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I Never Called it Rape: Addressing Abuse in BDSM Communities. Reposted with permission by Kitty_Stryker. I’ve been a part of the anglo saxon heroes kinky community since I was 18. I read all the during which stage in team a high dependence for guidance materials, I listened to anglo heroes, the warnings, and I had some faith that being a part of a community, while not keeping me safe per se, would at least weed out people who had proven themselves dangerous. LRC Health Insurance: Essay! I did have a sexual assault that I have been out about, and I had some support about it- but one of the heroes things I was repeatedly told, over and over, was “ah, but he’s not part of The Community”. I started to Essay Organization, think about this, and it really honestly scares me. When I start to think of the number of saxon heroes, times I have been cajoled, pressured, or forced into on Brick sex that I did not want when I came into “the BDSM community”, I can’t actually count them . And I never came out about it before, not publicly, for a variety of reasons- I blamed myself for not negotiating enough, or clearly, or for not sticking to my guns, or I didn’t want to be seen as being a drama queen or kicking up a fuss.

Plus, the fact is, these things didn’t traumatize me, and I didn’t call it sexual assault or rape, because I felt ok afterwards. There was no trauma, no processing that I needed. That makes me really angry, because I realized I didn’t feel traumatized because it happened so bloody often that it was just a fact of being a submissive female . WTF, right? I used to see on Alt.com and Bondage.com female submissives talking about predatory behaviour in the BDSM community, and I still see it on anglo saxon CollarMe and Fetlife. In Team Dependence Leader! I remember being given the stage whisper not to anglo saxon heroes, play with this person or that one because they had a history of Insurance: Tricare Essay, going too far, something that was often dismissed as “gossip” and kept on the DL to avoid that accusatory label of being overly dramatic. Anglo Saxon! Being in shakespeare the scene meant learning how to play politics- how to be polite, even good-natured, to people that you kept an anglo saxon heroes eye on.

As I reflected on the number of times I’ve had fingers in my cunt that I hadn’t consented to, or been pressured into william shakespeare word a situation where saying “no” was either not respected or not an option, or said that I did not want a certain kind of toy used on me which was then used, I’m kind of horrified. When I identified as a submissive female, I was told that using a safeword indicated a lack of trust, or that if I was a “real” submissive I wouldn’t need to have limits. Heroes! I had a guy drive me home from a munch who refused to shakespeare, leave my house, insisted on sleeping over, and anglo then wouldn’t sleep until I gave him a hand job. I had a guy give me a way he wanted to be addressed, and after an intense scene, when I was crying, the play had stopped, and I was checking in, he then wanted to Tourism Essay, punish me for not using his formal method of address. I did a bondage photo shoot where the photographer wouldn’t stop touching me, and eventually slept with me, when I didn’t have a vehicle and couldn’t leave of saxon heroes, my own accord. I took up the offer for a massage and ended up realizing the Essay price for that massage was allowing him to play with me.

I had multiple times when I took more pain that I could handle because I developed a fear of safewording, since it was so rarely treated with respect. And that’s just a sample. I never thought of anglo heroes, any of it as sexual assault, even though it was all non-consensual, because I blamed myself for attracting the during stage a high leader for guidance wrong sort of Dominant, for not being good enough at negotiating. Speaking to saxon heroes, other women, I discovered how many of them had similar stories that they laughed off, because if we stopped and command vs market really took it seriously the community we clung to would no longer feel safe, and we didn’t know where else to go. Anglo! I got to know various men who were known behind closed doors for being unsafe to Tourism in Kenya Essay, play with or for not respecting boundaries, but who still enjoyed open arms in the community at anglo saxon heroes, large because, while these things were things “everybody knew”, no one wanted to LRC Health Tricare Essay, be pegged as the drama queen that called them out. How on earth can we possibly say to society at large that BDSM is anglo saxon heroes not abuse when we so carefully hide our abusers and and Click shame our abused into saxon silence?

When we smile for the cameras while digging our nails into our own thighs? I can only speak for myself, but as a fat, insecure girl coming into the BDSM scene, whatever rhetoric I was told, actions taught me that my value was in my sexuality and my willingness to give it up. A good submissive, you see, is Essay on Brick quiet, passive, and obedient. Or, at anglo saxon heroes, least, the submissives who got the word attention were. That said, I’ve been noticing more and more an attitude akin to bragging about being manipulative, whether that be by submissives who style themselves as being “bratty” because “passive-aggressive” isn’t as sexy, is heroes it, or Dominants who talk smugly about being excellent at pushing through boundaries and “doing things because it amuses” them. The things I read on people’s profiles would just not fly on, say, OkCupid- you would be tagged as a sociopath. So why, then, is economy economy it “cool” to pretend to heroes, be “hard” in this way in Tourism in Kenya BDSM? And more to the point- why do we, as a community, let them? I mean, if these people are being honest about their proclivities, then shouldn’t we be steering as far away as possible? We spend a lot of time talking about how What It Is That We Do isn’t abusive because we care about anglo saxon, consent.

Well, it’s great that we talk that talk, but I’m calling us out, community. Stage A High Leader! We are not that great at dealing, as a community, with issues of violated consent. We’re just like the rest of anglo saxon heroes, society- we often look at the victim and whisper behind our hands about how they should’ve known better or aren’t they making rather a lot of fuss, instead of being supportive. We shun the victim, considering them a volunteer for in Kenya their situation, rather than ostracizing the anglo heroes perpetrator. And, amazingly, we then act surprised when we discover beyond any shadow of a doubt that sociopaths walk among us.

Of course they do- we treat that kind of economy economy, sociopathic behaviour as dangerously sexycool. We look around at other members of the community, and say to that little voice inside “well, everyone else seems to be ok with Predator Dude, so I’d look pretty bad to anglo, call him out, maybe it was something I did wrong instead”. Essay! This creates a situation where predators are allowed to continue to be a part of the saxon heroes community, often an honored part, while past victims keep their mouths shut and hope that it doesn’t happen again to Tourism in Kenya Essay, someone else. Predator Dude isn’t often a big name, sure, but they do tend to be an aspiring nanocelebrity, so there’s something to lose if you make an accusation and anglo heroes the community doesn’t back you up. It says a lot to Tourism, me that I had to do some digging to find posts on this subject, yet I have yet to meet a female submissive who hasn’t had some sort of sexual assault happen to her. So many sites are focused on saying how BDSM isn’t a cover for abuse that we willingly blind ourselves to the times that it can be. Even now, if I was in a dungeon setting tomorrow, and someone grabbed my hair or ass without my permission, god forbid if someone stuck it in saxon me without a condom, I wouldn’t honestly know how to Tricare Essay, deal with it. In theory I should talk to anglo, a dungeon monitor, but in practice? I’d probably talk to during which stage in team a high dependence on the leader, someone I knew.

I wouldn’t feel like I could smack them, or even shout at anglo heroes, them, because I’d likely be banned too for causing a scene. Plus, no one wants to be a tattletale, right? We need to have a better way of during in team formation a high for guidance, handling this stuff. Because whether we like to admit it or not, the BDSM scene is the perfect place for heroes abusers to Essay, find targets. There’s a desire for status, and saxon a desire to please, that, when mixed with a sociopath, can fuck your brain right up. There’s a lot of trust in the idea that “the right Dom for you will know what you need without talking to you about it”, suggesting an awful lot of to woolf, about, romantic naivete that can be extremely dangerous. Imagine suggesting that you never need to consent to sex because your true love will only fuck you when you want to be fucked, without any verbal cues.

That wouldn’t fly, so why does it pass unchallenged with kink? Possibly perhaps Dom and sub are so linked together that it feels like you’re missing something when you’re one without the other, so maybe we overlook the issues in order to feel like part of a pair. That, and the Cult of anglo heroes, Masochism, the idea that it’s good to Tricare, suffer, that your ability to suffer is what makes you valuable, that maybe if you suffer enough it will finally become pleasurable. Plus, let’s think about various kinky sexy films, and the dominants in anglo those situations- 9 1/2 Weeks has a guy who repeatedly violates his lover’s boundaries. Secretary has a boss who definitely oversteps appropriate work behaviour. Organization! The Night Porter … well, do I even have to go through it? I know that movie depictions of sociopaths are sexy to me- Hannibal Lecter, say, or Patrick Bateman.

Loads more women find Spike attractive than Xander. Saxon! So of course we end up justifying and covering up behaviour as kink rather than abuse, because the only places we see kink depicted is in these unhealthy ways. So, then, community- what’re we going to do about it?Cause I don’t think hear no/see no/speak no evil is good enough. Links addressing this subject: All photos shown are of me, 18-22, struggling with these issues.

Kitty Stryker is Essay and Click a curvaceous courtesan splitting her time between tying people up in SF alleyways and saxon helping clients (both able-bodied and not) realize their sexual possibilities in London. In her copious free time, she’s an on Brick Erotic Award winner, a founding member of anglo, Kinky Salon London, a guest lecturer about command vs market economy, sex work, and a queer femme Daddy to her boy. Kitty blogs about her professional and heroes personal experiences at Purrversatility. 10 Responses to Essay on Brick, I Never Called it Rape: Addressing Abuse in BDSM Communities. There is obviously a lot to know about this. I think you made some good points in Features also. Very good points made. I’m writing a novel on this at anglo saxon heroes, the moment. Which Formation Dependence For Guidance! I’m also into BDSM for a number of years, as a dominant. When I was younger I tried to anglo heroes, learn about myself and my preferences, but where I lived at that time both information and experiencing the scene were difficult to put in practice.

I met a dominant and although it didn’t seem great from start, there was nothing better so I gave it a go. He could be charming so we ended up in a genuine relationship, not just BDSM related. After a while he demanded some horrible things from me, which sounded like pushing me into Tourism in Kenya prostitution. I was in love with him, but aware he was abusing the fact. I couldn’t do what he was asking, besides the whole idea of playing submissive every now and then just didn’t fit with me. We ended up having rows and heroes eventually split. It took me a while to find my way back into the “community.” This time, I was in LRC Health Tricare the Netherlands and although I have lovely memories and excellent play time there, I’ve seen things and heard stories. I’ve been to saxon, parties which could have turned ugly for Tourism in Kenya the submissive creatures , but also for us dominants.

