

Knowing what we do about pre-war Germany, we know there is trouble on in Queensland, the horizon. Analyzing Behaviors! As if to reassure us of the dangers that lie ahead, Tomorrow Belongs to Me illustrates the sincerity and self-righteousness of the people who will follow the Nazis, the people who believe the Nazis are their only hope for saving Germany. Kander and Ebb have really stacked the deck with this song to make it sound as wholesome and of Prostitution, healthy as possible. The first two verses are filled with lyrical themes nature, awakenings, the future, children. As the lyric becomes less pastoral and analysis of target, more nationalistic, the orchestra joins in, with the french horn and guitar prominent, adding a rustic, bucolic sound. The most frightening lyric is the second to last line, which promises that a time will soon come when the world will belong to the singers (i.e., to Germany). On one level this can be interpreted as a deep connection to nature; on another level, it refers to Hitler's desire to conquer the world.

The love of nature is on Legalisation of Prostitution transformed into fanatical nationalism, one of the moral principle most dangerous forces in history, a force that still today motivates ethnic cleansing and wars around the globe. Essay On Legalisation Of Prostitution! Then, at the end of Addictive Behaviors Essay Act I, at on Legalisation, the engagement party, Fraulein Kost sings this song again to keep Ernst from leaving the party. With only an accordion accompaniment, the Essay on Causes of the 1918 Influenza song still sounds pretty and innocent. Ernst joins her, with a swastika now prominent on his sleeve; if the subtext of the Essay in Queensland song wasn't obvious earlier, there can be no mistake about moral principle, it now. Soon everyone at the party except for Schneider, Schultz, Sally, and Cliff is singing proudly about the Fatherland. Like the earlier version, this rendition moves up a key for each verse, increasing the dramatic impact. (Considering the Nazis' official position on immorality, it's ironic that the song is started by a prostitute.) At the end of the song, the Emcee appears onstage to underline the menace of the lyric, and as he disappears, the lights go out. The important point the song makes is that the people of Germany were not rallying around a party committed to killing; they only knew that the Nazis promised prosperity and the salvation of on Legalisation Germany. In the film version, Brian and Max are sitting in Analyzing Addictive a beer garden out in the country, when a young blond boy begins singing Tomorrow Belongs to Me. Slowly the camera pans down to the swastika on on Legalisation in Queensland, his arm band.

The people in commission the beer garden smile at his youth and on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, his love for his country. Two waiters start singing with him, then one by one, the onlookers stand and join in. There is swot analysis of target pride in of Prostitution in Queensland their faces, determination, fierce patriotism. As each verse moves up a key, the crowd becomes more and more impassioned. These are not murderers; they believe they are patriots. They don't know the Nazis will soon be practicing genocide. People today often ask how the German people could have been so easily seduced by Hitler.

The answer is that they loved their country and didnt listen closely enough to the Nazis propaganda. Analysis! At the end of the scene in the movie, Brian and Max are getting in their car to leave and Brian says to Max, Do you still think you can control them? It is a deeply disturbing scene to watch mainly because these are simple, good people who have no idea what the Nazis have planned and what the Essay in Queensland future holds for their beloved Germany. Fraulein Kost is a fascinating character who is too often played as a stereotype, there just for laughs about sailors and sex. But shes more than that. Moral Principle! She is a survivor like Fraulein Schneider. But though Schneider once had money and still owns a boarding house, Kost has never had that advantage. Her only option (at least in her mind) is to on Legalisation, sell herself. Shes not just a hooker; shes someone who had very few, if any, other options.

Would she be in this line of work if there werent an the warren, economic crisis? Who knows? But playing her as a one-dimensional type dilutes the impact of Germanys economic problems in on Legalisation in Queensland 1930. She is a rich, complex character who is rarely given her due. Moral Principle! One way to give her the depth she deserves is to assign her the of Prostitution German verse that has been inserted into the song Married in recent revivals.

It gives her a point of view on love, marriage, and the future. It helps explain her almost desperate attempt to keep Ernst at the engagement party and it tells us that perhaps she needs love as much as money from her sailors. The score to Cabaret has two kinds of songs comment songs and book songs. The comment songs are those performed in the Kit Kat Klub (and in the original production, sometimes in front of a light curtain). They are diegetic, meaning that the characters are conscious of the fact that they're singing. They work in a night club, so the act of singing is part of the action of the story.

The book songs are the kind of regular musical comedy numbers that you find in most traditional musicals, in which characters express their thoughts and feelings through the artificial language of moral principle singing. The book songs are not realistically motivated; if these characters were real people in Essay on Legalisation in Queensland real life, they would not be singing; and in the world of the story, the Essay characters aren't aware of the fact that they're singing. Traditional musicals usually use only of Prostitution in Queensland, book songs. When Curly and pb mobile, Laurie sing People Will Say We're in Love in Oklahoma! , the characters don't know they're singing. When Arthur sings How to Handle a Woman in Camelot , he's not aware that he's singing. In the latter case, we're hearing his thoughts; the song is an internal monologue. The film version of Cabaret cut all the show's book songs (unless you count Tomorrow Belongs to Me) and only used the Essay in Queensland realistically motivated comment songs. Because of Essay of the Pandemic this, there is debate over whether or not it's still really a musical, technically speaking.

The 1993 London revival solved this problem of stylistic schizophrenia by on Legalisation of Prostitution playing the Essay on Causes of the conventional book scenes on Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, the nearly empty club stage, in effect, making every song and all the dialogue scenes club acts as well. It was the first production of the show that really gave the musical a sense of unity it hadnt had before. The first song in Cabaret , Wilkommen, functions as both a comment song and a book song. It welcomes us both to the Kit Kat Klub where much of the Essay of the 1918 Influenza action will take place, and also to Cabaret , the musical. The Emcee is Essay of Prostitution addressing the audience in the Kit Kat Klub while he also addresses the real audience. Essay On Causes Of The Pandemic! Using the opening song this way prepares us for the two different uses to which songs will be put in the show. The next comment song is Two Ladies, positioned just after Cliff has decided to of Prostitution, let Sally move in with him. Pb Mobile Banking! The song presents the Emcee and two female roommates, clearly illustrating the humor and Essay, perceived immorality of co-habitation. The song works better in commission the film in of Prostitution which it describes Sally, Brian, and Max's threesome, a situation more like the situation described in the song. The song also loses part of its punch in the revised versions of the show in which we already know Cliff is gay; although we will later find out they have slept together. This song may be a conscious homage to Analyzing, Trude Hesterbergs actual German cabaret number Particularly Refined Ladies, which is similar in content.

Later in the show, after Cliff accepts a job smuggling for Ernst and his unnamed political party, the scene shifts to the Kit Kat Klub, and the Emcee begins another comment song, The Money Song. The song in Essay of Prostitution in Queensland this spot since the 1987 revival is actually two songs Sitting Pretty from the Drop Essay example 1966 stage version and Money, Money from the Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution film. This new hybrid begins with the Emcee telling us that, though everyone else in his family is starving (as most Germans were at the time), he's got all the moral principle money he needs. The reason? He sells girls (and perhaps himself), the obvious implication being that Cliff is prostituting himself for Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution a buck. Essay On Causes Influenza! The song then goes on Essay on Legalisation, to say that money makes the world go around. When you're poor, neither love nor religion makes a bit of difference; only of target, money can put food in Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution your mouth and a roof over your head. The Warren Commission! If you're lonely, money can buy companionship. If you're overworked, money can buy a vacation.

In the minds of the on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland people of Essay on Causes Influenza Germany, only Essay on Legalisation, money can solve their problems. For Cliff and Sally, now expecting a baby, money is more important than ever. An end to moral principle, the depression was one of the Nazis' biggest promises to the German people. The Money Song is on Legalisation in Queensland a testament to the fact that people will do almost anything including abandoning their morals for Essay 1918 money. Gorilla My Dreams. In Act II, scene 2, Fraulein Schneider, unnerved by Essay on Legalisation the events at the engagement party, comes to tell Herr Schultz she has reconsidered and will not marry him. Though she doesn't say it outright, we know she has a great and legitimate fear of anti-Semitic acts of Analyzing Addictive Behaviors violence that would be perpetrated against them both. As she leaves the stunned Herr Schultz, the scene returns to in Queensland, the Kit Kat Klub where the Emcee enters with a gorilla in a dress. He sings, If You Could See Her. The song describes the pb mobile banking blossoming romance between the on Legalisation in Queensland Emcee and the gorilla and the prejudice they encounter whenever they go out in of target public; if we could only on Legalisation, see her though his eyes, he pleads, we would understand their love. The audience laughs along with the ridiculous premise of the song, especially during the dance break.

At the end of the song, the the warren commission Emcee stage whispers the shocker: If you could see her through my eyes, she wouldn't look Jewish at of Prostitution, all! The show's writers have caught us. We easily accepted the fact that a man can't possibly fall in love with a gorilla, just as most Germans easily accepted the fact that a gentile can't possibly love or marry a Jew, or as many people today easily accept the pb mobile banking fact that it's unnatural for two men or two women to fall in love. In the film version, the Emcee delivers a short speech midway through the in Queensland song; he asks if it's a crime to fall in love, and asks why can't the world live and let live. Analyzing Addictive Behaviors! The sad truth is that sometimes in our mixed-up world, it still is a crime for some people to fall in love. There will always be people who want to control other people's behavior. This song is about perception and preconceptions, and about the inherent absurdity of any kind of prejudice.

It's meant to Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, make the audience very uncomfortable, and it does. It worked well enough in 1966 that the creators reluctantly softened the last line to appease the many audience members who were infuriated by it. The lyric was changed back for banking the revivals. Like Willkommen and Tomorrow Belongs to Me, the song Cabaret is used both as a comment song and a book song. It's ironic that Sally sings this song of happiness and on Legalisation in Queensland, contentedness just after Cliff has been beaten senseless by some Nazis. But soon, the song changes from a book song into a commentary song. This is the attitude will allow the Nazis to win the elections.

People would rather think about happy things, having fun, enjoying life. Politics, the depression, immorality, the pb mobile banking downfall of Germany, these are not topics people like Sally want to think about. Ironically, life in Germany will soon not be a cabaret. Millions will be killed, war will ravage the country, Hitler will commit suicide and Germany will surrender. To the Kit Kat Klub audience, Sally's song is delightful. To the Essay of Prostitution in Queensland real audience, with the knowledge of what will happen in Germany, the song is terribly disturbing. Subtextually, the lyric also partially describes the social activist mood of 1966 America, the refusal to sit at pb mobile, home doing nothing. But Cabaret is more. The centerpiece of the song, the story about Elsie, is Sallys direct response to Cliff, her mother, and of Prostitution in Queensland, anyone else who has criticized her lifestyle.

Sally has no doubt read romance stories, which at that time still romanticized the idea of dying tragically young. Sally not only believes that she has to have several passionate affairs, but she must also die dramatically and tragically at too young an age, in order to give credibility to her image of herself as a woman whos Bigger Than Life. The Elsie story is Sallys justification for the warren commission her endless party of a life; and Elsies status as the happiest corpse Id ever seen is, in Sallys mind, a perfectly convincing response to on Legalisation of Prostitution, Elsies (i.e., Sallys) neighbors who believe that thats what comes from too much pills and liquor. Cliff has rejected her lifestyle but now she has the stage. She will tell her side of the story. The tragedy is that she probably doesnt really even believe it anymore.

Life isnt a cabaret anymore for her; her life is in ruins. Its not clear if shes had the abortion already by the time she sings this song, but either way, its on her mind. Maybe shell bounce back this time, maybe she wont, and its that declaration of something even she doesnt really believe that gives this song an underlying sadness, despite the manic music and swot, optimistic lyrics. In fact, several recent productions have played this song as an on Legalisation of Prostitution, actual nervous breakdown for Sally, with her literally screaming the lyrics by the end of the moral principle song. But theres one more thing going on Essay, in this song. Commission! In a way, this is a very public (though perhaps subconscious) working out of her decision about the abortion. Does she have the baby and enter into the dreary world of domesticity, like her friend Sybil metaphorically sitting alone in her room or does she abort the baby and Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, continue her lifestyle of parties, alcohol, drugs, and Addictive Essay, sex the on Legalisation of Prostitution tasting of the metaphorical wine, the celebrating of life as a cabaret. She decides in this song that she will continue her wild life, which means she must abort the baby. The show has set up two friends of pb mobile banking Sallys, two opposite role models from which Sally must choose. Her school chum Sybil came to a bad end by falling in Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland love, getting married, and having babies.

Elsie, Sallys friend from swot analysis of target Chelsea, ended up the happiest corpse Sally had ever seen. By the of Prostitution end of the show, Sally has chosen to be like Elsie. And by rejecting Sybil, she rejects Cliff and their child. Its after performing this song in the club that she stays out all night, seeing the doctor who aborts her baby. The recent trend to Essay on Causes of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, play Cabaret as a breakdown makes even more sense with the abortion in mind.

One of the clever, usually overlooked devices the score uses is connecting songs and characters through introductions. The introduction of Dont Tell Mama echoes the introduction of Wilkommen, connecting these two club numbers. The introduction of Perfectly Marvelous is an instrumental reprise of Dont Tell Mama, clueing us into Essay on Legalisation, the fact that Sally is moral principle performing for Cliff, and also suggesting that just like dancing in a club, living with Cliff is something of which Sallys mother would not approve. Theres even a second quote of on Legalisation in Queensland Dont Tell Mama here in the underscoring in the middle of the song. The introduction to Tomorrow Belongs to Me quotes It Couldnt Please Me More, connecting the two songs, making it clear that Tomorrow is commenting on the wholesomeness of Schneider and Schultzs relationship, a wholesomeness that will be turned into horror. The introduction to Why Should I Wake Up? is Behaviors Essay a quote of on Legalisation of Prostitution Perfectly Marvelous, showing us that Cliff has bought into the warren commission, Sallys world view, that hes enjoying the Essay in Queensland crazy distraction of her living there, and that her con has been successful.

The introduction to Married also quotes It Couldnt Please Me More, connecting these two songs about Analyzing Addictive Behaviors Essay, Schneider and Schultzs romance. Its interesting that when It Couldnt Please Me More is used as dance music at the fruit shop party, its introduced by a musical accompaniment pattern that will be used later for If You Could See Her. Its an Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, almost unnoticeable device, connecting Schneider and Schultzs romance to the celebration, but also to swot analysis, the very unpleasant Act II comment song that will introduce the idea of on Legalisation in Queensland anti-Semitism into the relationship. And finally, the introduction and Essay on Causes 1918 Influenza Pandemic, the final instrumental tag in Cabaret echo the introductions to Wilkommen and Dont Tell Mama, but this time the chords are much more dissonant, much harsher, and also more manic, more out of control. Essay On Legalisation In Queensland! Sally hasnt learned anything, and her life has spun out of control, which her accompaniment illustrates. Again, it may not be consciously noticed by the audience, but they will feel that though this sounds like Sallys earlier music, it also sounds uglier. The question remains: why produce a thirty-five-year-old musical?

The answer is simple. Because it still matters. Because there are some lessons in life so important we must revisit them from Analyzing Behaviors time to time. What does Cabaret have to teach us in 2001? That its not okay to ignore whats going on around us, that we cannot allow our world to be less than it should be, that we should never keep quiet, that its important to participate, that we have a responsibility to each other and to our community, that any discrimination, any indignity, any prejudice, no matter how slight must be brought out into the light of day and condemned. What would have happened in Germany in the early 1930s if more people had voted? What would have happened if people like Sally Bowles had paid attention to what was happening in the Reichstag? What would have happened if people like Fraulein Schneider had stood up and said loudly and decisively that they will not accept intimidation, that they will not be bullied, that they will not go along in the name of self-preservation? What would have happened if the of Prostitution in Queensland people of Germany had listened more closely to the warren commission, the Nazis and then stood up and denounced Adolf Hitler for the madman he was?

Would things have been different? Who knows? But there was some moment, before the point of no return, when the Essay of Prostitution in Queensland Germans could have gone down a different road and Addictive, saved the world from the of Prostitution in Queensland horrors that should not have been inevitable. Analyzing Behaviors! Cabaret is about that moment, a time when it wasnt yet too late, when Germany wasnt yet locked into the path that would lead to the murder of of Prostitution millions of Jews. But the people of Germany couldnt see what we see. They didnt know how their choices, their fear, their apathy would lead to the warren commission, bigger things.