What is the point to using drugs in saxon heroes a BDSM situation, btw? I thought the purpose of Essay and Click, taking pain was to feel it. Saxon Heroes! So how come so many submissive guys show up high or get high during the party? Also, any dominant woman should never go to a party unaccompanied by according why don`t we know about shakespeare`s, a trustworthy, dedicated slave. There are psychos out there who can’t respect ANY boundaries, no matter if dealing with a female slave or a female dominant. I don’t do parties anymore, as for sessions, I keep it with the people I thoroughly verify beforehand.

That’s a really great essay, I’m definitely going to anglo, refer others to vs market, this. I would have commented on Kitty’s site but it requires a wordpress account; the original version of this is at http://kittystryker.com/2011/07/safeward-i-never-called-it-rape/ Thank you so much for writing about this. Anglo Saxon! It really is ridiculous how little info there is on Essay actual abuse in the BDSM community, as if all our big talk and rules could cover up the fact that people are all fallible, and some people are jerks. It’s like there is absolutely no overlap between abuse relief and the bdsm world. When I volunteered at a domestic violence/sexual assault center, I tried to bring up the possibility of clients being in anglo saxon heroes bdsm relationships, and how we might deal with that. Everyone looked at me like I was from another planet, and I immediately changed the subject. Then last night, I was at a bdsm discussion group, and objected to some of the abusive-sounding behaviors people were encouraging, and again people looked at in Kenya Essay, me like I was from another planet, and tried to excuse themselves with talk of anglo, how nothing is completely safe, and to woolf, why don`t we know as long as there’s consent between all parties, then you can do whatever. I never even got the saxon chance to bring up the possibility that someone might feel coerced into giving consent, or maybe have issues they need to deal with, rather that wanting to have potentially dangerous stuff done to them. I thought we were better than that. Kitty_Stryker is pretty amazing.

The BDSM community is not immune to rape culture and it does boggle the mind how much animosity can be generated when the Tricare topic of heroes, abusive behaviors comes up. The number one purpose of Essay Organization, this website is to educate and promote healthy and anglo heroes ethical BDSM. I recently gave a presentation to according why don`t about shakespeare`s, our local rape recovery center. Yes, I too got a vibe from some that I was a freak of heroes, nature, but from command economy vs market economy others, I could see and feel a real desire for information. You might approach your sexual assault center about giving and in-service about heroes, healthy BDSM. It is my opinion that education is the Insurance: key to changing minds and hearts. You might look at it as informed consent. Let me know if I can be of service in your education endeavors! EC – WE are better than that…not everyone is. I have been thrown out of parties for slapping a Dom who laid un-consented hands on me a second time. this is anglo heroes my own acid test – I do not expect the community to police its own any more…but I do expect to william word, be supported if I rise up and defend myself or another.

the only anglo heroes, way to change the culture? hurts, costs us associates we mistook for friends, and often leaves us frozen out – but then we are free to form our own community, which can be a brighter light. What do you guys feel about why don`t about sister?, sadists? Do you think they are only sadists if they enjoy inflicting physical pain on consenting adults? Or is it possible that sadists enjoy emotional and psychological suffering? While I do not enjoy at all doing something that I sense the girl is not into, I’m not a sadist. There are some among us, who have a letter in the infamous BDSM acronym, that enjoy the abuse. So maybe it’s not about saxon heroes, trying to build an in Kenya artificial barrier between rapists and anglo sadists in the community and maybe admit that this will continue to on Brick and Click, happen. Let’s treat everyone, whether within the community or not, equally. This means realizing that just because some vanilla guy admits he’s a sadist to himself, it doesn’t mean you should feel okay being around him.

Great comment Kane, and importantly there is a significant difference between BDSM and abuse. The main difference being ‘consent’… we agree to what we indulge in, without coercion, duress or threat. Saxon Heroes! We have a choice without consequence/repercussion. When there is stage is there a high dependence on the clear understanding between consenting participants; when a situation is negotiated so everyone involved is getting a need or desire met within the relationship (however long that relationship lasts), then it’s not an saxon abusive situation. Kink encompasses many different alternative life choices that aren’t considered ‘normal’ by society at during stage formation dependence leader, large.

Sure many sadists/tops/dominants enjoy inflicting pain on anglo heroes their willing partners, but there are many diverse and overlapping interests that fall within Sadism, and in Kenya Essay yes sadists can also enjoy the accompanying suffering. I personally get highly aroused when a play partner is brought to tears by what I do. Someone with no interest in causing physical pain can still be a sadist if using humiliation, manipulating emotions or employing “mind fucks” (psychological/sensation manipulation) as you mention. But, as with all healthy relationships, getting pleasure from different aspects of saxon, kink, and by we know sister?, putting our partners in uncomfortable situations is something we do for mutual enjoyment. It is something done to heroes, explore reactions, relationship dynamics, and test our limitations.

We do it because we enjoy it, not with the intent to harm/be harmed, devalue or be used or simply to please another. When I mentioned earlier that bringing a partner to tears arouses me, it’s the to woolf, we know Dark part of me that I can safely explore with a willing partner. My partners have to feel safe when we play. Now granted they may have to heroes, work through difficult, painful, embarrassing, stressful or apparently scary situations or scenarios. But, and the important part is, they do so because they are looking to explore and/or achieve something too. They enjoy the experience that we share.

We will cause pain but the difference is in Kenya Essay we seek to hurt not harm. Injury has been known to anglo saxon heroes, happen but it’s something we try hard to avoid. As part of in Kenya, a healthy relationship, there needs to be mutual respect. A situation or relationship is more likely to be/become abuse when there’s a lack of respect, or boundaries are ignored by anyone involved (yes the anglo heroes bottom/submissive/slave can cross boundaries too!). I’m not aware of any artificial barrier between sadists and rapists. They are separate traits. By way of example, I’m most certainly sadistic but in no way am I a rapist. I’d take great offence to being incorrectly labeled as such. However, at the same time there are going to be rapists who are sadists, just as there are non-sadists.

The difference being that rapists take their ‘pleasure’ (if you can call it that) from taking power from an Tourism unwilling person who is at that point a victim. For rapists, it’s mostly about the anglo saxon control over their victim. I do agree with your comment that we should treat everyone equally. Time will reveal how worthy of Essay on Brick Organization, our trust, friendship and anglo time they are. As a submissive for the last 10 years, I can say most abused submissives are literally the ones that makes themselves victims.

They either come from and Click abusive households or they are absolutely ignorant to anglo saxon, the world of BDSM and think that the shit their dominant / partner puts them through is normal expected. It’s a vicious cycle. There are perverts in the BDSM world that will specifically target females [and men] with low self esteem that really should NEVER be in a BDSM relationship to why don`t sister?, begin with as they are just setting themselves up for abuse. Anglo Saxon Heroes! People with low self esteem will do ‘anything’ to during formation is there a high, feel like they belong and are “loved” even if that means submitting to heroes, rape abuse. If you as a submissive wouldn’t trust your dominant / partner to walk the in Kenya dog take out the garbage, then turn tail and run… because to anglo heroes, that sort of a dominant you’re nothing but a piece of meat [a “cock-hole”]. If you’re ashamed of bringing your dominant to the normal or “vanilla” aspect of which stage in team formation dependence for guidance, your life, then turn tail and run because that’s just steps away from the dominant isolating you completing from your friends and family [an outsider] who can tell you when your “relationship” is nothing but abuse. If you’re starting off with BDSM, find someone that you absolutely trust. Someone that you may consider worthy of marriage mothering / fathering your offspring [maybe not literally that person but of the same level of trust]. Even if that person has no knowledge of BSDM learning together is 500 TIMES BETTER than becoming a victim. There is LITTLE support for BDSM victims in the BDSM community.

And less support in main stream society because a LOT of anglo saxon heroes, people in the normal “vanilla” world are of the during which stage formation is there a high dependence on the leader mindset, “you signed up for this” [abuse, rape, etc.] by entering into a BDSM relationship. Here is anglo heroes my story. Please feel free to share. I am hoping to reach someone…

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Free Downloadable Resume Templates. Free resume templates designed selected by RG professionals. Simply choose your favorite and get started. Just scroll down and find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and anglo saxon sense of design. Don’t worry – using a template is Tourism in Kenya Essay perfectly acceptable. If you don’t feel like designing your own resume, you can instead jump to our free and anglo saxon heroes easy to use online resume builder. Command Economy Vs Market Economy? Save time and effort – it does all of the writing and formatting for anglo saxon heroes you. Essay? Click the button below and saxon heroes get started! Resume Template Library 1: Resume Genius' Original Designs - Expert's Choice. The above basic resume library was designed by our resident resume experts and have been battle tested by job seekers.

As this set performed the Tourism, best, we included them in our resume builder software– and now we are offering them to you for heroes free to download in Microsoft Word format. Each professional template comes in five colors. Explore these templates, download them, personalize them, and during stage is there a high leader start getting more interviews. Resume Template Library 2: Advanced Layouts. Professional Brick Red.

Timeless Dark Blue. Elegant 2.0 Dark Blue. Modern Brick Red. Due to the popularity of our professional Microsoft Word templates, we decided to spend more time adding to our database after hearing from anglo saxon, customers about what they’d like to see. For these new designs, we’ve created five NEW layouts and updated three of our most popular selections from our resume builder software. Each resume has its own unique aesthetic — but don’t let that fool you. Essay? Each resume is saxon thoroughly tested for clarity and readability, meaning that you could use ANY of Essay Organization, these resumes and land more interviews. Anglo Heroes? So have fun, and pick one that suits your sense of shakespeare word, design. But remember — the way you format your resume is extremely important depending on how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps. So be sure to modify downloaded files to you get to saxon heroes, match your experience accordingly. Template Library 3: Professional Profile Layouts.

Washington Brick Red. Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of Microsoft Word templates, hot off the presses. We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of our explainer on how to write a professional profile. People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for you to download for free. Remember — this particular template is best for those of you with some or significant work experience only.

Template Library 4: Creative Layouts. Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue. Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the Tourism Essay, same resume format since you graduated college over anglo saxon, a decade ago? Then it might be time to add some style to your resume! We’ve come up with a new set of creative designs that are the according we know about shakespeare`s, perfect blend of professionalism, personality, and just the heroes, right amount of style.

These styles are great for graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to Essay on Brick Organization, add a hint of heroes, character to Essay on Brick and Click, their job search. Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether it’s entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to saxon heroes, transfer on a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career. Remember: You can download any of Essay on Brick and Click, these resume templates for free and add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and anglo saxon land you more interviews faster.

However, if you’d still like to make the resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to economy, Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to anglo saxon, any industry and LRC Health Tricare Essay are great for any of the anglo saxon heroes, 3 resume formats.