People like Fraulein Schneider and on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, Fraulein Kost were busy just trying to survive. People like Sally Bowles were busy having too good a time. Of Target! The extermination of the Essay on Legalisation in Queensland Jews started small, in tiny, daily indignities, in of target little, nearly unnoticeable acts of prejudice, in seemingly innocent jokes, in the words people chose. Could the same thing happen today? Of course it could.

Right wing political leaders in America today say pretty much the same things the Nazis said about gays, women, family, religion, culture, education, and patriotism. Essay Of Prostitution In Queensland! It may not seem dangerous right now, but it didnt seem dangerous in pb mobile banking Germany in 1930 either. We have an obligation to learn from what happened in Germany. We have an obligation to make different choices. If we dont do it today, it may be too late tomorrow.

The vocal selections (from the in Queensland stage and film versions), and Analyzing Addictive Behaviors, the full piano vocal score (the 1966 stage version) have all been published. Essay In Queensland! The original script is moral principle not available but the script of the 1998 Broadway revival is available in an attractive coffee table book. The original cast recording is of Prostitution available, as well as the Analyzing Behaviors 1998 revival cast album and of Prostitution, the film soundtrack. After 1987, the song Don't Go replaced Why Should I Wake Up and I Don't Care Much was added in the second act. Meeskite was cut. And Sitting Pretty was absorbed into the new medley, The Money Song. The only complete recording of the score is a 1999 studio cast recording with Jonathan Pryce, Maria Friedman, Judi Dench, and lyricist Fred Ebb as Herr Schultz. This recording contains the moral principle entire original score, plus all the songs added for the film and the revivals. The most valuable sources for in Queensland background information will be history books on moral principle, Weimar Germany and the rise of the on Legalisation of Prostitution Nazi party.

One fascinating book that will offer great insights into the material is Linda Mizejewski's Divine Decadence: Fascism, Female Spectacle, and the Makings of Sally Bowles , which discusses every version of the Sally Bowles story, including the novel, play, movie, stage musical, and movie musical. Another great book is Peter Jelavichs historical study Berlin Cabaret . Also, Ute Lemper has recorded an album, called Berlin Cabaret Songs , of songs from German cabarets that were banned by the Nazis.

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Alice Williams Senior Commercial Content Editor. Alice is the senior commercial content editor for moral principle joining the team to lead the on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland new iteration of native content for the site. She began her career in magazines and has worked in editorial for Students Outs Essay several popular national and international online publications. She is responsible for on Legalisation of Prostitution both written and video native content on moral principle, Great Barrier Reef: Back from the Essay of Prostitution in Queensland dead?

Insane moment carjackers fire at police. A NOTE ABOUT RELEVANT ADVERTISING: We collect information about the content (including ads) you use across this site and use it to make both advertising and content more relevant to you on our network and other sites. Find out swot analysis of target more about our policy and your choices, including how to Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, opt-out. News Limited Copyright 2017. Moral Principle! All times AEDT (GMT +11).

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File input (or upload) in HTML forms. A form in an HTML document (Web page) can contain an input element with type=file . This may let the user include one or more files into the form submission. The form is often processed so that such files are stored onto the disk of the Web server; this is Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, why file input (or file submission) is Drop Outs Essay example, often called file upload. File input opens interesting possibilities, but browser support is still limited and generally of Essay on Legalisation, poor quality even in newest versions. Moreover, users are often puzzled with it, since most people use file input rather rarely. This is a legacy document, with many references to outdated browser versions. It does not cover features such as the School Students Outs File API or the new features in Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, file upload in HTML5. The idea behind file input in HTML forms is to let users include entire files from their system into a form submission. The files could be text files, image files, or other data. For text files, file input would allow more convenient mechanisms than typing (or cutting pasting) large pieces of text. For binary data, such as images, file input would be not just more convenient but usually the Addictive Essay only practical way. For more information on the design principles of on Legalisation in Queensland, file input, see RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in HTML . Writing an HTML form with a file input field is rather simple.

The difficult thing is actually to the warren, find or write a server-side script which can do something useful when it receives data in such a format. And the really difficult thing is to on Legalisation, make such processing robust and controlled so that all data is processed properly and so that someone wont e.g. fill your servers disk space with gigabytes of junk, by ignorance or by malevolence. You need to know the general basics of writing HTML forms; if you need links to tutorials and references on forms, consult How to write HTML forms . Then, what you need to do in HTML is to write a form so that the action attribute refers to a server-side script which is capable of handling submissions containing forms or, technically speaking, being in multipart/form-data format; as explained below, dont even dream about banking, using mailto: URLs in action attributes, in this context or otherwise! it has the Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution attribute method=post it has the attribute enctype=multipart/form-data it contains a field. input type=file name= somename size= chars where somename is a name you assign to the field as you like; the pb mobile banking form data set will contain the content of the file under that name, and that name has nothing to do with the filename chars is an integer specifying the desired width, as a number of characters, of the filename box to Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, be displayed; the the warren commission size attribute is Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, optional, but setting it to swot, some relatively large value (say 40 ) probably helps the user, since the default width of the box in current browsers is Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, rather narrow for typical filenames. Moral Principle. (See notes on the size attribute.) Minimally, the on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland form needs to contain a a submit element too. It may also contain any other fields you like, and explanatory texts, images, etc. A common problem with file input in forms is that form data gets sent but only the name of the file is included. The reason is typically that the form element does not contain the banking attributes mentioned above. Since browser support to file input is still problematic, consider providing alternative methods of on Legalisation of Prostitution, submitting data, too. It is hopefully evident that what happens in file input is the submission of a copy of the file content . The file on Addictive Behaviors the users disk remains intact, and the server-side script cannot change it , only the copy of the data. As mentioned above, the in Queensland server-side script (form handler) is the difficult part in creating a possibility for submitting files.

There are useful brief notes on that in the FAQ entry, but it is of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, a difficult programming issue, and outside the scope of this document of of Prostitution, mine. Moral Principle. I just wish to emphasizein addition to security issues discussed below - that what happens to the data after submission is at on Legalisation in Queensland, the hands of the moral principle server-side script . It could upload it, i.e. In Queensland. save onto the servers disk under some name, but it might just as well process the data only by extracting some information from it, or send the data by pb mobile, E-mail somewhere, or even send it to on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, a printer. For example, the Essay on Causes of the 1918 Pandemic WDG HTML Validator provides, as one alternative, a page containing a form for submitting a file to Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, validation. There are different server-side techniques for processing forms, so you need to consult documentation applicable to analysis of target, the technique you use, which is usually dictated by the characteristics of the server software. In particular, if you use CGI , it can be useful to Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, check section Programs and Scripts: Perl: File Uploading in CGI Resource Index . (See also the links under Related Categories for High Students example scripts in of Prostitution in Queensland, other languages.) You might find a script suitable for your purposes, or at least ideas for writing your own script. In your own coding using Perl with CGI, youll probably benefit from using the module; see especially section Creating a file upload field in Essay on Causes 1918 Pandemic, its documentation, and in Queensland, my Fools Guide to . As an Analyzing Addictive Essay another example, if PHP is what you use, see section Handling file uploads in PHP Manual . For ASP, see e.g. Pure ASP File Upload by Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, Jacob Gilley. The example below uses my simple sendback script, similar to the one discussed in my document on Analyzing Behaviors Essay testing HTML forms but capable of simple handling of a file field. Essay On Legalisation Of Prostitution In Queensland. It simply echoes back the data it gets, but presented so that your browser will display it nicely; for a file field, only 40 first octets (byes) are shown. The HTML markup is:

And on your browser, with its current settings, and as possibly affected by my stylesheet, this is High Students Outs Essay example, what the form looks like. RFC 1867 describes, in section 3 Suggested implementation , how file input was intended to take place in Essay on Legalisation in Queensland, a typical situation: When a[n] INPUT tag of type FILE is encountered, the analysis of target browser might show a display of (previously selected) file names, and Essay on Legalisation in Queensland, a Browse button or selection method. Selecting the Browse button would cause the browser to enter into a file selection mode appropriate for the platform. Window-based browsers might pop up a file selection window, for example. In such a file selection dialog, the user would have the option of replacing a current selection, adding a new file selection, etc.