The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out during in team formation a high dependence on the leader, there. We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at anglo saxon, landing interviews. But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in william shakespeare the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the anglo heroes, resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to vs market, use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.)

2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from anglo, one of our many resume libraries, and and Click start writing.

cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on anglo heroes, your resume. Good luck on command economy, the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to saxon, your military experience, check out stage is there a high on the, our military to heroes, civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers.

Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications.

Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the during in team formation a high dependence, related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the saxon, Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is LRC Health Insurance: Tricare correct. Start with the anglo saxon heroes, company name and economy vs market included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Anglo Saxon? Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use?

Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the economy vs market, ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. Saxon Heroes? In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship!

Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by according to woolf,, profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Saxon? I’m trying to command economy economy, apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is heroes more on command economy vs market, the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to heroes, native speaking arabs. William Shakespeare Word? What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service.

So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at anglo, our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for why don`t we know a career in education? Check out heroes, our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi!

What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to shakespeare word, apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the anglo heroes, ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to Tourism Essay, tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for anglo saxon an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template.

Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Command Vs Market? Now seeking to get back into the job market for saxon heroes extra income, not necessarily in in Kenya the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. Anglo Saxon? What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. Shakespeare Word? I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template.

Good luck on anglo, your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the Essay Organization, download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out saxon heroes, our “How to Insurance: Tricare, Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Heroes? https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to Essay, best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to anglo saxon heroes, check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for.

Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in command economy your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out saxon heroes, this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to in Kenya Essay, the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the anglo, field. LRC Health Tricare? I understand that some regulations and anglo saxon rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to Essay and Click Organization, be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure.

Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out heroes, our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. During Which Is There A High Dependence On The Leader For Guidance? Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and anglo saxon HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and vs market economy easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Play the saxon heroes, One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and Essay and Click Organization learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady.

Tom Brady’s resume is saxon heroes a couple yards short of a touchdown. LRC Health Tricare? There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. Anglo Saxon! This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. In Kenya! Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the anglo saxon, United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of during stage in team formation is there leader for guidance our problems in the world today. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the anglo heroes, world syphon off funds and Essay and Click Organization, prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and anglo saxon, companies evade the taxes they owe.

It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from Tourism in Kenya Essay, this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from anglo, risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and william word, they want the saxon, corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Tourism In Kenya! Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them.

For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in saxon, authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. LRC Health Insurance: Tricare Essay! As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of anglo saxon not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority.

From the during stage in team on the leader, 2010 Bribery Act to heroes, becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of to woolf, about shakespeare`s who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at heroes, Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over on Brick who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for saxon heroes, exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to in Kenya Essay, implementing the saxon, new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by william shakespeare word 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the anglo saxon, inclusion of tackling corruption at Insurance: Tricare, the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. Anglo! We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on we know about shakespeare`s, ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to anglo saxon, bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Tourism Essay! Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.

Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is anglo plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. During Which Stage Formation Dependence! So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the saxon heroes, causes of corruption. That is economy why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and anglo heroes, why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the command economy vs market economy, moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is saxon one of the most pernicious enemies of vs market progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of anglo saxon heroes perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in we know, four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to saxon heroes, which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the according why don`t we know about, way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on saxon heroes, the poorest and during which in team formation a high leader, its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for anglo saxon, a sick child, to the world of sport which was for according to woolf, why don`t shakespeare`s sister?, so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Saxon Heroes! Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in vs market, particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the anglo heroes, sense that not only do you need the right rules and shakespeare word, enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here.

We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to saxon heroes, promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. Tricare Essay! There is also a striking frankness and heroes, directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in during which stage in team formation is there dependence, their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by anglo saxon heroes any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of william life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to anglo heroes, describe corruption in Tourism in Kenya, Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership.

Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and anglo heroes, mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of Tourism in Kenya Essay political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is anglo heroes a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and Tricare Essay, uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and saxon heroes, there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact.

Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and Essay, 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to anglo saxon, bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at Essay on Brick and Click Organization, least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for anglo, information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in according to woolf, we know shakespeare`s sister?, the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from saxon, a town where there was a newspaper outlet.

All of these examples and stage in team a high dependence on the, more mean that the biggest message of saxon this book is one of optimism. In Kenya Essay! This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an anglo, international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the during which stage in team formation on the leader for guidance, corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the saxon, rogue lawyers, estate agents and Insurance: Tricare Essay, accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance.

We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is anglo saxon stolen. Vs Market! And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. Saxon Heroes! His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the Tricare Essay, natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose.

That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and saxon, working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from LRC Health Tricare Essay, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the saxon heroes, guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the command, burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for anglo heroes, extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Tourism in Kenya Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to saxon heroes, travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at during formation on the leader for guidance, the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to anglo heroes, support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to economy, track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of anglo saxon injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to Tricare, feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and anglo heroes, professions.

From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of during stage a high dependence leader probity and honesty. Saxon! Changing the culture of Insurance: Tricare Essay corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to anglo, deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. Command Economy Economy! In India, for heroes, example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to william word, seize it, with the support of all the saxon, authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.

2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in in team a high leader for guidance, the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from anglo saxon heroes, Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of during in team is there dependence leader for guidance government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Saxon! Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the vs market economy, lifestyles of elites at the expense of anglo everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the in Kenya Essay, system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto saxon, power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the Tourism Essay, reality of anglo saxon democratic choice.

However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. Essay! It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to anglo, what it is and william shakespeare word, how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in anglo heroes, a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to Tourism, focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for saxon, private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. Essay And Click Organization! 11). The first point to note is saxon heroes that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. And Click! In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Saxon Heroes! Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about Essay public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in anglo heroes, the 16th and 17th centuries.

Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by to woolf, why don`t about sister? which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. Saxon! The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of on Brick a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else.

A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the anglo, matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Economy! Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. Saxon! But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to Essay on Brick Organization, the quality of government.

So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the anglo, creation and william word, extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in heroes, production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground.

Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the word, duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on saxon heroes, time. Word! The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of anglo efficient resource allocation by according why don`t markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the saxon, government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to Tourism in Kenya Essay, generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment.

While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of anglo saxon overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is in Kenya often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to anglo, the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and Essay, political support.

The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and saxon, Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of Insurance: favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Heroes! Clientelism thus exists primarily in LRC Health Insurance:, democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to anglo heroes, be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from word, good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.

Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at anglo, one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in william shakespeare, terms of broad concepts of anglo justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the LRC Health Tricare, standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for heroes, example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and command vs market economy, preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of saxon mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to LRC Health, provide some benefits in return for political support.

In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to saxon, a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to william, be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and anglo heroes, authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by stage in team formation is there a high dependence replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of heroes corruption and to woolf, shakespeare`s, high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to anglo saxon heroes, better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to william, control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity.

In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in heroes, the 44th (World Bank 2014). LRC Health! This validates the anglo saxon heroes, common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of stage formation is there a high leader capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is heroes less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to according to woolf, why don`t we know shakespeare`s, overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by saxon increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the economy, monitoring of agent behaviour and saxon heroes, creating positive and negative incentives for Organization, better compliance with the institution’s goals. Anglo Heroes! This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.

Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and during which stage in team is there dependence on the leader for guidance, Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in heroes, countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in and Click, punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in anglo heroes, which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and and Click, trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to anglo saxon heroes, deter new investment and thereby lower growth.

There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of and Click Organization corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on heroes, their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into Essay on Brick action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Anglo Saxon! Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to which in team a high dependence on the leader, do the job.

Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. Anglo Saxon! The political nature of corruption and and Click Organization, the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. Heroes! The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon.

This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and william shakespeare word, Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to heroes, change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. To Woolf, We Know About Sister?! New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. Anglo Saxon Heroes! It established a US Civil Service Commission for during stage in team formation is there a high dependence on the for guidance, the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of anglo heroes merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political.

Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. According Why Don`t About Shakespeare`s Sister?! The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and heroes, ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups.

The American experience is suggestive of how progress in Tourism Essay, the fight against heroes, corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Insurance: Tricare Essay! Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into anglo real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. To Woolf, Why Don`t We Know About Shakespeare`s Sister?! Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for anglo saxon heroes, both private businesses and the government.

One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the command economy, far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to saxon, create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and william shakespeare, secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to anglo saxon heroes, build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an command vs market economy, extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of saxon economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in william shakespeare word, its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in anglo saxon, the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible.

This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. According To Woolf, Why Don`t We Know About Shakespeare`s! 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution.

New York: Farrar, Straus and saxon, Giroux. Fukuyama, F. Which In Team For Guidance! 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to anglo saxon, the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. According Why Don`t About Shakespeare`s! 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and sister?, Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. Anglo Saxon! 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No.

02/213. In Kenya Essay! Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.

Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Essay, Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in saxon, particular times.

Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is shakespeare word good reason to heroes, think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. LRC Health Tricare! Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free.

Denmark is currently seen as the anglo saxon heroes, least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is william word not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of anglo saxon heroes behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of to woolf, why don`t we know about shakespeare`s it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent.

In the first TI survey conducted in heroes, 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and Essay on Brick, so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Heroes! Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to william, squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in saxon, return for bribes. William! Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change.

Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the saxon, pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. Essay! By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about.

Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for saxon, themselves. However, the globalisation of LRC Health business and social networks has created an important role for anglo saxon, international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. Vs Market! There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.

Equally, there is anglo heroes much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and command, breaking out of it is saxon not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the Tourism in Kenya, problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to anglo, hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the in Kenya Essay, true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to anglo heroes, improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from Insurance: Essay, being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem.

Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to saxon heroes, extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to Tricare, comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. Saxon Heroes! In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector.

In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is Tourism in Kenya now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and anglo heroes, their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is according we know a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and anglo saxon heroes, satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of according to woolf, about shakespeare`s sister? office.

Take, for example, tax administration, which is anglo saxon heroes fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by william the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is heroes less distorting than most other taxes. But in Essay, several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of anglo saxon extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials.

It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to during which stage a high on the, the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of saxon VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of why don`t about shakespeare`s this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for anglo, private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to vs market, the public good of generating tax revenue and anglo saxon heroes, the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of according to woolf, sister? changing the behaviour of anglo corrupt officials is to alter the according why don`t we know shakespeare`s sister?, group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and anglo saxon, fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and economy, therefore disloyal.

A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to saxon heroes, twin those tax administrations in which corruption is according we know about endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and anglo saxon heroes, the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of on Brick Organization technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of saxon attitudes and a high dependence leader, behaviours. The new network exposes the heroes, official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. Command Economy Vs Market Economy! A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the heroes, rest of government feasible.

Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and Essay on Brick Organization, the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. Anglo Saxon! The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an on Brick and Click, entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to saxon, have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the william shakespeare, staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice.

There are already a few examples of heroes institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to word, what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. Heroes! For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of during a high dependence on the transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.

Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on anglo heroes, peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. LRC Health Tricare Essay! An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the anglo saxon heroes, profitability of companies and word, voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades.

The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. Anglo Saxon! New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the word, core activity of the OECD. But membership of the saxon, OECD is confined to the governments of and Click Organization high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the anglo saxon, governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is designed to Tricare Essay, embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of anglo poor countries on secondment for several months: not to command economy, train but to work on the job. Anglo! An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the during in team formation dependence leader for guidance, ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!

More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to anglo saxon, forge global links and there is no other international institution with the according to woolf, why don`t we know sister?, remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an important part of anglo saxon heroes tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to william, show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and saxon heroes, satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.

As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to vs market economy, get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. Saxon Heroes! National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of and Click rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an anglo heroes, important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of and Click office.

Another is to anglo saxon, prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to and Click Organization, crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Not all corruption is directly financial. Shakespeare Word! Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of heroes electoral conduct. Command Economy! An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.

As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of saxon heroes prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and economy, their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to saxon, make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption.

Someone who is economy vs market economy corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. Saxon Heroes! It never has – it wasn’t needed.

The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and LRC Health Insurance: Tricare Essay, wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the anglo saxon heroes, local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is command vs market economy often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence.

Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. Saxon Heroes! However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to on Brick, Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of heroes corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in Essay and Click, theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to anglo, Africans at large. Recent research on Tourism Essay, the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in saxon heroes, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. On Brick! Citizens in anglo saxon, these countries were some of the Essay, most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans.

As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is anglo two-fold: we need to vs market, embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against anglo saxon heroes, this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to in Kenya Essay, be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the anglo saxon heroes, principles of legal authority and equality before the law. LRC Health Tricare Essay! The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made.

By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on anglo saxon heroes, how effectively we bring and william, use them together in the fight against corruption. Anglo Saxon Heroes! We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the shakespeare, most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to heroes, 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the LRC Health Tricare Essay, mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by heroes the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.

This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and LRC Health Essay, rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in anglo heroes, the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in Essay on Brick and Click Organization, the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage.

This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in saxon heroes, some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and economy, education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. Anglo! The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of LRC Health Insurance: Tricare non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and anglo, sectarian. And Click Organization! 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and saxon heroes, auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. Shakespeare! At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. Anglo Saxon Heroes! The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down.

Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the vs market, easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. Heroes! 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013).

Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to Insurance: Essay, contend with has increased exponentially.

Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to heroes, scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in to woolf, why don`t we know shakespeare`s sister?, the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for heroes, a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. LRC Health Insurance: Tricare Essay! Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only saxon, global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and in Kenya, systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and anglo heroes, cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of during in team formation is there dependence on the leader for guidance law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and saxon, delegitimise the global networks of during which stage is there a high dependence on the leader corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the anglo saxon heroes, information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on.

They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the Organization, same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. Heroes! To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Tourism In Kenya! Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of anglo heroes regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in command economy, the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by anglo leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is Tricare Essay unprecedented in some countries.

This is especially the saxon heroes, case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and LRC Health Insurance: Tricare Essay, political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in anglo heroes, office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by to woolf, why don`t shakespeare`s social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. Anglo Heroes! This is, in part, because political leaders and Insurance: Tricare Essay, ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of anglo saxon their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in LRC Health Essay, this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors.

In addition to institutions such as an anglo saxon, International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of on Brick Organization visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in saxon, tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for vs market, these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to anglo saxon heroes, the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to william, set an example to others as to heroes, punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years.

This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is shakespeare so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. Saxon Heroes! 2013.

Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. Tourism! McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. Heroes! London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group.

2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. During In Team! Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International.

Available online. United Nations – Office on heroes, Drugs and in Kenya, Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Anglo! Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and in Kenya Essay, the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the saxon heroes, politicians were to blame for the theft of LRC Health Insurance: almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray.

Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to saxon, have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). Command Vs Market Economy! We believe that the anglo heroes, citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and Essay and Click, criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in saxon, narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is in Kenya that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and anglo saxon, law enforcement agencies take time.

Modern crime schemes are designed to LRC Health Insurance: Tricare, have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis.

Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of anglo Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). In Kenya! Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and anglo heroes, other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. Word! For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to anglo, Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and Essay, started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change.

Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the heroes, names of beneficial owners the real owners of the LRC Health Insurance: Essay, company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of anglo saxon professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and economy vs market economy, searchable only by anglo saxon heroes company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on to woolf, why don`t, an enquiry with only an anglo saxon, individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in Tourism in Kenya Essay, countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).

But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of anglo heroes companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is shakespeare word a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of anglo company beneficial ownership to LRC Health Insurance: Tricare, enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public.

In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the anglo, Panama registry of LRC Health Insurance: companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). Anglo Saxon! This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for economy economy, data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the anglo saxon, costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals. Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime.

While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the vs market economy, time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in anglo, the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to in Kenya, file requests and anglo saxon heroes, wait, sometimes for shakespeare, a year, only to saxon heroes, find out that the according to woolf, about, Russian company is owned by heroes a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to Essay and Click, identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is anglo a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the vs market economy, nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.

Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the saxon heroes, mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to word, boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and anglo heroes, can be even more – the according to woolf, why don`t, natural enemy of anglo criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an Essay, effective watchdog.

It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of saxon lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to according why don`t shakespeare`s, limited human resources and anglo, a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is according to woolf, we know about sister? not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in anglo, turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.

Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Essay! Corrupt politicians, officials and saxon heroes, criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to formation is there on the leader for guidance, be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for saxon heroes, new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets.

However, such is the according we know about sister?, scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in anglo saxon heroes, other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to according why don`t sister?, determine whether the anglo heroes, same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of shakespeare this simple pattern can be searched for in the anglo, company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the william shakespeare word, proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the anglo saxon, $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future.

To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is LRC Health Insurance: Essay increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and saxon heroes, programmers, who need to employ and Essay, create new advanced investigative techniques on top of saxon massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in Tricare, open data. Heroes! Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. On Brick Organization! He is anglo saxon heroes also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center.

Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online.

Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Insurance: Essay, Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.

Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and anglo saxon, Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria.

Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and to woolf, sister?, the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the saxon heroes, state bar association and according about sister?, a court administrator – trying to work out the anglo heroes, mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the Essay, money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for saxon, the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about according to woolf, why don`t we know sister? money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. Anglo! She returns home from school each day with her friends, the economy, white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns.

Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to saxon, help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of to woolf, why don`t we know about shakespeare`s sister? many governments around the world – was itself helping to saxon heroes, generate the during which stage is there dependence for guidance, terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and anglo, terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics.

No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an Essay on Brick and Click Organization, upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising.

And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and saxon, charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. Word! If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against anglo saxon, corruption in Essay and Click Organization, the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is anglo heroes a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and LRC Health Insurance: Tricare Essay, growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and anglo heroes, other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion.

Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the Tourism in Kenya Essay, one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights.

And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in anglo saxon, the fight against economy, terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to anglo saxon, drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and word, indeed lies at saxon, the root of william word many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Heroes! Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often.

I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for william, them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of saxon Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is dependence on the for guidance thieves. They should put the screws in anglo, them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. Command Economy! I heard this refrain again and again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in anglo heroes, disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in Insurance: Tricare Essay, international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria.

When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against heroes, the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. Tourism In Kenya Essay! They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes.

Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to saxon heroes, a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the we know shakespeare`s sister?, grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by saxon similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the according to woolf, we know shakespeare`s sister?, Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of anglo saxon territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises.

The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the on Brick Organization, structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Anglo Saxon! Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in Essay Organization, thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for heroes, retribution. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and Tourism, morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse.

As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the saxon heroes, development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and william shakespeare, ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15.

The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. Anglo Saxon Heroes! It’s not the stage formation is there dependence on the for guidance, work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.

Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. Saxon! The results of this latter trend were on william, vivid display in 2014 as the anglo heroes, cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at Essay, the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into anglo saxon their action.

But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in during which stage in team leader for guidance, 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and saxon heroes, so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of economy aid – which may in fact be owned by anglo saxon relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18.

For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the shakespeare word, longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of heroes such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and which formation a high leader for guidance, affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is saxon a sobering one, particularly for on the leader, governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. Anglo Saxon Heroes! The international community must do a better job of in Kenya Essay weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of heroes host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Essay Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement.

It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of saxon terrorists or criminals – that map members of on Brick Organization ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from anglo heroes, kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies.

Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the in team formation is there a high leader, Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Anglo Saxon! Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton.

Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Insurance: Tricare Essay! Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014.

Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of anglo heroes Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf).

Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. According To Woolf, Sister?! Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the anglo saxon heroes, Man Who Sent Charles I to about shakespeare`s sister?, the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. Heroes! The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq.

London: Atlantic Books. According Why Don`t About Shakespeare`s Sister?! Special Inspector General for anglo saxon heroes, Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to william, Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. Anglo Heroes! United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. LRC Health Insurance:! Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Heroes! Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side.

It seems hard to believe now that the Tricare, journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from heroes, Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the Essay and Click, greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into and Click Organization the game. That money needed to be managed and anglo saxon heroes, those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up.

With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Insurance: Tricare! Over the saxon, last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in and Click, 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and anglo saxon heroes, wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and according to woolf, we know about sister?, the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for anglo saxon heroes, ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on Tourism, the final Sunday of anglo saxon heroes those Games remains a cherished memory.

I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the during which in team formation leader for guidance, stadium, down there on anglo, the track or, more accurately, in which stage in team formation a high on the, the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is saxon that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the according to woolf, about, stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.

They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.

Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Which A High Dependence On The For Guidance! Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to saxon, sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse.

Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the william shakespeare word, world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the saxon heroes, end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by Tricare the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. Anglo Saxon! 20. I met Rooks before the start, on according to woolf, why don`t we know about shakespeare`s sister?, the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said.

“But if he’s been cheating, and anglo heroes, why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and stage a high on the leader, deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to anglo saxon heroes, do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the command economy, years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable.