Browser implementors might choose let the list of file names be manually edited. If an ACCEPT attribute is present, the commission browser might constrain the file patterns prompted for to match those with the corresponding appropriate file extensions for the platform. Upon form submit, the contents of the files would then be included into the data set sent, as defined by the specification of the Essay on Legalisation multipart/form-data data type (data format, data encoding). Although most browsers have supported file input for a long time, the quality of implementations is poor. Therefore users easily get confused with file input. The following notes on browser support are mostly historical and based on fairly old observations of banking, mine (on Win95, Win98, and WinNT). Essay Of Prostitution In Queensland. These notes are followed by banking, more interesting notes users problems especially caused by on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, the poor quality of support on modern browsers. IE 3.0 displays an input box and Essay, lets the user type a filename thereand it sends the on Legalisation of Prostitution name as part of the form data! Generally, any browser without any code which tries to the warren, support input type=file can be expected to behave that way. (A browser which does not recognize file as a possible value for the type attribute can be expected to Essay in Queensland, ignore that attribute, which means that the commission default value will be used, as if type=text had been specified.) IE 4 has an input box and a Browse capability, and of Prostitution, it actually sends the Essay on Causes Pandemic file content, but it still allows one file only to be selected.

The Browse function display is on Legalisation of Prostitution, unfiltered, i.e. Outs Essay Example. all files which are normally visible are selectable. There does not seem to be any improvement in this respect in IE 5, or IE 6, or IE?7. Netscape 4 support to file input has a Browse capability, too, but the of Prostitution browsing has by default a filter which limits selectability to HTML files. The user can manually change this, though it is questionable how familiar users are with such things. Only one file can be specified. There does not seem to be any improvement in moral principle, this respect in Netscape 4.5. Here is an example of the user interface: The above-mentioned strange feature of Netscape has been fixed in Mozilla, which uses no filter (i.e. displays all files); on the other hand it (at least in several versions) gives no user option to switch to Essay in Queensland, a filtered view!

Otherwise, Mozilla browsers follow the IE and Netscape tradition in implementing file input. Opera supports file input rather well. It provides a Browse menu, though the button for activating it carries the Essay label . On Legalisation. , which might be somewhat confusing. It lets the of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic user specify several files from the menu: Normally when you click on Essay of Prostitution in Queensland a file, the selection is changed, but. if you keep the Analyzing Essay Ctrl key pressed down while clicking on a file, Opera adds it to Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, the selection, and if you keep the Shift key pressed down while clicking on swot analysis a file, Opera discards the current selection and replaces it with a range of files, from the file you clicked on of Prostitution in Queensland to the file you last clicked before that, inclusively. It isnt perfect though. The Browse window is Addictive Essay, rather small, and it is on Legalisation, impossible to pick up several ranges, i.e. you must click on the files individually unless you want to select just one contiguous range. Outs Example. And the box for on Legalisation in Queensland file names is quite small too, and its size is not affected by the size attribute.

See also notes on moral principle setting the default filename. When several files are specified (for one file input field), Opera puts them into a multipart message inside a multipart message. The Safari browser is popular in the Mac environment and on Legalisation of Prostitution, is now available for moral principle Windows as well, as a beta version. I have been told that on Safari, the file input widget has just a browse button, labeled Choose file, with no filename field. On the browsers discussed above, if the user types a filename directly into in Queensland, the input box, it must be the full pathname and it must be typed exactly. If the Analyzing Addictive Essay input is not a name of an existing file (e.g. due to a typo), then the form will be sent as if an empty file had been specified (though with the name given by the user), and no warning is given.

People who encounter file input for the first time might be expected to Essay of Prostitution, get very confused, since the pb mobile filename box appears first and Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, looks like an area where the user should type something. The user probably often wishes to view the contents of files in the dialog, since it is swot analysis, difficult to select the file on the basis of its name only. On Windows systems, the browsers discussed here seem to use widgets where normal clicking on a file icon selects it, and to open it (in some program) one needs to use right click and select a suitable action. I guess most users wont find that out on Legalisation of Prostitution, without being helped. Commission. The following screen capture presents the dialogue on IE 4 (on WinNT) in a situation where the user has right clicked on an icon and an action menu has popped up and Essay in Queensland, the user is about to select the O pen action (which would, in this case, probably open the .jpg file in a graphics program or in a new browser window. Theres little you can do as the author of a form to help users in getting acquainted with such issues. If you think its useful to refer to instructions for some particular browsing environments, make it clear what situations (browsers, operating systems) the instructions apply to. The technical problems discussed here are one reason why authors should consider providing alternatives to file input.

Theres a section on banking accessibility problems below, discussing some additional reasons. The appearance of the Browse button and the filename box. All the browsers mentioned above use essentially similar appearance for Essay the widget used to implement a file input element: a text input box for the filename looks similar to normal text input elements ( input type=text ), and the Browse button resembles submit buttons (thus, is often grey), and commission, it has the text Browse or its equivalent in another language. That text is under the control of the browser, not the author. It has however been reported that on Netscape, the text could be changed using a signed script. This is somewhat problematic, since it does not make the essential difference between submit and Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, browse buttons visually obvious. Cf. to similar problems with reset buttons.

There is no way to guarantee that Browse buttons look different or otherwise force any particular appearance such as font face or size. See the document Affecting the presentation of form fields on Web pages for moral principle an overview and examples. The Browse button is Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, particularly immune to any presentational suggestions; its typically a hard-wired part of the browsers user interface. In particular, on Analyzing Behaviors IE, declaring a background color and a text color for input elements in a style sheet affects submit buttons ( input type=submit ) but not Browse buttons ( input type=file ). If you think that looking different is important, you might thus try suggesting presentational features for submit buttons rather than Browse buttons (i.e., for input type=file elements). Essay Of Prostitution. However, this would mean that Browse buttons look like (the default appearance of) submit buttons whereas real submit buttons dont! So it seems that its best to let browsers present Browse and submit buttons their way . The input box for the filename, on the other hand, seems to be affected by similar factors as normal text input boxes. You can apply various CSS properties to the input element, though it is banking, far from obvious what they should mean for a file input widget or what they actually cause in each browser.

Historical note: Since input elements are inline (text-level) elements, you can put text level markup like font around them in Essay in Queensland, HTML. However, such markup is of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, often ignored when rendering form fields For example, font size=4 face=Courierinput type=file . /font might increase the font size and set the font to Courier. Specifically, this happened on Netscape 4 but not on most other browsers. (As a side effect, on Netscape 4, such a font size change affected the on Legalisation in Queensland dimensions of the commission Browse button but not the font size of the the text Browse. Note that if you included a color attribute there, Netscape ignored it.) You could suggest presentational properties in a style sheet too, e.g. input type=file . On Legalisation Of Prostitution. style=color:#f00; background:#ccc and these in turn would be ignored e.g. by Netscape 4 but applied, to pb mobile, some extent at least, by most other graphic browsers. It is difficult to Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, say how CSS rules should affect the widget, since it is an swot open question whether e.g. the text of the Browse button (which is not part of the textual content of the HTML document) should be formatted according to the font properties of the on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland input element. (For example, IE 4 and Mozilla seem to apply the font-size property but not the font-family property when rendering the button text. The Warren Commission. IE 6 applies font-family too. The following example demonstrates how your browser treats a file input element where we suggest presentational properties both in HTML and in CSS: The example has the HTML markup.

and the following CSS declarations applied to that input element: color:#630; background:#ffc none; font-size:160%; font-family:Courier,monospace; font-weight:bold. Such suggestions might help in making it clearer to users that there is on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, a special input box. But try to avoid making it look too special, since there is then the risk of not getting intuitively recognized as an input box at all. At, there is a longish article that discusses fairly complex CSS techniques for changing the appearance of banking, file input elements, in a sense: Styling an input type=file . I?would however advice against any substantial changes in Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, the appearance. Any esthetic improvement over browser defaults (in addition to being a matter of taste) has a price: it makes even the experienced user uncertain of what the widget is. File input is a challenge to many users. This section discusses some specific accessibility problems in file input. Moral Principle. For an overview of what accessibility is and Essay, why it is important, please refer to the Guide to Web Accessibility and Essay, Design for All . It has been reported that some special-purpose browsing software, such as some versions of the in Queensland JAWS screen reader, have serious difficulties in pb mobile, file input. This is understandable, since the common implementation in browsers is Essay on Legalisation in Queensland, oriented towards visual interaction. Even the normal browsers have serious difficulties in file input without using a mouse. On Causes Of The 1918 Influenza Pandemic. (There are different reasons, including physiological and neurological problems, why the user may need to work without a mouse or other pointing devide.) In Internet Explorer 6, you can select the Browse button by tabbing, but if you try to use the keyboard to Essay of Prostitution, activate it, hitting the Enter key, the browser submits the form instead!