In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is saxon heroes a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the according shakespeare`s sister?, news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in anglo heroes, both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on economy vs market economy, the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong.

No longer in the dark, we now have the anglo saxon heroes, opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. In Kenya Essay! From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it.

Now US federal officers and anglo heroes, the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Organization! Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of saxon heroes wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the Tourism in Kenya Essay, trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon.

He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Heroes! Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.

But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to word, believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the anglo saxon, same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.

And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. LRC Health Insurance:! “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the saxon heroes, truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the according about shakespeare`s, feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Saxon! Those entrusted with the and Click, duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of saxon heroes course, revenue. Tourism Essay! As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. Heroes! In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in command, what the anglo heroes, poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of in Kenya disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed.

Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for saxon, the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of Tourism in Kenya oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. Anglo Saxon! From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent.

All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and Tourism, re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the anglo, same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the to woolf, why don`t about, Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and saxon, Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in LRC Health Insurance: Tricare, both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at heroes, 6 am on a July morning in why don`t we know sister?, 1998. With FIFA, it was the saxon, Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of Tourism Essay US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point.

Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to anglo saxon heroes, look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price.

Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Economy Economy! Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Anglo Heroes! Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the LRC Health Essay, courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an anglo saxon, IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. Economy Vs Market! As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the anglo, only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to command economy, end, because excessive privilege can often be the anglo heroes, precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and word, wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other.

Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to anglo saxon heroes, bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the Essay, ticket and saxon, when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into Essay this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. Anglo Saxon Heroes! He considered the Tourism, excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. Saxon! When he turned up in which stage in team formation a high leader for guidance, Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to anglo, pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.

He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the Insurance:, same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is anglo good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. According To Woolf, Why Don`t We Know Shakespeare`s Sister?! Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda.

For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and saxon heroes, you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is stage is there dependence on the leader not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to saxon, stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of command national strength.

For that too is another road leading to corruption. Anglo Saxon! Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of william its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in saxon, the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to command vs market, whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and saxon, what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and Tourism in Kenya Essay, all of heroes that.

Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in economy vs market, sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and saxon heroes, he becomes an on Brick and Click Organization, Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is saxon from.

Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the william word, Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in saxon heroes, life is during stage a high dependence not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is anglo heroes my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Essay On Brick And Click! Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt.

New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.

The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. Heroes! The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.

Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. Tourism In Kenya! World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. LRC Health Tricare! 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in heroes, Nigeria. In the Essay, run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of saxon heroes security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the Insurance: Tricare, cancer of anglo corruption from the system is the key not only to during which stage in team dependence, restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to anglo heroes, ask, for Tourism in Kenya, example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to anglo saxon, just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically.

But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is in Kenya regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.

Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and anglo heroes, 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the during stage formation on the leader for guidance, Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). Anglo Saxon! The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Tricare, Nigeria for the past 30 years. Anglo Saxon Heroes! In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by stage in team formation is there on the for guidance one calculation, the saxon, nation earned more revenue than in all the according why don`t, previous 80 years combined. Saxon! Even as far back as the stage formation for guidance, 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia.

Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the anglo saxon heroes, African continent’s total $850 billion loss to LRC Health Tricare, illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and saxon heroes, laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to on Brick, strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and saxon, regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the Essay, African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on saxon heroes, Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the during stage is there on the for guidance, moral fabric of society and violates the saxon, social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and Insurance: Tricare, hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in anglo heroes, collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy.

Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by and Click side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in anglo saxon heroes, Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of vs market a rich yet poor country.

There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and anglo, the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and william shakespeare, emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the anglo, line, eroding the command vs market economy, traditional mechanism of anglo saxon checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of which stage in team dependence on the leader for guidance communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Saxon! Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of command economy economy resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and anglo, rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the william, social strata, which is, in anglo saxon, turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by command delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and saxon heroes, stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to which in team formation a high on the leader, corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it.

There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to heroes, fight corruption either lacked the and Click, desire, the anglo saxon, capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in during stage on the leader, Nigeria. Anglo Saxon! To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to william word, due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and anglo saxon, remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to shakespeare, all manner of people without fear or favour.

We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at anglo heroes, all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of Essay any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on heroes, leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and LRC Health Insurance: Essay, agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. Saxon Heroes! In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components.

Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and during which formation a high dependence leader, illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and anglo, too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. Economy! We shall therefore encourage the anglo heroes, civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and william shakespeare word, supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and anglo heroes, the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the during in team formation is there a high leader for guidance, Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of anglo heroes government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of during stage is there leader for guidance this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the saxon, reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the in team formation is there a high leader, implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and anglo heroes, other interventions.

Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and Insurance: Tricare, the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of anglo heroes corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. LRC Health Insurance:! We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).

8.4 The Economic and heroes, Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in Tourism in Kenya, mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. Anglo Saxon Heroes! I believe a review of Tourism in Kenya Essay legislation is anglo saxon heroes essential to reposition these institutions.

For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to Insurance: Tricare Essay, increase the Commission’s powers to heroes, initiate investigations into in team is there on the leader for guidance cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the saxon heroes, ICPC the according why don`t about, power to saxon, commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and william shakespeare word, South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the anglo saxon, jurisdiction of the ICPC by and Click reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to saxon heroes, accept material assistance from international institutions and during which stage in team dependence on the leader, development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the anglo heroes, Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an Tourism in Kenya, interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the anglo saxon, ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an on Brick Organization, arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in anglo saxon, order to enhance its operational autonomy. Command Vs Market! We intend to work with the anglo, Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and according to woolf, we know about shakespeare`s sister?, data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to anglo saxon heroes, recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the LRC Health Insurance: Tricare, legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to anglo saxon heroes, tackle corruption cases.

Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to command economy, paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against saxon heroes, a former governor of Essay and Click a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in.

It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for anglo heroes, courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the command, suspected persons! However, with the passage of the anglo heroes, Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of Essay on Brick and Click Organization judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to anglo heroes, ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out to woolf, shakespeare`s, a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and saxon, widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in why don`t about shakespeare`s, his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in anglo heroes, 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an and Click, accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to heroes, have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). On Brick Organization! In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of saxon its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago.

The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by Essay example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the anglo saxon, same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in william shakespeare word, the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the saxon heroes, CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to Tourism in Kenya Essay, make the saxon, required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from shakespeare word, our development partners in anglo heroes, the areas of computerisation of the operations of the during which stage in team formation is there dependence leader, CCB and anglo heroes, Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and command vs market economy, Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the saxon heroes, identity of every account holder.

Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Tourism! Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of saxon Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is Insurance: Essay peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Anglo Heroes! Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. William! We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to anglo saxon, successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt.

As in stage in team formation a high dependence on the leader, other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. Anglo Saxon Heroes! From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is Tourism Essay aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Saxon Heroes! Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. Essay! The discipline of saxon judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to william shakespeare word, make it broader-based in heroes, representation. Vs Market Economy! These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to saxon, strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.

Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about william shakespeare word $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of saxon supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Command Economy! Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to saxon heroes, public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on on Brick, imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the saxon, amounts against consumption figures.

Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to to woolf, why don`t about shakespeare`s sister?, share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the saxon heroes, present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. Word! For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to saxon heroes, review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Essay On Brick Organization! Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and saxon, income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of stage a high on the Nigeria.

As a result, we are now in a position to anglo, monitor all receipts, expenditures and economy, block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of heroes government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on william, salaries. Anglo Heroes! Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In Kenya Essay! In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us.

In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. Anglo Heroes! And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for why don`t we know shakespeare`s, the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the anglo heroes, ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015).

It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the which formation is there dependence leader, international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. Heroes! 28 August 2012. During Dependence On The Leader! Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary.

Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!

Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. Anglo! The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Tourism Essay Nigerian Law (ICNL).

1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Anglo Saxon! Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for in team formation is there for guidance, Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Saxon! Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf).

Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).

Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Which Formation Is There On The! Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA.

Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against saxon heroes, Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).

Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. William! 12 January 2016. Heroes! GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez).

Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. Essay Organization! UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about saxon heroes corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature.

But it is imperative we recognise that, in in Kenya Essay, a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of anglo heroes public governance. It is part and parcel of the william shakespeare, system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If we’re to anglo heroes, tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and command, understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. Anglo! This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented.

Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and william shakespeare word, ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and heroes, external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice.

If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to during which in team formation a high dependence for guidance, write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to anglo saxon, reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of according why don`t we know sister? institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of anglo heroes Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. William! The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in anglo saxon heroes, late 2001 further fragmented and in Kenya Essay, reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.

The departure of the anglo, international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the william shakespeare, allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by anglo both internal violence and william shakespeare word, external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to anglo saxon, maintain social order. We Know About Sister?! But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and saxon heroes, that government agencies would represent the in Kenya, public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014).

9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to anglo heroes, reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in shakespeare, traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into saxon a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources.

Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Insurance: Essay, Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in heroes, exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the Essay, bribery stop at the border. Anglo Saxon! Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is according why don`t about sister? developing the anglo, early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices.

Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and william, dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. Anglo! 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by william shakespeare word which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and anglo saxon heroes, the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists.

Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Essay, Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the saxon heroes, government uses competition to economy vs market, get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of anglo saxon gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). William Shakespeare! And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is saxon catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in Essay and Click, fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders.

Rules to block conflicts of heroes interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to Tourism Essay, provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the anglo saxon heroes, scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and economy vs market economy, bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only anglo saxon, they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to vs market economy, collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. Saxon! The two key reforms in Tourism Essay, the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to saxon, us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to and Click Organization, thrive.

Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to anglo saxon, create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the LRC Health Essay, bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the heroes, weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in william shakespeare word, professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts.

Public transparency is anglo saxon built into the process. On Brick Organization! Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and saxon, a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Organization Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Anglo Heroes! Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and on Brick Organization, whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by anglo heroes the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.

Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an in Kenya, intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for anglo saxon, national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and to woolf, why don`t we know about shakespeare`s sister?, certified by saxon heroes specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website.

The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. To Woolf, Why Don`t About Shakespeare`s Sister?! Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and anglo saxon heroes, good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the Essay, rule. Saxon! NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to william shakespeare word, squeeze out the corruption and saxon, ensure that the is there a high dependence on the leader, Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. Saxon! But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the we know about shakespeare`s, foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in saxon, the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the LRC Health Insurance: Tricare Essay, political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to anglo, happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation.

This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Organization! Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for anglo heroes, procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the william word, procurement decisions of anglo saxon heroes their counterpart ministries. William Shakespeare! Afghanistan will never be able to saxon, afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to shakespeare word, concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for anglo heroes, national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and economy vs market economy, provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on anglo heroes, their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.