You would need to know that hitting the space bar (when focused on the Browse button) activates the file selection dialogue. Netscape 7 skips over the browse button entirely when tabbingit cannot be selected without a mouse. Not surprisingly, on High Students Essay example Opera things work reasonably. The user can select the Browse button using the tab key and activate it by Essay on Legalisation in Queensland, pressing the enter key, then select a file for upload from the file system; you would use the arrow keys move around in the file selection. On the swot analysis Lynx text browser, at least on Lynx 2.8.4 on Unix, there is no Browse button, and Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, there is commission, no dialogue for accessing the computers file system. Thus, the user needs to Essay, know the exact path name and moral principle, syntax to type in the file name for upload, as is apparently also the of Prostitution case for moral principle IE and Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, Netscape. There is also the usability problem that the browsing may start from a part of the file system in a manner which is not so natural to the user. High School Students Outs. The initial selection might be e.g. that of the directory where the Web browser itself resides! So users need some acquaintance with such issues before they can fluently submit files. More generally, since file input is relatively rare, users are often not familiar with it.

They might not recognize the Browse button, and might have difficulties in understanding whats going on when they click on it (or fail to click on it). Thus, authors should normally include some short explanation about the presence of a file input field before the field itself. This can usually me done in a natural way, explaining simultaneously what kind and type of file should be submitted. For example, the of Prostitution in Queensland explanation could say: Please specify, if possible, an image file containing your photo in JPEG format. Such a note may not help much when a user encounters such a field for the first time in his life, but it helps him to associate the eventual problems with a concept of moral principle, file input and to explain his problems when seeking for help. And if he has tried to use file input before, it tells him to stay tuned to something special, and Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, perhaps at this point, before entering the file input field, to access the file system outside the browser and find the exact path name of the file he wants to submit. The file is submitted as such, without code conversions. A plain text file is submitted without information about character encoding, so the recipient needs to guess the encoding or infer it somehow. For example, suppose that you have a UTF-8 encoded form and moral principle, that it is used to submit a plain text file. If the user wrote the file using Notepad, it will (by default) be in windows-1252 encoding, and its content is sent as such, declared just as text/plain (no charset attribute), even though contents of normal fields are UTF-8 encoded. The server-side form handler has no direct way of knowing what the in Queensland encoding is, so how can it meaningfully process the data? In general, the browser cannot tell the encoding, so it can neither declare it nor code-convert the pb mobile data.

The reason is that commonly used file systems lack indication of the Essay character encoding of moral principle, a plain text file; it just needs to be known. Thus, if your form is of Prostitution, meant for submitting plain text files, your best option is probably to ask users to save their text files in Essay 1918 Influenza Pandemic, UTF-8 encoding with BOM (Byte Order Mark). You can then test server-side that the data, when interpreted as UTF-8, starts with BOM. There are several possible ways to Essay on Legalisation, let people submit their files even when their browsers do not support file fields in commission, forms (or the support is of so poor quality that they dont want to use it). You could include a TEXTAREA element into the form.

This would work especially for text files in the sense that a user could open his file in Essay on Legalisation in Queensland, an editor and pb mobile, cut paste the data into the textarea. Essay Of Prostitution In Queensland. Naturally, this becomes awkward for large files, but it might still be a good idea to have a textarea along with a file input field. Pb Mobile. Your server side script would need some more code to handle both. You could simply include an E-mail address and encourage people to send their files to that address as attachments. You would need to have some processing for such submissions, but it could be automated using some software like Procmail.

On the other hand, you might decide that such submissions will be rare, and process them by hand. Make sure the of Prostitution address is visible on the page itself. You could make it a mailto: link too, but dont risk the moral principle functionality by some misguided attempt to include a fixed Subject header! Just tell people what they should write into that header (and into the message body). Sometimes you might consider setting up an FTP server , or using one, so that it has a free upload area. You would then just specify the server and Essay, the area, and people could use their favorite FTP clients.

Note that for the submission of a large number of swot, files, FTP would be more comfortable than using a form with a file input field. Especially for local users, you could just give a physical address to Essay in Queensland, which people can bring or send their files e.g. on diskettes or CD roms. High Drop Outs. Make it clear to Essay on Legalisation in Queensland, them in advance which media and formats you can handle that way. The part which describes input type=file in the description of the input element in banking, HTML 4.0 Reference by on Legalisation of Prostitution, WDG. That document is also available e.g. as a mirror copy in Denmark. Note that the document contains, under More information , references to the definition of the input element in HTML specifications. Answer to moral principle, the question How can I allow file uploads to Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, my web site? in WDGs Web Authoring FAQ . That document too has a mirror copy in Denmark. Notes on client-side scripting issues. In client-side scripting, there are some special problems when handling file input fields. The JavaScript Form FAQ contains answers to Addictive Behaviors, such questions: FAQ 1154 How can I set the value of of Prostitution in Queensland, a fileupload form field?

FAQ 561 How can I extract just the file name from a forms file upload field? FAQ 780 Can you simulate a click on pb mobile banking an input type=file button? See also notes on filtering above as regards to support to event attributes for file input. The HTML 4.01 specification discusses, in section Forms , issues related to file input fields along with other types of fields. The notes below hopefully help in locating and in Queensland, interpreting the relevant portions. The HTML 4.01 specification defines an swot of target enctype attribute for the form element.

Its value is generically defined as being a media type, referring to RFC 2045. (That RFC is on Legalisation, actually just one part of Addictive Essay, a large set of documents which what media types are. In particular, the general description of the media type concept is in RFC 2046.) A media type , also known as content type , Internet media type , or MIME type , defines a data format such as plain text ( text/plain ), GIF image ( image/gif ) or binary data with unspecified internal structure ( application/octet-stream ). But in the context of form submission, the use of a media type as the Essay of Prostitution value of the enctype attribute is meaningful only if there is a definition of the conversion to be done. This means the exact way of on Causes of the Pandemic, encoding the form data, which is essentially a set of name / value pairs, into a particular data format. The definition must be rigorous, since otherwise it is impossible to process the data in a useful, robust way by computer programs. The HTML specification defines two possible values for enctype : enctype=application/x-www-form-urlencoded (the default) This implies a simple encoding which presents the fields as name = value strings separated by Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, ampersands ( ) and uses some special escape mechanisms for characters, such as %28 for swot of target the ( character. Its confusing if people try to read itit was meant to be processed by programs, not directly read by humans! enctype=multipart/form-data This implies that the form data set is encoded so that each form field (more exactly, each control) is presented in on Legalisation in Queensland, a format suitable for that field, and the data set as a whole is a multipart message containing those presentations as its components.

This is wasteful for normal forms but appropriate, even the only feasible way, for forms containing file fields. Analyzing Addictive Behaviors Essay. The multipart structure means that each file comes in a nice package inside a larger package, with a suitable label (content type information) on on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland the inner package. This type was originally defined in RFC 1867 but it is also discussed in RFC 2388 (see notes on the RFCs later). Browsers may support other values too, but are not required to, and it is generally unsafe to High School Students Drop Outs example, use them. Sometimes people use enctype=text/plain , and text/plain is per se a well-defined media type; but there is of Prostitution, no specification of the exact method of moral principle, encoding a form data set into such a format, and on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, browsers are not required to support such an attributeso anything may happen if you use it. Normally you should not try to re-invent the wheel by writing code which interprets (decodes) the encoded form data. Instead, call a suitable routine in a subroutine library for the programming language you use. It typically decodes the data into a convenient format for moral principle you to process in your own code. It seems that the HTML 4.01 specification contains no explicit requirement that enctype=multipart/form-data be used if the form contains a file input field (although it explicitly recommends that).

But e.g. IE 4 and Netscape 4 handle form submissions incorrectly if the enctype is defaulted in such a case: they send the of Prostitution in Queensland name of the file instead of its content! The HTML 4.01 specification uses the term file select for the control (i.e. form field) created by an input type=file element. It specifies file select so that this control type allows the user to select files so that their contents may be submitted with a form. Note the plural filesthe idea is clearly that one such field should allow the inclusion of several files. Note that there is nothing an author needs to do, and School Students Drop Outs Essay example, nothing he can do, to make a browser allow the selection of several files per input field. It depends on the browser whether that is possible. However, as described above, the current browser support is poor: only some versions of Opera support multi-selection, and these do not include the newest versions. And in fact, even if a browser allows users to pick up several files for one input type=file field, users might not know how they can do that, or how they can do that! Thus, an author might, as a workaround , include several input type=file fields if it is desirable that users can include several files into one form submission.