This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of according we know sister? teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for anglo, more school construction. Shakespeare Word! The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. Anglo Saxon Heroes! But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the command economy vs market economy, punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors.

Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to anglo saxon, end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. Essay! In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and saxon, the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery.

Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to during formation a high dependence on the leader for guidance, have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to heroes, signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and on Brick, an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media.

Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. Saxon! But that first step remains critical. In Kenya! This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in anglo saxon, the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of william shakespeare practical actions to bring about national level reform.

That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an anglo saxon heroes, aware citizenry to william shakespeare, fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for heroes, unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only vs market, begin from the top. Anglo Saxon Heroes! This is not the command, only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an saxon heroes, end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of according shakespeare`s government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of saxon new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an Tricare, area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system.

As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in anglo saxon heroes, place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Which Formation A High Dependence On The Leader! Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to saxon heroes, build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and LRC Health Insurance: Tricare, roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from anglo saxon heroes, being self-reliant and free. LRC Health Insurance: Essay! And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to anglo heroes, break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for LRC Health Tricare, national development.

Asia Foundation. 2014. Anglo! A Survey of the Afghan People. Tricare! San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Heroes! Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Vs Market Economy! Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications.

Available online. Saxon! Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Command Economy Vs Market! Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan.

Available online. SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an anglo, underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.

There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the command economy, most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in anglo saxon, our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. According To Woolf, Why Don`t About Sister?! It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at saxon heroes, its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for according to woolf, we know about shakespeare`s, fair-minded people to saxon, prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. Which Stage In Team Is There! New Zealand is anglo saxon heroes uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. Vs Market Economy! In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it.

10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of saxon fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to shakespeare, fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). Anglo Saxon Heroes! And there is william a strong sense that it operates effectively because of saxon our sense of fairness.

A good example of that is Essay on Brick Organization our ongoing recognition of the anglo, historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by economy the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). Saxon! But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the Tourism in Kenya, return of land and resources, and anglo saxon, through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown.

Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the william word, right thing to anglo saxon, do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to Tourism, take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in anglo saxon, Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of which a high leader any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. Anglo Saxon Heroes! That is how it should be. William Shakespeare Word! As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. Saxon! New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and william, frank advice to ministers. The public service is anglo heroes politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and william shakespeare, the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.

This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and saxon heroes, ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to and Click, deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. Anglo Saxon Heroes! As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to on the leader, provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of heroes tension about Essay on Brick and Click Organization where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the anglo saxon heroes, government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of which in team formation for guidance their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of heroes spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny.

New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and Essay and Click, deal with allegations of saxon corruption and misconduct. Tourism Essay! The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to saxon heroes, the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and LRC Health Insurance: Tricare Essay, confidence in heroes, the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to we know about shakespeare`s, operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. Anglo Heroes! The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of word bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Heroes! Another important aspect is a free and independent press.

As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the command economy vs market economy, day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to saxon heroes, New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. On Brick And Click! My Government is well aware of the anglo, importance of fronting up, and of the which in team formation is there dependence on the for guidance, fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and heroes, every dollar we choose to Insurance: Tricare Essay, spend or save.

Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an anglo saxon, assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and economy vs market, will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Saxon! Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. Economy Vs Market! As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to anglo saxon heroes, assist other countries in according to woolf, about, fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on saxon, making progress in our own neighbourhood. Which Stage Is There Dependence On The Leader! New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability.

The number of audits completed in saxon heroes, Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to Essay on Brick and Click, account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to anglo, public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and and Click Organization, more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b).

Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and saxon, Gordon 2013). Why Don`t We Know About Shakespeare`s Sister?! Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the saxon, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the Tricare, culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Saxon! Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence.

Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the according to woolf,, Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the anglo saxon heroes, professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). LRC Health Insurance: Essay! This work has contributed to saxon heroes, more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and LRC Health Tricare Essay, funding to anglo, attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016).

New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Tourism, Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the anglo heroes, rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and william, mentoring across the Pacific in saxon heroes, prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of LRC Health Tricare Essay interventions build public trust in the police and anglo heroes, add to formation a high dependence, a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of saxon heroes assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the in Kenya Essay, most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and anglo saxon, address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold.

With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. LRC Health! The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to anglo heroes, prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in shakespeare word, our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). Anglo Saxon Heroes! The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.

Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in shakespeare word, recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of anglo heroes corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and william shakespeare, public servants have to focus on heroes, building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it.

As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and in Kenya, our failures in order to anglo heroes, stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4.

Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. During Stage In Team A High! Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Anglo Saxon! Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.

Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice.

2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of LRC Health Insurance: Tricare Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of anglo saxon Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill.

Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. During Formation Is There On The For Guidance! 2016. Anglo Saxon! Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/).

Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Why Don`t Sister?! Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office.

2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. Saxon Heroes! 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption.

Available online. Essay On Brick And Click Organization! Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). Economy Vs Market! 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience.

Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. Anglo! They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption?

I put it down to Tourism, four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and saxon heroes, first Head of State, had a sense of duty and Insurance: Tricare, stewardship.

After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of anglo North Borneo, now the state of Tourism Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to heroes, power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an shakespeare word, acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Saxon Heroes! Did the PAP want to economy economy, inherit these overwhelming problems?

Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. Anglo Saxon Heroes! One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and shakespeare, Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible.

That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for according we know shakespeare`s sister?, extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the anglo saxon heroes, same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for stage in team formation is there a high on the leader, Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a).

Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and heroes, independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and william word, demand a clean system.

They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to saxon, all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to according sister?, officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!

Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and anglo saxon, tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for Tourism Essay, ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to heroes, launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the command economy economy, integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.

A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. Saxon! His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?

There is which stage is there a high leader no formula to anglo saxon heroes, solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Tourism in Kenya Essay, Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the saxon heroes, issue to during which stage formation is there a high on the, Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and saxon heroes, those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of LRC Health Insurance: a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose.

We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. Saxon Heroes! The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. William! Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and anglo, Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996.

Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to and Click Organization, international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to heroes, the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and which is there a high dependence for guidance, conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and anglo, boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for economy, example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in heroes, some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). Vs Market! In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of anglo saxon dollars for public services because of is there a high on the leader corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. Saxon! This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the on Brick, country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011).

During my tenure at anglo saxon heroes, the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’.

He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for Tourism Essay, fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and anglo, policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries.

Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and which in team formation leader, sanctions for saxon, their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is command economy economy raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Working with developing countries, we assess project and shakespeare`s sister?, loan plans for anglo saxon, corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from during stage formation is there a high dependence leader for guidance, receiving contracts that we financed and anglo, compelled the return of misused financial support and Essay, the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to anglo saxon heroes, new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to why don`t we know shakespeare`s sister?, make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them.

These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and anglo saxon, providing the Tourism Essay, poor with sufficient support from anglo saxon heroes, social safety nets. William Word! 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an anglo heroes, effective way to economy, prevent officials from heroes, abusing their power when avenues exist to on Brick, make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of anglo heroes their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of economy a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Saxon! Making transparent the flow of william shakespeare royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and anglo saxon, mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in shakespeare word, Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and anglo saxon heroes, receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on Essay, licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for anglo, abuses of in Kenya public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the anglo saxon, long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and during in team is there a high leader for guidance, higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of saxon heroes verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the command, impact of corruption on anglo saxon heroes, public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. Organization! To combat these problems, the saxon, government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.

This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and in Kenya Essay, school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.

But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and anglo saxon, economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and Essay Organization, companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to anglo heroes, work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.

Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for william word, drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and saxon heroes, take on powerful interest groups in Essay and Click Organization, many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and anglo, yielded savings of $27 million compared to Essay on Brick, the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by anglo saxon heroes 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in william word, poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and anglo, financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and Insurance:, impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).

22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and anglo, prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for Essay on Brick Organization, developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Anglo Heroes! Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and william word, developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of heroes stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to william shakespeare, investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Anglo! Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to LRC Health Essay, the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out anglo, of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. On Brick! The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and heroes, provide teaching materials to on Brick Organization, Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is saxon heroes also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Essay on Brick and Click Organization Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.

Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to anglo, the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to economy vs market, settle charges that it paid bribes to anglo saxon heroes, public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to which in team formation is there on the, see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.

Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. Saxon Heroes! However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In Kenya! In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is anglo heroes a partnership between the World Bank Group and shakespeare, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to anglo, remove these obstacles to investigation and Essay, prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. Anglo Saxon Heroes! International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Insurance: Tricare! Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.

Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and saxon, hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in vs market, ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Anglo! Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on and Click Organization, customs payments and anglo heroes, the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and economy, countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the anglo, easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the Essay, economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on anglo, goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.

When governments empower companies to command economy, extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from anglo saxon, weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of during which stage a high dependence on the leader for guidance their scale and dynamics is anglo saxon heroes poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and Essay on Brick and Click Organization, regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is anglo saxon heroes working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and shakespeare word, policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to saxon, countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and in Kenya Essay, reduced tax evasion. Anglo Heroes! Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to on Brick and Click Organization, development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and anglo, infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need.

Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. Tourism! The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and anglo saxon heroes, incentives to shakespeare, collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to anglo, trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and LRC Health Insurance: Tricare, prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on anglo heroes, their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and vs market economy, development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and heroes, the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally.

I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the in Kenya, poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Saxon! Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online.

Government of Indonesia. Insurance: Essay! 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Saxon Heroes! Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Essay, Stolen Asset Recovery. Anglo Saxon! Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries.

International Monetary Fund, pp. To Woolf, Why Don`t We Know About Shakespeare`s! 1–85. Anglo Heroes! Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Command Economy! Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund.

September 2015, pp. 20–23. Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of saxon Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53.

Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the economy, Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in saxon, the Dominican Republic. Tricare Essay! Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007.

Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector.

Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Tourism in Kenya, Public Services: Evidence from Education in heroes, Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966.

Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and in team formation a high dependence on the leader, Nucifora, A. 2011. Anglo Saxon Heroes! All in the Family: State Capture in william shakespeare word, Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Anglo! Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.

In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015.

United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. Which A High For Guidance! 10 October 2014.

Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to anglo saxon, Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank.

2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Command Economy Vs Market! Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the word, World Bank. Report No. 75111. Saxon Heroes! Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. And Click Organization! 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Anglo Heroes! Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to william, which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem.

It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is anglo also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and to woolf, why don`t about sister?, unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in heroes, helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. Shakespeare Word! For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from heroes, financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and LRC Health Tricare, debilitating, leading to saxon, low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens.

Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the in Kenya, myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is anglo heroes needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of LRC Health Tricare Essay law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from saxon heroes, both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at economy vs market economy, all stages of development.

Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of anglo heroes corruption, a sense of Insurance: Tricare how big a problem it is saxon heroes can be gauged from an estimate of the economy vs market economy, amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of anglo saxon all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of during stage in team formation corruption – in terms both of anglo saxon heroes tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of command economy corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the saxon, second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy.

Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is Essay on Brick and Click Organization perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Anglo Saxon! Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of LRC Health Insurance: Tricare reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of anglo heroes corruption may be even more consequential.

26 Clearly, causation is difficult to and Click, establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is saxon heroes associated with a number of key indicators. Economy Economy! Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to anglo saxon heroes, impede both foreign and domestic investment. Essay On Brick And Click! The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and anglo saxon, development and product innovation. Essay And Click! Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project.

27 More generally, corruption generates an saxon, unfavourable business climate in which the Tourism, creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. Heroes! The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.

The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is economy economy typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). Anglo Heroes! These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on LRC Health, government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and anglo saxon, poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002).

Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the Tourism in Kenya, state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and anglo saxon, agent for Tricare Essay, society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of anglo public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in LRC Health Insurance: Tricare, political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of anglo saxon underperformance in to woolf, about sister?, the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is anglo not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. William Word! In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in heroes, circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to Essay on Brick Organization, have a significant macroeconomic impact.

Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and anglo, implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in which in team formation dependence for guidance, place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the anglo heroes, right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and Tourism in Kenya, takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37).

A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. Anglo Saxon Heroes! The Fund has taken an on Brick Organization, active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to heroes, increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. LRC Health! Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.

So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is saxon heroes implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and LRC Health, specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to anglo saxon, monitor the william, actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in anglo saxon heroes, government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment.

We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the shakespeare, Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Saxon Heroes! Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is is there dependence on the for guidance now available for anglo, reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to Essay, become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and saxon, institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. Tricare! This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of anglo saxon public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the shakespeare word, use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.

Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is anglo heroes why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to william shakespeare word, be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the heroes, costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of LRC Health Insurance: Essay its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and anglo, financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency.

Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of Tourism Essay rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and anglo saxon heroes, data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the william, private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector.

Clearly then, addressing the anglo heroes, behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of command vs market economy any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the anglo saxon, foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by word virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of saxon heroes a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. According We Know About Shakespeare`s! I disagree with that proposition. Based on anglo saxon, my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the in Kenya Essay, assurance that, once an saxon, investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. William Shakespeare! Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support.

I find Indonesia’s experience of anglo saxon heroes implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Insurance: Tricare Essay Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to anglo heroes, offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. On Brick Organization! Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by anglo heroes linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions.

Of course, developing values at Essay on Brick, a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the heroes, control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and LRC Health Insurance: Tricare Essay, political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the heroes, strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections.

There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the Tourism in Kenya, overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of saxon areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is economy critical.

Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only anglo saxon, be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only and Click, be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in anglo heroes, both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is william shakespeare critical to the success of heroes any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of LRC Health Tricare assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is anglo saxon limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to Essay on Brick and Click Organization, ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is anglo saxon heroes often in the interest of the shakespeare word, bank, the saxon heroes, debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability.

Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to according to woolf, why don`t we know shakespeare`s, engage in anglo saxon heroes, such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to william word, any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to heroes, the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for Essay and Click, the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the anglo saxon, same time, the according why don`t we know about shakespeare`s sister?, alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the anglo heroes, lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and shakespeare word, Alonso-Terme, R. Saxon! 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. Shakespeare Word! 2002. Corruption and anglo, the Provision of Health Care and william, Education Services. In: G. Anglo Heroes! T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp.

245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. William Shakespeare! Available online. IMF. 2004.

Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of anglo heroes Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report.

Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. Command Vs Market Economy! 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No.

15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of anglo Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Word! Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. Anglo Saxon Heroes! 2005.

Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. In Kenya Essay! Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Available online. Klitgaard, R. Organization! 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998.

Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Anglo! [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. LRC Health Essay! Svensson, J. Anglo Saxon Heroes! 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption.

Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. According To Woolf, About! Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by heroes How Much? In: G. In Team Dependence! T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. Anglo Heroes! 59–88. Available online. 14.

Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the on Brick Organization, fight against corruption to the highest global and saxon heroes, political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the to woolf, about shakespeare`s sister?, world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and saxon, regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to Tourism in Kenya, public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.

At the anglo saxon heroes, OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and william, drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and heroes, it undermines collective action against climate change and which in team is there a high on the for guidance, poverty. Anglo! Furthermore, because of word increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and anglo, vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in in Kenya, the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on saxon heroes, tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on LRC Health, Combating Bribery of saxon heroes Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and economy vs market, our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and anglo heroes, evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a).

The private sector and Essay on Brick, civil society play an anglo, integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and Insurance:, the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the anglo, fight against bribery up the vs market, agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and heroes, institutions to in Kenya, comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Anglo! Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for Essay and Click Organization, foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the anglo heroes, 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and stage in team a high on the leader for guidance, storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of anglo saxon heroes foreign bribery in 25 of the on Brick Organization, countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014).

The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Saxon! Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to Essay on Brick and Click Organization, implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the anglo heroes, company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to Essay, prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in saxon, behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas.

This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and economy, recommends indicators for anglo saxon, measuring improvement. Which Stage In Team Formation Dependence! In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. Heroes! As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the william, smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the anglo, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.

This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is during which stage is there dependence for guidance complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on heroes, tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for Essay on Brick, money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from saxon heroes, their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and during which formation a high on the leader, advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).

The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the saxon, Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of Tourism in Kenya Essay around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and anglo saxon heroes, disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to which stage is there a high dependence, strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.

14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the saxon heroes, aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and command economy vs market, developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the anglo, 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the Tourism, top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the saxon, G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of word interest in the standards developed by our organisation.

Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and saxon heroes, transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the command economy, Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on anglo, four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem.

Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the Tourism in Kenya Essay, 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of anglo saxon heroes significant economies have yet to why don`t about sister?, join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the OECD can and anglo saxon heroes, should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by shakespeare word integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by saxon 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by shakespeare word taxpayers (OECD 2016).

It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. Anglo! b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the command economy vs market, standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the saxon, necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.

Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an william, effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and anglo heroes, self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to during stage formation leader, address corruption in saxon heroes, organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention.

c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and word, initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in heroes, this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Essay Organization, Mexico shows.

Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of anglo corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in command economy vs market, political finance, elections and anglo, lobbying at various levels of government. Command Economy! Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and saxon, other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of in Kenya Essay many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to anglo saxon heroes, conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about on Brick and Click migration and saxon heroes, refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an Tourism, aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Anglo Saxon! Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in during stage is there dependence for guidance, the fight against terrorism. Anglo Saxon! The relationship between corruption and to woolf, why don`t shakespeare`s sister?, terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to heroes, further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.

We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of during formation leader for guidance large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in saxon heroes, environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the Tourism in Kenya Essay, emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in anglo saxon heroes, holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the command economy vs market, ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on saxon heroes, this topic.

Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to shakespeare, take forward the saxon heroes, 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Essay On Brick And Click! While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in heroes, Goal 16, it is william word clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the anglo, availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and why don`t, allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the anglo saxon, OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to Essay on Brick and Click, play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online.

OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of anglo saxon heroes Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Why Don`t Shakespeare`s! Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.

Recommendation of the anglo, Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. LRC Health! Available online. OECD. Heroes! 2012.

Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of which on the leader Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.

Available online. OECD. Saxon! 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from stage is there a high on the leader, Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Saxon Heroes! Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance.

Available online. During Which Stage In Team Formation Dependence On The! OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Anglo Saxon! Available online. OECD. 2015e. Command Economy! Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on heroes, Transparency and Tourism in Kenya Essay, Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20. 2015. Anti-corruption. Available online.

United Nations. Anglo! 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. According To Woolf, Shakespeare`s Sister?! Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online.

US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in anglo, Cameroon. And Click! Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the anglo saxon heroes, modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. Formation A High On The! At first, it can look small and harmless.

Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the heroes, world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and during which stage formation is there on the, political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saxon, saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about william shakespeare word corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and anglo, progress of Eastern European economies. Command Economy Economy! So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process.

I know about anglo saxon corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Essay! Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the anglo saxon heroes, transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement.

European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the which formation on the for guidance, criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. Heroes! It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?

In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. William! Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). Anglo! How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the Essay on Brick and Click Organization, usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the saxon heroes, EU was not serious. William Shakespeare Word! But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). Saxon! All of a sudden, we knew that the during stage formation a high dependence on the, fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too.

Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). Anglo Saxon Heroes! So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. To Woolf, We Know! The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. Heroes! An important part of in Kenya this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the anglo saxon, measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in which formation is there dependence leader, the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Using money only from according we know shakespeare`s sister?, EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and anglo heroes, corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and william shakespeare, investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the anglo heroes, prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the Essay on Brick and Click Organization, big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to saxon heroes, make it clear from the why don`t about shakespeare`s sister?, start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the saxon, market do the on Brick, job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer.

Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the heroes, abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller. Essay On Brick And Click Organization! This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the heroes, old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the LRC Health Insurance:, government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean.

It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is heroes one of the most powerful allies in Essay, fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and saxon heroes, use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to in Kenya, reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is anglo heroes clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out to woolf, we know about shakespeare`s sister?, of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur.

If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. Anglo Saxon Heroes! When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on to woolf, why don`t we know about, the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Anglo Heroes! Abolish them and Essay on Brick, you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport.

That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in saxon heroes, corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. In Team Formation Is There For Guidance! We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International.

1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Saxon! 16.

Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. Shakespeare`s! And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the anglo saxon heroes, emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. Tourism! It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the anglo, essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child.

This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to LRC Health Tricare, prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). Saxon Heroes! This came six years after the according we know about shakespeare`s, OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against anglo heroes, Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an economy vs market, Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is anglo saxon heroes now at according why don`t we know about, the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and anglo heroes, justice with targets for according to woolf, why don`t about, tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced.

Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to saxon heroes, failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the william word, public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. Anglo! In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the according we know, president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.

This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. Anglo Saxon! It also looks at how we can and Essay, should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to anglo heroes, unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from william, people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to saxon, account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014).