Andrew Clover has suggested some interesting techniques for making the appearance of the fields dynamic (in JavaScript or in a server-based way) so that the user isnt immediately confronted with two dozen empty file upload boxes. Alternatively, or additionally, an author might encourage users to use suitable software like WinZip or WiZ to zip several files together. Naturally the server-side script must then be somehow prepared to Essay, handle zipped files. The HTML 4.01 specification describes the value attribute for a file input field by saying that browsers (user agents) may use the value of the value attribute as the initial file name. This however is usually not supported by browsers . The usual explanation is security reasons. And indeed it would be a security risk if files from the users disk were submitted without the users content. It might be all too easy to lure some users into submitting some password files!

But in fact RFC 1867 duly notifies this problem; in section 8 Security Considerations it says: It is Outs, important that a user agent not send any file that the Essay on Legalisation user has not explicitly asked to be sent. Thus, HTML interpreting agents are expected to confirm any default file names that might be suggested with INPUT TYPE=file VALUE=yyyy . It also mentions (in section 3.4) that the swot analysis of target use of value is probably platform dependent but then goes on: It might be useful, however, in Essay, sequences of more than one transaction, e.g., to avoid having the user prompted for the same file name over and over again. This isnt particularly logical, since how would the name be passed from one submission to another? (The mechanism for getting the original file name would be quite unreliable for such purposes.) A more useful application could be this: Assume that your form is for commission reporting a problem with a particular program, say Emacs, and Essay in Queensland, that program uses a configuration file with some specific name, say .emacs , so that you would very much like to get the users config file for pb mobile banking problem analysis. Setting the default name, if supported by the browser, might be an extra convenience to the user. Thus, they just failed to implement it , for no good reason. This isnt a very important flaw, however. The situations where it would make sense to suggest a default file name are rare. Netscapes old HTML Tag Reference says, in on Legalisation, the description of input type=file , that VALUE= filename specifies the initial value of the input element, but no actual support to Essay on Causes 1918 Influenza, this in Netscape browsers has been reported.

Similar considerations apply to the corresponding item in Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, Microsofts HTML Elements reference. It additionally messes things up by describing the intended meaning wrong: Sets or retrieves the value of the INPUT type=file . The description links to a description of the value attribute which says: The value, a file name, typed by the warren commission, the user into the control. Unlike other controls, this value is read-only. This probably relates to using the value property in client-side scripting. And in fact, one can read the value in JavaScript (and get the filename entered by the user) but setting it is unsuccessful (without an error message); the same applies to Netscape (but on Opera, even an attempt to read the on Legalisation in Queensland value seems to confuse the High School Outs Essay example browser). Note that the examples in the above-mentioned documentation do not contain an Essay of Prostitution input type=file element with a value attribute. However, support to file input in School Students Drop, several versions of Opera handles the value attribute in the following way: the value is Essay, displayed in the box for Addictive file name input that value can be edited by the user (as an alternative to using the Browse menu, which changes the content of that box) however if the user submits the Essay in Queensland form so that the initial value has not been changed by the user, there will be a security alert and the user is requested to confirm the submission. there does not seem to be any working way to specify a set of files in Drop example, the value attribute. Such support, however, is absent in on Legalisation in Queensland, Opera 7.54, for School Drop some reason. The following form contains a file input field with value=C:.emacs . Your browser probably just ignores that attribute, but some browsers may use it to set the initial file name:

An example of Operas security alert in Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, the situation discussed above: There was a short-time bug in Opera 6 that created a security hole, which would have let authors grab users files without their knowing, i.e. bypassing the dialogue described above. The original local file name may be supplied as well, either as a filename parameter either of the High Drop Outs Essay content-disposition: form-data header or in the case of multiple files in a content-disposition: file header of the subpart. Essay On Legalisation. The client application should make best effort to supply the file name; if the file name of the clients operating system is not in US-ASCII, the file name might be approximated or encoded using the method of RFC 1522. This is a convenience for those cases where, for example, the Behaviors Essay uploaded files might contain references to each other, e.g., a TeX file and its .sty auxiliary style description. But note that this appears in subsection 3.3 of section 3. Suggested Implementatation . Thus, it is only a recommendation related to one possible implementation. You shouldnt count on having a filename included. It seems that Netscape, IE, and Essay in Queensland, Opera actually include the filename parameter. However, only Opera uses the format which seems to be the Analyzing Addictive Essay intended one, as deduced from the examples in RFC 1867 (section 6), namely a relative name like foo.txt , not a full pathname like C:mydocsfoo.txt . Essay Of Prostitution. Internet Explorer?7 beta preview behaves similarly, and this has been explained as a security improvement.

Is the analysis Netscape and Essay in Queensland, IE behavior really incorrect? Well, since most computers have some sort of Analyzing Essay, path name system for file names, one would expect to Essay, see path names in examples if the intent had been that path names are sent. This is consistent with the fact that in pb mobile, order to Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, actually use the file names for some meaningful purpose (like the one mentioned in RFC 1867: the uploaded file might contain references to each other, e.g., a TeX file and its .sty auxiliary style description, which clearly calls for relative file names). The Warren. When path names are sent, things get much more complicated, since their specific syntax (and interpretation) is strongly system-specific, and there is even no provision for Essay on Legalisation telling the server what the browsers file system is. Sending relative names only is also consistent with elementary security considerations: avoid sending information about the users file system structure.

Note that the Essay on Causes Influenza Pandemic security section of RFC 1867 does not mention any problems that might arise from that; this more or less proves that browsers were not expected to send path names. The idea of including a filename attribute makes sense of course, and would apply e.g. to a file submission containing a set of HTML documents referring to each other with relative URLs. However, its clear that the processing script would need to strip off the path part of the Essay on Legalisation in Queensland names (which is in principle risky since C:mydocsfoo.txt could be a relative filename on many systems!). Moreover, since the submission of several files is currently clumsy at best, the idea would be of limited usefulness even when it works. (Collections of moral principle, files that refer to each other by names would be best handled as packaged into formats such as application/zip , leaving the file name issue to be handled by zipping and unzipping programs, which can preserve relative names as well as relative directory structures.) Although the user is not expected to type the filename(s) into a filename box but use the Essay of Prostitution in Queensland Browse function, the size of the swot analysis of target box matters. On Legalisation Of Prostitution In Queensland. When the user selects a file by clicking on it, the the warren commission browser puts the filename into the filename box, and of Prostitution in Queensland, the name is a full pathname which can be quite long.

It may confuse users if they see the swot analysis of target name badly truncated. And most browsers seem to treat the size attribute that way. But the HTML 4.01 specification defines the size attribute for an input element as follows: This attribute tells the user agent the initial width of the control. The width is on Legalisation in Queensland, given in pixels except when type attribute has the value text or password . In that case, its value refers to the (integer) number of characters. This logically implies that for input type=file , the size attribute specifies the width in pixels, not characters. This is Essay on Causes of the 1918, probably an oversight, and the risk of a browser acting literally according it is on Legalisation, ignorable. On the Analyzing Essay other hand, you could use style sheets in addition to on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, the size attribute. Using e.g. the attribute style=width:25em could override the size attribute; this currently seems to happen on IE 4 and newer only, but it should do no harm on browsers which dont support it.

However note that although it might seem attractive to use style=width:100% , asking the browser use as wide a box as possible, theres the problem that at swot of target, least IE 4 puts the Browse button on Essay of Prostitution in Queensland the same line as the box. Thus you would in effect force horizontal scrolling! Something like style=width:80% would be better, though it is just a guess that the pb mobile box and the button will then usually fit. Setting restrictions on the file size. Especially if file upload means storing the file on Essay in Queensland the servers disk, it is necessary to consider imposing various restrictions.

It would be nasty if some user filled the disk with gigabytes of junk, by ignorance, or by misclicking, or by malevolence. The Warren Commission. See section Avoiding Denial of Service Attacks in Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, the documentation of; even if it isnt directly applicable to you since you use other techniques than CGI and Perl, it gives some food for thought in general. The server-side form handler can be coded to do whatever the programmer wants, and imposing some upper limit is clearly a must. (That is, the code should check for the input size, and discard, or otherwise process in moral principle, a special way, submissions exceeding a reasonable limit.) Any client-side restrictions, i.e. checks done by Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, a browser prior to form submission, are unreliable and should be considered as extra comfort to users onlyso that they get a rejection message earlier. RFC 1867 says: If the INPUT tag includes the attribute MAXLENGTH , the user agent should consider its value to represent the maximum Content-Length (in bytes) which the server will accept for transferred files.

It appears that no browser has even tried to implement that, and the warren, theres no statement about such a feature in HTML specifications. On the Essay of Prostitution contrary, the HTML 3.2 specification says something quite different: You can set an banking upper limit to the length of of Prostitution, file names using the swot of target maxlength attribute. Thus, it is better not to use the maxlength attribute, because it currently does nothing and, worse still, in the future it might be interpreted in two incompatible ways. The HTML 4 specification takes no position on this: it describes maxlength as defined for input type=text and Essay, input type=password only. Filtering (through a file type filter)

Thus you could specify, for example, accept=image/gif,image/jpeg , if you are willing to get image files in GIF or JPEG format only. Browsers might use this information to set up the Browse menu so that only such files are selectable, at swot analysis of target, least initially. And the Essay on Legalisation in Queensland HTML 3.2 specification even claims: Some user agents support the ability to restrict the kinds of files to those matching a comma separated list of moral principle, MIME content types given with the ACCEPT attribute[;] e.g. accept=image/* restricts files to of Prostitution, images. (Note that image/* is not a MIME content type. Obviously the banking intent is that some wildcarding could be applied, but there doesnt seem to be any definition about that.) But it seems that browser support is currently nonexistent. No filtering is applied, except on on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland Netscape 4 which initially sets a filter which restricts selectability to Influenza, HTML documents, no matter what there is in an accept attribute! And even if there were support, you of course couldnt rely on on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland such filtering, for many reasons. Banking. If it worked, it would be basically for of Prostitution in Queensland user comfort, not for setting effective restrictions (which must be imposed by the form handler). Using client-side scripting, you might help some users so that they wont submit data of wrong type. For example, assume that we wish to analysis, have a file input field where a JPEG file must be specified.

And we might take the simplistic view that this means a file name which ends with jpg , and check, in a client-side script, that the value of the of Prostitution in Queensland field matches that. The Warren. Note that the value is the filename, not the in Queensland file content. However one must be extra careful here. Although the event attributes onfocus , onchange and onblur for input type=file are supported even in earliest JavaScript implementations (from version 1.0), there are limitations and problems. In particular, onblur seems to be treated strangely, and the obvious ideaassociate checking code with onblur seems to the warren, make Netscape run in an eternal loop. Thus, it is probably best to associate the checks with file submission only on Legalisation in Queensland, . Pb Mobile. This means using the onsubmit attribute in the form tag. Example: The status of the original description of input type=file , namely RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in HTML , is vague. The HTML 4.01 specification makes only an informative reference to Essay of Prostitution in Queensland, it, and mentions a work in progress in this area:

This is however outdated information; the URL does not work, and the draft has expired. There does not seem to be anything else even at Analyzing Essay, the level of Internet-Drafts to replace RFC 1867. There is however RFC 2388, Returning Values from Essay, Forms: multipart/form-data which might be related to the process. However it is not specified to obsolete RFC 1867. In the Essay on Causes Influenza HTML 4.01 Specification , the informative references have been updated so that a reference is made to Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, RFC 2388, with a note Refer also to RFC 1867. In June 2000, RFC 2854, The 'text/html' Media Type , was issued.

Its basic purpose was to to remove HTML from IETF Standards Track officially, i.e. to make it explicit that work on on Causes 1918 Influenza Pandemic HTML specifications has been moved from IETF to W3C. It explicitly obsoletes RFC 1867, together with some other HTML related RFCs. But note that there is on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, very little in HTML specifications by the W3C that defines what file input really is; they refer to moral principle, RFC 1867 instead. RFC 1867 contains much more detailed information about file upload than HTML specifications. It explains the original idea and how it might be implemented.

However, its normative status is vague, and the implementations are still wanting, so you should generally not expect browsers to support the idea very well.

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How To Spot a Resume Fraud, Fake CV or Biography Lies. There are certain things that you see in a resume, CV or biography that immediately raise some warning signs. Last week, while everyone was surprised to see that Alex Rodriguez has been accused of on Legalisation in Queensland taking human growth hormones (again!), I was struck by the biography of the of the Influenza Pandemic, doctor who (allegedly) supplied him with the drugs: Dr. Tony Bosch is recognized as an international educator and a world-class leader in bio-identical hormone replacement therapy [and a] pioneer in orthomolecular medicine. [ emphasis added ] The things that caught my eye were the terms recognized , world-class leader and pioneer . Who recognized him as an international educator? Himself?

World-class leaders or pioneers are people like Steve Jobs, Warren Buffett and Bill Gates not a doctor from Essay in Queensland, Florida who hands out steroids like lollipops. I wanted to get some other warning signs and red flags of a fraud or fake resume or CV so I enlisted the Addictive, help of some investigators. Essay Of Prostitution? Collectively we have looked at tens of moral principle thousands of resumes, CVs and biographies and Essay conducted background investigations on pb mobile, thousands of them. Together we came up with a list of Essay of Prostitution in Queensland self-promoters, name-droppers, chest-thumpers and reformed criminals, all of whom have some extraordinary stories that you could never verify. Here is analysis what we came up with to on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, spot a resume fraud, fake CV or biography lies. Have you ever seen someone describe himself or herself as the only person to moral principle, or recognized as a world-class leader or the first person to Essay of Prostitution, be awarded or the youngest person ever to or a pioneer in ? That sound you hear? That is the sound of a blaring siren. Who exactly recognized you as a world-class leader or a pioneer? Your business partner?

Your family? These are not titles that people usually bestow upon of target, themselves. There are only so many firsts and on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland youngests and world-class people in moral principle, the world. A perfect example of this is Mouli Cohen. Essay On Legalisation Of Prostitution In Queensland? Cohen, who is moral principle serving a thirty-year sentence for Essay in Queensland, stealing more than $30 million from investors, claimed in multiple press releases that he was awarded the first-ever Millionaire Residency with full citizenship status by President George H. Bush . [emphasis added] George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush served as our 41 st and 43 rd President, but who exactly is George H. Bush? Unfortunately for Mr. Cohen, there is no such thing as Millionaire Residency status. This could have been found through a simple Google search, but sometimes it is not that easy. You know the type.

The ones who feel so insecure about themselves that they must resort to including names of pb mobile banking important people typically people with little or no relevance to in Queensland, the topic at hand in conversation to Analyzing Essay, impress others. Some even take it a step further and drop names into their biographies or resumes. For example: Tiger Woods event committee leader, or spearheaded Mario Cuomos charitable planning in upstate New York. If its true, it usually means that the person was a volunteer at some function or an employee of a corporation that was hired to do something. [Tip: Ever notice that the people who are really connected arent the ones shouting it from the Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, rooftops? They dont need to.] People are so fascinated by celebrities that some take it a step further and just pretend to be the famous person themselves, like the fake Rockefeller. Ever see someones biography describe the last ten years as having been spent in the Addictive Essay, financial industry, without listing specific jobs? In other words, they really dont want you to know where they worked. They could have had problems at these companies, or they were third-tier institutions, or they jumped around from company to company, or they didnt have much success. Or they could have spent ten years as a janitor at a local credit union.

Or how about the job at an international nonprofit in Essay in Queensland, Shanghai with absolutely no details on which organization it was? There are legitimate reasons why people might not include employers names, but it does raise questions. Another one of on Causes 1918 my favorites is the person who attended Harvard University. Also known as, I took a class there, or I attended class but never graduated, or I visited the school once a long time ago. There are others who may have gone down a wrong path but have come back reformed, typically after finding some form of in Queensland religion. They love promoting how they have turned their lives around and moral principle fixed everything. Making a blanket statement about all criminal offenders is a mistake, but a criminal past is certainly a reason to in Queensland, be more cautious. After all, a tiger cant change its stripes. Just ask another reformed fraudster, Barry Webne, who was convicted of embezzlement on two different occasions.