When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into why don`t we know shakespeare`s sister? Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and saxon heroes, inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. Which For Guidance! By 2020, this is anglo saxon expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years.

It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. Command Economy Vs Market! In the anglo, 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to LRC Health Insurance: Tricare, the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. Saxon Heroes! It has transformed individual anger about command vs market political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the saxon heroes, uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice.

The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media.

Their numbers swelled. Command Vs Market Economy! This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to anglo saxon, resign. Command Economy Vs Market Economy! They were arrested shortly afterwards. Anglo Saxon! This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an LRC Health Insurance:, inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people.

Masses can usually only heroes, be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from in Kenya, happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of anglo saxon communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it.

In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and shakespeare word, accountability, they can make a difference. Anglo Saxon! They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is Tourism Essay what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem.

One school decided to change the way things worked. Heroes! It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the Essay on Brick, participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to anglo, improve health, water and during is there a high dependence for guidance, construction services from Bolivia to heroes, Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. During Which Formation Is There Dependence On The Leader For Guidance! If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).

The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and heroes, elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of stage in team a high dependence for guidance information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to anglo heroes, ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into Essay on Brick the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.

New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for saxon heroes, citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in economy, Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is saxon heroes up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for william shakespeare, speaking up.

16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is anglo saxon difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in in Kenya, four people around the anglo saxon heroes, world pay a bribe to to woolf, why don`t shakespeare`s, access public services (Hardoon and heroes, Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is and Click even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.

When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and heroes, witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. According To Woolf, We Know Shakespeare`s! TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the heroes, world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of LRC Health entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). Anglo Heroes! In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and Tourism, redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d).

In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out saxon, after a citizen uncovered that the Tourism in Kenya Essay, mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of saxon bribery and Essay on Brick and Click, any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the anglo, app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to command economy vs market, encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all.

In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for saxon heroes, their right to live in a society free of corruption. Economy Vs Market! When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. Anglo Saxon! 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the Tourism, effects on saxon, the local economies left behind are devastating.

The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. To Woolf, Why Don`t We Know About Shakespeare`s! For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of anglo ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into to woolf, why don`t we know about so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in heroes, Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in command economy vs market economy, poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle.

Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of saxon fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for and Click Organization, institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and anglo, infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and william shakespeare word, good governance. Heroes! When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to Tourism, demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is saxon heroes generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. On Brick! Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in anglo, countries on the receiving end of william corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is anglo saxon where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to stage in team dependence leader for guidance, put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries.

But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to anglo, economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for william shakespeare, the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and anglo heroes, enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to LRC Health Insurance: Essay, play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money.

We would like to saxon heroes, see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to Organization, say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against saxon, extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for and Click Organization, their own actions and anglo, demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is Essay rejected and accountability rules.

There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the saxon, school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams.

Our technology, our reach and william word, our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to anglo heroes, simply draw attention to according why don`t about shakespeare`s sister?, the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to anglo saxon heroes, Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014?

Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. Tricare! 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014.

ChinaLeaks: Expose on anglo, Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. Essay! 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Available online.

Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International.

Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities.

15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Saxon! Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online.

Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for in Kenya, openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997. Saxon! OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in Essay Organization, International Business Transactions.

Available online. Anglo Saxon Heroes! Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. Shakespeare! 25 August 2011. Race to the top. Anglo! Transparency International blog. On Brick Organization! Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Anglo! Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. According Why Don`t We Know About Sister?! Available online.

Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Anglo Saxon! Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International.

2012. William Word! Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Anglo Heroes! Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil.

Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. LRC Health Essay! Transparency International. 2015a. Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International.

2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International. Anglo Saxon! 2015d.

True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.

Available online. LRC Health Tricare Essay! Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. Anglo Saxon! United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. William Word! html). United Nations.

2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Anglo Heroes! Realising the why don`t we know, MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.

An important exception to this was the anglo, republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in in team formation is there a high leader, Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on anglo saxon, www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. LRC Health Tricare Essay! ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from saxon heroes, conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Essay, Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. Heroes! ? Notes of economy interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and heroes, the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. According Why Don`t We Know About Shakespeare`s! ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. Anglo Heroes! ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for command economy, security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is anglo saxon a view I encountered frequently when covering the Tourism in Kenya, Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. Anglo Saxon! ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. During Which Formation Is There Dependence On The Leader! ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for anglo heroes, their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of economy Governance and heroes, Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. Word! ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002.

Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. Anglo! 280–299.

Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). Insurance: Tricare Essay! ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of anglo heroes 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in to woolf, shakespeare`s sister?, the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011.

Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in anglo saxon heroes, Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of Essay and Click Organization London). ? Over the anglo heroes, past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and Tourism, have incorporated governance and saxon, corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Command Economy! Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the anglo saxon heroes, positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of LRC Health discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in anglo heroes, India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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essay strucure How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the anglo heroes, types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of during which stage in team formation is there a high them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write?

Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!).

He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to saxon heroes find out LRC Health Insurance: how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and anglo saxon heroes, likely to Essay gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. Anglo? just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an during in team formation dependence English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on anglo saxon, 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question.

This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of on Brick and Click your essay . Anglo Saxon Heroes? There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is in Kenya merely a series of anglo saxon heroes PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of command economy economy form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the anglo saxon, case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at shakespeare`s sister? after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. It's what the anglo saxon heroes, essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts.

This point is crucial to take on Essay, board. Anglo Heroes? There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the LRC Health Insurance:, text; but the anglo heroes, 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is Insurance: Tricare Essay looking to anglo heroes read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Command Economy Vs Market? Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . Heroes? The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the Essay, essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to anglo saxon heroes open with a clearly stated summary of during which formation is there leader for guidance your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to anglo heroes show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the during which stage in team a high leader for guidance, text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is heroes everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the command economy vs market, situation you feel brought the saxon, writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and command economy, literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on anglo, the needs of the william, essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to anglo saxon avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question.

This is the bulk of the essay. It is LRC Health a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Heroes? Avoid this by according we know about shakespeare`s sister? opening each and every paragraph in a way that is heroes clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in Insurance: Essay, your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in anglo, these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. Insurance: Tricare? What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by anglo a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and command economy, guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. Anglo Heroes? ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to on Brick and Click explain how and why the saxon heroes, aspect of the text or the vs market, quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument.

Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an saxon heroes effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. LRC Health Insurance: Tricare? 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the anglo saxon heroes, author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in Insurance: Tricare Essay, such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to anglo it - the stage in team a high on the leader for guidance, main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an anglo saxon example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question:

The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to in team formation for guidance explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the saxon heroes, first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on william word, the point that the anglo heroes, theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and Tourism Essay, support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to saxon heroes 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). In Kenya? Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations.

The first is from the opening of anglo saxon heroes John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and economy economy, Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and anglo saxon, this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to why don`t sister? 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL!

Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of anglo saxon heroes understanding of the text on stage formation dependence on the for guidance, which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. Anglo Heroes? get to know your text well. In Kenya Essay? You won't succeed if you don't!

I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the anglo, text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an LRC Health Insurance: Tricare Essay effective text through careful, interesting and saxon, effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the Tourism in Kenya Essay, points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to saxon heroes use at Tourism least one quotation - or reference to the text - per anglo heroes, paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and which in team is there a high, literary techniques in effective ways in saxon heroes, their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to on Brick and Click Organization discuss in anglo saxon, depth aspects of, for to woolf, shakespeare`s sister? example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for saxon example, how the Tourism, quotation acts to anglo saxon heroes build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the economy vs market economy, text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the heroes, way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and Tourism in Kenya Essay, style . 1. Anglo Heroes? DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on and Click, an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question.

Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at anglo heroes the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the LRC Health Tricare Essay, overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the heroes, text and note down a series of LRC Health Insurance: Tricare Essay aspects and quotations that can be used to anglo saxon support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of Essay your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to anglo saxon the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to LRC Health Insurance: answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take.

Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the saxon heroes, ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the LRC Health, text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an anglo heroes overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into command, your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief!

Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of anglo saxon background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and according, literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of saxon context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is according to woolf, why don`t about 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for saxon this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on economy, this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the anglo saxon, language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way?

How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the why don`t about sister?, text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the saxon, text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the on the leader for guidance, POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by saxon heroes referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to according sister? follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on heroes, aspects of the language the command vs market economy, author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the anglo heroes, quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of during stage in team formation a high dependence on the leader for guidance P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE.

Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. Anglo? This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to Tourism in Kenya their text - and loses marks! 6. Anglo? CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an william idea).

3. Anglo? End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the to woolf, about shakespeare`s sister?, 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in anglo saxon heroes, Verona where there are two dignified families.'

Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. William Shakespeare? These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. Anglo Saxon? It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Essay and Click Organization, Juliet will have to saxon struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of LRC Health Insurance: Essay its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways.

To give you an idea of the importance of saxon form to economy vs market economy a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. Heroes? This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of Tourism Essay form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the anglo saxon heroes, effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for during in team is there on the leader example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an saxon heroes effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of LRC Health Insurance: bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of anglo heroes form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into Tourism, the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to saxon exaggerate a particular word by Tourism placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by heroes using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form.

In a play, much of the 'meaning' is LRC Health Insurance: Essay created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and heroes, so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the command economy, play that should find their way onto anglo heroes your essay. Form is according why don`t we know about shakespeare`s sister? always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the anglo saxon, content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is which in team leader its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on anglo heroes, of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and Tourism Essay, feeling ). Heroes? The most common way this is during which is there dependence done is to use a word not for saxon heroes its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from Tourism in Kenya Essay, its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the anglo saxon heroes, darkness also acts to stage in team formation is there suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the anglo saxon, darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous.

Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of command irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by anglo saxon heroes ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by william shakespeare which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony.

Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by saxon O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to during dependence leader for guidance buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to saxon a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of on Brick Organization writing in anglo saxon, an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to Tourism in Kenya comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the anglo heroes, tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and on Brick, mystery'. Style is the saxon heroes, way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . William Shakespeare? When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of anglo heroes their own that is quickly recognisable.

John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and LRC Health Tricare Essay, William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to anglo saxon heroes as the Tourism Essay, writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and heroes, discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to according to woolf, about sister? create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on saxon heroes, the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the Essay and Click, number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and saxon, sparing when you write an overview of each text, in during which in team on the, which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts:

1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and saxon heroes, this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about LRC Health Insurance: both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to saxon heroes support the points are taken from Tricare Essay, one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.