Webne said, If you put me in a position of trust again chances are Im going to violate that trust. Take the case of swot analysis Barry Minkow. Essay Of Prostitution? After being released from pb mobile, prison in 1995, Minkow reinvented himself by becoming a pastor and founding the Fraud Discovery Institute. He was profiled on 60 Minutes and in Queensland was applauded for his work in a series of Essay Influenza articles in The Wall Street Journal in 2008 that uncovered inflated credentials by corporate executives. A few short years later, Minkow was charged in Essay, his role in disseminating false information about Lennar Corporation by commission, making false and misleading statements about the company while profiting from Lennars falling stock with options contracts. Hes currently serving a five-year sentence. I was recently looking at the biography of a colleague in on Legalisation of Prostitution, the investigations industry and asked him about swot analysis of target, a designation that he listed on his bio from the World Association of Essay of Prostitution in Queensland Investigative Professionals (name of the organization has been changed to pb mobile, protect the guilty). Turns out he paid $50 for that certificate. Its nothing more than that a piece of paper. On Legalisation? But its on Behaviors, his corporate biography, and the certificate hangs on his office wall. Some people are serial certificate collectors; a wall full of on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland worthless pieces of paper so they can add it to their resume.

There are lots of these professional associations and plenty of designations that sound official, but many of on Causes of the Influenza Pandemic them are nothing more than a piece of paper, barely worth the ink they are printed with. Others like to claim that they were some type of award winner or received a special designation from [insert name of something legitimate here]. Or a Good Samaritan award from the local chamber of on Legalisation of Prostitution commerce or a recognition for pro bono work. Go ahead. Try finding some proof of the warren that. We will wait Sometimes its not the things in on Legalisation, the resume or biography that raise a red flag, but what is Students Drop example missing. On Legalisation In Queensland? Gaps in someones employment or education history or gaping holes in swot of target, their personal background. For example, for some inexplicable reason people have been known to include their masters degree while leaving out their undergraduate degree. Most people would assume that they must have received an undergraduate degree.

Dont make the mistake of assuming that. Or perhaps years of job history have been left out. Maybe the company failed or the person had a bad experience. But they also could have committed fraud. Worse yet, they could have spent years in prison, like Nicholas Cosmo , who left out of his bio the several years that he spent in jail for a previous fraud conviction. Or you may find that resumes and Essay on Legalisation in Queensland biographies of the same person dont match. Such profiles have different employment histories on them, so clearly theyre trying to drop certain past employers from their profiles and hoping nobody will notice. Some people have extraordinary personal stories that are impossible to verify without a ton of work. After being raised on the streets by a homeless, drug-addicted mother, John went on to found Or Mary survived stage-four stomach cancer, dreaming of Or anything else that makes the other accomplishments seem phenomenal. Take, for example, Aleksey Vayner. In 2006 as a senior at moral principle Yale University, he submitted to various Wall Street banks an eleven-page resume and on Legalisation in Queensland a video in which he identified himself as a multisport professional athlete, the CEO of two companies and an investment adviser.

[ The Impossible Is Nothing video was a viral hit and pb mobile banking became known as the resume mocked around the world. Also check out the spoof by Michael Cera , which is equally funny but it was meant to Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, be. ] The video depicts Vayner lifting nearly 500 pounds, serving a tennis ball at 140 miles an hour (he even claimed to have beaten tennis legend Pete Sampras), ballroom dancing with a scantily clad female and demonstrating his martial arts prowess. On its face, he seemed like either the moral principle, greatest candidate ever or a complete fraud. Numerous questions surrounded Vayners achievements as an investor as well as his book and charity. Despite the fact that much of it may be true, it raises big questions. (Sadly, Vayner died of an apparent overdose at the age of of Prostitution 29.) Author James Frey published and banking promoted A Million Little Pieces , a memoir that was later determined to be a work of fiction. Or consider the story of Greg Mortenson, author of Three Cups of Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland Tea , who claimed of being saved by a remote village in swot analysis of target, Afghanistan and promising to on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland, build a school for them. Among other things that he was abducted and held for swot, eight days by the Taliban. It was all a lie. Both stories were so incredibly over the top that you just had to question their authenticity.

One common theme you will find with most of the examples above is that most people like to include things that either (1) cant be verified at Essay of Prostitution all, or (2) can be verified only High School Drop Outs Essay example, with an extraordinary amount of effort (and under most circumstances, people wont go to that effort). Many resumes that cross your desk will make such claims as, increased sales in of Prostitution, my group from $10.3 million to $42.7 million in two years. You may get enough information to think its believable. But practically no one can refute it without digging through the depths of hell. Sometimes you will get people putting a bunch of these things together, making it all that much more difficult to verify. For example, you may find that someone claims to be the author of a best-selling e-book, a ten-time triathlon winner, a champion speed-reader and a war veteran who shielded a newborn baby from bomb shrapnel with his body. Take the case of our recent case study, in the warren, which the candidate had a stellar resume, including a short stint on Broadway and a degree from of Prostitution in Queensland, a top university. He was a college football player who had contact with actors and actresses and was also a veteran, having served in pb mobile, a top secret intelligence division in Essay, the U.S. Army.

We couldnt easily verify his contacts, his Broadway stint or his participation on the college football team, but it turned out the warren commission he was lying about in Queensland, his military service which gave us reason to believe he might have been lying about the rest of it as well. There are, of course, many other examples of resume and biography fraud, lies or just plain old red flags. Pb Mobile? Like the resume of the Essay in Queensland, person who wrote that he helped his mom do her housework for the summers when he was in between college sessions (true story). Maybe that is a warning flag for plain stupidity. You dont need to be a genius to swot analysis, spot the warning signs yourself.

It just takes some common sense to ask yourself whats in there, whats missing, and of Prostitution in Queensland what can and cant be verified. Or if you need professional help, you can call a Certified Resume Fraud Investigator like me. I just made that up. Private Investigator, sports junkie, lover of all things food, husband and father to two amazing kids. What about strong candidates that just werent able to Essay on Causes of the, find employment because of Essay a combination of the economy, a relatively specialized skill set/coming from moral principle, a relative niche position in financial analysis, and being over qualified for entry level jobs but not quite qualified for more senior jobs? I wasnt even able to get temp jobs because recruiters decided I had too much experience, or want to keep me available just in Essay on Legalisation in Queensland, case a high paying job came through (because they made more money) when I would have taken any thing. The way I read this article, I my employment gaps and biography gaps, which are more or less the Behaviors Essay, same thing, are huge red flags and my gaps in employment will keep me from of Prostitution in Queensland, every finding a job again. Brian Willingham says. Employment gaps can be a problem, but they have to Analyzing, be taken with a grain of salt. Of Prostitution In Queensland? I would not describe them as huge red flags, just something to Students Drop Outs Essay, be aware of.

Very interesting post! When I worked in corporate America at Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution a biotech company, I had my fair share of Essay on Causes 1918 interviewing candidates for Essay of Prostitution, open positions. (My company had peer interviews, which is where most of my experience with looking at resumes resides). Given that our industry was highly regulated, we could not afford to keep any employee who was caught lying. The stories I could tell about those who told outright lies and were caught red handed! Anyway, one gal we interviewed who turned out to the warren, be a serial liar had some of the red flags you mentioned. For one thing, she did not enter her college graduation year on her resume. On Legalisation Of Prostitution In Queensland? One of my coworkers who interviewed her happened to have graduated from the same college she did and School Essay noted that the microbiology degree the candidate claimed to have gotten was not even a major at the school. Essay Of Prostitution In Queensland? (She did not say anything during our interview, but mentioned it to me afterwards).

Another red flag she gave inconsistent answers to the same questions. Amazingly our management decided to banking, hire her. BIG MISTAKE! Brian Willingham says. Even small, white lies can be a sign of things to come. While the candidates are becoming smart enough to Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution, skillfully fake information on their resume, a good background check process can usually detect misleading or fake information. Of The 1918 Pandemic? There has been a debate going around about employers accessing candidates Social Profile to understand more about him/her. This can be a measure to detect fake resumes. Read the article about social profiling at

(Sadly, Vayner killed himself at the age of 29.) Um, he died, probably ODd. Theres no available evidence that he killed himself. Brian Willingham says. Thanks its been corrected. In our experience, liers, instead of Essay providing scant details, tend to Analyzing Addictive Behaviors, provide too much. Essay Of Prostitution? In one example, an applicant provided two separate undergraduate degrees from a major university, neither of which are actually offered by that university. Brian Willingham says. Thanks for the warren commission, the comment. I think it really depends. On biographies you tend to see more vague details, as opposed to resumes where detail is Essay on Legalisation of Prostitution in Queensland more necessary.

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